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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ

ЯЗЫК
7 класс
Учебник для общеобразовательных
организаций и школ
с углублённым изучением
английского языка

Рекомендовано
Министерством образования и науки
Российской Федерации

Москва
Express Publishing
«Просвещение»
2 0 14
УД К 3 7 3 .1 6 7 .1 :8 1 1.111
ББК 8 1 .2 А н гл -9 2 2
А64
Серия «Звёздный английский» основана в 2 0 0 9 году.
На уч е б н и к получены положительные заклю чения Российской акаде м ии наук (№ 1 0 1 0 6 -5 2 1 5 /1 8 1 от
1 2 .1 0 .2 0 1 2 г.) и Российской акаде м ии образования (№ 01 - 5 /7 д - 2 3 5 от 1 1 .1 0 .2 0 1 2 ).
Авторы : К. М. Баранова, Д. Д ули, В. В. Копы лова, Р. П. М ильруд, В. Эванс
Authors: Virginia Evans, Jenny Dooley, Ksenia Baranova, Victoria Kopylova, Radislav M illrood

A c k n o w le d g e m e n t s
Authors' A ck n ow led gem en ts
W e w ould like to thank all the staff at Express Publishing w ho have contributed their skills to producing this book. Thanks for their support and
patience are due in particular to: M egan Lawton (Editor in Chief); M ary Swan and Sean Todd (senior editors); M ichael Sadler and Steve M iller
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Kim berly Baker, Steven Gibbs and Christine Little. W e w ould also like to thank those institutions and teachers w ho piloted the m anuscript, and
w hose com m ents and feedback were invaluable in the production of the book.

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А нглийский язык. 7 класс : учеб. для общеобразоват. организаций и шк. с углубл.


А64 изучением англ. яз. / [К. М. Баранова, Д. Д ули, В. В. Копылова и д р.]. - М . : Express Publishing :
П росвещ ение, 2 0 1 4 . - 184 с.: ил. - (Звёздный а н гл и й ски й ). - ISBN 9 7 8 -5 -0 9 -0 2 7 6 5 6 -6 .

Учебник является центральным элементом учебно-м етодического комплекта серии «Звёздный английский» дл я учащ ихся 7
класса общ еобразовательных организаций и ш кол с углублённы м изучением английского языка. Отличительной о со б ен ­
ностью У М К является модульное построение учебника, наличие аутентичного материала о России, заданий, соответствую­
щ их требованиям меж дународны х экзаменов, готовящ им постепенно к Государственной итоговой аттестации в 9 классе.
М атериалы учебника способствую т достиж ению личностных, метапредметных и предметных результатов обучения. Учебник
получил положительные заключения РАН и РА О и рекомендован к использованию в образовательных организациях.
УДК 373.167.1:811.111
ББК 81.2Англ-922

У ч еб н о е и зд ан и е

С е рия « З в ё з д н ы й а н г л и й с к и й »

Баранова Ксения М ихайловна


Д ули Д ж е н н и
Копы лова Виктория Викторовна
М и л ь р уд Радислав Петрович
Эванс Вирдж иния

А н гл и й с ки й язы к
7 кл ас с

У ч е б н и к для общ еоб разов ател ь ны х о р ган и за ц и й


и ш ко л с у гл уб л ён н ы м и зу ч е н и е м а н гл и й с ко го язы ка
Центр группы германских языков
Руководитель Центра В. В. Копылова
Зам. руководителя Центра по проектам И. H. Темнова
Руководитель проекта и редактор Ю. А. Смирнов
Выпускающий редактор М . А. Семичев
Корректоры H. Д. Цухай

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Contents
Modules G ram m ar Vocabulary

Starter • Transport
• Places in a city
pp. 5-6 • Household chores
• Food/Drinks
• Cooking methods
• Natural disasters
• Adverbs of manner • Jobs
Work & Play • Present simple/Present • Character adjectives
continuous Hobbies
• Stative verbs • Sports
pp. 7-20
• Comparisons • Applying for a job
Language in Use 1 p. 21 • infinitive/-/ng form • Student jobs
Skills 1 pp. 22-23 • Phrasal verbs: break, bring
Russia 1 p. 24 • Word formation: person nouns

• Past continuous Cultural activities & experiences


Culture & • Past continuous vs past simple • Travel experiences
Stories • Used to • The Internet
• Past perfect • Types of performances
pp. 25-38 • Past perfect continuous • Social networking sites
• Types of books
Tourist attractions
Language in Use 2 p. 39 • Phrasal verbs: fall, get, give
Skills 2 pp. 40-41 • Word formation: abstract nouns from
Russia 2 p. 42 verbs

• Will The weather


Mother Nature • Going to Extreme activities
• Present continuous/present Types of accommodation
pp. 43-56
simple with future meaning; Verbs related to the weather
time clauses Outdoor leisure activities
Language in Use 3 p. 57 • Conditionals types 0, 1, 2, 3 • Camping equipment
Skills 3 pp. 58-59 • Wishes • Phrasal verbs: go, look
Russia 3 p. 60 • Word formation: adjectives from nouns

• Modal verbs: must, have to, • Health problems & technology


Healthy mind, should, can/can't, may, might, Illnesses & ailments
healthy body could Remedies/Solutions
• Past modals: had to, could, was • Action verbs
pp. 61-74 able to • Teenage problems and solutions
Language in Use 4 p. 75 • Relative clauses • Phobias & fears
Skills 4 pp. 76-77 • b o th ... and, either ...o r , neither • Phrasal verbs: make, put
Russia 4 p. 78 ... nor Word formation: adjectives from verbs

• Present perfect vs past simple


Life • Present perfect continuous
• Gestures & body language
• Annoying/Bad habits
experiences • Modals making deduction: • Cultural difficulties/adjustments
pp. 79-92 must, can't, may/might • Problems with neighbours
• Tenses of the infinitive/-/ng • Physical appearance & character
Language in Use 5 p. 93 form Cultural traditions & customs
Skills 5 pp. 94-95 • Phrasal verbs: take, turn
Russia 5 p. 96 • Word formation: negative adjectives

• the passive • Crime & technology


Crime & • the causative • Cyber crime
community • reflexive pronouns • Types of art
• reported speech Problems in the community
pp. 97-110 • Crime fighters
• Politics
Language in Use 6 p. 111
• Phrasal verbs: run, set, wear, work
Skills 6 pp. 112-113
• Word formation: prefixes
Russia 6 p. 114

3
Contents
Culture Corner/
Reading & Listening Speaking & Functions Writing Curricular
• Revision

Hot Jobs (multiple choice) • Talking about jobs • Taking notes about jobs • Cash in Fland
UFO Flunter (open-ended • A job interview • Sentences about UFO • PSHE: What's
sentences) • Talking about adventure hunting the job for you?
Listening: identifying main points sports • A cover letter, applying (quiz)
Take a Deep Breath (multiple • Asking for/giving personal for a job • Ice Diving in
choice) details • A paragraph about your Lake Baikal
Listening: multiple matching • Pronunciation: intonation in hobby (T/F/N S)
questions

• John's Travels (open-ended • Talking about travel • Writing a short account • Lady Gaga: The
sentences) experiences of a story queen o f pop
• Making notes about a 9 ICT: Social

I
* Listening: identifying main points • Expressing opinions
• The Story o f Google (T/F) • Talking about a Chinese opera Networks: How
performance • A story do they work?
• Lady Gaga (comprehension • Talking about reading habits • Russian sounds:

2I
questions) • Pronunciation: intonation Balalaika
* Listening: multiple matching when expressing emotions (comprehensio
• Grand Opera (multiple choice) n questions)
• The Flaunted City o f York
(sequence of events)
• Listening: identifying specific
information (T /F )
Listening: identifying specific
information (answering
questions) • Talking about the weather • A short text about • The
| « Matt o f the Antarctic (T/F • Talking about extreme Antarctica Appalachian
statements) activities • Sentences about Trail
| « Extremely weird ( multiple • Booking accommodation/ extreme sports • Geography:

3Ichoice)
* Climate change (T/F statements)
• Trapped in the Wilderness
(gapped text)
I * Listening: identifying specific
information (multiple choice)



asking for and giving
information
Talking about
environmental problems
Describing pictures
Pronunciation: intonation -
• A short paragraph about
global warming
• A semi-formal email
asking for information
• A summary of a text
Caves
• Extreme places:
Taiga (T/F/N S)

stress in compound nouns

M odern marvels or new nasties • Talking about health • Writing about gadgets • Australia's most
(headings to paragraphs) problems and health problems dangerous
Remedies from the kitchen • Talking about how to use • Writing suggestions animals
cupboard (reading for specific gadgets wisely about health problems • PSHE: Catch

4I Information)
The French Spider-Man (multiple
choice)
* Phobias (gapped text)
• Listening: (multiple matching)
• Visiting the doctor (at a
doctor's surgery)
• Making
suggestions/replying
• Pronunciation: rhyming
words
• Writing an interview
• A summary of a text
• An essay making
suggestions

some Zzzs!
Banya: A Russian
Tradition
(sentence
completion)

It's annoying (T/F/NS statements) • Talking about annoying • Writing a post about an • Social Etiquette
Steven Marshall (T/F situations annoying situation in the UK
statements) • Talking about social • Sentences speculating • Science: Body
A change for the better (reading etiquette in your country about a character Talk
for specific information • Complaining and apologising • Writing sentences about • Ivan Kupala Day
Rites o f Passage (multiple • Commenting on changes in person you admire (T/F/N S)
choice) appearance • Afor-and-againstessay
Listening: (T /F statements) • Pronunciation: linking
sounds

I* Street A rt: A rt or not? (T/F) • Give a witness statement • An account of an experience • Agatha Christie
I* Ben Langdon: Forensic Scientist • Pronunciation: epenthesis • Writing about an • GraFFest
CyberCrime Going Crackers! • Comment on an event inspirational figure (T/F/N S)
(headings • Presentation on cybercrime
to paragraphs) • An interview
|« Mark's Blog (multiple matching) • A letter to the editor
making suggestions

Revision pp. 115-120; Vocabulary Bank pp. VB1-VB17; Writing Bank pp. WB1-WB6; Grammar Reference pp. GR1-GR14; Rules for
Punctuation p. GR15; American English - British English Guide p. GR16; Word Formation pp. WF1-WF4; KeyWord Transformations
pp. KWT1-KWT3; Word List pp. WL1-WL24; Pronunciation, Irregular Verbs
c ' d ' !j

e lite s
^
r l' r1q module
Transpo rt Food & d rinks
Complete the spidergram. Use these words.
1 Complete the sentences w ith the types of
transport in the list. There are tw o words Add one to each category.
th a t you don't need to use.
• tomatoes « yo g u rt «chicken « o range juice
• plane • bus • underground • ferry • bike • cauliflow er • bread • salmon • grapes
• car • m otorbike • taxi • rice • lamb • milk • eggs • cherries • tuna
• tea • peppers
Mr Holmes is flying to Spain on a business trip.
His .................................................. leaves at 6:00.
The fastest way to travel in London is below
the city on t h e .......................................................
Hannah was very late for w ork and had to call
fo r a ...............................................
We w ent to the Isle o f Man b y ...........................
last weekend. The sea was calm.
Tom loves riding his ................................... in the
park every afternoon.
People d o n 't often take t h e i r .............................
into the city centre because there is too much
traffic.

Places in a city
Complete the table w ith the words.

• block o f flats • petrol station • post office


• tra ffic lights • tunnel • bungalow 5 Fill in: g ro w , raise, s tu c k , sh o w , p a tro l, try , lose,
• semi-detached house • road sign • hospital p u t up, m iss, m ake.
• cottage • library • bus stop • bus lane
1 vegetables
• detached house • com m unity centre
r Яш ...............
Types o f 3 ....................... .................posters

Home 4 ...................... .................money for charity


5 get ............... .................in mud
6 ..................... .................local food
Features o f a
T ow n/C ity 7 ...................... .................a flig h t
8 ...................... .................my luggage
Public 9 ...................... .................respect
Services/ 10 ...................... .................a difference
Facilities
ft»,
Match the words in the tw o columns.
H o useho ld chores
2 Fill in: do , la y, m o p , iro n , dust, m a ke, ta k e o u t, 1 polluted A team
h o o v e r. 2 child В supplies
3 rescue С waters
1 the furniture 5 the rubbish
4 medical D project
2 the bed 6 the floor
5 conservation E lane
3 the clothes 7 the washing-up
6 bus F labour
4 the table 8 the carpets
ТШ СГ' module
C o o k in g m ethods Eve ryd ay En glish
~j Fill in: p o u r, add, beat, slice, chop, s tir, m elt. ) Circle the correct response.

1 A: Hello, can I help you?


B: a I'd like tw o tickets to
Brighton, please,
b No, you can't do that!
Strawberry Shortcake is delicious. Let's m ake it together! 2 A: And w hat w ould you like to
drink?
First, we 1) the strawberries, and then we B: a I'm not very hungry,
b I'd like a cola, please.

the sugar. We 3) the 3 A: Someone stole my bag.


В: a I d o n 't believe you.
b Oh, you poor thing! I'm so
strawberries and sugar until they 4) into a sauce, sorry.

4 A: I w e n t on a day trip to a
w ild life park.
Next, we cut the biscuits and put them in a tray, Then, w e add the
B: a Oh, really? I'd really like to
go there too.
b That's not very exciting.
strawberry sauce, After that, w e 5) some cream
5 A: Would you mind helping me
w ith this?
and a little sugar. We 6) . the cream onto the biscuits, B: a Of course I w ould,
b No problem.

Finally, we 7) j some nuts 6 A: See you at 9 tom orrow !


B: a I'm free this morning.
and put them on top! Your strawberry shortcake b Great.
is ready! 7 A: Can I give you a hand?
B: a Actually, I've nearly finished,
N atural d isasters
b Sure I can.
g Match the comments w ith the natural disasters in
8 A: Did you have a nice weekend?
the list. There are tw o items you don't need to use.
B: a Oh, I d id n 't do anything
• drought • flood • earthquake • forest fire • tornado special,
• tsunami • hurricane b They had a nice time.

1 "We saw the sea coming towards us. We all ran for the hills 9 A: I think that's all, thank you.
to save our lives." B: a You're welcome.
2 "I was in bed when the house started shaking. I could see the walls b Just one mote thing.
move, so I jumped out of bed and hid under the kitchen table."
10 A: Would you like any side orders?
3 "We planted potatoes in December, but the rain never
B: a I'd like a glass o f orange
came. The fields are empty. We hope it w ill rain very soon."
juice, please,
4 "The emergency services warned us to leave our house
b Not for me, thank you.
immediately. There was w a te r on the first floor. We could
not stop it. It was rising and . J n g ."
: 5 "We could see and smell the thick smoke in the atmosphere."
Vocabulary: jobs, character adjectives, hobbies,
sports, student jobs
Grammar: adverbs o f manner, present simple -
present continuous, stative verbs, comparisons,
infinitive/-/ng form
Everyday English: an interview for a part-time job
Pronunciation: intonation in questions
Writing: a CV and cover letter
Culture Corner: Cash in hand (student jobs in the USA)
Curricular (PSHE): What's the job for you?
Phrasal verbs: break, b rin g
Word formation: person nouns
Russia 1: Ice Diving in Lake Baikal

Vocabulary
Jo bs W hat do your parents
do for a living? W hat
О Listen and say. would you like to do
for a living?
2 W h a t does each person do a t
Why?
w o rk ? Use th e phrases to te ll
th e class.

