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Introduction

This guide is to better assist in both common axle identification, and repairs.

Axle Terminology
Open-knuckle An open-knuckle design allows you to see the U-joint
of the axle shaft.
Closed-knuckle The U-joint is enclosed in a steer ball at the steering
Knuckle where it isn’t visable.
Semi-floating The weight of the vehicle rides on the axle shaft, which
also spins the wheel.
Full-floating The weight of the vehicle rides on the axle housing and
A ring of bolts in the center hold the axle shaft in place.
Most heavier housings are full-floating.
Integral The ring gear and pinion gear are set up inside the
differential housing.
Drop-out The carrier, or differential, can be removed as a single unit.
It is also called the center section or 3rd member.
Reverse rotation The pinion contacts the ring gear above the centerline
and drives the reverse side of the teeth on the ring gear.

Axle Identification and Diagrams


AMC
Chrysler
Dana
Ford
GM
Toyota
AMC Axles
AMC MODEL 20
The AMC 20 sports 12 bolts and a WWI helmet-shaped cover. It’s ring and pinion is 3/8” larger than the
D44, but uses smaller shafts and smaller axle tubes, which tend to flex more and lead to breakage.

Two versions, narrow track and wide track, were used in 1976-and-later Jeep CJ’s, Wagoneers, and
fullsize Cherokees. Jeep CJs, the Model 20 rear end is both strong and weak. An 8 3/4-inch-diameter ring
gear provides strength; weaknesses are the housing itself, two-piece shafts, and the axle-to-hub retaining
method. Converting to one-piece axles or full-floaters gives this axle better stamina.

Applications
1976 – 1986 Jeep CJ/Scrambler Front / Rear
1979 – 1986 Jeep Wagoneer Front
1980 – 1986 Jeep J10 Front

Ring Gear Diameter: 8.875”


Pinion Gear Diameter/Splines: 1.62” / 29 splines
Available Gearsets: 3.73, 3.07, 3.31, 3.54, 3.73, 4.10, 4.56
Available Lockers: ARB, Auburn Limited Slip, Detroit Locker, Detroit EZ Locker

Diagram – Click for Large Diagram


Chrysler Axles
Chrysler 8 ¼”
This semi-floating rear axle features a 10-bolt cover and appeared in various Jeep XJ’s and ZJ’s as early
as 1991. It has also been used as an alternative to the Dana 35C when those units were not available, and
the cover design is so similar that it’s difficult to distinguish between the two.

Applications
1990 – 2000 Dodge Dakota Rear
1972 – 1996 ½ ton 2WD and 4WD Rear
Dodge Trucks
1992 – present Cherokees Rear
Some Grand Cherokees Rear

Ring Gear Diameter: 8.25”


Pinion Gear Diameter/Splines: 1.626” / 27 splines
Available Gearsets: 2.71, 2.94, 3.21, 3.55, 3.90, 4.10, 4.56
Available Lockers: Auburn Limited Slip, Dana Trac-Lok, Detroit Locker

Diagram – Click for Large Diagram


Chrysler 8 ¾”
Two models of the 8 ¾ were available through the years. Both featured a 9-bolt cover and varied only in
the pinion gear diameter. The early version appeared in 1957 – 1968 Dodge full size trucks and used a
1.750” pinion gear.

(No image available at current time)

Applications
1969 – 1973 Dodge full size trucks rear

Ring Gear Diameter: 8.75”


Pinion Gear Diameter/Splines: 1.875” /10 splines
Available Gearsets: 3.55, 3.91, 4.10, 4.30, 4.56, 4.86, 5.13. 5.38
Available Lockers: Auburn Gear Posi-traction, Trac-Lok Limited Slip , Detroit
Locker
Diagram – Click for Large Diagram
Chrysler 9 ¼”
The 9 ¼” rear has a 12-bolt , stop sign-shaped cover which is easily identifiable. It’s a venerable unit
proven by the fact that is has been factory equipment on most on 1/2-ton and 3/4-ton Dodge pickups since
1969.

