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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ БЮДЖЕТНОЕ


ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ
ВЫСШЕГО ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ
«САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
ЭКОНОМИКИ И ФИНАНСОВ»

КАФЕДРА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА И ПЕРЕВОДА

О.В. РОМАНОВА, Е.В. ТКАЧЕВА

EDUCATION
Учебное пособие по практическому курсу
первого иностранного языка

ИЗДАТЕЛЬСТВО
САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКОГО ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО УНИВЕРСИТЕТА
ЭКОНОМИКИ И ФИНАНСОВ
2

2011
ББК 81.2Англ
Р 69

Рекомендовано научно-методическим советом университета

Романова О.В.

Р 69 Education : Учебное пособие по практическому курсу первого


иностранного языка / О.В. Романова, Е.В. Ткачева. – СПб. : Изд-во
СПбГУЭФ, 2011. – 55 с.

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 1-2 курсов


гуманитарного факультета СПбГУЭФ, а также широкого круга лиц,
изучающих английский язык для практического использования в
профессиональной деятельности. Пособие включает тексты, лексические
упражнения и разнообразные речевые задания, позволяющие студентам
расширить свой словарный запас и усовершенствовать навыки
письменного и устного общения на иностранном языке.

Рецензенты: О.И. Хайрулина – канд. филол. наук,


доцент кафедры теории языка и переводоведения СПбГУЭФ;
С.В. Сковородина – канд. филол. наук,
зав. кафедрой теории языка и переводоведения СПбИГО
(Санкт-Петербургского института гуманитарного образования)
3

© СПбГУЭФ, 2011
CONTENTS

Value of education .............................................................................................. 4


Warm-up activities ............................................................................................... 4
Basic vocabulary .................................................................................................. 7
Reading and speaking ......................................................................................... 14
Schools ............................................................................................................... 14
Schools in Britain ............................................................................................... 15
Schools in America: The First 12 Years ............................................................ 20
Speaking and writing: Brainstorming ideas ...................................................... 27
Further and higher education ......................................................................... 30
Further and higher education in Britain ............................................................. 32
Higher education in the USA ............................................................................. 35
Supplementary reading 1: Academic degrees .................................................... 43
Additional practice ............................................................................................. 45
Test your knowledge .......................................................................................... 51
Supplementary reading 2: Great teachers .......................................................... 52
Ideal headmaster ................................................................................................. 53
References .......................................................................................................... 55
4

VALUE OF EDUCATION
Warm-up activities

I. Which of the learning situations in the photos have you experienced? When
and where? Which are the most effective? What do you need to succeed in each
of them?

II. Ask and answer the questions with a partner:


1) Have you ever taken any courses outside your school or university? What was
good/ bad about them?
2) Do you think making mistakes is an important part of learning? Why/ Why
not?
3) If you go to a lecture, do you make lots of notes or just listen?
4) How can you make progress in English outside the classroom?
5) What useful memory strategies can you name?
6) What kind of learner are you (fast or quick/ slow/ keen/ reluctant, etc.)?
7) ―Learning languages is always fun.‖ Do you support this statement? What can
make the learning process more enjoyable in your opinion?
8) Which of these things do you think are most useful for learning a language?
- to have a good memory
- to have patience
- to make an effort
- to be interested in it
Notes: learn (how) to do smth = gain knowledge of a subject or skill in an activity
learn = remember; memorize; learn by learn your lesson
heart live and learn
learn from your mistakes
rote learning = a method of learning that involves repeating something until
you remember it, without having to understand it

III. What meanings does the word ‗education‘ have? Work with the dictionary
to find it out. Write your own sentences to illustrate the use of this word in
different types of context.

IV. The educational process has been the subject of much comment by
academics and writers. Their observations range from praise to cynicism,
mostly the latter. Education is supposed to be an easy target for criticism
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because its stated aims are often so nobly ambitious that they have little chance
of being realized.
Look at these thought-provoking observations on education and say
which of them appeal(s) to you most.
Education is...
a) one of the few things a person is willing to pay for and not get.
William Lowe Bryan (1860–1955) 10th president of Indiana University (1902 to 1937);
b) a form of self-delusion.
Elbert Hubbard (1856-1915) American author, editor and printer.
c) what remains when we have forgotten all we have been taught.
George Savile, Marquis of Halifax (1633-1695) English statesman and author.

d) a progressive discovery of our ignorance.


Will Durant (1885-1981) U.S. author and historian.
Is it possible to trace any similar ideas expressed in the quotes above?
What are your expectations of higher education?
Do you ever feel ashamed when realizing you know next to nothing about
some issues/ aspects of our life?
About education:
e) The whole object of education is...to develop the mind. The mind should be a
thing that works.
Sherwood Anderson (1876–1941) American novelist and short story writer.

f) Education … has produced a vast population able to read but unable to


distinguish what is worth reading.
G. M. Trevelyan (1876-1962) British historian

g) The object of teaching a child is to enable him to get along without a teacher.
Elbert Hubbard (1856-1915) American author, editor and printer.

h) Education is the ability to listen to almost anything without losing your


temper or your self-confidence.
Robert Lee Frost (1874–1963) American poet.
i) Education is not the filling a bucket but the lighting of a fire.
William Butler Yeats (1865–1939) Irish poet, dramatist.

j) Poor is the pupil who does not surpass his master.


Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist,
mathematician, engineer, and inventor. Notebooks.
k) In education, nothing works if the students don't.
Donald E. Simanek (1936-) American physicist, educator, humorist.

Which of quotes on education (e)-(k) do you strongly disagree/ totally


agree with? Why?
6

Comment on quotes (f) and (j), saying how you understand these points
of view.
Are education and intelligence equal things to you?
What is your definition of an educated person?

V. Read the text and answer the questions below.

Follow what you love


No college or university will ever much successfully educate you or anyone else,
because the individual (characterized as a ―student‖) must come to their own fire
about learning. Teachers can inspire. They can bring knowledge to life – but all
education must come to being alive to the individual.
If you merely passively await an education, you‘ll never become ―educated‖.
And the pile of dates, facts, figures you need to pass tests in your classes will soon
fade from memory. Self-education – deep, serious, subtle – is a long process and
probably must begin, at least in the American conditions, with admitting one‘s
ignorance. If you need a college degree, endure the college conditions as an external
necessity.
Popular American culture is, unfortunately, permeated by a very high level of
ignorance and cultural illiteracy.
―The last straw‖ for me in America was giving a lecture in (―politically
correct‖, ―the alternative culture centre‖) California, comparing the cosmologies and
anthropologies of Thomas Jefferson to those of Dionysius. The ―university-educated‖
audience did not have even the most basic ―humanities‖ background to understand
what I was trying to say (the educational system‘s fault?). Their ignorance meant that
I was subjective, specious, eccentric. And it must be understood that the humanities
are concerned with the story of mankind - our living human story, which university
education has today murdered, displaying just the dissected corpse in testable pieces.
So, it was not a casual decision to come to Russia. Russia still has a much
more serious intellectual system, plus a tradition of the respected idea of the lonely,
passionate scholar or philosopher – the lonely individual seeking knowledge, God,
truth, understanding…

1. Which of the quotes in Ex. IV would the author of the text support? What
makes you think so? Give evidence.
2. What do you understand by the term ―self-education‖?
3. How does the author describe his experience of teaching American
students?
4. Do you agree with the author‘s observations on the Russian ‗intellectual
system‘?
7

Basic vocabulary
I. Learn the collocations and do the exercises suggested.
Education
Verb + education Adjective + education Noun + preposition
-get an education -a good education +education
-give you an education -higher education -access to education
-invest in education -nursery education -the aim of education
-return to education -private education -standard of education
-pay for your education -religious education -the right to education
-secondary education
-sex education
-liberal education

1. Verb + education
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the above verbs:
1. My parents...........me the best education that money could buy.
2. Parents must make sure that their children...........a proper education.
3. A growing number of adults are...........to full-time education.
4. We put some money aside every month to...........for our daughter's education.
5. The Prime Minister said that his government will continue to...........in
education. An extra £100 million will be spent next year on school buildings.
2. Adjective + education
Complete the sentences below with the above adjectives:
1. There will be free...........education for all three-year-olds within five years.
2. Some people think that...........education is unfair and that we should all have
the same educational opportunities.
3. The number of students in...........education has doubled in the last 10 years.
The government is now thinking of building several new universities.
4 I'm against...........education in schools. I think it should be done at home.
5. In the UK, most young people receive...........education in primary school.
They learn the facts of life early.
6. Like most parents, I just want my children to have a...........education.
7. The government wants to make...........education compulsory up to the age of
18.
8. I am hopeless at exact sciences so my aim is to get a …..… education.
3. Noun + preposition + education
Complete the sentences with the above nouns:
1. The cuts in funding will have an effect on the...........of education in schools.
2. By law all children in the country have the...........to a free education.
3. One...........of education must be to teach children to think for themselves.
4. …… to higher education has improved, with more students now at
university.
8

Course
Verb + course Adjective + course Noun + prep + course
-do a course -a crash course -completion of a course
-complete a course a demanding course -a guide to a course
-drop out of a course -an introductory course a -a place on a course
-schools run courses -non-line course -the entry requirements
-courses consist of (lectures) -a vocational course for a course
-courses deal with (subjects)

1. Verb + course
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the above verbs:
1. This language school...........English courses for complete beginners.
2. Older people are returning to school to...........courses in using computers.
3 If you...........the course successfully, you will be awarded a certificate.
4. The course...........with the fundamentals of car maintenance.
5. It's a difficult course. 50% of the students usually...........out within 3 weeks.
6. The course...........of a series of lectures with a written exam at the end.
2. Adjective + course
Choose the correct collocation:
1. It was a very tough and heavy / demanding course, but we managed to
complete it.
2. I'm going to Japan to work soon, so I'm taking a crash / fast course in
Japanese.
3. I studied art, but most of my friends did vacation / vocational courses, like
nursing.
4. The college runs on-line / internet courses where a lot of the teaching is done
through the internet and e-mail.
5. The introductory / primary course is for those people who have no
knowledge or experience of teaching.
3. Noun + preposition + course
Complete the sentences with the above nouns:
1. Make sure you fulfil the entry...........for the course before you send off the
application form.
2. I have a conditional offer of a...........on a nursing course. I have to pass all
my exams this year to be accepted on the course.
3. Our website provides a comprehensive...........to courses at UK universities.
4. Students are given a certificate on successful...........of the course.
Notes 1. Note the verbs we use to describe taking a course: A total of 48
students enrolled for / signed up for the course in photography.
2. Note the verbs we use to describe the aims of a course: This course is
designed to give students a grounding in car maintenance. This course prepares
graduates for careers in the tourist industry.
9

3. 'Undergraduate' and 'postgraduate' courses are taken at university: I'm doing


a three-year undergraduate course in computing at Leeds University.
4. A 'crash course' teaches you a lot about a particular subject in a short period
of time.
5. Note this expression: I was forced to withdraw from the course due to
illness.
Lesson
Verb + lesson Preposition + lesson Noun + of + lesson
-have lessons -a lesson about -the aims of the
-skip/ miss a lesson something lesson
-prepare a lesson -a lesson with someone -the point of a lesson
-begin /start a lesson -during a lesson -the start of the lesson
-give lessons -in a 40-minute lesson -the main points of
-catch up with your lessons the lesson
1. Verb + lesson
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the above verbs:
1. Teachers' salaries are very low, so I'm...........private lessons at weekends.
2. The teacher is terrible. I don't think he...........his lessons carefully enough.
3. I got into trouble when my father found out that I had been...........lessons.
4. My English teacher always...........his lessons with a warm-up exercise.
5. My brother is determined to be an actor so he's...........lessons in drama.
6. I was off school for 5 weeks, so I have quite a few lessons to............up with.
2. Preposition + lesson
Complete the following sentences with the above prepositions:
1. We've got a lesson..........Mr Humphreys this afternoon.
2. You can't expect to learn everything about computing..........a one-hour
lesson.
3. The lesson was..........the rise and fall of the Roman Empire.
4. No talking is allowed...........the lesson.
3. Lesson or class
Put a line through a word if it is not possible and try to think of a reason why it
isn't.
1. I'm having driving classes / lessons from my uncle.
2. The school runs evening lessons / classes throughout the year.
3. I think Jack is going to need some private classes / lessons if he's going to
have any chance of passing A-level Maths!
4. The teacher dismissed the lesson / class early because she had a meeting.
4. Noun + of + lesson
Match the halves:
1. The teacher started by going over the main
2. I just don't see
3. It always takes the students a while to settle down
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4. The main aim of my lesson was


a. the point of this lesson!
b. at the start of the lesson.
c. to get the students talking.
d. points of yesterday's lesson.