• make sure people obey th e law


• fo llo w and p ho to g ra p h
to rn ad o es • p u t o u t fires
• look a fte r passengers on a plane surgeon
• help custom ers
• supervise children a t a camp
• apply th e law in a co urt
• operate on people

A c a m p c o u n s e llo r supervises
c h ild re n a t a cam p .

3 W hich jo b do you th in k is:


d a n g e ro u s ? d e m a n d in g ? in te re s tin g ?
w e ll-p a id 1 easy? d iffic u lt?
^ fir e fig h te r
A s to rm chaser's jo b is d a n g e ro u s .
••. .
because th e y fo llo w to rn a d o e s .

shop assistant
police o ffic e r
ш я г т т я н к ш — .

Predicting content
The key words o f a text help
you predict its content.

Vocabulary
W ork Reading
a) In a minute think of as many jobs as a) The words in the C h e c k th e s e w o r d s
possible. box on p. 9 are the key words o f the
text. Read the words. W hat do you
b) Look at the jobs in the pictures. Who
expect the te x t to be about?
works: 9-5? shifts? at the weekends?
Q Listen, read and check.
long hours? on th eir own? w ith a team?
gets: paid well? low wages?
b) Read the te x t again and choose the
C h aracte r ad je ctive s correct answer A, В or C.

Complete the sentences w ith a suitable job Smokejumpers travel to the fire z o n e ........
from those in Ex. 1. A through forests В by road С by air

1 A ( n ) ......................................................... has to be Before becoming a smokejumper, they must learn


brave; they do dangerous things at work. how t o .......
2 A ( n ) ......................................................... has to be A train В parachute С w ork as a team
organised; they need to plan th e ir w ork well.
Smokejumpers are always trying to becom e........
3 A ( n ) ......................................................... has to be
A tough В fit С better
creative; they need to develop original ideas.
4 A ( n ) ....................................................... has to be When smokejumpers parachute into a forest,
caring; they need to look after sick people. they d o n't c a rry ........
5 A ( n ) ...........................................has to be patient; A tools В w ater С a backpack
they need to stay calm and not get annoyed.
Zach's favourite part o f the job i s ........
6 A ( n ) ......................................................... has to be
A flying the aeroplane В parachuting
polite; they deal w ith people from different
С fig h tin g the fire
backgrounds.
F j smokejumper

to u g h jo b , b eat, elite,
risk, rem o te areas,
bravely, parachute,
p u t o u t, duty, training,
fit, fire zone, padded,
face m ask, h elm et,
backpack, drop

4 Use words from the C h e c k th e s e w o r d s g Form adverbs. Use them to complete the
box to complete the sentences. sentences ( 1 - 6 ).
1 good 4 happy
1 They tried t o .....................................the fire w ith
2 brave 5 quick
buckets o f w ater until the firefighters arrived.
3 careful 6 hard
2 Smokejumpers parachute from aeroplanes into
................................. th a t can't be reached easily. 1 The men check the area ........................ for fires.

3 To be a fire fig h te r you need to b e ..................... 2 Smokejumpers have to train v e r y .......................


3 They use aeroplanes to get to the fire ..............
and strong.
4 Zach s m ile s ..................................... when he talks
4 Firefighters go through d if f ic u lt .........................
before they are ready to join the Fire Service. about his job.
5 They fought the dangerous f ir e ...........................
see"4,
Grammar p. g r i and managed to put it out.
6 Smokejumpers know the forest v e r y .................
A d ve rb s o ?m a n n e r
5 Read the theory. Find examples in the text. Speaking & Writing
✓"""... ... .............. .................... ..... ............. .... ....... .............. .........-........... - .......""-v
1 Read the text again and make notes under
• Adverbs o f manner describe how w e do som ething. the headings: jo b , d u tie s, q u a litie s needed,
She talks slowly. (How does she talk? Slowly.) clothe s & e q u ip m e n t, fe e lin g s . Imagine you are
• We usually form adverbs o f manner by adding -ly to
Zach. Use your notes to present your job to
an adjective, slow - slowly, sudden - suddenly, careful -
the class.
carefully, quiet - quietly, etc
• Sometimes, we need to change the spelling. Would you like to w ork as a
easy - easily, true - truly, gentle - gently
8
smokejumper? Why? Why not? In three
• Some adverbs keep the same form as the adjective.
minutes w rite a few sentences about the
fast, hard, late, early, etc
• Irregular form : g o o d -w e ll topic. Read your sentences to your partner
or the class. ч _
()►] Vocabulary Bank 1 pp. VB1-VB2) 9
A strange shape is moving across the sky. Is it a bird?
Is it an aeroplane? Or is it a UFO*? Nick Porter is
fascinated by the possibility of life on other planets, so in
his free time he tries to find out what these objects are. We
asked him some questions about his unusual hobby.
So, Nick, why are you so interested in UFOs?
Well, thousands of people see strange objects in the sky all over the
world. Most of these are planets, meteors, or military planes - but
what about the rest? I’m a very curious person, so I want to find an
explanation!
And what exactly does your hobby involve?
Well, I started a UFO club and we mostly investigate sightings. We
interview witnesses and analyse videos and photos. Sometimes we go
out to a UFO ‘hotspot’, too. In fact, we’re going out tonight. We usually
go high up on a rooftop or a hillside. If we see something strange, we
record as much information as we can! We use camcorders, cameras,
telescopes, and other devices. Then
we analyse the information on our
laptops.
Maybe some of our readers are
thinking about taking up UFO hunting
now! What advice do you have for them?
Well, anyone can become a UFO hunter.
You just need to be enthusiastic and patient.
You also need to join a local UFO club. This way,
you find out where the UFO hotspots are, and
Reading you have witnesses if you spot something.
So, what are you waiting for? UFO
* a) Rea’d the title and the
hunting is a lot of fun, and you
• introduction to the article.
never know - you might just
W hat does Nick's hobby involve? turn science fiction into
Listen, read and check. science fact!

C h e c k th e s e w o r d s
"UFO = u n id e n tified flying object
fascinated, strange object, planet, meteor, military plane,
curious, explanation, involve, mostly, investigate, sighting,
interview witness, analyse, hotspot, rooftop, hillside,
b) Read the article again and complete the
record information, camcorder, telescope, device, take up,
sentences. Imagine you are Nick and use enthusiastic, patient, find out, spot
the words in the
box to talk about your hobby to the class.
| j^ 2 2 S 3 !3 [ Complete the sentences.
1 Nick Porter likes UFO hunting because........
1 I find UFO hunting ...............................................

2 His UFO club members mainly ......................... because ...................................................................

3 When they go out, they h a v e ............................ 2 I ..................................... ghost hunting because

.............................................................. w ith them


4 If you w ant to take up UFO hunting, you need 3 My hobby is .........................................................
because ...................................................................
10
see
Grammar p g ri S ta tiv e verb s
Present sim ple - Present g Read the table. Then put the verbs in
co n tin u o u s brackets in p re s e n t sim p le or p re s e n t
c o n tin u o u s . Give reasons.
4 Read the table. Find examples in the text.
“““ " “ “““ —— 4
.......... . . . . . зиешнйа ® Ш тШ Ш Ш *..»*».«- ..... Ш Some verbs do not usually have continuous forms
We use present simple to talk about: because they describe a state, th o u g h t, or feeling rather
• perm anent states & facts. than an action (e.g., see, feel, hear, look, smell, sound, taste,
Nick comes from the USA. The sun rises in the east. forget, remember, want, belong, etc). He looks good.
• habits/routines. He plays tennis every Saturday.
Some verbs can have continuous form s but w ith a
• tim etables. The train leaves at 7 pm.
difference in meaning. I th in k he’s very clever. (I believe)
Time expressions: everyday, on Mondays, often, etc
I'm th in kin g o f going out. (I'm considering)
We use present continuous to talk about:
• actions happening now /around the tim e o f speaking. 1 Mark ...................................................... (believe)
Janice is watching a DVD now.
th a t UFOs exist.
Tina is studying for her exams these days.
2 Sheila ......................................................................
• fu ture arrangem ents. I'm going out tomorrow.
(not/understand) the exercise.
• temporary situations.
Jane is working as a waitress for the summer. 3 I .............................................................. (see) Paula
Time expressions: now, at the moment, at present, etc later today................................................................
(you/w ant) to come?
4 M a rth a ........................................................ (love)
5 Put the verbs in brackets into p re s e n t sim p le reading science-fiction books.
or p re s e n t c o n tin u o u s . 5 A: Look! The c o o k .................................. (taste)

1 A: How often ........................................................ the food! I th in k it's ready.

(you/hang out) w ith your friends? B: Great! It .............................................. (smell)

B: Every weekend. We u s u a lly ........................... delicious! I can't w ait.

(go) to the mall or ..........................................


6 W hat ........................................... (you/look) at?

(watch) a film .
2 A: How .................................................................... у Complete the sentences using p re s e n t sim p le
(Pete/spend) his free time? or p re s e n t c o n tin u o u s .
B: He ...................................................... (surf) the
Tonight, I ...........
Net o r ........................................(read) comics.
I d o n't usually ....
3 A: W hat ....................................... (you/do) now?
My friends often
В: I ........................................................ (paint) my
Right now, I .......
model aeroplane.
Next weekend I .
4 A: W here................................................(Jane/be)?
I s o m e tim e s .......
B: S h e .................................................... (prepare)
her b a g .S h e .....................................................
(go) UFO hunting. Speaking & Writing
5 A: ........................................................ (you/come)
to the show tonight? 8 Answer the questions, and then use your
answers to w rite a short paragraph about
B: No. I ....................................................... (meet)
your hobby. Tell your partner.
Brian for dinner.
What's your hobby?
W hat does it involve?
How much tim e do you spend on it?
Does it need any special equipment?
g Culture Corner
гщ д д Е Ш Ш ................................
cash, p art-tim e, earn, average w a g e , w a itin g tables,
delivery, cashier, custom er service, available,

c a $ n in hand! campus, cam p counsellor, internship, profession,


experience, clerk, offer

These days in the USA, a rou nd 60% o f a ll university students


have a p a rt-tim e jo b to help p ay fo r university, Do university students in your country usually
o r sim ply to earn some spending money. have a part-time job? W hat kind of jobs do
Students w o rk in the evenings and at weekends. they do?
TheirW m m m waae is $15 p e r hour.
Reading
ALL KINDS OF JOBS ..
2 a) Look at the pictures in the text. What
Jobs such as w aiting tables,
part-time jobs do you think American
making deliveries, cashier
university students have?
w ork and w orking in
Q Listen, read and check.
customer service are always
very popular. There are also
b) Read the text again and mark the
some jobs available on
statements as T (true), F (false) or
university campuses, such as
a research assistant or a NS (not stated). Correct the false
teaching assistant. statements.

1 Not many university students w ork


CAMP COUNSELLORS
to earn money. .........
During the summer
2 The most common type o f w ork is
holiday, a lo t o f university
w aiting tables in a cafe or restaurant.................
students choose to w ork at
summer camps as camp 3 Camp counsellors pay fo r their food and
counsellors. This way, they accommodation out o f their wages....................
can spend tim e outdoors, 4 Being a camp counsellor can help
organise sports and other students get a job after they graduate..............
activities, and have fun. 5 Interns usually earn a low wage. .........
There are many different
kinds o f camps, such as
sports camps, language-learning camps, and Match the highlighted words to their
technology camps. Counsellors get free room and synonyms.
board and they also earn a good wage.
1 perfect food and
INTERNSHIPS 2 usual accommodation
For students who know 3 finish your degree helper
what they want to do when
they graduate, a summer
internship is ideal. The job W hat type of part-tim e work
can often be low-paid or would you like to do as a university
even unpaid, but it's great student? Why? In three minutes w rite a
experience in the student's short paragraph. Read it to your partner or
chosen profession. For the class.
example, medical students
often w ork as lab or
5 Compare the jobs university students do in the
research assistants, ICT students w ork as computer lab
assistants and law students w ork as clerks fo r a law USA to those in your country. Tell the class.
firm. The company sometimes offers the intern a job
In the USA, m ost u n ive rs ity students w o rk p a rt-
after they graduate.
tim e. In m y c o u n try ...
Everyday English
A jo b in te rv ie w Find sentences in the dialogue
which mean: Sit dow n, please. -
1 Read the job adverts. W hat
I'd like to fin d o u t a b o u t you. -
kind of job is each one for?
I understand. - You w ill hear from me.
Who could apply?

W ANTED: Part-time waiter/waitress for busy Italian restaurant £7 per


hour. Mon-Fri evenings. Must be hard-working & reliable. Experience Intonation: questions
preferred but not necessary. La Fiamma, 225 Rington Plaza, Cloverdale
Q R e a d the theory, then listen
Tel. (0253) 743 984 ф
and repeat.

Buzz Clothing is looking fo r a friendly & energetic part-time shop


assistant to w o rk evenings & weekends (10-15 hours a week). Full Yes/No questions usually have
training provided. Apply to.- Mr Andrews, P0 BOX 21547 rising intonation. И//?- questions
Application deadline: 20th September rtf usually have falling intonation.

О Listen and repeat. The sentences appear in the W hat days can you work?
dialogue below. Who says each: an in te rv ie w e r or a Are you a student?
jo b a p p lic a n t ? Do you w ork on Saturdays?
What's your job?
• Please have a seat.
• Tell me a little about yourself.
• Why do you th in k you'll be a good shop assistant? Speaking
• Well, I think I'm hard-working and honest.
You are applying for the
• Do you have any experience in this type o f work?
job in advert A. Act out your
• Here's a le tte r o f recommendation.
interview w ith the employer.
• I can start immediately.
Follow the plan.
• Thank you very much for your time.

b) Q Listen and read to find out.


' o ~ ~ • *
Greet В and " ^ G r e e t A & o ffe r a
Simon: Good morning. I'm Simon Jones.
introduce y o u rs e lf./ seat.
Mr Andrews: Nice to meet you, Simon. Please have a seat.
Thank B. ^ - ^ A s k A to give
Simon: Thank you.
/ info rm a tio n about
Mr Andrews: So, Simon, tell me a little about yourself.
/ him /herself.
Simon: Well, I'm 18 years old, I'm a student, and I'm looking
Give Ask A w h y he/she
for a part-time job to help pay for university.
in fo rm a tio n 1thinks he'll/she'll
Mr Andrews: I see. Why do you th in k you'll be a good shop
a b o u t yourself. be good at the job.
assistant?
Give reasons ■jAsk if A has
Simon: Well, I think I'm hard-working and honest. People
(describe yo u r I experience.
also say I'm friendly and helpful.
character, etc).
Mr Andrews: Do you have any experience in this type o f work?
Give d etails ■ ■,Ask w he n A can
Simon: Yes. I worked in a surf shop last summer. Here's a
letter o f recommendation. a b o u t w o rk sta rt.