Applications
1969 – current Dodge ½ and ¾ ton Rear
trucks
1974 – 1993 Ramchargers Rear

Ring Gear Diameter: 9.25”


Pinion Gear Diameter/Splines: 1.875” /29 splines
Available Gearsets: 2.76, 3.21, 3.55, 3.92, 4.11, 4.56, 4.88 (new)
Available Lockers: Auburn Limited Slip, Trac-Lok Limited Slip , Detroit
Locker, PowerTrax No-Slip, Lock-Right

Diagram – Click for Large Diagram


Dana Axles
All Spicer Carrier Type Axles (rigid or leaf spring) are identified with a manufacturing date and Bill of
Material (part number) stamped on the right or left hand tube on driving axles. Each axle contains a gear
ratio tag and if axle is equipped with a limited slip differential, it will have a tag specifying the type of limited
slip lubricant to be used.

The Bill of Material will always contain six digits (basic number), followed by a dash numer.
Example: 610036-4. The seventh digit, the -4, will identify axle ratio and options.

Axle Model 30,44, etc., will be cast or stamped into web in area shown in illustration below.

Front Axle Models 28IFS, 35IFS, 44IFS and 50IFS.

All Spicer IFS (independent front suspension) type axles are identified by independent stamped steel
support arm assemblies. The left hand (drivers side) support arm also serves as the carrier cover.

Bill of Material and gear ratio are stamped on a metal tag secured to carrier cover. Bill of material is also
stamped on housing between oil fill plug and wheel end.
Dana D28, D35, D44, and D50IFS
The Dana 28 IFS is pretty easy to pick out of a crowd, since the front cover is actually a component of the
suspension. When Ford began production on the Rangers and Bronco II’s, the company used the Twin
Traction Beam-style front suspension that was popularized on the F-series trucks. Essentially, the Dana 28
is a downsized version of the Dana 44 IFS used in 1980 – 1997 F-150’s, though it’s a bit smaller and has a
12-bolt cover as opposed to the D44’s 10-bolt cover.

The Dana 44 IFS units are easily distinguishable by their familiar 10-bolt pattern and 44 shape. It uses a
two piece housing that doubles as a suspension component for the Twin I-Beam equipped Fords and is a
reverse-rotation unit.

Applications
D28 1983 – 1993 Ford Ranger Front
D28 1984 – 1990 Bronco II Front
D44 1980 – 1996 Ford F-150 Front

D28 Ring Gear Diameter: 6.625”


D28 Pinion Gear Diameter/Splines: 1.312” /23 splines
D28 Available Gearsets: 3.08, 3.45, 3.73, 4.10, 4.56, 5.13
D28 Available Lockers: Dana Trac-Lok

D44 Ring Gear Diameter: 8.5”


D44 Pinion Gear Diameter/Splines: 1.376” /30 splines
D44 Available Gearsets: 3.00, 3.07, 3.50, 3.54, 4.09, 4.56, 4.88, 5.38
D44 Available Lockers: ARB, Dana Trac-Lok, Detroit Locker, Detroit EZ Locker,
Detroit Truetrac

Diagram
Dana 30
The Model 30, with a 7 1/8-inch-diameter ring gear, was the standard front differential in some 1972-75
CJ-5s and all 1975-and-later CJ-5s and CJ-7s. It is still used in the front of Cherokees and Comanche’s,
and will probably appear in the front of the Grand Cherokee.