Notes 1. Note these expressions: We spent the whole lesson copying from the
blackboard / looking out of the window. I hope these lessons will improve my
pronunciation / my communication skills.
2. If you are very angry with someone, the following expression can be useful:
I'm going to teach him a lesson!
Somebody needs to teach Dave a lesson in how to be polite to customers!
To warn someone that they must be more careful in order to avoid the same bad
experience we can use: let that be a lesson to you

Practice and homework


Verb + practice Expressions with Verb + homework
-need practice practice -give homework
-have practice -It takes (years) of -get some homework
-improve with practice practice. -do your homework
-learn through practice -be out of practice -correct homework
-come with practice -It's just a question -hand in your
-give you practice of practice. homework
-Practice makes -help you with your ...
perfect.

1. Verb + practice
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the above verbs:
1. Using a mouse is the easiest thing in the world once you've..........some
practice.
2. This exercise...........students practice in using the past tense.
3. Most trainee teachers...........practice in writing on a blackboard.
4. Don't worry. Your English will ...........with practice.
5. Playing the piano is the kind of skill that only...........with years of practice.
6. You get knowledge from books, but skills can only be...........through
practice.
2. Expressions with practice
Match the halves:
1. Your English will improve if you work hard.
2. I'll try to use my French,
3. Don't give up.
4. If you want to learn to play the piano,
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a. Driving's just a question of practice.


b. it'll take years of practice.
c. Speak as much as you can. Practice makes perfect.
d. but I'm a bit out of practice.

3. Verb + homework
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the above verbs:
1. You can't watch TV until you've...........all your homework.
2. He never manages to...........in his homework on time.
3. You...........more homework at secondary school than at primary school.
4. The English teacher...........the whole class extra homework for misbehaving.
5. My brother used to...........me with my homework, but he's gone to university.
6. Our teacher...........our homework during the lunch hour, then gave it back to
us.
Notes 1. Note these expressions: I'm afraid he can't come out just now. He's
busy with his homework. Why do you always leave your homework to the very
last moment?
2. An 'assignment' is an individual piece of work that a student has to do: I
stayed up late last night to complete a class assignment
This is a really tough assignment
3. We can use 'assignment' and 'piece of work' in these sentences: Do you
actually fail the course if you don't hand in a piece of work? I've had an 'A' for
every assignment I've done this year.

Exam and mark


Verb + exam Expressions with Verb + Adjective +
-revise/ cram/ brush exam mark mark
up/read up for an exam -make a mess of an -get a mark -your final
-sit for an exam/ do an exam -lose marks mark
exam; take an exam -pass an exam with -give a -full marks
-mark an exam flying colours mark -a good mark
-pass / fail an exam -a really stiff / hard -deduct -a low mark
-scrape through an exam marks -the top mark
exam/ coast/breeze -How did you do in
through an exam your exams?

1. Verb + exam
a) Complete the sentences with the correct form of the above verbs:
1. I spent the whole weekend...........for my final exams. I didn't go out once.
2. Do we have to...........an exam at the end of the course?
3. She's exceptionally bright and she...........all her exams easily.
4. I almost failed the exam. I just managed to...........through with 51%.
12

5. I don't know what grade I got because the teacher hasn't...........our exam yet.
6. It's very easy to …….. with your studies if you miss even just a few
classes.
7. She seemed to just ………..the exams. Everyone else was in such a panic and
almost had nervous breakdowns.
b) Cross out the verb which does not collocate:
do / make / take / sit / pass /fail an exam

2. Expressions with exam


Match the halves:
1. How did you do in your exams?
2. I made a complete mess of the exam.
3. He passed the exam with flying colours.
4. It was a really stiff exam.
a. I think he got nearly 100%.
b. I don't think many of us will pass.
c. I mucked the whole thing up.
d. Badly. I failed three of them.

с) Complete the dialogue with the correct form of these verbs:


re-sit pass fail revise
A: Hi Sarah, I'm so happy. I (1)......all my exams. I even got a grade A in
English!
B: I didn't do too badly, but I (2)...... biology. That means I'll have to
(3)...... it next term.
A: Oh no, I'm so sorry. You spent ages on biology, didn't you? What
happened?
В: Well, I guess I just didn't (4)...... hard enough. Perhaps I'll get it next
time.

3. Verb + mark
Complete the sentences with the correct form of the above verbs:
1. I'm hoping to...........a good mark in the exam tomorrow.
2. Please remember that marks will be...........for bad spelling.
3. The teacher...........the highest mark to Mandy.
4. She would've got 100%, but she...........four marks for poor handwriting.
4. Adjective + mark
Complete the sentences below with the above adjectives:
1. He did no revision for the Maths exam, but he still got a...........mark.
2. Nobody got..........marks in the spelling test, but I got nearly all the answers
right.
3. Harry scored the...........mark in the English test. He's always first in the class.
13

4. Project work accounts for 50% of your...........mark for this course.


5. If you get...........marks in the test, you'll have to take the test again.
Notes 1. At school a 'test' is often something less formal than an exam, e.g. a
reading test.
2. Note this expression with 'mark':
You have to give him full marks for trying. (He didn't succeed, but tried very
hard.)

II. a) Match the English idioms in the left column with their Russian
equivalents in the right column.
1. teacher‘s pet начать с азов
2. to know smth inside out как дважды два — четыре
3. to go into details куриные мозги
4. to make a wild guess вдаваться в подробности
5. to come easy головоломка
6. bookworm легко даваться
7. to have no clue about smth любимчик преподавателя
камень преткновения
8. to drum something into вдолбить что-либо в голову
somebody's head предположить что-л наобум
9. a brain twister книжный червь/ любитель книг
10. the brain of a pigeon знать назубок/ досконально
11. to start from scratch не иметь ни малейшего
12. two and two make four представления/
13. a stumbling block не разбираться в предмете

b) Complete the sentences so that they are true for you. Add two more
sentences to develop the idea:
1. I know ____________ inside out.
2. I haven‘t got a clue about ______________.
3. I sometimes make a wild guess if ___________________ .
4. I feel I need to brush up on ___________________ .
5. I‘ve learnt _________________ by heart.
6. I know a bookworm called _____________ . She/ He reads ________ .
7. I think a teacher‘s pet is a student who _____________________ .
c) Illustrate the meanings of the English idioms by your own examples.
14

Reading and speaking


SCHOOLS
Topical Vocabulary.
0. school n, schooling n, scholar n, scholarship n
1. Types of schools: maintained (state), county, voluntary, nursery, primary,
infant, junior, secondary, grammar, secondary modern, technical,
comprehensive, all-through, two-tier, first, middle, upper, mixed (co-
educational), selective, single-sex, special, independent (fee-paying, private),
pre-preparatory, preparatory, public, sixth-form college, tertiary college, well-
endowed.
2. Stages of education: compulsory, pre-school, primary, secondary, further,
higher.
3. Education policy: administration, schooling, full-time education, part-time
education, tripartite system, class-divided and selective system of education, to
sustain inequality of opportunity, to go comprehensive, the Department of
Education and Science, Local Education Authorities (LEAs), to be responsible
for national education policy, to run a school, to prescribe curricula or
textbooks, the provision of schools, to provide maintained school education.
4. Management: Head Teacher (Master), Principal, Assistant Principal, Acting
Head Teacher, staff, governing body, to have responsibility, to employ teachers,
provide and maintain buildings, supply equipment, provide grants, appointment
and dismissal of staff.
5. Admission: to admit, to allocate, to apply for admission, selective procedure,
intelligence tests, substitute for the abolished 11+ exams, to measure inborn
abilities, to have a time limit, to coach for, without any reference to a child's
ability or aptitude, to transfer (promote) from one class to another.
6. Curriculum: broad curriculum, academic course, non-academic course,
vocational bias, foundation course, foundation subjects, to meet special
interests, common curriculum, simplified curriculum, education with a practical
slant for lower-attaining pupils, to be encouraged to do smth., the three R's,
subject teaching, specialist teacher, to have set periods, remedial teaching.
7. Examinations: GCSE (exam); "A" level exam; Common Entrance Exam; to
be set and marked by ... ; to hand the papers out; examining board; grades,
"pass" grade; resits and retakes; unsuccessful pupil; to repeat the year; to keep
up with the group; to fall behind; to catch up with the group.
8. Punishment: corporal punishment, detention (after school or during the
dinner hour), lines, exclusion from normal routine, exclusion from privileges
(loss of privilege), collection of litter, suspension from school, withdrawal from
lessons, setting extra work, putting "on report", telling the parents.
Notes 1. In the UK a 'public' school is a private or fee-paying school.
Government schools, where education is free, are called 'state' schools.
Education is compulsory in the UK between the ages of 5 and 16.
15

2. 'Further education' is for adults who have left school. The classes are usually
at a college and not at a university. 'Special education' is provided for children
who have physical problems or learning difficulties.

Subjects: Match the following school subjects with their definitions:


a. history 1. The study of plant, animal and human life.
b. music 2. The study of the world's physical features, climate,
с. maths populations etc.
d. economics 3. The study of the past.
e. physics 4. The study of painting and drawing.
f. chemistry 5. How to use computers.
g. biology 6. The study of heat, sound, electricity etc.
h. IT 7. Arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus etc.
(information 8. The study of elements and how they combine and react.
technology) 9. The study of financial systems.
i. geography 10. Playing instruments and singing.
j. art

Now mark each subject either 'S' (science subject) or 'A' (arts subject).
Subjects and specialists: What do you call a person who is a specialist in these
subjects? Complete the list, using your dictionary if necessary. Then mark the
stress.
1. physics ............. 6. history .............
2. philosophy............. 7. mathematics.............
3. psychology............. 8. chemistry .............
4. sociology............. 9. astronomy.............
5. architecture............. 10. engineering.............

Schools in Britain
In Britain, school is compulsory between the ages of five and sixteen.
Primary education continues until the age of eleven. Pupils wishing to enter
university usually finish their secondary education when they are eighteen.
Other types of further education are available for those who want to learn a
trade such as catering or specialize at an early stage. In recent years, the
proportion of young people entering university has risen dramatically. The
variety of degree courses on offer has also widened. It is now common for
students entering fields such as nursing to be based at university.
Educational terminology can be very confusing. For example,
preparatory and public schools are fee-paying and both belong to the
independent or private sector. Middle schools, which fall between primary and
secondary education, are part of the state system, but do not exist in all parts of
Britain. Most state secondary schools are "comprehensives" and are non-
16

selective. However, in some towns, institutions known as grammar schools


operate selectively. Children are tested at the age of eleven and the bright ones
are creamed off. Many parents argue that grammar schools should be abolished
to allow equality of opportunity for all children. Others insist that a fast track is
needed for gifted pupils and that diversity means more freedom of choice.

I. Paraphrase the words and expressions in italics.


II. Make up 5 false statements based on the contents of the text for your
partner to correct them.
III. What kind of education does a British grammar school provide? “Many
parents argue that grammar schools should be abolished to allow equality of
opportunity for all children. Others insist that a fast track is needed for gifted
pupils and that diversity means more freedom of choice.” – which point of view
is closer to yours? Why do you support this idea?

Notes: In Britain everyone has to do PE (physical education) and RE


(religious education). Many people study languages, usually French, Spanish or
German. Classics is the study of Latin, Greek, and perhaps ancient history.
Further education (FE) usually means going to a college to do a
vocational course or degree. Higher education (HE) usually means doing a
degree at a university.
Most people go to state schools but some parents pay to send their
children to private schools. In England the best known private schools are
called public schools. Sometimes students live for the whole term at their
boarding school. The most traditional are still single-sex schools but most are
now co-educational (co-ed). Americans go to high school and then college.
Pupils is used until children leave primary school; after that we usually call
them students.
The person who helps older students decide what to do when they leave
school is the careers adviser.

