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Communicative competence is a term in linguistics which refers to a language user's
grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology, phonology and the like, as well as
social knowledge about how and when to use utterances appropriately.
The term was coined by Dell Hymes in 1966, reacting against the perceived
inadequacy of Noam Chomsky's (1965) distinction between competence and
performance.To address Chomsky's abstract notion of competence, Hymes
undertook ethnographic exploration of communicative competence that included
"communicative form and function in integral relation to each other" (Leung, 2005).
[3] The approach pioneered by Hymes is now known as the ethnography of
1.grammatical competence: words and rules
2.sociolinguistic competence: appropriateness
3.discourse competence: cohesion and coherence
4.strategic competence: appropriate use of communication strategies
A more recent survey of communicative competence by Bachman (1990) divides it
into the broad headings of
This includes both grammatical and discourse (or textual) competence .
This includes both sociolinguistic and "illocutionary" competence.
Through the influence of communicative language teaching, it has become widely
accepted that communicative competence should be the goal of language education,
central to good classroom practice.[6] This is in contrast to previous views in which
grammatical competence was commonly given top priority. The understanding of
communicative competence has been influenced by the field of pragmatics and the
philosophy of language concerning speech acts as described in large part by John
Searle and J.L. Austin.
Business Communication Competencies Needed by Employees as Perceived by
Business Faculty and Business Professionals
♣ Implementation of total quality management and continuous process improvement
require validation of competencies by an institution's customers. This study was
designed to determine if business faculty and business professionals perceive
(a) business writing skills
(b) oral/interpersonal skills
(c) basic English skills
(d) other business
communication abilities with the same degree of importance.
Four one-way analyses of variance revealed no♣ significant difference between 35
business professionals and 30 business faculty concerning the four areas.
However, when the 50 competencies within the♣ four areas were ranked, some
visible differences occurred in using the telephone and intercom, asking questions,
and applying confidentiality.
The♣ increased emphasis toward total quality education, student and faculty
accountability, and outcome-based education require evaluation and validation of the
content of the undergraduate business communication course.
During the♣ past six years, Central Missouri State University (Central), a mid-sized
regional institution, has adopted a new educational paradigm, Continuous Process
Improvement (CPI).
This paradigm espouses many of the principles of the♣ total quality management
(TQM) movement which is currently prevalent in business and industry. Two of
several principles common to CPI and TQM include (a) explicitly stated outcomes (b)
that have been validated by the organizations customers. Prospective employers and
faculty members who are part of this study are some of the university's customers;
others include students and alumni.
We have an extremely memorable sympathetic story on the case that the fourth
Indonesia President Abdurrahman Wahid was entering the Indonesia Presidential
Palace in his first day as Indonesian President with wearing his luxurious very
expensive presidential coat, but he was leaving the palace in a political eviction with
only have sufficient time to wear his disheveled undershorts . We indeed will not
questioning the case of because all of Indonesian knew that the apprehensive
sympathetic case was originated by the failure of communication. Abdurrahman
Wahid was previously stated that Indonesia Parliament (members) just look like
Taman Kanak-Kanak (Kinder Garden). Most of the parliament members offended and
then intercepted all kaind of the president policies therefore he fallen and dislodged
from the presidential throne.
Therfore communication competency is very essential for the success in the golden
Failures in various domains of life, in business, educational, health or political, can be
traced to communication problems or what is commonly termed miscommunication .
Miscommunication does not mean that communication has not happened; rather, “it
means that often the meanings that communicators create in response to messages
sent to them are very different from the meanings that were intended” (Kreps and
Thornton, 1992:7).
In political arena, one remarkable miscommunication took place when the word
mokusatsu was interpreted by the US authority in World War II.
This Japanese word was a response of¬ the Japanese to the ultimatum of the Allies
asking the Japanese to surrender. The US authority took it more or less as “to
ignore” (“we do not care”) or “to treat with silent contempt” instead of the more
appropriate meaning, “do not give a comment until a decision is made,” or “We will
comply with your ultimatum without further notice” as intended by the Japanese (see
also Smith, 1993:55; Jandt, 2004:155).
This misinterpretation probably led to the atomic bombing¬ of Hiroshima and
Nagasaki by the US in August 1945.
If miscommunication¬ could lead to fatal danger, it could also create the same
danger in the health care. Specifically, it may lead to the death of patients.
It is worth¬ noting that decisions to be made by health care providers must be
based on messages provided by the clients, colleagues, and other members of the
health care team.
Their interpretation of the patient’s condition and symptoms¬ resulted from blood
test, X-rays or CAT-scan will be risky if it is misleading. In Indonesia, for example,
there have been some cases where the misinterpretation of patients’ symptoms by
physicians led them to give inappropriate drugs that made the patients get worse or
even die.
