Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 59

ISLAMIC SINIC

INDIC
Age: 4.55 billion years old

Total Area: 510.072 million sq km (196.940 million sq mi)


Land area: 148.94 million sq km (57.506 million sq mi)
Water area: 361.132 million sq km (139.434 million sq mi)

Population: 6,706,993,152 (2008 est.)


Growth rate: 1.188% (2008 est.)

Political divisions: 195 sovereign nations, 61 dependent areas, and 6 disputed


territories.

GWP/PPP: $65.61 trillion (2007 est.). GWP—real growth rate: 5.2% (2007 est.).
GWP/PPP—per capita: $10,000 (2007 est.).

Major World Religions: Christianity (33%, 2.1 billion), Islam (20.1%, 1.3 billion),
Hinduism (13.3%, 851 million), Buddhism (5.9%, 375 million), Sikhism (0.4%, 25
million), Judaism (0.2%, 15 million)
The first human who We never really grow up, we
hurled an insult instead only learn how to act in public.
of a stone was the Bryan White
founder of civilization. songwriter
Sigmund Freud
psychologist Progress is man's ability to
complicate simplicity.
Civilization begins with soap. Thor Heyerdahl
Galveston Times Ethnographer and adventurer
defunct 19th century Indiana newspaper

I've made an odd discovery. Every time I talk to a savant I feel


quite sure that happiness is no longer a possibility. Yet when I
talk with my gardener, I'm convinced of the opposite.
Bertrand Russell
Philosopher
Civilization is social order promoting cultural
creation. Four elements constitute it:

1. economic provision,
2. political organization,
3. moral traditions, and
4. the pursuit of knowledge and the arts.

It begins where chaos and insecurity end.

For when fear is overcome, curiosity and


constructiveness are free, and man passes by
natural impulse towards the understanding and
embellishment of life.
• 200: Earliest possible evidence of modern humans in Africa

• 175
THOUSANDS OF YEARS BEFORE THE PRESENT

• 150

• 125

• 100: Last ice age begins


90: Modern humans found in Southwest Asia
• 75:
60: Modern humans found in Australia/Sahul
• 50
40: Modern humans found in northern Eurasia
• 25
10: End of ice age, beginnings of agriculture
5: Earliest cities and states
• 0: Industrial Revolution
• 12
11.5: End of ice ages
• 11
Earliest evidence of agriculture in near east
• 10
THOUSANDS OF YEARS BEFORE THE PRESENT

Earliest evidence of agriculture in Southeast Asia


•9
•8
•7
Evidence of pastoralism in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan
•6 Evidence of agriculture in Americas
• 5: First cities and city states
First empires
•4
•3 First superempire (Persia)
•2 Foundation of world religions
•1
Foundation of largest pastoral empire (Genghis Khan, 1220CE)
•0 Industrial Revolution
“Civilization is the stage in human organization when
governmental, social, and economic institutions have developed to
sufficiently manage (however imperfectly) the problems of order,
security, and efficiency in a complex society.”
- Philip Lee Ralph, World Civilizations

“Civilization is the limitless multiplication of unnecessary


necessities.” - Mark Twain

They civilize what's pretty / By puttin' up a city


Where nothin' that's / Pretty can grow...
They civilize left/ They civilize right
Till nothing is left / Till nothing is right
- Alan Jay Lerner, The First Thing You Know
ISLAMIC SINIC

INDIC
1. DECLINE IN AVAILABILITY OF WILD
FOODS.

2. INCREASE IN AVAILABILITY OF
DOMESTICABLE PLANTS.

3. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES
HELPFUL TO FOOD PRODUCTION.

4. TWO WAY LINK IN RISE OF POPULATION


AND DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD
PRODUCTION.

5. DENSER FOOD PRODUCING SOCIETIES


OUTPACED THEIR SURROUNDING
HUNTER GATHERERS.
1. MORE FOOD MEANS MORE
CONSUMABLE CALORIES.

2. WITH DOMESTICATED ANIMALS CAME


LIVESTOCK.

3. FOOD PRODUCTION LED TO A MORE


SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE.

4. SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE ALLOWS


PEOPLE TO STORE A FOOD SURPLUS.

5. DOMESTICATED ANIMALS MADE


TRADE AND WARFARE POSSIBLE.
1. THE RISE OF VILLAGES. With a
steadier supply of food, more
functions and activities became
possible.