IV. Dialogue
A: What kind of education would you choose for your child?
B: For a start, it would have to be a mixed school and not a boarding
establishment.
A: What have you got against single sex schools?
B: Clearly, a coeducational environment promotes understanding
between boys and girls. It's far more natural.
A: Don't you think they distract one another when they become
teenagers?
B: Well, maybe they do, but they've got to learn to live together. I'm
against all forms of segregation.
17

A: How about boarding schools? Don't they teach children how to live
together? I'd have thought they'd be very useful for children without brothers
and sisters.
B: But "only children" can still find friends in their neighbourhoods or
local day schools. Why have we got to create large institutional families? If
people decide to have children, then they should value family life.
A: Would you prefer your child to be educated privately or by the state?
B: To be honest, that's a very difficult question, because if the state
schools in my town were very bad, then I might be tempted to pay private fees.
I hope that wouldn't be necessary.
A: Would you consider sending your child to a grammar school?
B: Again, that depends on the alternatives. I prefer the comprehensive
system, but I wouldn't want my child to be in mixed ability classes for all
subjects. There'd have to be some form of streaming.
A: What's wrong with mixed ability teaching?
B: The reality is that people learn subjects such as languages and
mathematics at different speeds. It's a nonsense to keep everybody at the same
level regardless of their progress.

Discuss in small groups:


1. Which type of school would you prefer: a mixed or single sex
school? Give reasons.
2. Is day school always a better alternative to boarding school?
3. Should rich people be permitted to buy educational advantages by
sending their children to private schools or should all schools be run by the state?
4. Do you prefer a system where children are put in fast and slow streams
or is it better to create mixed ability classes?
5. Should corporal punishment be permitted in schools?
6. Which system do you favour for measuring children‘s progress - final
examinations or continuous assessment?
7. Do the "three Rs" (Reading, Writing and Arithmetic) make up the most
important part of the school curriculum?

V. Find the "odd one out". There may be more than one answer. Give your
reasons.
single sex – mixed – coeducational
compulsory – voluntary – optional
independent school – public school – state school
nursery -primary –secondary
grammar school – comprehensive school – non-selective school
streaming – mixed ability grouping – ability grouping
continuous assessment – final examinations – intelligence testing
18

VI. Your school career: complete the text with suitable words
When I was very young I went to a playgroup and then a (1)…......school.
When I was five, I started at the local (2)…......school. School is compulsory in
Britain for everybody between five and sixteen years old, but in lots of other
countries children don‘t start until they are seven. My primary school was
mixed, but when I was eleven, I went to an all-boys (3)…...... school. My
favourite subjects were maths and English. After five years at secondary school,
I decided to go to sixth form (4)…....... In my last year in the sixth form I
(5)…..... exams in four subjects – maths, physics, chemistry, and geography.
I(6)…...... them all and (7)…......A grades in maths and physics. I(8)…......for a
place at (9)…...... to study astronomy. It was a three-year (10)…......course.
I(11)…...... with first class honours. I thought about (12)…......a postgraduate
degree, but decided it was time to get a job and earn some money.

VII. Act out a conversation between two friends – school-leavers. One of


them finished private school/ single sex school and the other – state school/
coeducational school. Share your experience and say what you particularly
liked (disliked) about your studying there.

Additional practice
I. Learning a language. Complete the dialogues with these words and
expressions:
second language –bilingual – strong accent – mother-tongue – native speaker
1. So, Sandy, what language do you speak in Hong Kong?
- Well, of course, Chinese is my........., but for almost everyone, English is
spoken as a...............
2. So, Sven, you've been learning English for ten years. That's a long
time.
- I suppose it is, but I want to keep learning until I can hold a
conversation like a
3. Where did you learn to speak such good Spanish, Mary?
- Well my dad's Spanish and I went to school in Madrid until I was nine
so I'm basically
4. I find it very difficult to understand Maggie when she speaks quickly.
- Well, she comes from Liverpool and she's got quite a.................I'm sure
you'll get used to it.
Typical classroom questions. Use these words to complete the questions
below:
Pronounce – say – difference – mean – spell – plural
1. How do you......'coche' in English?
2. What does 'rush'......?
3. What's the......between 'for' and 'since'?
19

4. How do you......this word?


5. How do you......'headache'?
6. What's the.......of 'calf' ?
Now match the questions to the answers below:
a. It's h-e-a-d-a-c-h-e.
b. 'For' answers the question 'How long' and since answers the question
'When?'.
с It means go very quickly.
d. Calves.
e. Car.
f. You pronounce it /bau/ like 'now'.
Learning and practicing. Complete these whole expressions:
practise – say - pick up – hold – study – improve - make - do
1. I could hardly say a word.
2. I made.........
3. We studied.........
4. I enjoyed being able to.........speaking with the other students.
5. I did........at a language school.
6. I picked up.........
7. I really improved my.........
8. I could actually hold.........
You can study English with a teacher in a group or you can have private
or one-to-one lessons.
Language terms. Match the language terms below with the highlighted
words and phrases in the sentences:
a proverb - a gerund -a phrasal verb -an idiom -a collocation -the 'to' infinitive
1. I decided to do a conversation class.
2. Let me look it up in my dictionary.
3. I really enjoy trying to speak English.
4. "Too many cooks spoil the broth."
5. I'm a bit out of my depth in the advanced class.
6. Please correct me if I make a mistake.

II. Rewrite this short text using words and phrases similar in meaning to
those given in italics.
When I'm preparing intensively for an exam, I don't see any
point in looking up exam papers from previous years, nor is
there any point in just learning things by memory. Some
people develop very clever techniques to help them
remember the material, but there's no real substitute for re-
reading and going over the term's work. It's a good idea to have some sort of
diagram to organise your ideas, and memory-learning is useful, but in a limited
20

way. At the end of the day, you just have to read a huge amount until you feel
you know the subject 100 per cent.

mnemonics' rote-learning revise / cram memorise / learn off by


heart know the subject inside out past papers bury yourself in your
books read up

Schools in America: The First 12 Years


Before you read
- Should school attendance be required? Why? Until what age?
- Try to answer the questions. Then look for the answers in the reading.
1. What percentage of American adults are high school graduates?
2. Who sets guidelines for American public schools?
The Goals and Purpose of Public Education
1) American elementary and secondary education is a vast and complex
enterprise. From kindergarten through high school, about 72 million students
are enrolled in school. To educate this huge number of students, more than 3
million teachers are employed. They are by far the largest professional group in
the country.
2) In the U.S.A., everyone has both the right and the obligation to become
educated. Even children with physical or mental disabilities are entitled to be
educated to whatever extent they can be. A lot of money is spent to provide
special services and equipment for students who need extra help. For example,
special assistance is provided to children who speak little or no English. In
some schools, they attend English as a second language (ESL) classes for part
of their schoolday and study other subjects in classes with English-speaking
students. In schools where a sizable number of students speak a language other
than English, a bilingual program may be offered. In transitional bilingual
programs, students study English, but some academic subjects are taught in the
native language. Students stay in these bilingual programs until they are fairly
fluent in English (usually 1 to 3 years). Some bilingual programs continue to
teach students at least one subject in the native language indefinitely to help
them maintain fluency and literacy in their native language as well as English.
3) In order to develop an educated population (a necessity in a
democracy), all states have compulsory school attendance laws. These laws
vary from one state to another, but they generally require school attendance
from ages 6 to 16. However, most students attend school at least until high
school graduation, when they are 17 or 18 years old. About 83% of American
adults are high school graduates.
Public and Private Schools
4) About 86% of American children receive their elementary and high
school education in public schools. These schools have important
characteristics in common:
21

• They are supported by state and local taxes and do not charge tuition.
• Most are neighborhood schools, open to students who live in the
district.
• They are coeducational, which means that boys and girls attend the
same schools and have nearly all their classes together. By providing girls with
equal educational opportunity, public schools have helped to create self-
sufficient American women.
• They are locally controlled. The individual states, not the federal
government, are responsible for education. Public schools are required to follow
some state guidelines regarding, for example, curriculum (what students study)
and teacher qualifications. But most decisions about a school district are made
by an elected board of education and the administrators that board hires. This
system creates strong ties between the district's schools and its local
community.
• Americans believe in separation of church and state. Therefore,
American public schools are free from the influence of any religion. As a result,
children of many different religions feel comfortable attending public schools.
This secular public school system helps a diverse population share a common
cultural heritage.
5) Private schools can be divided into two categories: parochial
(supported by a particular religious group) and independent (not affiliated with
any religious group). Private schools charge tuition and are not under direct
public control, although many states set educational standards for them. To
attend a private school, a student must apply and be accepted. Parochial (mostly
Catholic) schools make up the largest group of private schools.
Teaching Methods and Approaches
6) American education has been greatly influenced by John Dewey, a
famous twentieth-century philosopher. Dewey believed that the only
worthwhile knowledge was information that could be used. He considered it
pointless to make students memorize useless facts that they would quickly
forget. Rather, he felt, schools should teach thinking processes and skills.
Dewey also influenced teaching techniques. Children learn best by doing, he
said. Applying this idea today, science classes involve experimentation; the
study of music involves making music; democratic principles are practiced in
the student council; school projects encourage creativity and teamwork.
Children don't spend the day working silently and alone. They often work in
groups, share ideas, and complete projects together.
7) What do American schools see as their educational responsibility to
students? The scope is very broad indeed. Schools teach a lot of skills and
information once left for parents to teach at home. For example, it's common
for the curriculum to include driver's education, cooking and sewing classes,
sex education, and a campaign against smoking and the use of illegal drugs.
22

Also, some schools try to improve children's behavior by teaching them how to
control anger and settle arguments in peaceful ways (a skill called conflict
resolution). In some class-rooms values and good character are discussed, as
well.
Early Childhood Education
8) Free public education begins with kindergarten, usually half-day classes
for 5-year-olds. At one time, the purpose of kindergarten was to teach children to
get along with each other and to get used to classroom life. However, today at
least half of the children who enter kindergarten have already had these
experiences in nursery school or day-care settings. Therefore, kindergarten
teachers have taken on the job of introducing some academics – for example,
teaching letters, numbers, colors, and shapes. Still, there's a lot of time for play.
9) Most American parents want their children to attend school before the
age of 5. They believe good preschools can be stimulating and valuable for
children. Moreover, since most mothers have jobs, nursery school or day care is
often a necessity. Nursery schools serve 3- to 5-year-olds, mostly in half-day
programs. Many day-care centers take younger children also, and the children
can stay for the whole day. Unlike many other countries, the U.S. has no
national day-care system. Parents who place their children in preschool
programs usually pay tuition, although some of these facilities are subsidized.
Many places of business have day-care centers that serve the children of their
employees. Many colleges and universities also have day-care facilities
available for the children of their students and faculty.
Elementary Education
10) Formal academic work is divided into 12 levels called grades. One
schoolyear (from late August or early September to mid-June) is required to
complete each grade. Academic work – learning to read, write, and do
arithmetic – begins when children enter first grade, at about age 6. Kindergarten,
first grade, and second grade are commonly called the primary grades.
11) The first academic institution that a student attends is called
elementary school or grammar school. In some school systems, elementary
school goes through eighth grade. In others, there is a second division called
junior high school or middle school. It usually includes grades 6-8, 5-8, or 7-9.
12) The typical schoolday is about 6 hours long and ends about 3:00 P.M.
Classes are in session Monday through Friday. Traditional vacation periods
include a 2-week winter vacation, a 1-week spring vacation, and a 2-month
summer vacation. In addition, there are several 1-day holidays.
13) Academic subjects include language arts (reading, writing, spelling,
and penmanship), mathematics, science, physical education (athletics and
studying principles of good health), and social studies (mostly history and
geography). Social studies emphasizes the multicultural nature of the U.S. by
stressing the contributions of groups overlooked in the past: women, African-
23