Mr Andrews: Oh, that's great! If we offer you the job, when experience.

can you start? Reply. Close

Simon: I can start immediately. Thank В fo r conversation & tell


Mr Andrews: OK, Simon, I th in k that's all I need to know. I'll th e ir tim e . A you w ill contact
be in touch. them .
Simon: Thank you very much for your time.
J 13
© Adventure sports
Vocabulary
Spo rts
Match the sports (1-9)
to the pictures (A-l).
О Listen and check, then шм

m ou nta in biking
stree t luge
m otocross
speed skiing
w in d s u rfin g
free divin g
p aragliding
rock clim bing
w h ite -w a te r ra ftin g

b) Which of these sports can


you do: on la n d ? on w a te r ? in
th e a ir ?
Reading
2 Have you tried any of the sports
of the text and the first sentence in each
in Ex. 1a? Which ones do you 4
paragraph. W hat do you think the text is about?
w an t to try? Why? Use the
ideas in the list and any of your W Listen and read to check.

own ideas to tell your partner.


Now read the text again and for questions 1-4 choose
• see amazing scenery 5
the best answer (А, В, С or D). Find evidence in the text.
• try something th rillin g
• go really fast 1 Which o f the follow ing equipm ent does Sara use?
• spend tim e outdoors A an air tank С a monofin
• enjoy nature В tw o flippers D a phone

I've trie d m o u n ta in b ik in g before. I re ally W hat happens to a freediver's lungs as they swim down?
w a n t to try w in d su rfin g because I th in k it's A They get a lot smaller, С They become twice as big.
fu n to go re a lly fa st and spend tim e В They get 22% larger. D They d o n't change at all.
outdoors. Why can Sara hold her breath for so long?
A She is taller and stronger than other women.

Listening В Other activities she does help her.


С She has small lungs.
3 ►
’ Listen to three people each
D She meditates before she dives.
talking about a different sport.
W hat does Sara particularly enjoy when she's diving?
What sport does each person do?
A The th rill o f doing something dangerous.
A Rob ...................................... В The sounds underwater.
В Rachel ...................................... С The peace and quiet.
С Luke ...................................... D The excitement o f trying to bre^k a record.
14
Take a Peep bVQd&i1 * Ф
Sara Campbell takes a final deep breath and dives into the sea. She goes down into
*♦ >
the blue water and carries on going down ... and down. Soon, the people on the
surface can’t see her any more. She doesn’t have an air tank, just a wetsuit,
goggles and a monofin - a large flipper that makes her look like a modern-day
5 mermaid. Sara is a world champion freediver and uses only one breath to take
<
her as deep as she can go and back again to the surface! She holds four
world records and a world championship gold medal.

Freediving is one of the world’s most dangerous sports. On the way


down, a freediver’s lungs shrink to the size of a lemon and on the way о
10 back they double in size. But to Sara, all this comes naturally. After
years of practising yoga and meditation, she can hold her breath $
for over five minutes and her lungs are 22 % larger than other
women her size.

Sara feels completely comfortable underwater. “I just


15 jump in and feel terrific. There are no distractions.
Dogs aren’t barking, phones aren’t ringing, and nobody
is making noise next door. It’s totally silent.”

Sara has a busy life and loves every minute of it. She’s
presenting a TV show, planning environmental campaigns,
20 and training to set a new world record!

g Use words from the C h e c k th e s e w o rd s


box in the correct form to complete the
sentences. final, deep breath, dive, carry on, surface,
hold a record, air tank, wetsuit, goggles,
1 Freedivers' lungs ................................................ as they monofin, flipper, mermaid, champion,
swim down. lungs, shrink, double in size, come
2 S h e .......................................................................as she dove naturally, meditation, hold her breath,
distraction, bark, totally silent,
into the cold water.
environmental campaign
3 It's .....................................................................underwater.!
There's no noise at all.
Speaking & Writing
4 Divers usually wear a(n) ................................ so that
they can breathe at the bottom of the sea. You are a magazine journalist
8 a>
5 Nobody is better than her at freediving. She's and your partner is Sara Campbell. Use
the w o rld ................................ the text to help you prepare questions
6 H e r ............................ keep the w ater out of her eyes and answ ers. Act out your interview in
when she dives. front of the class.

J Match the words inbold w ith their


b) Imagine you are Sara. You
opposites below.
are swimming underwater. What can you
1 expand * 4 aw ful * ... see? How do you feel? In a few minutes
2 old * ......... 5 safe * ...... write a few sentences on the topic. Read
3 quiet * ... 6 shallow * them to your partner or to the class.
(!►) Vocabulary Bank 1 p. VB3) 1 5
Voluntary work

J P e c ie s I

"Phans

plant trees

how to make a difference!


More and more young people are taking on volunteer work Other similar projects are going on across poor villages of
nowadays. Some even travel to the other side of the world and Africa, making sure that kids get an education.
do unpaid work for a charity or other non-profit organisation For people interested in wildlife, conservation groups
there. They help to build homes for poor families, teach children organise volunteer holidays throughout the world. You can help
5 English, take care of orphans, or help to protect an endangered wildlife research in countries like Kenya and Botswana or protect 251
species. There is a wide variety of voluntary jobs to choose from. turtles in Mexico, Zanzibar, or elsewhere. On Redang Island in
A number of charity groups organise educational Malaysia volunteers come from all over the world to help
programmes for children around the world. Many students conserve the endangered green turtle. Participants monitor the
volunteer for these types of projects. They teach subjects like turtles that come onto the beach and protect them and their
10 English and Mathematics to children while staying in their eggs. They also get to enjoy the beach and even snorkel with 30
community and getting to know the people and their culture. It is the turtles sometimes.
also a great opportunity for them to work and train with local A volunteer holiday is for people who want to make a
teachers and develop their own skills. It is a learning experience difference in the world and are prepared to give up their own
for both the children and the teacher. time, money, and, effort to do it. Volunteers have to be realistic
15 Young people who are good with their hands or simply though and understand that they cannot change the world in 35
would like to help in a very practical way can participate in one two or three weeks. To some volunteers it seems that they are
of the many construction projects. Several charity organisations not doing much by helping out for only a couple of weeks but, in
help build houses or schools for poor children around the world. fact, every bit of help counts. Thanks to young volunteers, the
In the village of Kamakwie in Sierra Leone, for example, a team lives of millions of people around the world are improving and, in
20 of young volunteers built a secondary school for poor orphans. their eyes, the sun is probably shining brighter than it used to. 40

ЯШ
Check these words
_ ^
2 Read the text again and mark the sentences
volunteer work, unpaid work, charity, non-profit,
organisation, orphan, endangered species, project, below T (true), F (false) or NS (not stated).
community, develop skills, practical, participate in,
conservation, wildlife research, protect, conserve, 1 Voluntourism has alw ays been popular
monitor, effort, improve
w ith young people. ............
2 You don't need any qualifications to
Reading
participate in voluntourism. ............
] a) Q L is t e n and say. 3 Volunteers get paid a small sum in
return for their help. ............
b) How can the activities in the pictures 4 Teaching English is a popular form of
be related to a volunteer holiday? voluntourism. ............
Q L is t e n and read to find out.
16 5 Some volunteers don't feel that they
give enough. ,
^ What types of volunteer holidays is the text
about? Tell you partner or the class.
Comparisons
4 Complete the sentences w ith: difference, 'J Read the exam ples. How do w e form the
community, foreign, improve, monitor, non-profit, co m parative/superlative form s? Find more
research, volunteer. exam ples in the te x t.
-—— *— ....
1 The International Red Cross is a well-known 1 Sam is m ore org an ised th a n /b ra v e r th a n Jo.
............................. organisation. 2 Harry is the m ost o rg a n is e d /th e b ravest o f all.

2 A team of aid workers are trying t o ......................... 3 A nurse's jo b isn't as dangerous as a firefighter's.

the lives of the people in the village. 4 Lucy is becoming busier a n d b usier a t work.
5 Holly is a b it/a little /s lig h tly /m u c h /a lo t more creative
3 You can make a ................................in the world by
than Jane.
working for a charity. \ /
4 Lots of young people are ready t o .............................
g Fill in th e gaps w ith th e co rrect form o f the
to help clean up the beach.
a d je ctive s in b rackets.
5 Everyone living in t h e ............................... would like
to make it a better place to live. 1 Henry's job i s ..........................................................................
6 The students ................................the turtles and try (in tere stin g ) than Jack's.
to protect their eggs. 2 A: Thanks for your help w ith my CV, Angie.
7 Working in a ............................... country can be a B: I t 's ........................................................(little ) I can do.
very w orthw hile experience. 3 It's g e ttin g ................................a n d .....................................
8 Environmental organisations are doing wildlife (hard) for young people to get their first job.
............................. all over the world. 4 Which job is ...........................................................(tirin g ),

see a shop assistant, a w aiter or a delivery person?


Gram m ar pp. GR1- 5 My student days were some of .................................
flR?
Infinitive/-ing forms ..... ................................................... (happy) of my life!
6 T h e .....................................(m uch) you prepare for an
5 Put the verbs in brackets into the correct interview, the .................................. (good) you'll do.
infinitive or -ing form. 7 It's ............................................................................. (easy) to
1 He's looking fo rw a r d ......................................................... get a good job if you prepare well before.
(start) his new job on Monday.
2 I'd lo v e ............................................................................. (do) Key word transformations
a course on interior design. 0 Com plete the second sentence so th a t it
3 He loves ........................................... (work) w ith kids. m eans the sam e as th e firs t.
4 It's getting difficult ...........................................................
1 Jo organises parties really w ell. (GOOD)
(find) a job nowadays.
5 They didn't let h e r ........................................ (go) out. Jo is ............................................................................ parties.

6 He isn't u s e d ................................. (work) long hours. 2 Mark found it difficult to w rite his CV. (HAD)
Mark ............................................................................. his CV.
g W rite sentences about you and your 3 Ann can't w ait to go to university. (FORW ARD)
friends/relatives. Ann is ............................................................to university.
meet new people 4 Dave's job is better than John's. (GOOD)
enjoy
get a top job John's j o b ............................................................as Dave's.
would love
go to university
(not) w ant
hope
start my/his etc own business Writing
get a summer job
hate
dress smartly
^Q f l ! Which of the volunteer holidays
not mind in the text would you like to go on? In
have job interviews
be used to three minutes w rite a few sentences. Tell
w ork in an office
I enjoy meeting new people. your partner or the class.
» 1
! l Skills
video game tester
Vocabulary lifeguard
Student jobs
^ a) Q L is t e n and say

dog w alker

dishwasher
gardener

babysitter

'livery person

Id en tifying key inform ation

b) Which o f the jobs in Ex.1a are popular in Read the tw o lists of items to familiarise yourself

your country? Which would you like/not w ith the content of the conversation. This w ill

like to do? W hy? help you do the task.

Babysitting is a popular jo b for students in my country. Listening


I'd like to be a gardener or a dog walker because I'd like
to work outdoors. W Listen and m atch each person (1-5) to

2 Read th e te x t b elo w . W h a t is it? W h a t is it the sum m er jo b (A-H) th e y h ave. There are

fo r? Fill in : travelling abroad, degree, lifeguard, tw o e x tra jo b s.

interests, university, shop, grades, waitress. PEOPLE JOBS


0 f \ Sandy A shop assistant
В animal shelter volunteer
Curriculum Vitae 1 Shane
2 Fiona С lifeguard
— Ruth Boswell,--------------- 3 I Bridget D camp counsellor
234 Park Road, Melbourne E w aitress
4 Tony
ruttib@hotmail.com
Date of Birth: 05/08/1990 5 Andrea F dog w alker
G conservation group
— Education-------------------
2008-2012 volunteer
1 ) ............................ in English Literature & French, H swimming pool cleaner
2) ............................ of Melbourne, Australia
Speaking
2006-2008
Melbourne College Asking for personal details
Exam subjects and 3 ) ............................. : English Literature
4 You are an in te rvie w e r and your
(A), History (B), French (A)
partner is Ruth. Use the language in the box
— Work Experience----------------------------------- to ask and answ er questions.
2010-2011 How old are you?
4) .............................. AquaticsCentre, Melbourne
Are you married or single?
2007-2008
What qualifications do you have?
5) ................................ Piper’s Pizzas, Melbourne
2006 What kind of experience do you have?
6) ...............................assistant, Casual Clothing, Melbourne What are your hobbies and interests?
A: How old are you, Ruth ?
— Hobbies & 7 ) ...................... .............................................
Learning foreign languages, swimming, scuba diving and B: I'm ...
8) ............................... 5 W rite yo u r o w n CV. Use Ruth's CV in E x . 2
as a m odel.
18
Writing
A cover letter
? )e,” L u o t p * for the jo b of part-time lifeguard 2) .h a . I read
Read the letter. What is the
about in the Daily Gazette on Tuesday, 3rd April.
w riter's purpose?
I am in my final year at sixth form college and am considering a
career as a PE teacher. 3) I ju s t go. a certificate in Mesavmg and
2 4 3 ^ Which of the following first aid and I feel that a summer job as a lifeguard 4) is a g
does Ruth include in her letter?
idea for me.
Which paragraph is each in? U s . summer, I worked as a receptionist at my local swimming

1 previous work experience pool and as a delivery person in the evenings.


2 her favourite college subject 5 , 1 th in k I'm hard-working and enthusiastic. I am also good at
3 her personal qualities working with people.
4 w hat she looks like 6) H ere’s a copy of my CV. 7) I can come for an interview at your
5 where she likes going on holiday convenience. 8) I can't wait to hear from you.
6 her age and current position
9) Best regards,
7 where she saw the advertisement
8 when she can start work Ruth Boswell

W riting (a cover letter)


Letter writing - formal style
Д Portfolio: You see this job advert on your college website
To write a formal letter you need to use:
and decide to apply. Write a cover letter (120-150 words).
• full forms I am writing to ...
Follow the plan below. Check your work.
(NOT: Urn w riting to ...)
• advanced vocabulary and set phrases
Please find enclosed a copy of my CM
• formal greetings and endings Dear Student to work part-time in bookshop Mon-Fri evenings. Are you

Sir/Madam -* Yours faithfully (when friendly and patient? Do you enjoy working with the public? Send

you don't know the name of the cover letter and CV to: thebookshop@barns.ac.com

person you are writing to) Dear


Mr/Mrs/Miss Smith -> Yours sincerely ШЯЯЯШШШЯШШШЯ
(when you know the name of the Plan'
person you are writing to) Para 1: opening remarks, reason for writing (la m w riting to... which...)
mm
Para 2: current activity, qualifications, reason for wanting the job

3 Correct the register in Ruth's letter. (I am ... years old and... degree, I am considering.../! feel that...)
Para 3: experience
Replace the informal phrases in
Para 4: personal qualities (I h a v e ..., Last..., I consider m yself to be...)
bold in her letter with the formal
Para 5: when available for interview, closing comments (Please find...,
phrases below. I am available..., I look forward...)

