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Boundary Conditions

Boundary Conditions





Wang and Sunden (2003) employed the correlations of Nusselt number and friction

factor, which are functions of Reynolds number and chevron angle, to avoid time-consuming

trial iterations. In this way, all possible plate patterns can be included and optimised by

maximising the utilisation of pressure drop or minimising the total cost for with or without

pressure drop consideration respectively in the optimal design methodology for plate heat

exchangers. Both methodologies neglect the effect of flow arrangement on heat transfer

and pressure drop performance. Still, the discrete optimisation problem caused by

standardised plate patterns increases degree of difficulty in finding a global optimum design


Optimum design can be achieve by minimizing pressure drop or maximizing heat transfer coefficient

Heat exchanger walls are usually made of a single material, although a wall may sometimes be bimetallic
or coated with a plastic as a protection against corrosion. Most heat exchanger surfaces tend to acquire
an additional heat transfer resistance that increases with time. This may be either be a very layer of
oxidation, or at the other extreme, it may be a thick crust deposit, such as that which results from a salt-
water coolant in steam condensers. This fouling effect can be taken into consideration by introducing an
additional thermal resistance termed the fouling resistance R. Its value depends on the type of fluid
velocity, type of surface, and length of service of heat exchanger


2. Established Operating and Boundary Conditions considering the following parameters:

2.1 Operating Conditions

2.1.1 Pressure Drop

2.1.2 Heat Transfer Coefficient

2.1.3 Rating and Sizing

2.1.4 Flow Distributions

2.2 Boundary Conditions

2.2.1 Inlet Temperature

2.2.2 Outlet Temperature

2.2.3 Wall

2.2.4 Symmetry

3. Simulate the design of plate-fin heat exchangers considering the following:



If the ε−NTU method is employed, the procedure has the following steps:

1. Calculate heat load Q and unknown To.

2. Calculate the heat exchanger effectiveness ε and the heat capacity rates ratio R from eqn (5.24).

3. Specify the flow arrangement, including number of passes and number of paths per pass, and
determine the number of heat transfer units NTU, the specific ε−NTU equation or a set of
performance curves for that arrangement.

4. Calculate hh and hc based on the respective fluid flow conditions (Chapters 7 and 8), estimate
the fouling factors (Chapter 9), and then calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient U

5. Finally, calculate the required heat transfer area A

Rating for two fluid Stream

1 Calculate R

2 Calculate hh and hc (Chapters7and8), fouling factors,and U through eqn(5.4).

3 Determine the heat exchanger effectiveness ε from the ε−NTU−R chart or correlation for the
specified flow arrangement.

4 Calculate the total heat load Q from eqn (5.21).

5 Finally, determine the unknown outlet fluid temperatures from the energy balance, eqns (5.1) and
Input Output Process

Knowledge Requirements
- Knowledge and
understanding about plate- - Data Collection
fin heat exchanger
-Knowledge in Fluid - Design Modelling
-Knowledge in Heat
Transfer - System Simulation

Design Requirement Design and Simulation

- System Analysis and of Plate-Fin Heat
Considerations: Evaluation Exchanger
-System Components
-Material Specifications
- Documentation
-Types of Fins

Software Requirements:
-Computational Fluid
Dynamics with