Americans, Hispanics, and non-Europeans. Elementary school programs also


teach music and art if the school budget can cover these. Computer studies are
also commonly a part of the elementary school curriculum.
14) In elementary school, students are grouped into classes that stay
together for the schoolyear. In the primary grades, the class generally has the
same teacher for most subjects, although art, music, and physical education are
usually taught by specialists in these areas. In the upper elementary grades,
students in some school systems have a different teacher for each major
academic subject.
High School (Secondary Education)
15) American high schools have a commitment to offer both a general
college preparatory program for those interested in higher education and
vocational training for students who plan to enter the work force immediately
after high school graduation. In American high schools, college-bound students
find the courses they need for college entrance and, in addition, an opportunity
to take Advanced Placement (AP) courses, for which they can earn college
credit. But in the same building, other students may find work / study programs
(to earn high school credit for on-the-job training).
16) Subjects are more specialized in high school than in elementary
school. Social science is divided into American history, European history, and
psychology. Math courses include algebra, geometry, and trigonometry.
Science is divided into biology, chemistry, earth science, and physics. Most
high school students study a foreign language, usually Spanish, French, or
German. As in elementary school, health and physical education (gym) classes
are generally required.
17) Students move from one classroom to another and study each subject
with a different teacher and a different group of classmates. Many high schools
group students according to academic ability and motivation. Some subjects
are offered at two, three, or even four different levels of difficulty.
18) The school day is very busy and very long for many high school
students. Many take five or six major academic subjects as well as physical
education. During other periods, students may be doing homework in a study
hall, researching in the school library, or participating in activities such as the
school orchestra, student government, school newspaper, or math club. Many
extracurricular activities—such as team sports and dramatics—involve after-
school practice. Students active in extracurricular activities may be at school
from early morning until dinner time. However, school activities are important.
They help students find friends with similar interests, develop their talents, gain
self-confidence, and sometimes even discover their career goals.
School Problems and Possible Solutions
19) The quality of a child's education depends largely on where he or she
goes to school. Facilities and resources vary a lot from one school district to
24

another. In education (as in many other areas), money is both part of the
problem and part of the solution. Most of the money to operate American
schools comes from local property taxes. As a result, poorer communities have
less money to spend on books, equipment, and teachers' salaries. All these
factors affect the quality of education. In areas where the community is stable,
the funding good, and the school environment orderly, a hardworking student
can get an excellent education. But schools in poor neighborhoods in the
nation's large cities are usually less successful. They do not always have the
resources necessary to support students with special needs. For example, some
students may need help in learning English. In some neighborhoods, the
students in one classroom may have a dozen different native languages! In poor
neighborhoods, children move often and therefore change schools often, which
interferes with their education. In some inner-city neighborhoods, some
students miss school because they are afraid of violent gangs that make walking
to school dangerous.
20) Another problem is a serious shortage of qualified teachers. Teaching
is a hard job, and the rewards are not what they should be. Starting salaries for
teachers are much lower than for employees in many other occupations
requiring a college degree. Teaching is a time-consuming job; lesson-planning
and paper-grading are often done at home. It is common for teachers to devote
60 hours a week to their job. Considering all these factors, it's not surprising
that many young adults choose other occupations.
21) Teachers and schools shouldn't be blamed for all the problems in
American education. Students themselves are also responsible for how much
they learn. Many students do not study enough. Elementary schools are
encouraging more studying nowadays by retaining students (requiring them to
repeat a grade) if they cannot pass tests on the important material studied in that
grade. In high school, some students are distracted by part-time jobs, school
activities, TV, and socializing. Others do not keep up with their schoolwork
because of emotional problems, drinking or use of illegal drugs, or lack of
motivation. About 11% drop out between the ages of 16 and 18,
22) Would public schools improve if they had more competition? Some
people think so. Some parents, politicians, and educators support the idea of
giving parents greater choice in selecting their children's schools. One such plan
involves giving parents vouchers that can be used to pay part of the tuition at a
private school. Tuition tax credits (deductions from state taxes) have also been
provided to help parents afford private school tuition.
23) Parents who are dissatisfied with the regular public schools in their
community may choose charter schools or even homeschooling. Charter
schools have special agreements with their state board of education that free
them from some of the restrictions placed upon regular public schools.
Therefore, they are able to experiment with new teaching methods. There are
25

about 1,700 charter schools in the U.S.A. today, and the numbers are growing.
Homeschooling is a popular movement as well. About 1.5 million American
children are taught at home.
24) American educators and policy makers have great confidence that
computers are improving American education. About 90% of American schools
have Internet access and, on average, one computer for every six students.
Children as young as 3 years old are introduced to computers at home or at
preschool.
25) Improving the school system is one of the nation's top priorities. In
most states, teachers and school administrators are developing (or have
developed) standards – statements of exactly what children are supposed to
learn in each grade. They are also improving assessment – ways of finding out
if students have met these standards. Tests that evaluate students also evaluate
schools. Schools with low pass rates are expected to make changes that will
lead to improvement. While Americans look for ways to make elementary and
secondary education better, they are encouraged by the fact that 65% of the
nation's high school graduates choose to continue their formal schooling at a
college or university.

I. Check your comprehension


1. What is the major goal of American public schools?
2. Summarize five important characteristics of public schools.
3. What are some differences between public and private schools?
4. What were John Dewey's ideas about what and how students should
learn?
5. What three types of preschool programs were discussed in the preceding
section?
6. How are the upper elementary grades different from the lower grades?
7. What two types of students must high schools serve?
8. What are extracurricular activities?

II. Getting the Message


A. True or False?
Reread the sections indicated. Then mark each statement true (T) or false (F).
"The Goals and Purpose of Public Education"
1. American children must go to school until they graduate from high school.
2. School attendance laws are the same in every state of the U.S.
3. Classes in English as a second language are called bilingual instruction.
4. In the U.S., parents can decide whether their children will receive an
education or not.
"Elementary Education"
26

5. Poorer school districts are less likely to give students classes in music and
art.
6. Most American children don't go to school in the summer.
"High School (Secondary Education)"
7. American secondary school students attend either a college preparatory high
school or a vocational high school.
8. Most high schools offer courses in social science, arithmetic, and language
arts.
9. Extracurricular activities always meet after school.
B. Which Comes Next?
Write out the academic levels in chronological order.
С. Why Preschool?
Reread paragraph 9. What are two main reasons that parents enroll young
children in nursery schools and day-care centers? Write a sentence about each
reason.
III. Building your vocabulary
a) Look at the key vocabulary units boldfaced in the texts. Pronounce these
words after your teacher and discuss their meanings.
b) Complete these sentences with some of the key vocabulary words above.
Make the nouns plural if necessary, and put each verb into the correct tense
and form.
1. ______________involves cooperating and working together with other
people.
2. Some day-care centers are______________by the government, which means
that the government contributes some of the money needed.
3. Information and skills taught in each grade of school are the______________
for that grade.
4. Children must attend school. School is______________.
5. ______________school is sometimes called grammar school.
6. In elementary school, a student usually passes or fails an entire grade, but in
high school, a student's work in each course (subject) is______________and
______________separately.
7. Some high school students study hard because they know that good grades
will help them get into a good college or university. These students have a lot of
______________for trying to get good grades.
8. ______________schools are supported by a particular religious group. They
teach its religious beliefs, celebrate its religious holidays, and encourage prayer.
9. Due to a teacher______________, some school districts hire teachers who
have had little or no training in teaching methods.
10. Before first grade, children attend______________.
11. A music teacher is a(n)______________in music.
12._____training is training to do a particular job.
27

Brainstorming ideas
I. Debate these issues in small groups. Then choose one and write about it.
1. Do bilingual education programs advance or slow down the academic
development of immigrant students? Would all-day contact with American
students help them more?
2. Should American public schools educate children who are in the U.S.
illegally?
3. Should children who do very well in school be allowed to skip a grade?
Should academically slow children be required to repeat a grade (be retained or
failed)? Or is it better to keep children with their age group even if the
schoolwork is too easy or too hard?
4. Should parents who send their children to parochial schools receive
financial assistance from the government, or would that violate the
constitutional requirement of separation of church and state?

II. Project. In pairs work out appropriate punishment and ‘bonus’ systems
for schoolchildren in a particular type of school. Then appoint a
headmaster and organize a teachers’ meeting to discuss the ideas in a
group. You must agree and disagree with each other. Choose the best
suggestions.
Useful vocabulary for sharing ideas

Opening the discussion and focusing on the main problem/issue:

To begin with,
We need to discuss/ . .determine/ What is the main problem?
find out What is the real issue (here)?
Let's start by (V ing) (I think) the major problem is . . .
We'll start by (V ing) Our primary concern is . . .
The problem/ issue here is . . . The crux of the matter is . . .
The important thing (here) is . . . (As I see it), the most important thing
The main thing we need to discuss is . . .
is . . . The main problem we need to solve is
Let's look at . . . ...
It looks like . . . We really need to take care of . . .
It appears that . . . It all comes down to this:

Asking for input


What should we do about it? What are we going to do about it?
What needs to be done? Do you have any suggestions?
What do you think we should do? Any ideas?
28

Making recommendations
I recommend that . . .
I suggest . . .
I would like to propose that . . .
Why don't we . . .

Conceding to make a point


That may be true, but . . . I don't mean to be negative, but . . .
I may be wrong, but . . . This may sound strange, but . . .
You might be right, but . . . Sorry to interrupt,
You have a good point, but . . . May I interrupt (for a minute)?
You could say that, but . . . Can I add something here?
Correct me if I'm wrong, but . . . I don't mean to intrude, but . . .
I don't mean to be rude, but . . . Could I inject something here?
I hate to bring this up, but . . . Do you mind if I jump in here?

Getting back to the topic


Anyway, … What were you saying?
Now, where was I? You were saying . . .
Where were we? To get back to . . .

Responding
(That sounds like a) good idea. The problem with that is . . .
That raises the issue of . . .
Sounds good.

Commenting
That's interesting. I think that... Questions can also be a useful way
Interesting point. I would add... of bringing new ideas into a
Hmmm. I hadn't thought of that conversation:
before. What do you think about . . .
Have you considered . . .

There are several phrases that can be used to introduce paraphrasing:


So . . . (rephrase the other person's ideas)
In other words . . . (paraphrase)
I understand. (You're saying that . . .)
Oh. I see. (You want to say that . . . )
I get it. (You mean . . .)
So, what you mean is . . .
Let me see if I understand you correctly. . .
What I think you're saying is . . .
If I'm hearing you correctly . . .
29

III. a) Study the guidelines for preparing a successful public speech

Public Speaking Outline


It would be a real bless for you to have The Perfect Public Speaking
Outline, to help you organize your speech by placing all the ideas and thoughts
in the right order.
―I have a dream!‖ – This is the very first sentence
of Martin Luther King‗s public speaking to the American
nation which is still quoted today.
Luther‘s rhetoric was so forceful that it undeniably
brought about radical changes in the nation‘s attitude in
terms of racism and discrimination. Nowadays, public
speaking still keeps its main position as a chief tool of
communication to large groups of people as well as
individuals with the purpose of transmitting information,
motivating, and persuading, shifting attitudes as well as
generating changes in thought, feeling and action.
Nevertheless, there is no definite recipe of how to pile up an effective
public speaking outline or how a speaker should act during a speech.
Structurally, public speaking outlines include four main parts such as the title,
the opening, the body and the conclusion. The primary attention-gaining
device is the title with the aim of capturing the audience‘s attention by means of
one word or phrase within which the topic of the speech is concentrated. The
outlining of the subsequent parts requires great attention in terms of timing.
A well-proportioned speech gives sufficient time to developing the
content of the body and gives less to the opening and the conclusion. Hence, the
opening comprises brief, precise, and plain assertions.
Actually, the opening of a public speaking outline reveals the creative and
the direct side of the speaker whose aim, in the meantime, is to construct a bond
with the audience as well as to prove the speech‘s credibility. Essentially, a public
speech has the function of developing and debating the proposed topic or idea.
A good orator not only speaks to the audience but listens to them
moreover, acts in response to their feedback, avoids being dull and boring,
makes the audience hanging on every word.
This can be possible only if the well-
prepared speaker is well-informed about the
audiences‘ characteristics, like their gender,
age, ethnicity, race, education, family
backgrounds, or other important features.
The end of a public speech should work like
fireworks at the end of a celebration, bursting
out new attitudes, feelings and ideas. Besides
30

recapping the main point of the delivery, the conclusion aims to be a summary
as well as an echo that gives a sense of finality, authenticity and reality.
From an internal point of view public speaking outlines vary from several
points of view. The audience response, the speaker and the manner of rhetoric
are only some of the factors that lay bare the quality of a public speech.
Public speakers are likely to be less dynamic and spontaneous if they read
out their speech from a manuscript, thus extemporaneous speeches are preferred
instead of the read ones, as they offer a livelier, fresher and more direct
sounding, securing permanent eye-contact communication with the addressee.
Public speaking definitely should be convincing, informative and
stimulating.
ASPECTS
Introduction: effectiveness → grabs attention
Content: ideas generated → organisation of facts, suitability of purpose
Voice & Body Language: voice quality (pitch, rate, pace, pronunciation); use
of gestures
Eye Contact & Dealing with Visual Aids: looking at audience; suitability of
visual aids

b) Prepare a public speech on one of the following issues and present it in


front of the group:
1. The curriculum for the senior school needs change.
2. It‘s high time we set up new requirements for the teaching staff.
3. Rote-learning should be excluded/ We need up-to-date teaching methods and
tools.
4. School exams are no longer fair measurement of pupils‘/ students‘ knowledge.