I look forward to your reply


Yours faithfully
I am writing to apply for the
position
Checking your work
Please find enclosed
Look through your letter when you have finished to check that:
I consider m yself to be
• you have used a formal w riting style.
I am available
• you have given a good description of your experience and
which w as advertised
abilities.
would be a useful experience
• you have included all the important information.
I recently obtained . /
(fr) Writing Bank 1 p. W B l) 19
о Curricular: psh e
Check these words

key, suit, skills, interest, useful,


blanket, comfort, mood, by
1 Read the dictionary myself, agree on, spontaneous,
entry. Why do you think it is 0L down-to-earth, engineer,
important to choose the right electrician, social worker,
psychologist, film director
career?

career /кэ'пэУ (n) a job or profession


that someone does for a long period.
Jack has a successful career in sales and
marketing.
One of the keys to a happy life is enjoying the job you do. That s
why finding the right job is very important. Take this test to help
W hat career do you w ant to find a career that best suits your skills and interests!
have? Do the test to find out
1 Which item would you describe
what type of career suits you
yourself as?
the best. A A computer - I am very helpful
and useful.
b) Do you agree В A blanket - I comfort people.
С A TV - I have many different
w ith your result? W hy?
moods.
Why not? Tell the class.
2 Which of these activities do you
enjoy the most?
Do you think A fixing and building
certain personality types В talking and listening
are suited to certain jobs? С painting and drawing

In three minutes w rite a 3 How do you prefer to work?


few sentences. Read them A I like to be part of a team.
В I prefer to work by myself.
to the class. С I’ m fine either in a team or alone.
Complete the sentences w ith
4 How do you usually solve a problem?
words from the A I look for a practical solution.
Check these words box. В I try to find a solution everyone
agrees on.
She's very ....................................... and С I often think of a simple solution
no one else thought of.
practical.
W hat ............................................ do you 5 Which colour describes your personality
need to be a social worker? best?
A Green - I am relaxed and calm.
Dan always surprises me. He's so В Yellow - I make people happy.
С Red - I am spontaneous.
Do you know the ................................
who built the new bridge?
I enjoy hanging out w ith my
friends, but I don't mind spending Mostly As
You are a realistic, down-to-earth person who likes to work with
t im e .............................................. either.
materials. You would make a good engineer, electrician, or surgeon.

ICT Choose a career that you Mostly Bs


You are a caring and helpful person who likes to work with people.
think would suit you. Collect
You would be a good nurse, social worker, or psychologist.
information about qualifications,
Mostly Cs
qualities, duties, wage, etc.
You are an artistic and creative person who is also good at solving
Present the job to the class and problems. You like coming up with new ideas, and you would be a
tell them why you like it. good architect, film director, or interior designer.
20
/

Language in Use _
Phrasal verb s/P rep o sitio n s W ord fo rm atio n
Choose the correct partide(s). 2 Fill in the correct word derived from the
word in brackets.
break d o w n : 1) stop working; 2) lose control o f feelings
break in: enter by force (+ break into a building) W o rd F o rm a tio n - Person N ouns
break out: 1) begin suddenly (storm, war); 2) escape We use -e r (work - worker), -o r (sculpt - sculptor),
break o ff: break a piece from something -is t (a rt-a rtis t), -ia n (magic-magician),
bring about: cause to happen -ее (em ploy-em ployee) and
bring sb round: 1) regain consciousness; 2) persuade
-a n t (assist-assistant) to form person nouns.
bring up: raise a child

1 It takes a great ........................................ to make


1 The machines at the factory where Dan works
a great film . (DIRECT)
often break down/up.
2 A .................................. can learn a lo t about the
2 Michael's grandparents brought him up/about
country they stay in. (TOUR)
on a farm.
3 An ............................................ should always be
3 Ann broke out/dow n and started crying when
pleasant, polite and well-prepared. (INTERVIEW)
she heard she d id n 't get the job.
4 The flig h t ..................................... asked everyone
4 The nurse brought him about/round gently
to stay in their seats after the aeroplane landed.
after the operation.
(ATTEND)
5 The police are still looking for the prisoner who
5 Sue is paying an interior .....................................
broke dow n/out o f prison yesterday.
to decorate her new flat. (DESIGN)
6 When Sally dropped her cup, the handle broke
6 The ........................................... is fixing the light
up/off.
in the dining room at the moment. (ELECTRIC)
7 Thieves broke into/out our house while we
were at the cinema.
C o llo ca tio n s
2 Choose the correct preposition.
4 Fill in: zone, breath, shifts, long, p u t o ut, read,
1 I d o n 't mind w orking on my own, but I prefer hold, wages, p a rt-tim e , double. Use the
w orking as part in /o f a team. completed phrases in sentences of your own.
2 Students often get a job to help pay about/for
university. 1 w o r k .......... hours 6 w ork ....................

3 Harry wants to apply to /fo r a job as a lifeguard. 2 get low ................ 7 have a ........... job

4 Smokejumpers jum p out o f/fo r aeroplanes 3 fir e ......................... 8 to ............. a map


into/by burning forests. 4 .................the fire 9 ................... in size
5 take a d e e p ......... 10 to .......... a record

Mark the sentences T (true) or F (false). Correct the false statements.


Read through Module 1 and w rite a quiz of your own.

A smokejumper is a type of A freediver's lungs get smaller


firefighter. as they swim down. .......
UFO stands for Unusual Sara Campbell was the first
Flying Object. woman to dive to a depth
Over half o f all university o f 90 metres. .......
students in the USA have You shouldn't give your address
a part-tim e job. on your CV. .......
* (^) Revision 1 pTl 15~) 2 1
Listening
( M u lt ip le m a tc h in g )

Read the rubric. Think of health problems


related to w orking in differen t jobs, e.g.
d e n tis t: su ffe rs fro m backache, etc. Compare
w ith your partner.
Г — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 4

I You w ill hear five people talking about their i


jobs. Match the sentences (A-F) to the
speakers 1-5. There is one extra sentence that
i does not match. i

A The speaker has an exciting job, but requires


endurance. Ten-year-old Matt is standing on the edge of the roof.
His family and relatives are calling out to him from
В The speaker sometimes feels th eir w ork is never
below. He can’t hear what they’re saying because his
done.
heart is beating louder than their calls. Matt is afraid.
С The speaker feels lost w ith o u t their voice. Suddenly, he hears his mother’s voice. “ Just jump,
D The speaker feels th a t on the w hole the risks Matt!”
are low. You’re probably wondering what’s going on. Why would
E The speaker needs to be careful not to get hurt a mother be telling her son to jump off a building?
w hile practising. Well, in Matt’s family it ’s a phrase you hear all the time
and Matt’s jump is his initiation into the family
F The speaker often suffers from upper back
business.
problems.
Matt was born into a family of stuntmen. In fact, the
1 2 3 4 5 Epper family has been doing death-defying stunts since
the 1930s. They are the fearless Eppers of Hollywood
and danger is their middle name. Matt is the fourth
generation of Eppers who might carry on the business.
2 Q Do the listening task. Which words If you’re watching someone hanging from a helicopter
helped you decide? or a dangerous car stunt, i t ’s probably an Epper doing a
hard day’s work. They have appeared in films like Die
Hard, Commando and Transformers. Of all the crazy
Reading risk-takers in this family, there is one name that stands
(T/F/NS statem ents) out as being the toughest of the bunch. Her name is
Jeannie Epper who happens to be Matt’s great­
a) Read the title and look at the picture. grandmother. She is considered to be the greatest
W hat is the text about? stuntwoman who’s ever lived and has received a
Lifetime Achievement Award at the Oscars. She has
b) Read the rubric, then do the task. been in the business for over 60 years and is still going
strong. She worked as a stunt double for Linda Carter in
1 You are going to read a text about a dangerous job. • Wonder Woman and Linda Evans in Dynasty.
For each statement decide if the sentences are So what’s it like living with the Eppers? Well, with all
i T (true), F (false) or A/S (not stated). the banged-up body parts, you might hear a lot of
creaky bones. Every day, somewhere in Hollywood
1 M att is the youngest member there is an Epper flipping a car or setting themselves
on fire. According to Matt’s great-grandmother, “ When
o f the Epper family.
we do stunts, there’s just no room for fear. You just
2 M a tt doesn't have much experience.
have to close your eyes and jump!”
3 M att's great-grandm other is recognised
for her talents.
4 M att's great-grandm other retired recently.
Speaking b) Q L is t e n to som eone doing the ta sk .

(M a k e d e c isio n s) W hich jo b does the sp eake r choose?


W h a t reasons does she g ive to sup p ort
a) Read th e rub ric, then do the ta sk . Use
her choice?
the p hrases in th e U seful language box.
Г шт т тт т шт тт шт ш т ш т ш т ш т т т т т ш т т т т т т т т т т т т т ш ,.

Look at Picture 1, Picture 2 and Picture 3. Gram m ar - Text Completion


Your English friend, Laura, who is 18, is Read the te x t. Fill in the gaps w ith the
thinking of getting a summer job but she can't proper gram m ar and lexical form o f the
decide what she wants to do. She is very good cap italised w o rd s.
with children and is a star athlete at school.
She wants your advice. Choose one of the When the summer 1 ) ............................. , many COME
three summer jobs below. of us think of getting our swimsuits out
• Choose the summer job which, according and heading for the nearest beach. Some
to you, is the most suitable for her, and even plan a holiday to some exotic
give a reason for your decision. location. For many others, however, it's
• Explain why you rejected the other two.
time to think about working.
2 ) .......................... a summer job isn't always FIND
easy though, especially if you don't have
experience in the particular field. Here's
some simple advice that 3 ) .................... you HELP
get that badly needed summer job. The
most important thing is 4 ) ................................ M AKE
sure you start looking early. Employers
plan the summer well ahead and recruit
early, so the 5 ) .........................you apply, the EARLY
more organised you look. Think about
the areas of work that you are interested
in and focus on the ones that tend
6 ) ........................................ students during the TAKE ON
summer period. Have a look in the local
newspaper classifieds section but
remember that summer jobs are not
always advertised in the newspaper so it
Useful language is a good idea 7) .................................... and GO
I think/To me the most suitable job i s ... because ... ./In visit companies in person.
my opinion ... would be a good job because ... ./...
seems the best option because ... ./I don't think ...
would be appropriate because ... ./I wouldn't decide
Writing (a le t te r o f a p p lic a t io n

to work as a ... because ... . p. W B1)


Cashier: responsible job, meet lots of people, work Read the rub ric, then do th e ta sk .
shifts, repetitive job, work indoors all the time, earn
a salary, have evenings free
Babysitter: mostly work in evenings, need to be good You have seen an advert for a chef training
with children, responsible job, not earn good money, course and want to apply. Write a cover letter
not steady job to apply for the course. In your letter write
Lifeguard: good at swimming, physically fit, spend where you saw the advert, why you think you
time by the sea, have evenings free, demanding & could be a good chef and ask questions about
responsible job, earn good money the course (120-150 words).

23
ce uiving *
in Lake B a ik a tflM Г* - 'V
Lake Baikal in Russia is not only the world’s oldest and deepest
freshwater lake, it is also one of its top ice diving destinations. It is
truly an amazing place of natural beauty and biodiversity and going
there is the dream of many divers. The lake is host to 1085 species
of plants and 1550 species and varieties of animals including the
freshwater Baikal seal.
However, the attraction here is not only the marine flora and fauna
as many of it is very small or almost invisible. Divers come to Lake
Baikal to see the beauty of the ice that covers the lake in winter.
They need to prepare their dives carefully though because diving
under sheets of ice can be very dangerous. If something goes
wrong you can’t just surface anywhere you like. At Lake Baikal,
divers cut a large hole in the ice as an entrance and exit point. They
also draw lines in the ice that they can see from underwater. This will
help them to find their way back to the hole. When they are sure
everything is ready and safe, they dive into one of the most
spectacular experiences in their life Check these words

diving, freshwater, lake, destination, truly, natural


beauty, biodiversity, host, flora, fauna, invisible,
dive, sheet of ice, surface, entrance, exit point

^ Use words from the Check these words


section in the correct form to complete the
sentences.

1 Lake Baikal is the o ld e s t...................................................


in the world.
2 It's not easy to see some of the creatures that
live in the lake; they are almost ..................................
3 In winter, thin ...................................... cover the lake.
4 The lake i s ...............................................to about 2,500
species of plants and animals.

4 Use the information in the text to explain


how an ice diver can dive in Lake Baikal.

5 W hat is your favourite sport? How often do


you practise it? Where do you practise it?
W rite a paragraph. Present it to the class.
»
j Vocabulary: cultural activities, travel experiences,
cultural icons, types of music performances, types
of reading material and books
Grammar: past continuous, past continuous vs past
simple, used to, past perfect/past perfect continuous
Everyday English: expressing opinions
Pronunciation: intonation when expressing emotions
Writing: a story
Culture Corner: Lady Gaga: The queen of pop
Culture & Stories
Curricular (ICT): Social Networking
Phrasal verbs: fall, get, give
Word formation: abstract nouns from verbs
Russia 2: Russian Sounds: The Balalaika

MB#
Vocabulary
Cultural activities
Match the phrases (A-F) w ith
1 What did you do last
the pictures (1-6). w eekend?
О Listen and check, then say.
Last weekend I went to a rock
taking a guided tour of a concert. It was great.
museum
attending a rock concert
having a ballet lesson
reading a classic novel
“'**•••
practising playing the flute **•
watching traditional
dancing

2 The pictures w ere taken


yesterday at 6 o'clock in the
evening. What w ere the people
doing in each picture (1-6)?

1 He was reading a classic novel.


2 They w ere...

IU Hi !
Seeing the world

^ Choose th e co rrect w o rd . Check in yo ur


d ictio n a rie s.

1 He shared/divided his adventures with his


friends.
Vocabulary
2 We grabbed/caught the first train home.
T r a v e l e x p e r ie n c e s 3 I can't stand mosquitoes b iting/stinging me.

a) Fill in: got bitten, got stolen, went on, tried, got 4 The wind started p u ffing /b lo w ing strongly as
caught, made, travelled, caught. we were going to the village.
Q Listen and check, th en say. 5 We took an hour to reach/arrive the village.

see
b) H ave you had any o f th ese exp erien ces Gram m ar ^ GR3/
w h ile tra v e llin g ? Tell yo u r p artner.
Past continuous
A: I once got caught in bad weather in Ireland. It rained Read th e ta b le . Find exam p les in th e te x t.
a lot and it was very windy. What about you?
В: I went on a boat trip around the Caribbean once and I
We use past continuous to talk about actions in progress
got seasick! It was horrible.
at a certain time in the past.
Form: w as/w ere + main verb + -ing
Reading
AFFIRMATIVE
Look at pictures 1-8. W hat do you think I was travelling. He/She/It was travelling.
happened to John in India and Thailand? You w ere travelling. We/You/They w ere travelling.
О Liste n , read and check. Time expressions used with past continuous: while,
when, as, all day/morning/year, etc, at 8 o'clock yesterday
Read again and com plete th e sentences. morning, etc.

Spelling:
1 In India, John wanted to v i s i t ..................................... ,
• verb + -ing talk-talking
but he w ent to ............................................ by mistake. • verb -e + -ing make-m aking
2 He w ent back to Delhi b y .............................................. • one-syllable verb ending in vowel + consonant -»
3 It took John ..............................to get back to Delhi. double consonant + -ing swim - swimming
4 During his boat trip, John f e l t ...................................... • a stressed vowel between two consonants -> double

5 He lost his passport because ....................................... consonant + -ing begin-beginning


I’m John Thompson from Chicago, USA. I’m 19 years old, and I was travelling around the world all
: year. I learnt so much about different cultures and I had some crazy experiences, too. I thought I’d
share some of my adventures with you. I hope you enjoy them!