2. THE EMERGENCE OF LONG-


DISTANCE TRADE. Surplus and
invention made an exchange of
goods necessary and possible.

3. THE ONSET OF WARFARE.


Competition for territory and
resources emerged as societies
grew larger and encroached on
others’ domain.
A Mesopotamian dwelling
Economic development follows
four distinct historical stages.

Services/
Industrial Knowledge-
based
Agricultural

Pastoral/
Nomadic
Each stage has social implications.
In some cultures, women are
accorded with higher status for their
ability to bear child. More children
Men hunt while
mean more workers later on.
women maintain their
abode. Primacy is with
males and their
capability to hunt.
Services/
Industrial Knowledge-
based
Agricultural
In a service and
knowledge based
economy, performance
Pastoral/ and merit determine
Nomadic economic status.
Work enables women to earn
for themselves, thus Women can now
empowering them to lead their compete and even
own lives. At this stage, the fight better their male
for equal rights begin. counterparts.
History is the study of the past.
• What is the past?
• How is it studied?
• Who does the studying?
• Why study the past?

Carl Becker, “Everyman His Own Historian” (1931)

We all think historically. We all live beyond the confines of


the present fleeting moment, yet within what matters to us.

historian vis-a-vis Historian

Historians are keepers and conveyors of social memory.


However:

Any work of history is, at best, an approximation of what


actually happened in the past.

1. Our sources are limited to what is available.

2. Our goal is to interpret and understand it.

Thus, the question becomes: How is history written?

= Historiography
Considered to be not just the father of historiography,
but of the social sciences.
"All records, by their very nature, are liable to
error...
…Partisanship towards a creed or opinion
…Over-confidence in one's sources
…The failure to understand what is intended
Arab philosopher
and father of …A mistaken belief in the truth
modern
historiography …The inability to place an event in its real context
…The common desire to gain favor of those of high
ranks, by praising them, by spreading their fame
…The most important is the ignorance of the laws
governing the transformation of human society."
Premises in his theory of civilization:

1. Man is political. He cannot do without social


organization.
2. The power of the individual is insufficient for
him to obtain the food he needs.
Arab philosopher 3. Man’s ability to think allows him to prepare
and father of the crafts needed to create instruments such
modern as tools and weapons.
historiography
4. Cooperation is necessary to bring all these
crafts together.
5. Royal authority is needed to be a restraining
influence and keep men apart.
6. Restraining influence is derived from
“prophecy” or religious law.
BAND TRIBE CHIEFDOM STATE

MEMBERSHIP

Number of dozens Hundreds thousands over 50,000


people
Settlement nomadic fixed: 1 village fixed: 1 or more fixed: many
Pattern villages villages and
cities
Basis of kin kin-based clans class and class and
relationships residence residence
Ethnicities and 1 1 1 1 or more
Languages

This table is adapted from Guns, Germs and Steel by Jared Diamond.
BAND TRIBE CHIEFDOM STATE