IV. On a Personal Note


Write an essay on one of these topics.
1. What changes would you recommend to improve American schools?
2. If you had school-age children, would you educate them at home? Why or
why not?
3. Compare American schools to schools in another country you're familiar
with. Point out similarities and/or differences. In your opinion, which school
system does a better job? Explain why.

FURTHER AND HIGHER EDUCATION

Topical vocabulary.
1. Who is who: applicant/prospective student; freshman; sophomore, junior,
senior, undergraduate student; graduate (grad) student; part-time student;
31

transfer student; night student; faculty:1 teaching assistant, assistant professor,


associate professor, (full) professor; counselor.
2. Administration: dean, assistant dean, department chairman; President of the
University; academic vice-president; student government; board of trustees.
3. Structure: college (college of Arts and Sciences); school (school of
Education), evening school; grad school; summer school;2 college of continuing
education; department; career development and job placement office.
4. Academic calendar: fall, spring term/semester; fall, winter, spring, summer
quarter; school/academic year; exam period/days — reading days/period;
break/recess; deadline (fall term break; winter recess or winter holidays,
summer vacation).
5. Academic programs: course (a one/three credit course); to take a course, to
give a lecture; pass-fail course;3 elective, a major/to major (what's your major?);
a minor (second in importance); discussion session; seminars; a more academic
class, usually with grad students; a student-teacher.
6. Grades: to get/to give a grade; pass-fail grading (e. g.: to take grammar pass-
fail); grades A, B, C, D, E; A-student; to graduate with straight A; a credit, to
earn a credit; education record.4
7. Tests: quiz; to take/to give an exam; to retake an exam (a retake); to flunk a
course; to flunk smb; to drop out/to withdraw; a pass-fail test; multiple choice
test; essay test; SAT, PSAT (preliminary SAT) ACT; GPA5
8. Red Tape: to register (academically and financially); to enroll for admission;
to interview; to sign up for a course; to select classes/courses; to drop a course,
to add a course,6 a student I.D.,7 library card; transcript;
9. Financing: full-time fees; part-time fees; grants; student financial aid; to
apply for financial aid; to be eligible for financial assistance; scholarship;
academic fees; housing fees; a college work-study job.
10. degrees: BA., MA., Ph.D.; to confer (award, grant)a degree; to confer
tenure, thesis, paper, dissertation, earned degree (opp. honorary degree);
research degree (opp. professional degree); imply original research; mastery of
a foreign language; reading proficiency in a foreign language; recognition for
public service.

1
The entire teaching staff at an educational institution.
2
Classes taken in summer (during vacation time) to earn additional credits or to improve
one's proficiency.
3
A course where you don't take an examination, but a pass-fail test (saner).
4
Information on a student's attendance, enrollment status, degrees conferred and dates,
honours and awards; college, class, major field of study; address, telephone number.
5
Grade Point Average — a grade allowing to continue in school and to graduate.
6
To take up an additional course for personal interest, not for a credit and to pay for it
additionally.
7
I. D. (Identification Document).
32

Notes: University teachers are called lecturers. In the UK the heads of


university departments and some very important academics are Professors.
Professor is not used for any other kind of teacher. In America professor is a
much more widely used term.
In American English semester is used instead of term.
In Britain your first (undergraduate) degree is а ВA (arts or humanities)
or a BSc (science). If you do post-graduate study, you may get an MA or an
MSc. After several years' original research and publishing a thesis, you can get
a PhD (Doctor of Philosophy). Undergraduates usually write essays; a long
essay is called a dissertation. A thesis is longer still and contains original
research.
Remember the different pronunciations of the noun graduate and the verb
to graduate.

Further and higher education in Britain


Further education has traditionally been characterised by part-time
vocational courses for those who leave school at the age of 1 6 but need to
acquire a skill, be that in the manual, technical or clerical field. In all, about
three million students enrol each year in part-time courses at further education
(FE) colleges, some released by their employers and a greater number
unemployed. In addition there have always been a much smaller proportion in
full-time training. In 1985 this figure was a meagre 400,000, but by 1995 this
had doubled. Given Labour's emphasis on improving the skills level of all
school-leavers, this expansion will continue. Vocational training, most of which
is conducted at the country's 550 further education colleges is bound to be an
important component.
Higher education has also undergone a massive expansion. In 1985 only
573,000, 16 per cent of young people, were enrolled in full-time higher
education. Ten years later the number was 1,1 50,000, no less than 30 per cent
of their age group.
This massive expansion was achieved by greatly enlarging access to
undergraduate courses, but also by authorising the old polytechnics to grant
their own degree awards, and also to rename themselves as universities. Thus
there are today 90 universities, compared with 47 in 1990, and only seventeen
in 1945. They fall into five broad categories: the medieval English foundations,
the medieval Scottish ones, the nineteenth-century 'redbrick' ones, the
twentieth-century 'plate-glass' ones, and finally the previous polytechnics. They
are all private institutions, receiving direct grants from central government.
Oxford and Cambridge, founded in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries
respectively, are easily the most famous of Britain's universities. Today
'Oxbridge', as the two together are known, educate less than one-twentieth of
Britain's total university student population. But they continue to attract many
33

of the best brains and to mesmerise an even greater number, partly on account
of their prestige, but also on account of the seductive beauty of many of their
buildings and surroundings.
Both universities grew gradually, as federations of independent colleges,
most of which were founded in the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
In both universities, however, new colleges are periodically established, for
example Green College, Oxford (1979) and Robinson College, Cambridge
(1977).
Scotland boasts four ancient universities: Glasgow, Edinburgh, St
Andrews and Aberdeen, all founded in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. In
the Scottish lowlands greater value was placed on education during the
sixteenth and later centuries than in much of England. These universities were
created with strong links with the ancient universities of continental Europe,
and followed their longer and broader course of studies. Even today, Scottish
universities provide four-year undergraduate courses, compared with the usual
three-year courses in England and Wales.
In the nineteenth century more universities were established to respond to
the greatly increased demand for educated people as a result of the Industrial
Revolution and the expansion of Britain's overseas empire. Many of these were
sited in the industrial centres, for example Birmingham, Manchester,
Nottingham, Newcastle, Liverpool and Bristol.
With the expansion of higher education in the 1960s 'plate-glass'
universities were established, some named after counties or regions rather than
old cities, for example Sussex, Kent, East Anglia and Strathclyde. Over 50
polytechnics and similar higher education institutes acquired university status in
1992. There is also a highly successful Open University, which provides every
person in Britain with the opportunity to study for a degree, without leaving
their home. It is particularly designed for adults who missed the opportunity for
higher education earlier in life. It conducts learning through correspondence,
radio and television, and also through local study centres.
University examinations are for Bachelor of Arts, or of Science (BA or
BSc) on completion of the undergraduate course, and Master of Arts or of
Science (MA or MSc) on completion of postgraduate work, usually a one- or
two-year course involving some original research. Some students continue to
complete a three-year period of original research for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy (PhD). The bachelor degree is normally classed, with about 5 per
cent normally gaining a First, about 30 per cent gaining an Upper Second, or
2.1, perhaps 40 per cent gaining a Lower Second, or 2.2, and the balance
getting either a Third, a Pass or failing. Approximately 15 per cent fail to
complete their degree course.
In addition there are a large number of specialist higher education
institutions in the realm of the performing and visual arts. For example, there
34

are four leading conservatories: the Royal Academy of Music, the Royal
College of Music, Trinity College of Music and the Royal Northern College of
Music. There are a large number of art colleges, of which the most famous is
the Royal College of Art, where both Henry Moore and David Hockney once
studied. Other colleges cater for dance, film-making and other specialist areas
of artistic study.
In spite of the high fees, Britain's universities, FE colleges and English
language schools host a large number of foreign students, in 1996 there were no
fewer than 158,000.
Female undergraduates have greatly increased proportionately in recent
years. In the mid-1960s they were only 28 per cent of the intake, became41 per
cent by the early 1980s, and were 51 per cent by 1996. There is still an
unfortunate separation of the sexes in fields of chosen study, arising from
occupational tradition and social expectations. Caring for others is still a
'proper' career for women; building bridges, it seems, is not. Unless one
believes women's brains are better geared to nursing and other forms of caring
and men's to bridge-building, one must conclude that social expectations still
hinder women and men from realising their potential. Students from poorer
backgrounds are seriously underrepresented in higher education. Although
more in social categories C, D and E (lower middle class, unskilled working
class and residual) are now enrolled, it is the more prosperous social categories
A and В which have benefited most from university expansion. For Labour
there are two issues here: equality of opportunity, and maximising all of
society's intellectual potential. Ethnic minorities' representation is growing: 13
per cent in 1996 compared with only 10.7 per cent in 1990. It is noteworthy that
their university representation exceeds their proportion within the whole
population, a measure of their commitment to higher education.
In 1988 a new funding body, the University Funding Council, was
established, with power to require universities to produce a certain number of
qualified people in specific fields. It is under the UFC's watchful eye that the
universities have been forced to double their student intake, and each university
department is assessed on its performance and quality. The fear, of course, is
that the greatly increased quantity of students that universities must now take
might lead to a loss of academic quality.
Expansion has led to a growing funding gap. Universities have been
forced to seek sponsorship from the commercial world, wealthy patrons and
also from their alumni. The Conservative Party also decided to reduce
maintenance grants but to offer students loans in order to finance their studies.
However, the funding gap has continued to grow and Labour shocked many
who had voted for it by introducing tuition fees at £1,000 per annum in 1998.
Although poorer students were to be exempted it was feared that, even with
student loans, up to 10 per cent of those planning to go to university would
35

abandon the idea. One effect of the financial burden is that more students are
living at home while continuing their studies: about SO per cent at the ex-
polytechnics, but only 15 per cent at the older universities.
Today many university science and technology departments, for example
at Oxford, Cambridge, Manchester, Imperial College London, and Strathclyde,
are among the best in Europe. The concern is whether they will continue to be
so in the future. Academics' pay has fallen so far behind other professions and
behind academic salaries elsewhere, that many of the best brains have gone
abroad. Adequate pay and sufficient research funding to keep the best in Britain
remains a major challenge.
As with the schools system, so also with higher education: there is a real
problem about the exclusivity of Britain's two oldest universities. While
Oxbridge is no longer the preserve of a social elite, it retains its exclusive,
narrow and spell-binding culture. Together with the public school system, it
creates a narrow social and intellectual channel from which the nation's leaders
are almost exclusively drawn. In 1996 few people were in top jobs in the Civil
Service, the armed forces, the law or finance, who had not been either to a
public school or Oxbridge, or to both.
The problem is not the quality of education offered either in the
independent schools or Oxbridge. The problem is cultural. Can the products of
such exclusive establishments remain closely in touch with the remaining 95 per
cent of the population? If the expectation is that Oxbridge, particularly, will
continue to dominate the controlling positions in the state and economy, is the
country ignoring equal talent which does not have the Oxbridge label? As with
the specialisation at the age of 16 for A levels, the danger is that Britain's
governing elite is too narrow, both in the kind of education and where it was
acquired. It is just possible that the new Labour government, which itself reflects
a much wider field of life experience in Britain, will mark the beginning of
significantly fuller popular participation in the controlling institutions of state.

Answer the questions:


1. Is higher education free for all in Britain?
2. Will the systems of funding tuition and day-to-day expenses for students
lead to greater or lesser equality of opportunity, in your opinion?
3. How do these systems compare with those in your own country?