T ravellin g by oxcart!
I was travelling in India last September. One day, I somehow caught the wrong bus while trying
to get from Delhi to Agra to see the Taj Mahal. I ended up in a small village in the middle of
nowhere! “Next bus back to Delhi... tomorrow,” the bus driver told me. Just then, a man was
passing by with an oxcart. The bus driver stopped him. Before I knew it, I was sitting on top of
some sacks on the man’s cart, and we were heading back to the city. Most of the way, it was
raining, and mosquitoes were buzzing around the ox and biting me. Sanjit only spoke Hindi,
but he was smiling and laughing all the way, and he even shared his lunch with me. It was
very spicy but delicious. It took us four hours to reach Delhi! Despite the rain and
I mosquitoes, it was a lot of fun.

Big waves and little monkeys!


I had another crazy day while I was visiting the Phi Phi Islands in Thailand in March.
One morning, I decided to go on a long-tail boat trip around the islands. Unfortunately,
the wind was blowing strongly that day and before long, I was feeling very seasick. So, I
was very relieved when we stopped at a place called ‘Monkey Beach’. Hundreds of
monkeys were running towards us as we got off the boat. But then, as I was feeding a piece
of pineapple to one monkey, another grabbed my small backpack and quickly ran into the
bushes with it! I tried to run after it, but it was too fast. The bag had my passport in it! I never
saw my passport again. I had to get a new one from my embassy in Bangkok!

culture, experience, adventure, end up, in the


middle of nowhere, pass by, sack, head back to,
buzz around, bite, share, long-tail boat, grab, Listening, Speaking & Writing
bush, run after, passport, embassy
Q Listen to Sarah ta lk in g abo ut her
exp erien ce w h ile tra v e llin g in Ecuador,
Use the verb s in the list in th e past and put th e e ve n ts in the order th e y
continuous to co m plete th e sentences. happened.

• w rite • buy • ride • take (x 2 ) A She realised it was just a branch.


В Her kayak hit a rock and she fell out.
At 11 o'clock yesterday m orning...
С It was moving closer to her.
1 John ............................................ a camel in the desert.
D She decided to go on a kayaking trip.
2 Harry and Suzy ...................................................... photos
E She saw a crocodile in the water.
of the Pyramids.
3 P e t e r ............................ a boat trip on the Nile River.
b) Use th e sentences from Ex. 8a to w rite
4 Kim and Sam ................................................... souvenirs.
a sh o rt account o f th e sto ry fo r Ann's
5 M e g a n .....................................................some postcards.
tra v e l w e b site . Tell the class.

Speaking I was travelling in Ecuador and I decided...

Tell yo u r p artn e r w h a t you w e re doing:


Which o f the tw o adventures in
at 9 o'clock last night, yesterday morning,
the te x t did you enjoy m ost? W hy? In three
at 10 o'clock this morning.
m inutes w rite a fe w sentences. Tell the class.
At 9 o'clock last night, I was writing emails.
27
Times change

Google was the brainchild of Larry Page and Sergey Brin. They met in 1995 at
Stanford University, USA, while they were studying Computer Science. You could say
Google started with an argument as, at first, Sergey and Larry didn't really get on!
In fact, they argued and disagreed on just about everything. However, there was
one thing they did share: a commitment to making the Internet more user-friendly.
At that time, Internet search engines were slow and complicated. They listed search
results according to the number of times the search term appeared on a page. Larry
and Sergey found this frustrating. An idea came to them: why not list search results
according to a website's popularity?
10 So, they set about creating a search engine that could calculate how important a
particular web page was. At first, their research received a fair amount of criticism
from experts, but the two friends didn't give up and managed to raise enough
money from investors, family and friends to support themselves.
While they were developing the search engine, Larry and Sergey realised it needed
15 a catchy name. They were inspired by a mathematical word, 'googol' which means
'1 followed by a hundred zeros'. They thought it was a really good name,
considering the endless amount of information available on the Net, and so 'googol'
became 'google'.
In 1998, Larry and Sergey set up their office in a friend's garage and Google went
20 online. Soon, they were answering thousands of search requests per day. People
really liked Google's simple, neat design and, of course, its speedy performance!
Before long, Sergey and Larry moved their operations to a new headquarters they
called Googleplex.
In 2000, Google introduced ten foreign language versions and officially became the
25 world's most popular search engine. Google now responds to about a billion search
requests per day and its success shows no signs of fading. For most people seeking
information, Google is the place to go!

Check these words

Heading & Speaking brainchild, argument, search engine, commitment,


user-friendly, complicated, frustrating, popularity,
W hat is Google? What does its name mean? calculate, a fair amount, criticism, investor, catchy,
How do you think it got started? inspired, neat, performance, headquarters, respond, fade
О Listen and read to find out.
Complete the sentences w ith words/
Read the text again and mark the sentences phrases from the box.
below T (true) or F (false).
Google made the Internet m o re ................................
1 Larry and Sergey usually shared the for everyone.
same opinions. ......... They thought of a ..............................................................
2 Google was the first search engine name to attract attention.
on the Net. ......... It's very ....................................................when you can't
3 From the very beginning, everybody find the information you w ant on the Internet.
thought Google was a good idea. ......... The company's new ................................................are in
4 It took a while for Google to become New York.
successful w ith Internet users. ......... The company's plans received a lot o f ...................
5 Google is gaining popularity nowadays................. .....................................so they didn't go ahead.
a) Tell the class a short sum m ary o f the te x t. Past continuous vs
past simple
b) Im agine Google w e n t dow n
Read the th eo ry. Find m ore e xam p les in the
fo r a w e e k . H ow w o u ld th is a ffe c t the
te x t in Ex. 2.
live s o f th o se w h o use it e ve ry day? In
th re e m in u tes w rite a fe w se ntences. PAST CONTINUOUS
Tell th e class.
for actions which were happening at a specific time in
see the past.
Gram m ar P; gr3 We w ere sleep ing at 2 o'clock yesterday afternoon.
for two actions happening at the same time in the past.
Past continuous (n e g a t iv e ,
Sam was w orking in the garden while I was cooking dinner.
in t e r r o g a t iv e & s h o r t a n s w e r s )
for an action happening when another action interrupted
Read the table. How do w e form the negative it. He was re a d in g a book when the doorbell rang.
and interrogative in past continuous"? PAST SIMPLE

for completed actions in the past. He le ft last Monday.


N EGATIVE
for actions which happened one after the other in the
1w a s n 't w orking. He/She/It w a s n 't w orking.
past. He w e n t dow n the cellar stairs, opened the door, and
You w e re n 't w orking. We/You/They w e re n 't working.
w a lk e d inside.
*
INTERRO GATIVE SHORT AN SW ERS
IHas 1 w orking? Yes, 1was./No, 1wasn't. Put the verb s in b rackets into past
Yes, you w e re ./ continuous or past simple.
W ere you w o rk in g 1
No, you w eren't.
Иlas he/she/it w orking1 Yes, he/she/it w a s ./
W ere we/you/they No, he/she/it wasn't.
w o rk in g ? Yes, we/you/they w e re ./
In 2004, 23-year-old Mark
No, we/you/they w eren't.
V ................................... Zuckerberg, 1 ) ..................................
_ (launch) Facebook while he
Form q u estio n s and fu ll a n sw e rs based on
2 ) .................................................. (study) at Harvard University.
th e te x t in Ex. 2, as in th e exam p le.
People 3 ) .........................................(want) a university website
1 Larry and Sergey/study/Maths in 1995? with students' profiles, so Mark 4 ) ....................................................
И/еге Larry and Sergey studying Maths in 1995? (decide) to dosomething about it. 1,200 students
No, they weren't. They were studying Computer 5 ) ...................................... (sign up) within 24 hours! He then
Science. 6 ) .......................................... (expand) the site to include other
universities. Mark 7 ) .............................................. (face) some
2 Search engines/list results/according to popularity/
before Google?
difficulties, though. Three Harvard seniors 8 ) ...............................
(insist) that while Zuckerberg 9 ) ...............................................
3 Larry and Sergey/work/from their house in 1998?
(work) on a similar project with them, he
4 People use Google/in 1998?
10) (use) their ideas to create Facebook.
This 1 1 )...............................................(not/stop) Mark, though,
Use th e w o rd s to ask and a n sw e r
and Facebook soon 1 2 )...............................................(become)
q u e stio n s in p airs.
the biggest social networking site in the world with 500
you/study/9 o'clock yesterday evening? million users to date.
A: Were you studying at 9 o'clock yesterday <5Li ajL

evening?
B: No, I wasn't. I was watching TV. Speaking & Writing
you/walk in the park/last Sunday afternoon?
you/chat on the phone/an hour ago?
10 Imagine you are M ark in Ex. 9.
Describe the events leading up to your creation
your friend/eat dinner/8 o'clock last night?
o f Facebook. Tell yo ur partner or the class.
your parents/work/last Saturday morning?
(У|frotabularyBank2pVB4) 29
Culture Corner
*| W ho is Lady G ag a? H ow are th ese nam es > Read again and a n sw e r the questions.
related to her?
1 W hat musical instrument does Lady Gaga play?
• Manhattan • Germanotta • Bach 2 Who has she w ritten songs for?
• Britney Spears • Twitter 3 How did she help herself to become famous?
• Tisch School of Performing Arts 4 W hat does Lady Gaga use to create her image?
• J Listen and read to find ou t.

Ш 1S W string, sensation, phenomenal, play


by ear, outrageous, social media,

TKe q u e .e .r\ o-P pop lyrics, reigning, icon, pop culture

With a string of No. 1 hits, an armful of awards and dream the hard way, moving out of her parents’ home
chart-topping albums, Lady Gaga is a worldwide to a cheap flat, while trying to earn a living as a singer-
songwriter. It wasn’t easy. Gaga spent a few years
' sensation. How did it all start though, for the
performing in clubs without success. Then, her luck
Italian-American girl from Manhattan, and how
started to change.
did she achieve such phenomenal fame? She began writing songs for successful artists like
Lady Gaga was born in 1986. Her real name is Stefani Britney Spears and The Pussycat Dolls and music
Joanne Angelina Germanotta. She executives quickly spotted her talent for writing pop
could play the piano by ear from hits. Meanwhile, Gaga was developing her own image
the age of four and later said her and performance style, wearing outrageous costumes,
musical inspiration wigs and make-up.
was the Lady Gaga set up her own website, as well as
classical MySpace, Twitter, YouTube and Facebook profiles to
composer promote her music. This was the turning point. She
Johann grabbed the attention of the world. She even made her
Sebastian Bach. songs available as free downloads. Lady Gaga also
Gaga always loved used these social media sites to chat with fans about
performing and dreamt of various things such as her latest fashion statement or
fame from an early age. At the lyrics of a new song. In fact, Lady Gaga’s Twitter
17, she became one of the page now has 7.5 million followers!
youngest students at the Lady Gaga shows no sign of slowing down. She writes
Tisch School of songs, she sings and she dances, surprising
Performing Arts in audiences with her unusual clothes. Her talent and
New York. After that, hard work have made her a reigning icon of today’s
she followed her pop culture.

^ TH IN K ? H o w is Lady Gaga an icon o f


1И Q u o ta tio n j
today's pop cu lture? In three m inutes w rite a
You have to be unique and fe w sentences. Tell the class.
different and shine in your
own way.
ICT Find info rm atio n about a popular
Lady Gaga
m usician in yo ur country. This could include:
when/where born, how they became famous, type
o f music, image/performance style. W rite a
sh o rt te x t. Read it to your partner.
Everyday English
Expressing opinions
^ Q Listen and say. Which type of
performance did you last see?
Did you enjoy it? Tell the class.

a) Q Listen and say. Which


sentences: ask for an opinion?
express a positive ( / ) opinion?
express a negative (X) opinion1

• W hat w as it like?
• It was fantastic!
• The dancers were amazing!
6 a classical
• Did you enjoy it? a play a pop/rock concert music concert
• Not really.
• It was nothing special. 3 Find sentences in the dialogue which mean: Of course!-What
did you think of it? - Did you have a good time? - It wasn't great.

Intonation: expressing feelings


b) W hat did Julie and Mark do
on Saturday? Did they like 4 a) Q Listen and say.
it?
Q Listen and read the ^4

dialogue to find out. Really? Really?


interest/surprise/enthusiasm disbelief/annoyance

b) О Now listen and tick ( / ) the adjective that best


Mark: Hi, Julie - it's Mark! I tried
describes each speaker's feelings. Is each speaker's
calling you on Saturday
intonation rising or falling? Listen again and say.
night, but you didn't
answer your phone. 1 I don't believe it! a annoyed О b surprised Q
Julie: Oh, hi Mark! Yes, sorry! I 2 What's the problem? a interested Q b annoyed Q
was at the ballet. 3 Sure! a enthusiastic О b disbelieving I |
Mark: Really? W hat w as it like? 4 N o w ay! a surprised [I] b annoyed
Julie: It was fantastic! The
dancers were amazing! Speaking
What did you do on
Imagine you saw a performance last Saturday and
Saturday?
your partner is asking you about it. Use the sentences in
Mark: Oh, I just stayed home w ith
Ex. 2a to act out your dialogue. Follow the diagram.
my brother and we watched

Julie:
a film on TV.
Did you enjoy it?
О О
Say who it is & explain you tried / ' ^ G r e e t A & say where you
Mark: Not really. It was nothing calling on Saturday. were.
special. Listen, do you w ant Express surprise & ask В X - — — :-^ G ive your opinion & ask
to go for a w alk later?
w hat it was like. w hat A did on Saturday.
Julie: Sure!
Say w hat you did. Ask if A enjoyed w hat
Reply. Suggest d o i n g ^ C l l he/she did.
something later. Agree.
» 31
H I f you w a n t to w atch a music p erform ance th at
I com bines song, dance, and striking design, just
fo rget about the latest pop video. Take a look at a
truly original style of musical perform ance: Chinese
* I' opera. Last m onth I w as on a trip in Shanghai. I w as 5
staying w ith my Chinese friend Mai-Li. She insisted
th at w e go to the Chinese opera and I have to adm it
th e experience w as am azing from beginning to end.
O pera has a long history in C hina. In ancien t tim es,
actors perform ed th e operas on th e streets on 10
tem porary stages w ith only hanging lantern s fo r
lig h tin g . It's fu n n y to th in k th a t such grand art started
o u t like th at!
W e arrived at th e th e a tre ju st befo re th e lights w e n t d o w n .
As th e cu rtain rose, the actors cam e on stage in th e ir 15
b eautifu l irostum es; th e fie ry reds and ribbons o f gold and
silver w e re like a kaleidoscope o f colour! The costum es go all
the w a y back to th e street sho w days, w h e n the actors used to
к w e a r b right colours to stand out in th e d ark.
■ The singing w as q uite strange - very sharp and high-pitched. 20
Just like th e costum es, th e singing style w as really ancien t. The
street perform ers used to sing th a t w a y so th a t th e ir voices
could carry over th e crow ds w h o g athered to w a tch .
*! The opera w e saw w as 'Lady W h ite S nake'; a classic Chinese
fo lk ta le . A w h ite snake changes into a b eau tifu l girl, and 25
th en fa lls in love w ith a hum an. But th e actors d id n 't only tell
th e story th ro u g h song; the dancing and acrobatics w e re
fa n tastic, too . The actors used not only th e ir faces but also
th e ir w h o le bodies to act o u t th e story and sho w th e ir em otions.
These actors train very hard at opera schools fo r years from abo u t 30
th e age o f 7 or 8. Th ere w e re n 't a lot o f stag e props or scenery
because th e actors use a lot o f sym bols to help tell th e story. An
actor g allop ing w ith a w h ip , fo r exam p le, m eans th ey are riding
a horse. Doing som ersaults from a ta b le or a pile o f chairs
m eans th e y are running dow n a m o un tain. 35
The actors' m ake-up w as incredible. Each colour has a special
m eaning and reveals som ething abo u t th e ir character; red
m eans loyalty and bravery, black show s a w a rrio r or a w ild
character, blue m eans cruelty and gold and silver m eans
mystery. A t th e fin a le , it w as breathtaking to see them all 40
on stage to g e th e r in th e ir b rig ht costum es and make-
^ Л up. I d id n 't th in k th a t opera w as for me, but I can't
believe h o w much I enjoyed it. You m ust all see
Chinese opera one day!