GOVERNMENT

Decision “egalitarian” “egalitarian” or centralized, centralized


making, big-man hereditary
leadership
Bureaucracy none none none, or 1 or 2 many levels
levels
Monopoly of no no yes yes
force and
information
Conflict informal informal centralized laws, judges
resolution
Hierarchy of no no no  capital
settlement paramount
village
BAND TRIBE CHIEFDOM STATE
ECONOMY
Food no no  yes yes  intensive intensive
production
Division of labor no no no  yes yes
Exchanges reciprocal reciprocal redistributive redistributive
(“tribute”) (“taxes”)
Control of land band clan chief various
SOCIETY
Stratified no no yes, by kin yes, not by kin
Slavery no no small-scale large-scale
Luxury goods no no yes Yes
for elite
Public no no no  yes yes
architecture
Indigenous no no no often
Hammurabi, the prince, called of Bel am I, making riches and increase, enriching Nippur and Dur-ilu beyond
compare, sublime patron of E-kur; who reestablished Eridu and purified the worship of E-apsu; who
conquered the four quarters of the world, made great the name of Babylon, rejoiced the heart of Marduk,
his lord who daily pays his devotions in Saggil; the royal scion whom Sin made; who enriched Ur; the
humble, the reverent, who brings wealth to Gish-shir-gal; the white king, heard of Shamash, the mighty,
who again laid the foundations of Sippara; who clothed the gravestones of Malkat with green; who made E-
babbar great, which is like the heavens, the warrior who guarded Larsa and renewed E-babbar, with
Shamash as his helper; the lord who granted new life to Uruk, who brought plenteous water to its
inhabitants, raised the head of E-anna, and perfected the beauty of Anu and Nana; shield of the land, who
reunited the scattered inhabitants of Isin; who richly endowed E-gal-mach; the protecting king of the city,
brother of the god Zamama; who firmly founded the farms of Kish, crowned E-me-te-ursag with glory,
redoubled the great holy treasures of Nana, managed the temple of Harsag-kalama; the grave of the
enemy, whose help brought about the victory; who increased the power of Cuthah; made all glorious in E-
shidlam, the black steer, who gored the enemy; beloved of the god Nebo, who rejoiced the inhabitants of
Borsippa, the Sublime; who is indefatigable for E-zida; the divine king of the city; the White, Wise; who
broadened the fields of Dilbat, who heaped up the harvests for Urash; the Mighty, the lord to whom come
Considered to be scepter and crown, with which he clothes himself; the Elect of Ma-ma; who fixed the temple bounds of
Kesh, who made rich the holy feasts of Nin-tu; the provident, solicitous, who provided food and drink for
the first ever code Lagash and Girsu, who provided large sacrificial offerings for the temple of Ningirsu; who captured the
of laws in history enemy, the Elect of the oracle who fulfilled the prediction of Hallab, who rejoiced the heart of Anunit; the
pure prince, whose prayer is accepted by Adad; who satisfied the heart of Adad, the warrior, in Karkar, who
restored the vessels for worship in E-ud-gal-gal; the king who granted life to the city of Adab; the guide of
E-mach; the princely king of the city, the irresistible warrior, who granted life to the inhabitants of
Mashkanshabri, and brought abundance to the temple of Shidlam; the White, Potent, who penetrated the
secret cave of the bandits, saved the inhabitants of Malka from misfortune, and fixed their home fast in
wealth; who established pure sacrificial gifts for Ea and Dam-gal-nun-na, who made his kingdom
everlastingly great; the princely king of the city, who subjected the districts on the Ud-kib-nun-na Canal to
the sway of Dagon, his Creator; who spared the inhabitants of Mera and Tutul; the sublime prince, who
makes the face of Ninni shine; who presents holy meals to the divinity of Nin-a-zu, who cared for its
inhabitants in their need, provided a portion for them in Babylon in peace; the shepherd of the oppressed
and of the slaves; whose deeds find favor before Anunit, who provided for Anunit in the temple of Dumash
in the suburb of Agade; who recognizes the right, who rules by law; who gave back to the city of Ashur its
protecting god; who let the name of Ishtar of Nineveh remain in E-mish-mish; the Sublime, who humbles
himself before the great gods; successor of Sumula-il; the mighty son of Sin-muballit; the royal scion of
Eternity; the mighty monarch, the sun of Babylon, whose rays shed light over the land of Sumer and Akkad;
the king, obeyed by the four quarters of the world; Beloved of Ninni, am I.
Hammurabi, the prince, called of Bel am I, making riches and increase, enriching Nippur and Dur-ilu beyond
compare, sublime patron of E-kur; who reestablished Eridu and purified the worship of E-apsu; who
conquered the four quarters of the world, made great the name of Babylon, rejoiced the heart of Marduk,
his lord who daily pays his devotions in Saggil; the royal scion whom Sin made; who enriched Ur; the
humble, the reverent, who brings wealth to Gish-shir-gal; the white king, heard of Shamash, the mighty,
who again laid the foundations of Sippara; who clothed the gravestones of Malkat with green; who made E-
babbar great, which is like the heavens, the warrior who guarded Larsa and renewed E-babbar, with
Shamash as his helper; the lord who granted new life to Uruk, who brought plenteous water to its
inhabitants, raised the head of E-anna, and perfected the beauty of Anu and Nana; shield of the land, who
reunited the scattered inhabitants of Isin; who richly endowed E-gal-mach; the protecting king of the city,
brother of the god Zamama; who firmly founded the farms of Kish, crowned E-me-te-ursag with glory,
redoubled the great holy treasures of Nana, managed the temple of Harsag-kalama; the grave of the
enemy, whose help brought about the victory; who increased the power of Cuthah; made all glorious in E-
shidlam, the black steer, who gored the enemy; beloved of the god Nebo, who rejoiced the inhabitants of
Borsippa, the Sublime; who is indefatigable for E-zida; the divine king of the city; the White, Wise; who
broadened the fields of Dilbat, who heaped up the harvests for Urash; the Mighty, the lord to whom come
Considered to be scepter and crown, with which he clothes himself; the Elect of Ma-ma; who fixed the temple bounds of
Kesh, who made rich the holy feasts of Nin-tu; the provident, solicitous, who provided food and drink for
the first ever code Lagash and Girsu, who provided large sacrificial offerings for the temple of Ningirsu; who captured the
of laws in history enemy, the Elect of the oracle who fulfilled the prediction of Hallab, who rejoiced the heart of Anunit; the
pure prince, whose prayer is accepted by Adad; who satisfied the heart of Adad, the warrior, in Karkar, who
restored the vessels for worship in E-ud-gal-gal; the king who granted life to the city of Adab; the guide of
E-mach; the princely king of the city, the irresistible warrior, who granted life to the inhabitants of
Mashkanshabri, and brought abundance to the temple of Shidlam; the White, Potent, who penetrated the
secret cave of the bandits, saved the inhabitants of Malka from misfortune, and fixed their home fast in
wealth; who established pure sacrificial gifts for Ea and Dam-gal-nun-na, who made his kingdom
everlastingly great; the princely king of the city, who subjected the districts on the Ud-kib-nun-na Canal to
the sway of Dagon, his Creator; who spared the inhabitants of Mera and Tutul; the sublime prince, who
makes the face of Ninni shine; who presents holy meals to the divinity of Nin-a-zu, who cared for its
inhabitants in their need, provided a portion for them in Babylon in peace; the shepherd of the oppressed
and of the slaves; whose deeds find favor before Anunit, who provided for Anunit in the temple of Dumash
in the suburb of Agade; who recognizes the right, who rules by law; who gave back to the city of Ashur its
protecting god; who let the name of Ishtar of Nineveh remain in E-mish-mish; the Sublime, who humbles
himself before the great gods; successor of Sumula-il; the mighty son of Sin-muballit; the royal scion of
Eternity; the mighty monarch, the sun of Babylon, whose rays shed light over the land of Sumer and Akkad;
the king, obeyed by the four quarters of the world; Beloved of Ninni, am I.
Hammurabi, the prince, called of Bel am I, making riches and increase,
enriching Nippur and Dur-ilu beyond compare, sublime patron of E-kur;