Despite¬ the importance of human communication is undoubtedly critical in today’s
world, many experts in various fields, including the communication it self, not
excerptionaly the field of telecommunication, seem to be little the importance of
communication. The field of telecommunication it self indeed has its a very crucial
problematic challenge related to communication effectiveness
• Communication skill is a natural gift; every one is capable to do it; it is not a result
of one’s training or education.
• I am speaking, therefore I am communicating.
• Communication is based on intention; communication takes place whenever I
intend to do so.
• Communication is a verbal process.
• Meanings are in words.
• The more we communicate, the higher its effectiveness.
We might argue, “Why do we have to learn something natural?ϖ We have never
learned to walk, to sit, to eat, and to sleep, and all other things that we do every
day.” We just take it for granted that we communicate every day, so that we think
we know how to communicate and how to solve communication problems until we
get shocked when our taken-for-granted communication turns to be a failure.
I’d like to throught this session argue that communication like various forms of arts
and sports:
Writing,dancing,ϖ running, playing tennis, or swimming that must be learned and
developed before we master them.
Communication skills as a kind of sociocultural skill mustϖ be regarded the same
way to them.
Habitual communication does not guaranteeϖ skillful communication.
Simply communicating does not mean communicatingϖ effectively. Effectiveness,
this is the key point. According to Samovar and Porter (1982:27), understanding
communication means that we understand what happens during communication, why
it happens, what consequences brought about by communication, and what we can
do to influence or maximize the results of communication.
Communication is said to be effective if the results ofϖ communication fits the
purpose of the communicators, whether to inform, to entertain, to persuade, to
induce action, or to settle a problem.
ϖ Communication among those involved in Information Technology based
Telecommunication is effective if it fits the expectation of the communication
participants (machine makers/ programmers, computer users, telecommunication
network users, and certainly all other stakeholders)
Since the need to anϖ effective communication in our day to day life is inevitable at
this globalized world, learning communication is thus not only important but also will
bridging our self to be effectively relate to others who have their cultural diversities
which differ from us.
Yet merely understanding people from differentϖ cultures will help us to understand
not only their cultures but also their feeling, their wants, and their thought and or
ideas, therefore communication in the other word can be nicknamed as A Golden
Bridge To A Better Sociocultural Life.
I indeed think that human being are really communication being, justϖ as Samovar
suggest that we can not not communicate (Samovar, 1982).
Communication is a culture and culture is communication (Samovar,1991). A well-
known anthropologist Edward T. Hall (1976) divides culture into high-context
cultures characterized by high-context communication (messages) and low-context
culture characterized by low-context communication (messages). People living in
high context-cultures (most countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America and some
countries in Southern Europe) communicate implicitly, relying much on nonverbal
symbols and behaviors, including facial expression, tone of voice, and even silence.
While, they often hide their feelings to maintain rapport with others, people living in
low-context cultures (North America, North Europe, Australia, New Zealand) are
blunt and straightforward to make statements. They say what they mean and mean
what they say.
Deddy Mulyana argued that it is not only no doubt but really true that our culture
must contain biases that may inhibit our communication with others. We have to
keep some distance from our own culture by “living in other cultures,” by putting
ourselves on their shoes not on our shoes. We can only see our own culture clearly
from some distance. Samuel Johnson, an English writer in the eighteenth century
believed that he would understand his country much better when he stood in
another’ culture, or in the words of the French philosopher Jean Baudrillard, “To open
our eyes to the absurdity of our own customs is the charm and benefit of travel”
(Schneider and Barsoux, 1997:10).The crux of the problem is that most people are
not aware of the importance of suspending their judgment of other cultures before
exploring their own culture so that they can clearly see the positive as well as the
negative aspects of their culture, an attitude characterized by understanding and
empathy that may enable them to more just and tolerant toward other
Refer to the previous two dictums, we can conclude that culture and communication
are likely as the two sides of the same coin. There is no communication unless it is
characterized as culture bound; and no culture wherever it arised and developed by
its embracers entity unless it is the product of communication pratices.
This is a wise statement I got from my teachers that the “best conclusion of a speech
is that the speaker pleasing the audiences to make their own conclusion based on
their sociocultural and or personal perception”. I am however will regardly propose
that mastering properly communication competency is inevitably to all of us,
whatever our field of profession, indeed that we are telecommunication engineers.
The main aspect which should be our concern in mastering communication
competencies are the content we have to construct logically in term of our academic
and professional disciplinary, and the relation in which way we have to deliver our
constructive communication contents to other.
communication is culture bound, and the key aspect of the sociocultural behavior we
have to compete is empathetic competency. In the other simpler word, best
communicator must be the most empathic person, therewith communicator (you and
me) try and try to endeavor and finally master the competency of understanding
other rather than wanting to be understood. And, the highest empathetic
understanding will be occured when we get a perfect understanding on whatever we
did not understand about others and in whatever and why the others did not
understand about us.
• ""Categories:
Sociolinguistics | Language acquisition
• Retrieved
on March 14, 2008.
• Retrieved
on March 14, 2008.


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