Study skills Look at the p ictures and read th e title


Predicting content and th e firs t and last sentence o f each
The title, photographs and the first and the last paragrap h o f Iris' blog en try. W h a t do
sentence in each paragraph help us predict the you th in k Chinese opera is lik e ?
content of a text. G Listen and read to find o u t.
a) Read the text again. For each 'A a
question (1-5), choose the
correct answ er А, В, С or D.
ancient times, hanging, lantern, grand, start out, fiery,
1 When Chinese opera first started, ribbon, kaleidoscope, sharp, high-pitched, crowd,
qather fall in love w ith, acrobatics, emotion, gallop,
A it didn't have any lighting.
w hip, 'somersault, reveal, loyalty, bravery, warrior,
В performances took place outside.
w ild, cruelty
С there was no stage or costumes.
D it w asn't very popular. see
p. GR4
In the past, the actors wore costumes
that were
Used to
A very simple. a) Read and find exam ples in the text.
В only red, gold, and silver.
С easy to see. AFFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE
D easy to wear. I/You/He, etc used to go to I/You/He, etc didn't use to go
musicals a lo t as a child. to the opera.
The actors sang in a high-
pitched voice because they INTERROGATIVE SHORT ANSWERS
w anted to Did l/you/he, etc use to go to Yes, l/you/he, etc did.
A help the audience hear. the cinema? No, l/you/he, etc didn't.
В follow tradition. We use used to or past sim ple for past habits or actions
С make the audience laugh. that happened regularly in the past but do not happen
D attract more attention. now. He used to have/had short hair. BUT He went to the
|
xOpera yesterday. (NOT: He used to go to the Opera yesterday.)
The audience mainly follow the story of a
Chinese opera through the singing and b) W rite sentences about ancient Greek
A a lot of props and scenery. theatre using used to/didn't use to.
В the colours on the characters' costumes.
С changes in the lighting. 1 it/be/very popular (/ )
D the characters' movement and make-up. It used to be very popular.
2 Women/perform (X)
At the end, we learn that Iris was
A planning to see the opera again.
3 They/perform in outdoor theatres. ( / )
В surprised that she enjoyed the opera.
С not interested in going to another opera.
D unsure if her readers would enjoy Chinese opera. 4 The actors/wear masks ( / )

b) 5 The
Match the words in actors/wear make-up (X)
bold in the text with their
meanings: amazing & impressive,
W rite tw o th in g s you used to do w hen you
something I like, be clear, shows, therefor
w ere 10 and tw o th in g s you did n 't use to do.
a short time, be heard.

M atch the h ig h lig h te d w ords in the te xt When I was 10,1used to go to the cinem a every week.

w ith th eir descriptions (1-7).

The people who take part in the performance.


Make notes under the headings. Use them
This rises at the beginning of the performance
to present the Chinese opera to the class.
and comes down at the end.
The actors & actresses wear these. • costumes • singing • actors
The objects or furniture used in a performance. • stage props/scenery • make-up
The performances take place on these.
The painted backgrounds that show where the
In three minutes w rite three
story takes place.
reasons w hy someone should attend a
The use of lights to give different effects during
Chinese opera. Tell another group or the class.
the show.
33
w w w .cu ltu ral-ge ta w ays.co m

v,> -T he H aunted City of York


If you like the idea of exploring historic places around the world, the city of York
in northern England should definitely be on your list of places to visit. The
Romans founded this city in 71 AD and it's full of fascinating history and culture.
It's a lot of fun to go on a city tour of York and walk along the ancient city walls,
visit York Minster, one of the largest medieval cathedrals in Europe and wander
down the pretty cobbled streets. York is also famous for something else. It is one
of the most haunted cities in the world, with about 140 ghosts! In fact, York's
many night-time ghost walks are very popular with tourists as they are an
entertaining and spooky way to learn about the city's history. One York ghost
story, however, stands out above all the rest. It's the story of the Treasurer's
House, one of York's many historic buildings...

One day in February 1953, a plum ber, H arry M a rtin d a le , had been in th e
cellar o f th e Treasurer's House since m o rn in g . He had heard lots o f stories
a b o u t th e place b eing h au n te d . Just b e fo re m idday, he w as w o rk in g w hen
he heard a stran g e noise like a tru m p e t. He looked back and saw th e
h e lm e t o f a Roman sold ie r co m in g th ro u g h th e w a ll! H arry c o u ld n 't believe
his eyes. Then, a w h o le s o ld ie r on a horse came th ro u g h th e w a ll and le ft
th ro u g h th e w a ll on th e o th e r side! T w e n ty m ore Roman soldiers fo llo w e d
him . They w e re m arching u n h a p p ily in pairs and th e y w e re carrying shields
and spears. W h a t H arry h a d n 't n o tice d w as th a t th e soldiers w e re n 't
w a lk in g on th e flo o r o f th e cellar, because he c o u ld n 't see th e ir legs.
W h e n he re alised th a t, H arry ran o u t o f th e cellar, te rrifie d . He fo u n d
o u t la te r th a t som e R om an s o ld ie rs had g o n e m issing in Y o rk m any
c e n tu rie s b e fo re .
M a yb e th e s o ld ie rs he sa w w e re th e m issing s o ld ie rs a n d th e y w e re
w a lk in g on th e o ld R om an ro ad b e lo w th e ce lla r!
W a n t to k n o w m ore? V is it w w w .v is itv o rk .o rg fo r m o re in fo rm a tio n
a b o u t Y o rk a n d its g h o s tly a ttra c tio n s ! I

haunted, explore, historic, found, fascinating, ancient wall,


Vocabulary & medieval cathedral, wander, cobbled street, ghost, spooky, stand
out, march, shield, spear, terrified, find out, go missing, ghostly
Reading & Speaking attraction

a) Look at the pictures. W hich


show s: Read again and num ber the e vents in the order th ey
happened. Use the pictures to te ll your partner a
1 a plumber w orking in a cellar?
sum m ary o f the story.
2 a soldier on a horse coming
through the wall? A I I He saw the helmet o f a Roman soldier coming through
3 Roman soldiers marching, carrying the wall.
shields and spears? В | | A horse w ith a Roman soldier on it w alked through the
4 a man running out o f a cellar? cellar.
С | I Harry ran out o f the cellar.
b) Q Now listen to the sounds. D| I Harry Martindale, a plumber, w ent to w ork in the cellar.
W hat do you think the text is E| |He heard a strange noise like a trumpet coming from the
about? Tell the class. wall.

F | I Twenty Roman soldiers marched through in pairs, carrying


c) Q Listen, read and check.
shields and spears.
34
Fill in: medieval, city, cobbled, ghost, ancient. Put th e verbs in brackets in to past simple,
Use th e phrases to m ake sentences. past continuous, past perfect or past
1 ..................to u r; 2 ....................c ity w alls; 3 .................... perfect continuous.
cathedrals; 4 ......................streets; 5 ......................story

4 Choose th e correct w o rd . Check in your


dictionaries.
A scary night!
The 1) historic/historical city of York is a 2) popular/
typical holiday destination in England. The Romans Last summer, Jim and his friend Bob
3) created/founded York almost 2,000 years ago on the 1) ................................ (decide) to spend
northeast bank of the River Ouse. Tourists enjoy the night in a haunted castle. They
4) wondering/wandering York’s narrow streets during 2) ............................. (travel) since morning so
the daytime and taking part in ghost 5) walks/marches at they 3 ) ............................. (feel) very tired when
night. People believe that a lot of places there are they finally 4 ) ...................................(arrive) late in
6) ghostly/haunted. One such place is the Treasurer’s the evening. After they 5 ) ..................................(have)
House whose 7) history/story is quite fascinating. A a light dinner, they 6 ) ...................................... (go) straight
plumber working there heard a noise then saw Roman to their room. They 7 ) ....................................(lie) in their beds
soldiers coming through the walls 8) carrying/bringing for an hour, when suddenly they 8 ) .........................................
shields and spears. When the plumber 9) observed/ (hear) loud footsteps in the corridor. They 9 ) ..........................
noticed the soldiers had no legs he left the cellar (try) to open their door, but it seemed it 10)...........................
10) terrified/afraid. (get stuck)! Eventually, the door 1 1 )..................................
see (open) and a woman in a white dress 1 2 )...............................
pp. GR4- (appear). She 1 3 )......................................... (walk) slowly and
G ra m m a r GR5 14) ...................................(sing) a sad song. They immediately
Past perfect/Past perfect 15) .................................... (run) out of the castle and never
continuous 16) ................................ (go) back again.

Read th e th eory. Find exam ples in th e te x t.


Key w ord transform ations
Past Perfect Continuous (hadbeen + verb -ing)
C o m p lete th e second sentence so th a t it
AFFIRMATIVE l/you/he, etc had been working. 8
m eans th e same as th e first. Use th e w ord
NEGATIVE I/you/he, etc hadn't been working
in bold.
INTERROGATIVE Had l/you/he, etc been working?
Yes, l/you/he, etc had. He had lunch, then he visited the library. (AFTER)
SHORT ANSWERS
No, l/you/he, etc hadn't. He visited th e lib r a r y .................................................
................................................................................lunch.
Put th e verbs in brackets in to past perfect or
The m useum closed before w e arrived. (TIME)
past perfect continuous.
The m u s e u m .................................................................
1 They w e n t to th e m useum a fte r t h e y .................. .................................................................w e g o t there.
......................................... (finish) th e ir hom ew ork. They w a ite d a t th e bus stop fo r an hour, then
2 They g o t lost because th e y .................................... th e bus came. (UNTIL)
(n o t/ta k e ) a map w ith them . The bus d id n 't c o m e ..................................................
3 S h e .................................... (alread y/arran g e) to go ................................... fo r an hour a t th e bus stop.
to Edinburgh so she d id n 't come w ith us to York. She spent th e w h o le m orn ing in th e garden and
4 T e rry ......................................... (w o rk) in the cellar she was tire d . (WORKING)
since m orn ing and he fe lt very tired. She ...................................................................................
5 H e ............................................. (n o t/sleep ) fo r tw o in th e garden since m orn ing and she was tire d .
days and fe lt exhausted. They d id n 't take a compass w ith them and they
6 Her eyes w ere re d .....................................(she/cry)? lost th e way. (TAKEN)
7 S h e ......................................... (live) in York fo r ten They g o t lost because th e y ....................................
years before she decided to m ove to London. ..................................................................... w ith them .
35
80 %
Skills 60 %
V o c a b u la ry 50 %
Types o f reading material 40 %
^ a) The bar chart shows w h a t
types o f reading m aterial UK
teens prefer. Use th e 20 %
language b e lo w to read it. 70%
• M ost people/The m a jo rity (80% +)
• A lo t o f (60% -70% ) • H alf o f (50% )
• Tw enty percent o f (20% ) • A fe w (10% )
S p e a k in g
• Very fe w (5% ) • No one (0% ) 4 a) О Listen and repeat.
M ost people prefer reading books. A: W h a t are you reading, Suzy?
B: It's a fantasy novel called The Golden Compass
b) W h a t do you Types by Philip Pullman.
p refer
A: W hat's it about?
reading?
H o w o fte n Books B: It's abo ut a girl w ho lives in a strange universe.
A: Is it good?
do you read?
B: Yes, it's great. I can't put it dow n!
C LASSIC NO VEL Jj

i CRIME THRILLER b) Use th e ideas belo w and the


a) О Listen and
say. W h a t do NON-FICTION Щ language in th e box to replace the
you enjoy | BIOGRAPHY w ords in bold and act o u t sim ilar
reading? dialogues. You can use your ow n ideas.
HORROR p
| ADVENTURE 1 adve ntu re novel - The Lost Symbol, Dan Brow n -
b) W h at's your
ROMANCE | a historian w h o m ust fo llo w an ancient sym bol
fa v o u rite
2 fantasy novel - Clockwork Angel, Cassandra
book? W h a t | SCIENCE FICTION
Clare - a teenager w h o tries to save th e w o rld
is it about?
I FANTAS^M Expressing positive Expressing Negative
I enjoy reading fantasy novels. My favourite one is ... It's opinions © opinions ©
• It's great/fantastic/ • It isn't that good, really.
abo ut...
amazing, etc. • I d on't really like it.
L isten in g • I really love it. • It's boring/slow-moving/
• I'm really enjoying it. dull, etc.
3 O Y o u 'll hear Brian and Stacey ta lk in g • I can't put it down. • I'm not really enjoying it.
a b o u t books th e y read recently. For
sentences 1 to 6 listen and tick ( / ) 5 * Discuss th e questions, then te ll the
T (tru e ) or F (false). T F class abo ut your partner's reading habits.
1 Stacey has ju s t read a biography.
1 W h a t do you usually read?
2 She really liked th e book.
2 H ow m uch tim e do you spend reading?
3 She fo u n d th e ending a b it slow.
3 W here do you read? (at home, on the bus/train, in
4 O thers recom m ended this book to
a cafe, etc)
Brian.
4 W h a t was th e last book you read? W h a t was it
5 He liked it from the beginning.
called? W h a t was it about?
6 He has read lots o f o th e r sim ilar
books. Anna often reads crime thrillers. She reads every d a y ...
3 6 (!►] Vocabulary Bank 2 p. MBS)
A sto ry
Read th e rubric. W h a t should
you w rite ? Should it be a first
The Haunted Castle by Ben Smith
or a th ird person narrative?
One afternoon last winter my ^ ^ i n g to rain, so we
Your college English club has | Castle. When we arrived, it was тгeezmg
asked its m em bers to send in 1
stories a b o u t strange experiences 1
th e y had. W rite yo u r story in I
120-180 w o rds and su b m it it. The ■ Ь й в д а - . . — —
best story w ill appear in next we were lost. taii man wearing old-fashioned
m onth's club newspaper. Luckily, as we turned a corner, ^ ^ fo||ow him. As we walked he
clothes and carrying a lantern. e He ke in a strange, old-fashioned
Read th e story and an sw er the told us about the paintings on the wa . P jn ^ entrance
way and when I asked him a ques on .he щ тЖ
questions.