who reestablished Eridu and purified the worship of E-apsu;

who conquered the four quarters of the world, made great the name of
Babylon, rejoiced the heart of Marduk, his lord who daily pays his
devotions in Saggil;

the royal scion whom Sin made;

Considered to be who enriched Ur;


the first ever code
of laws in history the humble, the reverent, who brings wealth to Gish-shir-gal;

the white king, heard of Shamash, the mighty, who again laid the
foundations of Sippara;

who clothed the gravestones of Malkat with green;

who made E-babbar great, which is like the heavens, the warrior who
guarded Larsa and renewed E-babbar, with Shamash as his helper;

the lord who granted new life to Uruk, who brought plenteous water to its
inhabitants, raised the head of E-anna, and perfected the beauty of Anu
and Nana;
Insights from the code:

1. Setting the law in stone shows the importance


of law in their society.
2. Hammurabi didn’t have to explain his laws;
3. However, he had to justify his rule.
4. Justification was made through the following:
Considered to be
the first ever code a. Presenting his character
of laws in history b. Presenting his royal lineage
c. Presenting his track record
d. Alluding to the Gods
1. SECURE A MONOPOLY OF FORCE. Disarm the masses and arm the elite.
The state should provide protection from inside and outside threats.

2. REDISTRIBUTE WEALTH. Gains from tribute and taxes should be felt by


everyone.

3. ESTABLISH AN IDEOLOGY OR RELIGION. Rule by a central authority must


be justified. Religion provides a bond other than kinship ties among
people.
1. THE NOTION OF TRANSCENDENCE AND/OR THE
NUMINOUS. There is a belief in either a higher being or a
higher state of life.