Higher Education in the USA


Before you read
1. Why do people go to college?
2. Do you think everyone should go to college? Why or why not?
3. In the U.S., many colleges and universities are very expensive. What
sources of money are available to help students?
36

Why College?
1) "The more you learn, the more you earn," Americans often say. In the
U.S.A., almost all jobs that pay well require some education or technical
training beyond high school. In this high-tech society, college graduates outearn
those without a college education, and people with advanced degrees are likely
to earn even more. Though some college degrees are worth more than others in
the job market, in general, education pays off.
2) A college education is not just preparation for a career, however. In
addition to taking courses in their major field of study, students enroll in
elective courses. They may take classes that help them understand more about
people, nature, government, or the arts. Well-rounded people are likely to be
better citizens, better parents, and more interesting and interested individuals.
3) Although two-thirds of American high school graduates enroll in
college, recent high school graduates no longer dominate the college campuses.
Adults of all ages return to the classroom, either for new vocational skills or for
personal growth. In 1996, for example, almost 20% of American college
students were over age 35. Some 500,000 college students are over 50.
4) American faith in the value of education is exemplified by the rising
number of Americans who have at least a bachelor's degree. Almost one-quarter
of Americans over age 25 are college graduates. College attendance is not
reserved for the wealthy and the academically talented. It is available to anyone
who wants to go. Right now, about 15 million students are taking advantage of
the opportunity. For those not academically prepared to handle college-level
work, about 80% of undergraduate schools offer remedial (sometimes called
developmental) classes in reading, writing, and math.
How to Find the Right College
5) The U.S. has about 3,700 institutions of higher learning. About 1,600
of these are 2-year schools. More than 2,000 are 4-year schools, many of which
also have graduate programs. With so many colleges to choose from, how do
prospective students find the right one for their needs? Information about
schools is easy to obtain from school guidance counselors, college guidebooks,
public libraries, the Internet, and the schools themselves. Students can write for
brochures and applications. Some schools even mail out videos. Students can
also use computer programs that allow them to specify particular interests (for a
certain major, type of school, area of the country, etc.) and print out a list of
schools that fit their description. Most institutions of higher learning also have
Web sites. Many schools send college representatives to high schools and two-
year colleges to recruit students. Finally, many students visit colleges, take
tours of campuses, and talk to counselors.
6) Before selecting a school, students should consider these questions:
• Does the school have a major in your field of interest? Does this
program have a good reputation?
37

• Are you likely to be accepted at this school, considering your grades and
test scores?
• Do you like that area of the country, the climate, the topography?
• Which environment do you prefer—a big city, a small town, or a rural
area?
• Is it a big or a small school? There are advantages to each. At a smaller
school, you may feel less lonely and confused. At a bigger school, you'll have
more choices of courses, programs, and extracurricular activities. What is most
important to you?
• Can you afford the tuition and living expenses at this school? Could you
get as good an education elsewhere for a lot less money?
Undergraduate Education: Types of Schools
7) Two main categories of institutions of higher learning are public and
private. All schools get money from tuition and from private contributors.
However, public schools are also supported by the state in which they're
located. Private schools do not receive state funding. As a result, tuition is
generally lower at public schools, especially for permanent residents of that
state. A third category is the proprietary (for-profit) school. These usually teach
a particular workplace skill. Some of these schools are quite expensive.
8) Schools can also be grouped by the types of programs and degrees they
offer. The three major groups are community colleges, 4-year colleges, and
universities. Community colleges (sometimes called junior colleges) offer only
the first 2 years of undergraduate studies (the freshman and sophomore
years). They enroll about 5 million students a year. Most community colleges
are public schools, supported by local and / or state funds. They serve two
general types of students: those taking the first 2 years of college before they
transfer to a 4-year school for their third and fourth (junior and senior) years
and those enrolled in 1- or 2-year job-training programs. Community colleges
offer training in many areas, such as health occupations, office skills, computer
science, police work, and automotive repair.
9) What is the difference between a college and a university? Size is only
part of the answer. Some colleges have a student body of just a few hundred,
while some state universities serve more than 100,000 students on several
campuses. A university is usually bigger than a college because the scope of its
programs is much greater. A university offers a wider range of undergraduate
programs plus graduate studies. Part of the responsibility of a university is to
encourage its faculty and graduate students to do research to advance human
knowledge. Colleges, on the other hand, are primarily undergraduate schools.
They have no obligation to conduct research.
10) Many excellent colleges are liberal arts schools, which means that
they offer studies in the humanities, languages, mathematics, social sciences,
and sciences. Liberal arts colleges generally do not offer degrees in engineering,
38

business, journalism, education (teacher training), and many other specific


vocations that a student can prepare for at a university.
11) Some colleges specialize in training students for one occupation (as
agricultural colleges and teachers' colleges do). Many undergraduate institutions
that are not called colleges also provide higher education in one specific
occupation – for example, conservatories for music students, seminaries for
students of religion, and fine arts schools for artists. For those wishing to prepare
for military careers, the U.S. government maintains four military academies.
12) At colleges and universities, the academic year is about 9 months
long (usually from September until early June or from late August until May).
After completing 4 academic years with acceptable grades in an approved
course of study, the student earns a bachelor's degree. Some students complete
college in less than 4 years by attending summer sessions. At most colleges, the
academic year is divided into either two semesters or three quarters, excluding
the summer session. College grades, from highest to lowest, are usually A, B,
C, D, and F (a failing grade). Generally, students must keep а С average to
remain in school.
Graduate Education
13) American universities offer three kinds of graduate degrees: master's
degrees, Ph.D. degrees, and professional degrees (for example, in medicine,
law, or engineering), in most fields, a master's degree can be earned in 1 or 2
academic years of study beyond the B.S. or B.A. Earning a Ph.D. degree
(doctor of philosophy) usually takes at least 3 years beyond the master's. To
receive a Ph.D. in most fields, students must pass oral and written examinations
and produce a long and comprehensive research paper that makes an original
contribution to their field. In some fields, Ph.D. candidates must also be able to
read one or two foreign languages. Requirements are different for professional
degrees.
14) In recent years, the graduate student population has become much
more diverse than ever before. It now includes more women, foreign students,
minority group members, older students, and part-time students. Also, the
variety of degree programs offered has expanded greatly. Today's graduate
students can choose from master's degrees in at least 1,000 fields and Ph.D.s in
about 100 fields.
Life on an American Campus
15) A college community is an interesting and lively place. Students
become involved in many different extracurricular activities. Among these are
athletics, college newspapers, musical organizations, political groups, and
religious groups. Many religious groups have their own meeting places, where
services and social activities are held. Most colleges have a student union,
where students can get together for lunch, study sessions, club meetings, and
socializing.
39

16) On many campuses, social life revolves around fraternities (social


and, in some cases, residential clubs for men) and sororities (similar clubs for
women). Some are national groups with chapters at many schools. Their names
are Greek letters, such as Alpha Delta Phi.
17) Sports are an important part of life on most campuses. Most
coeducational and men's schools belong to various athletic leagues. Teams
within these leagues compete against one another for the league championship.
Football is the college sport that arouses the most national interest. Games,
complete with student marching bands and cheerleaders, are major productions.
Other sports – particularly basketball, swimming, and track – are also pursued
with enthusiasm. Some schools also have competitive tennis, skiing, sailing,
wrestling, soccer, baseball, and golf.
18) Is it fun to be a college student in the U.S.? For most students, the
college years are exciting and rewarding, but they are certainly not easy or
carefree. Just about all college students face the pressure of making important
career decisions and anxiety about examinations and grades. Many students
have additional problems – too little money, not enough sleep, and a feeling of
loneliness because they're far from home. Some spend too much time at parties
and get into trouble academically. Still, many Americans look back on their
college years as the happiest time of their lives. Many alumni feel great loyalty
to their former schools. Throughout their lives, they cheer for their school's
athletic teams, donate money to help the institution grow, and go back to visit
for home-coming festivities. Alumni refer to the school they attended as their
alma mater (Latin for "fostering mother"). This expression indicates how much
the college experience means to former students.
Financing Higher Education
19) College costs vary quite a bit, depending upon the type of school. At
expensive private schools, annual costs (including tuition, room, board, books,
travel to and from home, etc.) may exceed $30,000. Public universities are
much cheaper. At these schools, tuition is significantly higher for out-of-state
students than for permanent residents of that state. Tuition at community
colleges averages about $1,500, approximately half the in-state tuition at public,
4-year schools.
20) During the 1990s, the cost of higher education rose about 7.5% a
year. Difficulties making ends meet create serious problems for many students.
Older students with a family to support may try to work full time while carrying
a full academic course load. They forget to leave themselves time to eat, sleep,
and relax.
21) For those who need financial assistance, help is available. There are
three main types of financial aid: (1) scholarships (grants), which are gifts that
students do not repay; (2) loans to students and / or their parents; and (3) student
employment (work/ study), a part-time job that the school gives the student for
40

the academic year. Most financial aid is need-based; that is, only students who
need the money receive it. Financial assistance to excellent students who do not
need the money (commonly called merit-based aid) is limited.
22) Funds for all this aid come from three main sources – the federal
government, state governments, and private contributors. Every American
college and university has a financial aid office to help students find out what
kind of aid they might be eligible for and to assist them in completing the
complicated application forms. Aliens who are permanent residents in the U.S.
are eligible for government assistance, but foreign students are not.
Standardized Tests and Their Uses
23) Various standardized tests help students demonstrate their knowledge
to college admissions personnel. Adults who have not finished high school can
take the GED (Test of General Educational Development). The GED involves
five exams – writing skills, social studies, science, literature and the arts, and
mathematics. The tests are available in English, French, and Spanish. Students
can study for the GED by taking a review course or using a review book on
their own. Students who pass the test earn a high school equivalency certificate.
24) High school seniors wishing to apply to competitive colleges and
universities take standardized tests commonly called ACTs and SATs. The tests
help students demonstrate the ability to do college level work. Most colleges
use these scores plus the students' high school grades to evaluate applicants.
These tests are given several times a year throughout the U.S. and in other
countries.
25) Students whose native language is not English will probably be
required to take the TOEFL® (Test of English as a Foreign Language) when
they apply for admission to a university. Students can study for the TOEFL ®
and many other standardized tests by taking a review course or by working
independently with a review book or computer program.
26) When students come to the U.S. after completing some college work
in another country, they should bring a transcript of previous college work and
have those credits evaluated by an authorized organization. The transcript will
probably need to be translated into English. Students who cannot prove that
they have completed certain college courses can take some of the CLEP
(College Level Examination Program) tests to demonstrate their knowledge.
27) Standardized tests are also required to apply for admission to graduate
schools. The counseling office of a student's present or prospective school can
answer questions about requirements for acceptance to graduate programs.
Lifelong Learning
28) In the U.S., the education of adults is a never-ending process going on
in many different places for many different reasons. At least 76 million adults
are enrolled in some type of classes, mostly as part-time students. The majority
of these classes are taken not for credit but for knowledge that the student can
41

use on the job, to pursue a hobby, or for personal growth. Many employees take
classes at their workplace. Some companies pay the tuition when an employee
goes back to school to learn a skill that the company needs. Noncredit
programs, commonly called adult education or continuing education, are
offered in many high schools, colleges, and museums. There are also private
learning centers that offer inexpensive classes covering a wide variety of skills
and activities. A typical catalog might have classes in how to cook a Chinese
dinner, invest in the stock market, improve spelling, make friends, or even give
your partner a massage.
29) Education, like everything else, takes advantage of technology. These
days, students can be home with the family and go to school at the same time.
They can take classes in their living rooms via TV. Many schools also offer
distance learning – "attending" class and interacting with professors and
classmates via the Internet. One 97-year-old man earned his Ph.D. that way!
30) In the U.S.A., technology rapidly makes some skills obsolete and new
ones essential. Workers at all levels realize that lifelong learning is necessary.
Even professional people – doctors, accountants, dentists, and engineers –
continue to study to keep up with changes in their fields. Education, on the
college campus or elsewhere, is an important element in the life of an American
adult. The American dream of becoming professionally and financially
successful is most often achieved through higher education.

I. Check Your Comprehension


1. Why do people go to college? List reasons mentioned in the preceding
section and any others you can think of.
2. What are some steps you can take to find the right American college?
3. What are three differences between a college and a university?
4. What are four requirements most Ph.D. applicants must fulfill?
5. What makes college fun? Why is it sometimes stressful?
6. What are three kinds of financial aid? Which one do you think students
like most?
7. What is the general purpose of standardized tests?

II. Building Your Vocabulary: A. These are the 15 key vocabulary words for
this chapter. They are boldfaced in the reading. Pronounce these words after
your teacher and discuss their meanings.
alumni* anxiety campus degree credit
elective faculty freshman senior undergraduate
sophomore transcript transfer* Junior tuition
*Alumni is plural. The singular form is alumnus. Transfer* can be a noun or a
verb.
42

B. Complete these sentences with the key vocabulary words. Make the nouns
plural if necessary, and put each verb into the correct tense and form.
1. A school's buildings and the land around them are called the school's_____
2. The first 4 years of college are called (in order) (first)____________
(second)________, (third)__________, and (fourth) ____________years.
3. A student who has not yet earned a bachelor's degree is called a(n)_______
4. Private schools generally charge higher____________than public schools.
5. A student earns______________for a course only if he or she gets a passing
grade in it.
6. A student who wants to get a master's______________must go to school for
at least 1 or 2 years after getting a bachelor's degree.
7. The people who teach at a school are called its______________.
8. Students take courses in their major, and they also take_________ courses.
9. The graduates of a particular school are the school's______________.
10. A(n)________is a written record of a student's courses, grades, and credits.
11. Some students attend a community college for 2 years and then
___________to a university.
12. Some students have a lot of______________about tests.________
С. Discuss the meanings of these abbreviations. Then write in the words.
1. B.S._____________________ 4. M.A. ___________________
2. B.A._____________________ 5. Ph.D. __________________
3. M.S._____________________ 6. TOEFL®____________

III. Understanding Idioms and Expressions


Use context clues to determine the meanings of the italicized expressions in the
title or paragraphs indicated.
1. In the chapter title, higher education means ______ .
2. In paragraph 2, well-rounded people refers to people who are______.
3. In paragraph 4, taking advantage of means______.
4. In paragraph 9, student body means______.