Applications
1972 – 1975 Jeep CJ-5 Front
1975 – later Jeep CJ-5 and CJ-7 Front
Most all Cherokees and Comanche’s Front

Ring Gear Diameter: 7.2”


Pinion Gear Diameter/Splines: 1.375” /26 splines
Available Gearsets: 2.72-3.54 and 3.73-5.38 Stnd 2.73-3.54 and 3.73-4.56 Revrs
Available Lockers: ARB, Trac-Lok Limited Slip , Detroit Locker, Lockright

Diagram – Click for Large Diagram


Dana 35
The Dana 35 has been offered in three different configurations: 35, 35C, and 35 IFS. It’s recognized by its
10-bolt cover, and semi floating, flanged axle tubes (rear applications only). Starting in 1990, the 35
became the 35C, which uses undesirable C-clips to retain the axle shafts. The C stands for custom rather
than the commonly assumed C-clip. The two version use different shafts, bearings, and carriers, and some
of the 35C units have larger axle-housing tubes. A series of drop-out IFS-type Dana 35s were produced for
use in the 4.0L Ford Rangers and Explorers.

Applications
1984 – 1997 Jeep Cherokee Front / Rear
1986 – 1997 Jeep Comanche Front / Rear
1984 – 1996 Jeep Wrangler Front / Rear
1984 – 1997 Jeep Wagoneer Front
1990 – 1997 Ford Explorer, Ranger, Front
Bronco II

Ring Gear Diameter: 7.562”


Pinion Gear Diameter/Splines: 1.376” /26 splines
Available Gearsets: 2.73, 3.07, 3.27, 3.55, 3.73, 4.10, 4.11, 4.46
Available Lockers: ARB, Dana Trac-Lok , Detroit C-Locker, Detroit EZ Locker,
Detroit Truetrac

Diagram – Click for Large Diagram


Dana 44 (also D41)
The Dana 44 is one of the most widely used axles on the market. The D44 went into production in the late
40’s and has since appeared in virtually every make of production 4x4. It shares its 10-bolt cover design
(the second most common style) with the Dana 41 and 53, and have been available in closed- and open-
knuckle styles and in both standard and reverse rotation. There are two basic models of the D44, the ½ ton
and the ¾ ton, with the ¾-ton version using larger U-joints between the outer and inner axles. The D44
was also produced with different spline-count shafts. Jeep used the 19-spline rear axles up to 1970, while
full size applications received 30-spline front and rear shafts. Oddball models exist as well, such as the 32-
spline shafts in the late 80’s Dodge 1-tons. Dodge also used the D44 in all ½ ton series pickups from 1994-
2002, as well as some HD 8 lug versions.

Dana 41 Dana44

Applications
1960 – 1980 Chevy K10, K25 Front
1960 – 1970 Chevy C10, C15 Rear
1971 – 1996 Ford Bronco Front
1967 – 1978 Ford F-100, F-150 4x4 Rear
1975 – 1978 Ford F-150 Front
1977 – 1990 Ford F-250 Front
1978 – 1990 Ford F-100, F-150 Front
1974 – 1983 Jeep Wagoneer Front
1974 – 1986 Jeep J10, J20 Front
1967 – 1975 Jeep CJ-7 Front/Rear
1986 – 1992 Jeep Comanche Rear
1976 – 1992 Jeep Cherokee Rear
1984 – 1992 Jeep Grand Wagoneer Front
1972 – 1975 Jeep Scrambler Rear
1972 – 1979 Jeep Wagoneer Rear
1976 – 1980 Scout Front
1994 – 2002 Dodge ½, ¾-ton trucks Front

Ring Gear Diameter: 8.5”


Pinion Gear Diameter/Splines: 1.376” /30 splines
Available Gearsets: 2.72, 2.87, 3.07, 3.23, 3.31, 3.54, 3.73, 3.92, 4.09
4.27, 4.56, 4.89, 5.38, 5.89
Dana 44 (also D41) continued

Available Lockers: 19-spline: ARB, Detroit Locker


30-spline: ARB, Dana Trac-Lok, Detroit Locker,
Detroit EZ Locker, Detroit Truetrac, OX Locker,
Powertrax Lock-Right

Diagram – Click for Large Diagram

D44 Front D44 Rear