2. MYTHS AND SACRED TRUTHS. Stories that reveal divine


realities and paths to morality.

3. ORGANIZED WORSHIP OR DEVOTION. There are


behavioural demands on the believers.

4. SOCIAL NORMS AND STANDARDS. There are values every


believer aspires to.

5. A COMMUNITY OF BELIEVERS. Religion is a social activity.


1. BY NUMBER OF GODHEADS.
monotheist, dualist, polytheist, atheist, non-theist, pantheist, etc.

2. BY COMPLEXITY OF LITERATURE AND WORSHIP.


a. animistic, nature worship
b. ancestor worship
c. anthropomorphic religion
d. organized religion

3. BY GEO-CULTURAL REGIONS.
a. Abrahamic: Judaism, Christianity, Islam
b. Dharmic: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism
c. Sinic: Confucianism, Taoism
1. ANIMISTIC, NATURE WORSHIP

Three elements of Shinto: purification, offering and prayer


2. ANCESTOR WORSHIP
3. ANTHROPOMORPHIC RELIGION
4. ORGANIZED RELIGION
1. ABRAHAMIC RELIGIONS

SIMILARITIES
• Originated in Southwest Asia
• Traces their sacred history to Abraham
• Teachings can be summarized as “Love God above all, and love
your neighbor as you love yourself”

DIFFERENCES
• Social history birthed different traditions
• Primary figures vary: Jews (patriarchs), Christians (Jesus Christ),
Muslims (Muhammad)
2. DHARMIC RELIGIONS

SIMILARITIES
• Originated in South Asia
• Highly spiritual and devotional
• Shares common teachings such as dharma, karma and ahimsa

DIFFERENCES
• Buddhism and Jainism were reactions to Hinduism
• Hinduism subscribes to the caste system
3. SINIC RELIGION

SIMILARITIES
• Originated in East Asia
• Non-theistic
• Began not as religions but as philosophical schools
• Philosophy answered important questions on statecraft

DIFFERENCES
• Confucianism and Taoism vary in their approaches to government,
the value of knowledge, the emphasis on ritual, and the meaning of
happiness
Some historical observations:

1. Religions emerged during times of great social imbalance, turmoil,


and confusion.

2. What kinship ties are to smaller and simpler societies, religion is to


larger and more complex ones.

3. Religion helps legitimize the rule of an elite class.

4. Government sponsorship of religion has allowed it to grow and


prosper.

5. Religion inspired a lot of innovation in science, technology, and the


arts. A lot of the greatest works in human history were devoted to
illustrate mankind’s understanding and mastery of the divine.
“Civilization is the stage in human organization when
governmental, social, and economic institutions have
developed to sufficiently manage (however imperfectly)
the problems of order, security, and efficiency in a
complex society.”
- Philip Lee Ralph, World Civilizations
1. A SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURE THAT LEADS TO A FOOD
SURPLUS AND SPECIALIZATION OF LABOR

2. A FORM OF GOVERNMENT AND SOCIAL


STRATIFICATION

3. SOCIAL NORMS AND STANDARDS (BELIEF SYSTEMS)

4. A DEFINING CULTURE (ARTS AND LITERATURE)

5. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TO MANAGE SOCIETY


1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIETY, GOVERNMENT AND
CULTURE IS AN INTERTWINED PROCESS.
Developments and changes in one affect the others.

2. THE STORY OF CIVILIZATION IS UNENDING. The wheel


of history continues to turn and so our world will
continue to change – but for the better?
1. ENVIROMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY. Climate change, the rising price of food
and oil, dwindling biodiversity, and a coming water war are just among
our environmental challenges.

2. POPULATION CHALLENGE. Our world’s population threatens to hit 12


billion by 2050 if nothing is changed.

3. GLOBAL INEQUALITY. In 2005, the poorest 40% of the world population


accounted for 5% of global income. The richest 20% accounted for 75% of
world income, and the richest 10% accounted for 54%.

4. SHIFT OF GLOBAL POWER. A new global order is emerging with Asia


(China and India) at the center. Are we ready?

5. DEMOCRATIC RECESSION. More and more governments are retreating


into autocratic rule. What does that mean for democracy?

6. GLOBAL INSECURITY. 9/11 has exposed the geo-political tensions in the


world. What have we done since?
I. Introduction to Civilization

II. History of India

III. History of China

IV. History of Islam