IV. Sharing Ideas


Discuss these issues in small groups.
1. Many college students take out loans to pay tuition and living expenses.
Students who attend expensive undergraduate and graduate schools may end up
with $100,000-$200,000 of debt. Is it a good idea to borrow that much money
for one's education? What are the pros and cons?
2. Should people who are paying for their own or their child's college education
be given tax credits to offset some of the expense?
3. Is it better to go to college right after high school or to work or travel for a
while first?
43

Supplementary reading 1
Academic Degrees
There are four principal types of academic degrees, each representing a
different level of academic achievement. University academics carry out [less
formal 'do'] research and are expected to read academic journals [note: not
magazines], which publish papers/articles on specialised subjects. If a library
does not have a book or journal, you can usually get it through inter-library loan
[system where libraries exchange books/journals with one another]. Academic
study can be very demanding and intensive, and some students drop out [leave
the course before the end because they cannot cope], but the majority survive
till finals [the last exams before receiving a degree].
Undergraduate Degrees The associate degree is conferred upon the
completion of two years of organized program of general, pre-professional, or
semiprofessional work.
The bachelor's (baccalaureate) degree usually represents successful
completion of a four-year course of study. This oldest academic degree is used
in various forms by almost every institution offering four or more years of
work. Much of the first two years is prescribed and includes courses in such
fields as humanities, the social science, and the fine arts. In the third and fourth
years, the baccalaureate student specializes (majors) in one or two fields. The
equivalent of a full year of work may be devoted to his major field and half that
amount of time to a related minor field. The degree is usually awarded in the
major field.
Graduate Degrees The most common master's degree program represents
a minimum of 1 year of work beyond the baccalaureate. In certain areas this has
been extended to 2 years of required graduate study (e. g. in business
administration) or even 3 years (e. g. in fine arts). It may also involve one or all
of the following additional requirements: a thesis, a general examination,
mastery of a foreign language. The master's degree candidate follows a rather
specific course of study, usually in a single field and arranged in cooperation
with his adviser. This is not, however, considered to be a research degree, but
rather preparation for the PhD. In certain cases it is bypassed by students going
for PhD, but may be granted as a consolation prize to those who fail to qualify
for the doctorate. Master of Arts in Teaching (MAT) is one of the more rapidly
growing; it is designed to prepare liberal arts graduate for secondary school
teaching. Normally neither a language examination nor a thesis is required; for
MAT, but a course in practical teaching is usually incorporated. The earned
doctorate1 is the most advanced degree conferred by American institutions.
Doctoral programs usually consist of at least 3 years of study beyond the
baccalaureate. There are 2 quite distinct types of doctoral programs: the
.professional degree and the research degree. The first type represents
advanced training for the practice of a given profession, such as the Doctor of
44

Medicine, the Doctor of Dental Science, and similar degrees. These degrees do
not imply original research.
The research doctorate (PhD) is the highest earned degree in the
American graduate school. Candidates usually follow a program of studies
concentrated in one of the major fields of knowledge. They are normally
required to demonstrate reading proficiency in at least two foreign languages.
After a student has satisfactori1y completed his course work and met his
foreign language requirements, he must take a comprehensive examination to
demonstrate a general knowledge of his field. It may be oral or written or both,
and is evaluated by a special соmmittee to determine whether he is prepared to
undertake his dissertation (it is usually the preliminary, or qualifying,
examination). The final period of predoctoral study is given over largely to the
preparation of the dissertation (this may require several years to finish). A final
examination is required at most universities after the dissertation and other
requirements for the degree have been completed.
According to tradition, the prospective doctor of philosophy should defend
the conclusions of his dissertation. Consequently, it is frequently the custom to
make public announcements of the date and place of the final examination and to
permit the attendance of any scholars who may wish to participate. At one time,
it was not uncommon for universities to require that doctoral dissertation be
published, but the increased expense in printing costs as well as the increase in
the number of dissertations have made such a requirement quite rare.
Other Degrees Besides awаrding earned degrees to students who have
met the established requirements, some colleges and universities also award
honorary degrees as a form of deserved recognition for distinguished public
service or for outstanding creative work. Compared to the number of earned
degrees, not many honorary degrees are awarded annually, and the recipient is
usually an individual of such unquestionable reputation that the public looks
upon the degree simply as a symbol of recognition for public service.

Discuss the following with a partner:


1) What do you think a 'useful' university degree is? Are there any 'useless'
university degrees?
2) How important are the following in university education?
- Acquiring thorough knowledge of your subject
- Developing skills that will be useful in the workplace (interpersonal skills,
research skills, IT skills etc.)
- Networking
- Getting a degree that will offer you professional security (such as a degree in
Medicine)
3) Do you know of anyone who is in a job that is completely unrelated to what
they studied at university or college? How do they feel about their job?
45

Additional practice
I. A student's week. Use these words to complete the text:
reading - presentation - seminar - tutor - lists - lectures - term - notes -
handout - options
1. I've got two........this morning and then I need to go to the library to do
some background........before tomorrow.
2. On Wednesday I've got to give a short ........at my English..........
3. I can't go to my history lecture on Thursday morning. I'll ask Jeff to
pick up an extra copy of the.......and I can borrow his lecture........
4. Professor Barnes is the only lecturer who gives handouts and his
reading........ really save me a lot of time.
5. Later in the week, I've got to see my ........to decide what........I'm going
to do next.........
Graduating. Use these words in the situations below:
Finals – paper – deadline – dissertation – results – revising – graduation
- graduate – coursework – term
1. It's your last.......at university, isn't it?
- Yes, I've already done my oral, so now I've got to submit four pieces
of............ The........is next Friday. Then I've got to do a 10,000-word...........and
hand it in by the end of May. Then I can relax.
2. Hi Susie, I haven't seen you around much recently.
- No, I've been at home..........most nights. I've got my........next month. I
can't wait till it's all over. Can you believe it, we don't get our........until the end
of July?
3. Overall, the exams weren't too bad but the American history........was
really difficult.
4. It's my........ceremony next week. I think my parents are looking
forward to it more than I am. I don't think they realize being a........doesn't
guarantee you a job like it used to.
Expenses. Complete this text about paying for higher education with these
words:
part-time – expenses - fees – grant - loan - accommodation
Going to university is expensive. First, there's the tuition.........Then there
are all the books you need. Then, if you live away from home, you have to pay
for your........... The university halls of residence are not cheap. Then you have
all your other living......... A few students get a........, but most haveto take out a
student........from the bank, which can take years to pay off! Most students have
to do a........job in order to survive.

II. Talking about your course. Use these words to complete the sentences:
Placement – academic - drop out - qualifications – assignment – tutorial
– specialize - vocational - qualify
46

1. The........year begins in September and runs to the end of June.


2. So, what are you doing this weekend?
- I'll probably be at home finishing the ........I have to hand in on Monday.
3. Hi Mark, where have you been? I haven't seen you for ages.
- No, I've been away doing a work ........in an insurance company for the
last four months.
4. The more............you have, the more chance you have of finding a
better job.
5. I wish I had done something more useful than philosophy - something
more.........like nursing or hotel management.
6. Next year I have to decide which area of medicine I want to...........in.
7. Dr Hurst seems very remote in her lectures but when you have
a........with her, she's really friendly and helpful.
8. Mandy doesn't seem very happy at the moment. Is she finding the
course difficult?
- Yes, I think she's going to........and get a job.
9. What will this course.........you to do?
Written work for courses
word description
composition could be just 50-100 words, often used to refer to children's
work
essay longer than a composition, more serious, hundreds or even
thousands of words
assignment a long essay, often part of a course, usually thousands of
words
project like an assignment, but emphasis on student's own material
and topic
portfolio a collection of individual pieces of work, not necessarily
written
dissertation a long, research-based work, perhaps 10-15,000 words, for a
degree or diploma
thesis a very long, original, research-based work, perhaps 80-
100,000 words, for a higher degree (e.g. PhD)

Paraphrase the words in bold.


The writing process and evaluation
It's a good idea to start with a mind-map when preparing an essay. Always
write a first draft before writing up the final version. Your essay should be all
your own work; plagiarism is a very serious offence in most colleges and
universities. There is usually a deadline. After the essay is submitted, it will be
assessed and usually you can get feedback.
47

Correct the wrong usage of words to do with written work in these


sentences.
1) His PhD assignment was 90,000 words long and was on the history of
US place names.
2) Little Martha did her first dissertation in school today. It was called
'My family'.
3) We have to hand in an essay at the end of the course. It can consist of
up to five different pieces of work.
4) The teacher gave us the title of this week's project today. We have to
write 1,000 words on the topic of 'If I ruled the world' and hand it in next
Monday.
5) At the end of this course you have to do a 5,000-word thesis which will
be assessed, and the grade will contribute to your final degree.
6) I think I'll do a study of people's personal banking habits for my MSc
composition. It has to be about 12,000 words.
7) I've chosen to do the portfolio instead of the two exams, because I like
to do one single piece of work where I can research something that interests me
personally.

III. Put one of the following words in each space in the sentences below.
up to of at by from in into
(a) Which school do you go____?
(b) He left school ____the age____18.
(c) The summer term ends ____July.
(d) She's not at home, she's ____school,
(e) She goes ____Sussex University.
(f) His lecture was divided ____four parts.
(g) School breaks ____next Friday.
(h) He is now ____university.
(0 She is ____the same class as her brother.
(j) Students usually receive a grant ____the state.
(k) They're given a grant ____the state.

IV. Translate into English:


1. Образование – это не вдалбливание фактов в головы детям.
2. К своему собственному удивлению, Джон на этот раз сдал экзамен на
водительские права.
3. Типичные примеры вдалбливались в головы студентов.
4. Он без труда сдал выпускные экзамены.
5. Джейн поступила в музыкальное училище, с трудом сдав экзамены.
6. Ленни и не надеялся на хорошую оценку, ему было достаточно
проходного балла.
48

7. Я не очень люблю писать диктанты и изложения, но понимаю, что это


необходимо для приобретения навыков письменной речи.
8. Сьюзи поступила в университет прошлым летом и закончит его только
в 20… году.
9. Советую вам не пропускать занятия, а то можно быстро отстать от
группы. Нагонять, как вы знаете, всегда сложно.
10. Все студенты в группе получили зачѐт по страноведению. Это было
серьѐзное испытание.
11. Староста нашей группы получает президентскую стипендию.
12. Я всегда провожу всю ночь над учебниками накануне экзамена,
прекрасно осознавая то, что зачастую такая подготовка не эффективна.
13. Больше всего я боюсь провалить экзамен по общему языкознанию,
поэтому стараюсь всѐ выучить почти наизусть.
14. Когда я начинаю делать домашнее задание, то долго не могу
сосредоточиться – меня постоянно что-то отвлекает.

V. Complain about some things or activities at the university that annoy


you. Explain why. Work in pairs.
Use:
For complaining:
I'm beginning to get rather tired of...
I've had (I have) a lot of trouble with ...
The trouble with ... is that...
I'm sick and tired of...
They should/ought to ...
I'm not at all satisfied with ...
For agreement: For disagreement:
Yes, it is a problem, isn't it? Really? I can't say I've
Yes, it can be a problem, particularly noticed that...
can't it? I can see what you mean but..
I think I can understand Oh, come on, it isn't that bad.
how you feel.
Yes, I know what you mean.

VI. Test yourself:


1 What do we call the first attempt at writing something, e.g. an essay?
2 What word means 'the date by which you must do something'?
3 What word means 'using someone else's ideas as if they were yours'?
4 What verb do we use when someone doesn't complete their course?
5 What are more formal words for 'to hand in' and for 'to mark'?
6 What is another word for an academic article? Where can you read them?
7 What do we call teaching with one teacher and just one pupil?
49

8 What do we call the traditional basic skills of reading, writing and maths?
9 What word means 'the comments you get back from the teacher about your
work'?