1 How does the w rite r set the scene?


character - place - time - weather
2 W hich is the climax event in th e l
story?
3 How did the characters feel in the
We'll never forget this experience. ---------
end?

a) Read th e W ritin g Tip. 4 Replace th e adjectives and adverbs in th e paragraphs


b elo w w ith : quickly, roaring, horrible, extremely, heavily,
m relaxing, terrifying, chilly.
Using adjectives & adverbs
It was a(n) 1) very cold evening. I was hurrying home and looking
Use a va rie ty o f adjectives and
forward to a(n) 2) good night in front of a(n) 3) nice fire. Suddenly, it
adverbs to m ake yo u r sto ry m ore
started raining 4) a lo t and I decided to get a taxi.
in te re stin g .
A ta ll th in man walked slo w ly towards We were 5) very lucky to escape and ran away as 6) fast as we could. It was
us. a(n) 7) scary experience for all of us, and we promised never to go back to that
8) bad house again.
b) Which adjectives does the
author use to describe the a) Q Listen to an experience Ben had w h ile he w as in
following? Rio de Janeiro and answ er th e questions in th e plan.
• the rooms • the castle Plan 11ЯШИ£ЯНИННННИНННН
• the floor • the man
The Best Dancer
• the man's clothes
Para 1: W ho were the main characters? Where were they?
• the w orkm an • the guide
W hat were they doing? W hat was the w eather like?
c) List all the adverbs used in
Paras 2 & 3: W hat happened? (The events of the story in the
the story.
order they happened.) W hat was the clim ax event?
Para 4: W h a t happened in th e end? H ow did th e m ain
character(s) feel?
Sequence o f events in stories
Always w rite the events in a story in
b) Im agine you are Ben. Use ideas from Ex. 5a to w rite
the order they happened. This helps
his story fo r th e college m agazine (120-200 w ords).
the reader fo llo w the story.
( * ; W riting Bank 3 7
Curricular: ict
a) H o w do you com m unicate w ith you r friends?
Do you use social n e tw o rk in g sites such as
Facebook, M ySpace, T w itte r, etc?
b) H o w do social n e tw o rk in g sites w ork?
U Listen, read and check.

H E U U D rtiS
http://www.facebook.com/
viorW?
Do you use Facebook, MySpace, Twitter,
Friendster or Linkedin? If so, then you are
part of a social network. Social networking n etw o rk to see it. The next step is to search the
sites allow us to see our social connections. n etw o rk fo r y o u r contacts, brow se fo r new o ne s and
We can see our friends and their friends add th e m to y o u r netw ork. You can invite offline
through pictures and links in a user-friendly frie n d s to jo in by em ail or search fo r frie n d s w h o are
interface. a lrea dy sig n e d up by nam e, sch o o l, or w o rkplace.
Then you can search yo u r frie n d s ’ co n n e c tio n s for
W hen you create a profile on a social n e tw o rking a nyo ne else y o u ’d like to add to yo u r netw ork.
site, you open up a h ug e range of p o ssib le social D ifferent social n e tw o rkin g sites a llo w p e o p le to
c o n n e ctio n s. You can lo o k up old friends, m ake new in teract in d ifferent w ays. There are stra ig h tfo rw a rd
frie n d s and share m usic, p h o to s and v id e o s w ith sites th a t a llo w you to expa nd yo u r persona l
them . You can also jo in g ro u p s based on your c o m m u n ity such as F acebook. Then there are ones
interests or h o b bies, favo u rite TV sh o w s or m usic. th a t involve m e d ia sharin g, such as Y ouTube,
Setting up a social netw o rking a cco u n t is sim ple. You w h ere m e m b e rs u p lo a d and look at o th e r p e o p le ’s
ju st create and p ost a personal profile. For this you pictu re s and videos. T here are also one s th a t
need a login nam e, passw ord and an em ail account. spe cia lise in sharin g m usic, such as Last.fm , and
Then you add som e personal inform ation such as finally, one s th a t a llo w b lo g g e rs to fo rm online
nam e, age, sex, location, interests, etc. You can also co m m u n itie s, such as Livejournal.
a dd a p h o to o f yourself. You can personalise your The latest trend in social netw orking is to create your
profile and share as m uch in form ation a b o u t yourself ow n in d epen dent social netw ork. C om panies do this
as you w ant. You can also co n tro l w h o sees your to p rom ote their brand and in dividuals can d o it to
profile. For exam ple, you can m ake sure th a t you only create a very tight-knit com m unity.
a llow the frie n d s th a t you have a dd ed to your
Check these w ords
social netw orking site, connection, user-friendly
2 a) Read th e te x t and answ er th e questions. interface, post, profile, login name, personalise,
contact, browse, interact, straightforw ard,
1 W hat is the purpose o f social n e tw o rk in g sites? expand, com munity, media, blogger, trend,
2 W hat kinds o f th in g s can you do w hen you create a independent, prom ote, tig h t-k n it
profile ?
3 H ow do you set up a social n e tw o rk in g account? W h y do you th in k
4 H ow can you personalise yo u r profile ? social n etw o rks have becom e so
5 H ow do you build up yo u r list o f friends? popular? In th re e m inutes w rite a fe w
6 W hat d iffe re n t kinds o f social n e tw o rk sites are there? sentences. Tell an o th e r group or th e
7 W hy are some com panies creating th e ir ow n social class.
netw orks? /| ICT in small groups, find o ut more
b) Use your answ ers and th e w ords in th e in fo rm atio n ab o u t a social n etw o rk e.g.
box to te ll you r p a rtn er T w itter. Present your in fo rm atio n to the
a b o u t social netw orks. class.
Language in Use
Phrasal verbs/Prepositions W ord form ation
Choose th e correct p a rtid e (s ). Fill in th e correct w o rd derived from th e
w o rd in brackets.
fall for: become attracted to
fall out: argue and stop being friends Word Formation - Abstract nouns from verbs
fall through: not happen (plans) We use these endings to form nouns from verbs:
get away: escape -ance (annoy-annoyance), -(t)ion (act-action),
get on/off: enter/leave a bus/train -ment (enjoy - enjoyment) and -al (refuse-refusal).
get along with sb: have a friendly relationship
get through: reach by phone
give away: make known, give free o f charge 1 The volcanic .............................................. at th e end
give off/out: produce (smell, gas) o f th e film was am azing in 3D. (ERUPT)
give up: stop a bad habit 2 The lead actress made a p e rs o n a l........................
to p ro m o te th e new film . (APPEAR)
1 I kn o w you've already read the book, so d o n 't
3 Jack w e n t to see th e band's ..............................
give u p /a w a y th e end ing!
a t th e a irp o rt. (ARRIVE)
2 Emma trie d to call th e th e a tre , b u t she c o u ld n 't
4 W h a t tim e does th e ........................... s ta rt
get o n /th ro u g h .
th is evening? (PERFORM)
3 We g o t o ff/o n th e bus and sat d ow n behind
5 The ....................................... says th e rock concert
th e driver.
starts a t 7:30. (ADVERTISE)
4 John's plans to trave l around Asia last m onth
6 The Sydney Opera house is Sydney's m ost
fell o u t/th ro u g h at th e last m inute.
po p u la r to u ris t ............................................................
5 M ary gets aw ay/alo n g w ith Jo really w e ll.
(ATTRACT)
6 The fire gave u p /o ff a lo t o f smoke.

Choose th e correct prepo sition. Collocations


1 Harry dream ed o f/u p tra v e llin g the w o rld . Fill in: spicy, grab, classic, search, officially, lead,
2 The m useum is p op ular fo r/ w ith to u rists. bright, social, play, blow.
3 Peter w e n t in/on a business trip to China.
1 ..................... engine 6 . ....................novel
4 I w a n t to share my experiences w ith /in you.
2 ..................n e tw o rk 7 .. ...................by ear
5 He le ft the room in /a t a hurry.
3 .......................singer 8 . ............... became
6 We w e n t to /o n a guided to u r o f th e museum.
....................colours 9 ................stro n g ly
7 The actors all w e n t on/in stage in /w ith th e ir
.........................food 10 th e a tte n tio n
b rig h t costum es fo r th e finale.
8 The search results appear on/in th e screen
instantly.

M ark th e sentences T (tru e ) or F (false). Correct th e false sentences. Read


th ro u g h M o d u le 2 and w rite a quiz o f your o w n .
Larry Page studied engineering. In Chinese opera blue m ake up
The Taj M ahal is in Delhi, India. means m ystery.
Lady Gaga's musical in spiration G oogol means I fo llo w e d by a
was M ozart. thousand zeros!
4 Google w e n t online in 1998. Lady Gaga was born in the 1980s.
5 Chinese opera actors tra in from
th e age o f 10.
( y j Revision 2 p. 116
Skills * I

L isten in g
( M u l t i p l e c h o ic e )

a) Read th e rubric, th en th e questions


and possible answ ers. W h a t w ill th e
d ialo g u e be about?
Г ————————————————————n
I You w ill hear a conversation betw een tw o i Kungur Ice Cave is near the town of Kungur in the Ural
friends, A n tho ny and Clara, w h o have just Mountains in Russia. It is one sf the biggest and most
i finished reading a book. Choose the correct 5 fascinating caves in the world and is the only cave in
Russia that has been adapted for tourist excursions.
answer A, B, or C.
L — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — J
People say that Kungur Ice Cave is like a labyrinth 5
1 W hat type o f book did A n th o n y and Clara read? inside. It consists of a network of passages and a
A fantasy В crim e novel С romance number of grottos of various sizes. Some of these
grottos are fifty to a hundred metres in diameter and up
2 W h a t did Clara dislike a b o u t it?
to twenty metres in height. In all, the cave contains
A The auth o r's w o rd in g was annoying.
about 60 lakes, over 20 grottos, and around 6000 Ю
В The story was com plicated.
metres of passages. Currently, tourists have access to
С The language was to o d iffic u lt.
about 1.5 km of these passages.
3 A n th o n y th o u g h t the sto ry w a s ... The Kungur Ice Cave has become a very popular
A intensive. В exciting. С boring. attraction over the years thanks to its impressive ice
formations, and it now receives over 90,000 visitors a 15
4 Clara recom m ends th e book to ...
year. An excursion through Kungur Cave is a truly
A children. В teenagers. С adults.
unique experience. Visitors are amazed and delighted
by its beauty and charm once they enter. As they
b) Q Do th e task. Com pare you r answ ers continue into its depths they get a feeling of dizziness
w ith you r partner's. because the high level of oxygen in the air and the thought of 20
getting lost in its labyrinths is frightening for some people.
R e a d in g The main grottos have their own names. The first one tourists
get to see is the ‘Brilliant’. It is full of breathtaking crystal
(T/F/N S) formations of different shapes. Lights shine on them and make
a) Read th e title and th e first sentence in them sparkle with different colours. The Meteor Grotto is also 25
each parag raph. W h a t is th e te x t about? quite impressive and even scary for some visitors, as it is always
in complete darkness. The ‘Titanic’ is famous for its big
b) Do th e reading task. W hich w ords helped underground lake and is one of the most interesting grottos. The
you decide? Compare w ith your partner. Long Grotto, as its name suggests, is the longest grotto in
Kungur Ice Cave, measuring around 200 metres. It has a number 30
r ————————————————————4
of small lakes with crystal clear water and an entrance to the
You are going to read a text about an unusual
reserved part of the cave where scientists carry out
place. Read and mark each sentence 1-5
research. When leaving the cave visitors often get a feeling
T (true), F (false) or A/S (not stated).
of returning from a long voyage to the centre of the Earth.
The best time to visit Kungur Ice Cave is in late spring
1 The K ungur Ice Cave is n o w open to the
when the ice stalactites reach their maximum size. The
public. cave is easy to reach from major towns and numerous
2 K ungur Cave is th e only ice cave in R ussia.. travel agencies organise excursions.
3 There is n 't m uch oxygen in the cave. Remember to wear warm clothes and
4 Some people have to leave the cave comfortable footwear during the trip.
because th e y are so afraid.
5 You can visit th e cave all year round.

40
b) Now use your list to talk for 1.5-2 m inutes
гттга about th e topic. Use the ideas below .
Com pleting a te x t
Read the te xt once to get the gist. Read again Useful language
carefully and try to understand w h a t part o f speech • I usually log in to ... in the evening.
is missing in each gap, i.e. noun, adjective, etc. This Pros:
w ill help you do the task. Read the com pleted te xt • allow people to be in touch,
to see if it makes sense. • help people stay in contact w ith friends & family,
I» offer a great choice o f activities: send messages,
W ord form ation chat, exchange videos etc.
Cons:
Fill in th e gaps w ith th e proper gram m ar
• people may spend too much time in front o f screen -
and lexical form o f th e w ords in brackets.
I unhealthy,
• can get addicted to,
G o u g h ’s Cave, n e a r th e village o f C h e d d a r in
I • not socialise for real,
Som erset, w here c h e d d a r cheese 1 ) ......................
• dishonest people can trick users
(origin), is a p o p u la r to u rist attraction. T h e
cave is p a rt o f C h e d d a r G orge, a spectacular
valley with b re a th ta k in g scenery. T h e cave
reaches about 400 m etres into th e rock a n d W ritin g (stories - W ritin g Bank 2)
contains a n u m b e r o f large cham bers a n d
a) Read th e rubric.
2 ) ............................ (nature) stru ctu res, such as
Q Listen to an experience som eone
stalactites a n d stalagm ites. An u n d e rg ro u n d
had and m ake notes to answ er th e
riv er cre a te d the caves which fea tu re som e
questions in th e plan.
3 ) .............................. (interest) historic rem ains.
E xplorers o f the area have fo u n d cave
i The college English club has asked its members
paintings a n d carvings a n d also the grave o f the
to send in stories about strange experiences
4 ) .......................(old) com plete h u m a n skeleton
I they had. W rite your story in 120-200 w ords
in th e country, C h e d d a r M an. Scientists believe
and send it to the editor. The best story w ill
he d ied over 8,000 years ago a n d they have
i appear in next m onth's club newspaper.
discovered, th ro u g h DNA 5 ) .............................. Ъ mm mm mm

(test), th a t his d istan t relative is a school teacher


w ho still lives in C heddar!
Plan
V™._______ /
Para 1: W ho w ere the main characters?
W here w ere they? W hat w ere they
Speaking
doing? W hat was the w eather like?
4 a) Read th e rubric. In pairs, th in k o f w ords Paras 2 & 3: W h a t happened? (The events o f the
relate d to th e topic. story in the order they happened.)
Г — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — _ — — 4
W h a t was th e clim ax event?
i Give a 1.5-2 m inute talk on social networking.
Para 4: W h a t happened in th e end? H ow
Remem ber to say:
did th e m ain character(s) feel?
I • w h e th e r you use social n e tw o rk in g sites
or n ot
I • w h y you th in k social n e tw o rk in g is so b) Do th e w ritin g task.
pop ular
i • w h e th e r you th in k there are disadvantages
to social netw o rking
41
When you think of Russian folk music, the balalaika immediately comes
to mind. This wonderful triangular shaped string instrument from the
17th century is one of Russia’s national symbols. The early balalaika

\
was a very simple and cheap instrument to make and was very popular
with poorer people who were living in the countryside. Many wealthy
people looked down on the instrument and considered it more like a
toy. However, in time more musicians began to like it and to take it
seriously.
One 19th century musician by the name of Vasily Vasilievich Andreyev
\ had become interested in the balalaika as a young boy and had learnt
to play it. Later, when Andreyev was working as a musician in the
salons of Saint Petersburg he began to write music for the balalaika and
perform solo concerts with the instrument. He then created an
orchestra with balalaikas of different sizes. It was so successful that the
musicians performed at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1889. With this,
the balalaika had found its place in modern music and had become
_ popular even with the upper classes in Russia. It would soon
become one of the country’s national instruments
R e a d in g & L isten in g and part of Russian identity.