VII. Give a free translation of the text.

(based on the text on: http://pr-mgpu.ru/publ/3-1-0-44)


Кто он – современный студент?
Обычно при этих словах возникает в голове знакомый образ:
бледный молодой человек с несколько вольными манерами и
неопределенными планами на жизнь, а как синоним – остроумный
молодой бездельник, лентяй и кутила. И как-то не принято даже
вспоминать о том, что студент – такой же человек, как и все остальные, и
его тоже порой волнуют самые банальные вещи.
И все же студенчество – это некое особое состояние духа, которое
накладывает свой отпечаток на всех, кто в этом состоянии пребывает. Так
кто же он – современный студент? Попробуем разобраться.
"Мы и они". Политикой любой нормальный современный студент
интересуется, но только постольку, поскольку она затрагивает его
собственную жизнь. Сейчас часто говорят о пассивности "нынешней
молодежи", мол, ее не волнует даже собственная судьба. Действительно,
были прецеденты, когда разнообразные акции протеста, связанные с
интересами современных студентов, не собирали нужного количества
народу. Но не безучастность к собственной судьбе и нежелание защищать
свои права, на мой взгляд, играют тут главную роль, а уверенность в том,
что никакими митингами мы ситуацию изменить не сможем. Поэтому
студенты, существа по своей природе мудрые, предпочитают не лезть ни в
какую политику, твердо помня из школьного курса биологии, что нервные
клетки не восстанавливаются.
Учеба. Принято считать, что как раз она-то студента волнует меньше
всего. Поговорка о том, что "от сессии до сессии живут студенты весело",
прочно укоренилась в нашем сознании. И, в принципе, это действительно
так, если не считать практически ежедневной подготовки к очередной
контрольной или семинару. Просто молодости свойственно ко всему
относиться легко, и вчерашние трудности сегодня кажутся уже просто
смешными.
Досуг... Под ним обычно подразумевается проведение свободного
времени. Оговорюсь сразу: у наиболее старательных и сверхчестных
студентов, привыкших выполнять все "от и до" без чьей-то помощи,
свободного времени просто нет. Их жизнь посвящена только учебе и
ничему больше. Все остальные живут по принципу: хочешь жить – умей
вертеться. Вот они и вертятся. Сегодня каждый может проводить свое
50

свободное время в зависимости от собственных вкусов и пристрастий, и в


этом есть свои безусловные плюсы и минусы. В основном, досуг
студентов делится на две категории: просветительная и развлекательная.
К просветительным относятся театры, кино и прочее.
К развлекательным – клубы. Про второе – разговор отдельный и долгий,
потому что так называемая «клубная мания» – это уникальное явление,
зачастую печальное и устрашающее. Но не нужно делать вывод, что круг
студенческих интересов ограничивается примитивной схемой:
университет – дискотека – дом. Сколько людей – столько мнений, столько
симпатий и антипатий, столько различных увлечений, тем более, когда вся
жизнь еще впереди.
Вот такой собирательный образ современного студента у меня
получился: человек немного безалаберный, немного мечтательный, но и
ровно настолько же реально и трезво смотрящий на жизнь. Да, молодости
свойственно заблуждаться, переоценивать собственные силы и видеть
порой все в розовом свете. Но лучше уж делать свои ошибки и стремиться
к недосягаемым идеалам, чем смотреть на все заведомо скептически-
безнадежным, умудренным чужим жизненным опытом взглядом.

VIII. Interpret the following statements. Make all of them refer to education.
1. Modern man is educated to understand foreign languages and misunderstand
foreigners.
2. It matters not how long we live, but how.
3. Our mistake is in regarding leisure as a chance to do nothing, whereas in fact it
should be looked on as a challenge.
4. There is always a little more toothpaste in the tube. Think about it.
5. Two men look out through the same bars; One sees the mud and one sees
the stars.
6. The only one who got everything done by Friday was Robinson Crusoe
7. There is no such thing on earth as an uninteresting subject; the only thing
that can exist is an uninterested person.
(taken from http://rogerdarlington.co.uk/Thoughts.html)

IX. On a Personal Note


Write about one of these topics.
1. What are your academic and / or vocational goals? How do you expect to
pursue them?
2. Many students claim they have long, tiring daily schedules, adding that they
live under great stress. What can be done to make the college/ university years
less stressful? What techniques do you use for handling stress and reducing
anxiety?
51

TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE


I. Choose the appropriate word or expression to complete the sentences:
mnemonics' rote-learning revise / cram memorised / learnt off by heart
know the subject inside out past papers bury yourself in your books
Before an exam you can …….or ……..for it. If the exam happens every year,
you can look at …….. Some things can be…… or……….. But………… is
not sufficient for most subjects. It is also possible to use……….. But tricks
alone are not enough, and the best idea is to …………until you…………….

II. Substitute the words and expressions in bold with those similar in
meaning:
1) My friend Tony was accepted by London University.
2) I study Philology at university.
3) Jill and Kelly are university students. Jill studies in the evening and
Kelly has double periods in the morning and afternoon.
4) Mark nearly failed his Chemistry exam.
5) Tim left school without finishing his studies.
6) Kate flunked her English exam. She will be re-examined after her
summer vacations.
7) During the exams at the end of a university course, I was revising till 4
am most days.
8) She has a profound knowledge of Ancient Literature.
9) Jane is in the second year at university.
10) Nancy was punished for copying someone else’s thesis.

III. Supply full word combinations for the following abbreviations:


MBA PhD TOEFL
BA MSc BEC

IV. Give the English equivalents for:


1) первокурсник;
2) подавать документы (в ун-т);
3) выпускник (бывший студент)/выпускница (бывшая студентка);
4) текущая успеваемость/ табель успеваемости;
5) учебный план;
6) обязательные предметы и курсы по выбору;
7) списывать;
8) комплекс неполноценности;
9) начальное/среднее/ высшее образование;
10) декан; зам. декана.
idioms for people and their abilities:
всезнайка вундеркинд
52

разносторонний человек любимчик (учителя)


хвастун не разбираться (в предмете)
непредсказуемый человек сказать наугад
успешный человек
V. Translate into English:
1. Директор школы сказал, что учеников разделили по классам в
зависимости от способностей.
2. Если я сдам все экзамены на «отлично», я буду получать стипендию.
3. Марк защитил диссертацию, и ему присудили учѐную степень
доктора наук.
4. Мне очень нравится, как этот профессор читает лекции по общему
языкознанию.
5. Я не знаю, кто будет в экзаменационной комиссии, но уверен, что
провалю экзамен. – Почему?! – У меня совершенно нет времени на
подготовку, а шпаргалки писать бесполезно.
6. Следующая неделя будет тяжѐлой: в понедельник мы пишем
контрольную по артиклям, во вторник проводим с однокурсниками
семинар, посвящѐнный Французской революции, а в пятницу сдаѐм
экзамен по грамматике.
7. Скажите третьекурсникам, что нужно выбрать темы курсовых работ.

Supplementary reading 2
Great teachers
What makes a great teacher? Teaching is one of
the most complicated jobs today. It demands
broad knowledge of subject matter, curriculum
and standards; enthusiasm, a caring attitude and
a love of learning; knowledge of discipline and
classroom management techniques; and a desire
to make a difference in the lives of young
people. Here are some characteristics of great
teachers:
- Great teachers set high expectations for all
students. They expect that all students can and
will achieve in their classroom, and they don't give up on underachievers.
- Great teachers have clear, written-out objectives. Effective teachers have
lesson plans that give students a clear idea of what they will be learning, what
the assignments are and what the grading policy is. Assignments have learning
goals and give students ample opportunity to practice new skills. The teacher is
consistent in grading and returns work in a timely manner.
53

- Great teachers are prepared and organized. They present lessons in a clear
and structured way. Their classrooms are organized in such a way as to
minimize distractions.
- Great teachers engage students and get them to look at issues in a variety
of ways. Effective teachers use facts as a starting point, not an end point; they
ask "why" questions, look at all sides and encourage students to predict what
will happen next. They ask questions frequently to make sure students are
following along. They try to engage the whole class, and they don't allow a few
students to dominate the class. They keep students motivated with varied, lively
approaches.
- Great teachers form strong relationships with their students and show that
they care about them as people. Great teachers are warm, accessible,
enthusiastic and caring. Teachers with these qualities are known to stay after
school and make themselves available to students and parents who need them.
They are involved in school-wide committees and activities, and they
demonstrate a commitment to the school.
- Great teachers are masters of their subject matter. They exhibit expertise
in the subjects they are teaching and spend time continuing to gain new
knowledge in their field. They present material in an enthusiastic manner and
instill a hunger in their students to learn more on their own.
- Great teachers communicate frequently with parents. They reach parents
through conferences and frequent written reports home. They don't hesitate to
pick up the telephone to call a parent if they are concerned about a student.
http://www.greatschools.org/improvement/quality-teaching/
79-what-makes-a-great-teacher.gs
What is your image of a great teacher? Tell the group.

Ideal headmaster
The good Headmaster is academically and professionally well-equipped.
He must possess progressive outlook and constructive leadership. An ideal
headmaster recognizes that a good organization is an arrangement of persons,
wherein its members may work effectively, economically and harmoniously
together to achieve a common purpose. The Headmaster must be cultured, well-
behaved. He must be social and sociable, able to win confidence and earn
respect of others.
The good Headmaster should have a clear perception of ideals of
education. He must possess ability to coordinate the work of the human
equipment of the school. He should not be parasite of public funds.
Really, an ideal Headmaster is sensitive to the needs of the society. He may be
able to transform schools into tree and cooperative communities of youth. He
must have good knowledge communities of youth. He must have a good
54

knowledge of child and adolescent psychology, general principles of health and


hygiene, the latest trends and practices in education.
The Headmaster cannot be expected to be the master of all subjects, but he has
to plan, organize and supervise instructional work at school. He must
familiarize with methods of teaching different subjects, should make
discussions with different subject teachers about problems experienced in their
subject areas.
Headmaster's Relation
Headmaster occupies a key position in the school and the social environment
around. His personal reputation and the reputation of the school depends mostly
upon the relation that he maintains with the staff, students, their parents and the
community.
Now try to complete the passages expressing your own ideas:
Relation with Staff:
A Headmaster must be sympathetic towards the members of staff. He should …
A Headmaster with a despotic and autocratic behaviour is bound to meet with
… . The Headmaster must respect the personality of teachers and …….. He
should not consider himself as a superhuman person, a ………. The
Headmaster should forget the principles, "King can do no wrong". "
……………". " ……………………………….." etc.
He should equate himself with others and remember the ladder by which he
ascended. He should have ……………. He should not allow the teachers to
………………………….. The Headmaster must recognize the individual
difference in order to allot work to the staff in accordance with their capacities
and abilities. He should be judicious in assigning duties and issuing orders and
should not expect anything more from the teachers than their ability, interest,
aptitude and previous achievement. The Headmaster should see that a square
peg is put in a square hole.
Relation with Pupils:
Great Headmasters should …………….. He must look after ………. and
give free access to them so that they approach him with request and problems.
He may ……………………… He must try to ………………...
Relation with Parents:
Headmaster is the coordinating agency between the parents and the schools. He
should ………………………. It‘s also desirable ………… As per direct
contact, the Headmaster should …………….. Most important is the ……….
Relation with the Community:
School is a social institution, so it is a centre of community life. The
Headmaster must …….. … He himself should address …………………… .
http://www.preservearticles.com/201105096435/an-ideal-headmaster.html

Discuss the ideas in class.


55

References
1. Advanced Language Practice. – Macmillan Heinemann, 2002.
2. Claire A., Wilson JJ. Total English (intermediate). – Essex: Longman,
2006.
3. English Vocabulary in Use (advanced). – Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2002.
4. English Vocabulary in Use (upper – intermediate – advanced). –
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
5. Harmer J., Rossner R. More than words – Vocabulary for upper
intermediate to advanced students. Books 1 and 2. – Essex: Longman,
1997.
6. Upstream Proficiency. – Express Publishing, 2002.
7. Vince M., Sunderland P. Advanced language practice. – Macmillan
Publishers Ltd., 2003.
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Учебное издание
Романова Ольга Валерьевна
Ткачева Екатерина Владимировна
EDUCATION

Учебное пособие по практическому курсу


первого иностранного языка

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