1 ^ ’ Listen to th e music. H o w does it Ё ^ ^ ^ ^ Н Ш с Ь е с к th e s e w n r H ^ ...........................................


you feel? W h a t does it m ake you thi
Tell your partner. triangular, string, look dow n on, take seriously,
salon, perform , solo concert, orchestra,
Shapes exhibition, upper class, national, id e n tity

a) О Listen and say.

4 Read th e te x t again and answ er th e


questions.

1 W h a t does th e balalaika lo ok like?


2 W hen did people first start playing the balalaika?
square rectangular tria n g u la r 3 H ow did rich people consider th e balalaika?
4 W hen did A ndreyev s ta rt w ritin g music fo r the
balalaika?
5 W h a t happened in 1889?

S p e a k in g & W ritin g
round oval 4 Tell your p a rtn e r fo u r things you have
le a rn t ab o u t th e b alalaika.
b) Look at th e picture. W h a t do you know
abo ut th e balalaika? W h a t shape is it?
H ow is Vasily Vasilievich Andreyev ICT Collect m ore in fo rm a tio n
related to it? ab o u t th e balalaika. W rite a parag raph.
О Listen and read to find out. Present it to th e clasS.
42
Vocabulary: the weather, extreme activities, types o f
accom m odation, verbs related to the weather,
camping equipm ent, outdoo r leisure activities
Gramm ar: fu tu re tenses (w ill/going fo/present
co n tin u o u s'p re se n t sim ple w ith fu tu re m eaning);
co n d itio n a ls typed 0, 1, 2, 3; wishes
Everyday English: booking accom m odation
Pronunciation: stress in com pound nouns
W riting: a sem i-form al email asking for inform ation
Culture Corner: The Appalachian Trail
Curricular (Geography): Caves
Phrasal verbs: go, look
Word formation: adjectives from nouns
Russia 3: Extreme Places: The Taiga
m m

V o c a b u la ry W hich o f th e extrem e
Extreme weather w e a th e r conditions are
com m on in yo u r country?
Q Listen and say.
C o m plete th e sentences.

Today, th e w e a th e r is .........
Q Listen to th e w e a th e r forecast and
com plete th e sentences w ith th e w ords
Tom orrow , I th in k it w ill be
from Ex. 1.

In M iam i, USA, th e re w ill b e ...............


In D ublin, Ireland, th e re w ill b e .........
In Edinburgh, Scotland, th e re w ill be
In Paris, France, th e re w ill be .............
In New Delhi, India, th e re w ill be .....

Choose a p h o to g rap h and describe it to th e


class. Talk about:

• place • tim e o f year • w e a th e r • people


• clothes • a ctivitie s • feelings

a storm

a blizzard

a heatwave
a hurricane
Matt of the Antarctic
My year in Antarctica
WEATHER Week 1 - My Antarctic adventure begins!
SNOW & ICE W IND Hi, everyone!
Well, here I am at the scientific research station in Antarctica, the coldest.
blizzard/ windiest, and driest continent in the world! It's summer right now, so the
tornado
lO snowstorm
weather is quite 'mild' - it's 0°C today! There are still a lot of gales, though,
and of course, the sun never sets in the summer, which is really weird!
Despite the freezing cold, the scenery and wildlife here are incredible. There
are seals everywhere and yesterday I saw a humpback whale.
Everyone is warning me about the winter here! The temperature will drop to
breeze about -40°C and the sun won't rise at all. There will only be 20 of us and we
won't have any visitors for 7 months. It'll be difficult, but at least I'm going to
be very busy. As a marine biologist, I'm going to study the way marine
SUN & CLOUDS wildlife adapts to extreme temperatures. I'm also going to do a survey of the
threatened Emperor Penguin. I can't wait to start!
storm sunshine
Tomorrow, all the newcomers are going on a survival course for a week with
ski-doos and sledges. We're going to camp in the snow and learn things like
sunny what to do if we fall down a crevasse*. I hope there won't be a blizzard like
spells the one we had on my first day here.
Well, bye for now! I'll tell you all about the course when I'm back at the
research station next week.
light
clouds Matt
Crevasses are d e e p cracks in th e ice, s o m etim e s co vered by sn o w !

shower heavy
clouds
.istenmg

drizzle TEMPERATURE a) Look a t M a tt's blog. W h ere is M a tt? W h y do you


th in k he's there? W h a t is it like there?
W Listen and read th e blog e n try to fin d o u t.

boiling hot i 35°C b) Read and m ark th e statem ents as T (tru e) or F (false).

1 Summers in Antarctica are warm . ........


h o t] 25°C
2 You can see the sun at night in the summer
warm/mild 15°C months in Antarctica. ........
3 There is no w ildlife there. ........
4 There's no sun during the winter. ........
5 M att is on a business trip to Antarctica. ........
freezin
6 It's M att's first tim e in Antarctica. ........
7 The survival course lasts a week. ........
V o c a b u la i 8 M a tt is going to stay there for a month. ........
The weather
Fill in: humpback, drop, sets, research, marine, survival, freezing.
О Listen and rep ea t. W hich o f
... sta tio n course
these w e a th e r conditions are
cold 6 tem p era tures
com m on in yo u r cou ntry in:
.... w hale 7 th e s u n ...........
w in te r? spring? sum m er?
b io lo g ist
autum n?

In the winter, it's often chilly, but not freezing Д, M atch th e underlined w ords in th e te x t to th e ir
cold. There's sometimes heavy rain, but we opposites: set, common, hottest, boiling hot, shallow, idle,
don't have any blizzards... etc wettest, ordinary, intense.
The research station - this will be my home for the next year!

3 responses:
Great blog, Matt! I'll follow it with interest - from my nice cosy house!
PeteS, 10/12 at 11:35 am
Sounds amazing there, Matt, but so cold!
TimT, 12/12 at 5:35 pm
That's nothing, Tim! Inland, the temperature drops to -70°C in the winter.
Matt_S, 13/12 at 8:47 pm

Check these w ords

scientific, research station, continent, mild, set,


scenery, seal, humpback whale, warn, drop, rise,
marine biologist, adapt, survey, can't w ait, newcomer,
survival course, ski-doo, sledge, crack, covered

Choose th e correct w o rd . Check in you r dictionaries.


S p e a k in g & W ritin g
1 The sun rises/raises in th e east.
2 He threatened/warned us about the extreme w eather conditions. a) W h a t did you kn o w a b o u t
3 Tem peratures fa ll/d ro p to -1 0 °C here in the w in te r. A ntarctica? W h a t did you
4 Anim als can a d a p t/ad ju st to th e ir e n viro n m e n t to survive. learn a b o u t it from th e
5 We should protect extinct/threatened species or they'll die out. te x t? M ake notes, th en te ll
th e class.
Gram m ar see
p.GR5
Future tenses >.... W hat I knew W ha t Fve learnt

Fill in the gaps w ith the verbs in brackets in the correct tense.
Explain your choices. Check in the Grammar Reference. b) Д Д Ш М Im agine you are
1 A: W h a t are your plans fo r th e w eekend, Dave? one o f th e new com ers. You
В: I ...................................................(go) h ikin g in th e m ountains. are back from th e survival
2 A: It's really cold in here! course. Send an em ail to
В: I ........................................................................ (put) th e heat on. your English frien d . W rite
3 A: I've g o t so m any th in g s to do to prepare fo r my skiing w h a t you did and how you
trip next w eek! liked it. Read it to your
B: D o n 't w o rry. I ..............................................(give) you a hand. p a rtn er or th e class.
4 A: W h e n ...................................................... (yo u /b e) free to n ig h t?
В: I d o n 't know . I'll call you w hen w e ................ (get) hom e.
ICT { ^ C o l l e c t in fo rm a tio n
5 A: W hy are you buying th a t g u idebo ok a b o u t A ntarctica? 8
В: I ................................................. (visit) A n tarctica next m o n th ! ab o u t A n tarctica, th en present
6 A: W h a t tim e ..............................................(the p lan e/take off)? it to th e class.
B: It ............................................................... (take o ff) at 8:15 pm.
(!►) Vocabulary Bank 3 p. VB6) 4 5
- i 3 Extreme outdoors
bungee lumping
V o c a b u la ry
Extreme activities
M atch each a c tiv ity (A -H ) w ith th e e q u ip m en t (1-8)
О Listen and check, th en say.

1 an in fla ta b le arm chair and flippers


2 a Chinese frying pan, a helm et and ladles
3 an ironing board and an iron
4 an ice axe and boots w ith m etal spikes
5 a four-w heeled m otorbike and a helm et
6 a board and protective clothing
7 a surfboard connected to a kite volcano surfing
8 an elastic rope

You need an in flata ble arm chair and


flippers to go river bugging.

R e a d in g
2 a) Look at th e te x t. W h at МШ
do you know about Ik b%
W Ш ЯЩ
these th ree activities?
■L
H ow can you go faster
w hen doing each one? w e ird , craze, e ru p t, ash,
Read to find out. wok racingj p ro te ctive , slope, speed,
w o rld cham pionship,
co m p e tito r, tip , b o tto m ,
com pete, m e lt, rest, rapids,
co n tro l, w e b b e d gloves,
backw ards

Volcano Surfing If yo u w a n t to try th is n e w River Bugging You can sit in it, b u t you
craze, y o u 'll have 1 ) .................................to N icaragua's w o n 't g e t any rest in th is in fla ta b le arm chair. A
Cerro N egro volcano. W hen th is active volcano erupts, rive r bug speeds you a lo n g a riv e r and d o w n
it th ro w s o u t ash th a t's p e rfe c t 2 ) ................................... rapids. If you 5 ) ................. to c o n tro l it w e ll,
s u rfin g on. H ike fo r 45 m in u te s to th e to p o f th e
y o u 'll need w e b b e d gloves and s h o rt flip p e rs.
m o u n ta in , w a lk a ro u n d inside th e sm o kin g volcano,
Go backw ards to go faster. The o n ly p ro b le m is
th e n p u t on som e p ro te c tiv e c lo th in g and fly d o w n
th a t you c a n 't see 6 ) ....................... is c o m in g if
th e slope a t 50 k m p h ! If you sit d o w n on y o u r board,
you go backw ards. W atch o u t fo r th a t rock!
y o u 'll go even faster.

Im ag ine speeding d o w n an icy tra c k b) Read the te x t and for each gap (1-6)
a t 60 km p h in a Chinese fry in g pan. W o k racing sta rte d choose th e w ord th a t best fits.
as a jo k e on G erm an TV, b u t it soon becam e very
1 A to tra ve llin g С travel
p o p u la r and n o w 3 ) ...................................................... is a
В to trave l D tra ve llin g
w o rld ch a m p io n sh ip every year. For p ro te c tio n ,
c o m p e tito rs w e a r a special suit and h e lm e t and th e y 2 A in В w ith С at D fo r
also p u t ladles on th e ir fe e t! So h o w do you 3 A it В th a t С th e ir D there
4 ) ..............................................? W ell, here's a h o t tip - if you 4 A w in В beat С come D earn
w a rm th e b o tto m o f y o u r w o k b e fo re c o m p e tin g , it 5 A see В th in k С feel D want
m elts th e ice and you go faster. 6 A w hat В th a t С there D it
C o m p le te th e c o n d itio n a l ty p e 1 sente n ce s
w ith th e c o rre c t fo rm o f th e v e rb s in
b ra c k e ts .

If you ....................................(n o t/w e a r) pro te ctive


clo th in g w hen w o k racing, you .............................
(g e t) h u rt.
Unless you ......................................... (lik e ) g e ttin g
w e t, you ..................................................(n o t/e n jo y )
river bugging.
2 Fill in: slopes, compete, Y o u .......................................... (have) b e tte r co n tro l
clothing, track, m elt, control, erupt, rapids. o f yo u r river bug if you ............................................
(use) w ebbed gloves and flippers.
W hen did th e volcano la s t ..................................... ? Unless you ........................................... (w e a r) boots
Never go volcano surfing w ith o u t w e aring w ith spikes, you ............................ (n o t/b e able)
p ro te c tiv e ...................................... to go ice clim bing.
The .....................o f th e m ou n ta in are very steep. He (s h o u ld /n o t/try ) river bugging unless
He w e n t d ow n th e icy ....................... a t 80 km ph. h e ........................................... (k n o w ) h o w to sw im .
Ten team s o f ten people each w i l l ........................
in th e to u rn a m e n t. P ut th e v e rb s in b ra c k e ts in to th e c o rre c t
They spread salt on the road to ............................ te n se . W h a t c o n d itio n a l ty p e is each
th e ice. se n te n ce ?
The river offers beautiful scenery and challenging
W hen th e te m p e ra tu re ................................. (d ro p )
..................................to those w h o seek adventure.
b e lo w 0°C, w ater turns to ice.
They trie d to ................................. th e ir canoe, b u t
If you like extrem e sports, y o u ...............................
it tip p e d over and th e y fell in to the w ater.
(lo v e ) ice clim bing.
see Unless he ....................................... (tra in ), he w o n 't
Gram m ar p GR6 be able to go ice clim bing.
C on d itio n al types 0, 1 They always p u t on sunscreen w hen th e y ...........
....................................................(go) volcano surfing.
Read th e exam ples. H o w do w e form
If y o u ............................ (n o t have) a four-w heeled
co n d itio n al types 0, 1?
m o to rb ike , you .........................(c a n /n o t/g o ) quad
If/When ice gets hot, it melts. (Type 0) racing.
If we visit Nicaragua, we'll go surfing. (Type 1)
W hen iron gets w e t, it ...................................(ru st).
If you like extreme sports, try quad racing. (Type 1)
C o m p le te th e sentences.
Unless I train, I'll lose the game. (= If I don't) (Type 1)
......................................... 8
Unless I ..........................................................................
W rite con d itio n al ty p e 0 sentences using If th e w e a th e r gets cold, ........................................
th e phrases. If I study late in th e e v e n in g ,.................................
Unless my frie n d s .......................................................
1 y o u /fa ll in to a river (y o u /g e t w e t)
Snow m elts w hen i t ..................................................
If you fa ll in to a river, you get wet.
2 you/do river bugging backwards (you/go faster) Speaking & Writing
3 l/exercise (I feel b etter)
4 y o u /p u t an in fla ta b le object in w a te r (it/flo a t) Q Listen and read th e te x t on
5 y o u /h e a t w a te r (it/b o il) p. 46 again. Com pare and con trast th e th ree
6 w e /g o o u t on a h o t day w ith o u t sunscreen sports. In fiv e m inutes w rite a fe w
(w e /g e t sunburnt) sentences. Tell th e class.
47
а Culture Corner Check these w ords

trail, hike, stunning, scenery, step, make


it, fo o tp a th , run thro ugh, natural beauty,
rocky, deer, moose, raccoon, coyote,
bobcat, get lost, pile, hut, special o ffe r

Mountains/Hiking Trails X National P a rks W Photos Y Accommodation links,


If you w a n t to hike through some o f the most stunning scenery in North America, then
the Appalachian Trail is for you. It takes over five m illion steps to w alk it and only 1
person in 4 makes it all the way.
►W hat is it?
The Appalachian Trail is a fo otpath th a t runs through 14 states from M ount Katahdin,
Maine, in the north to Springer M ountain, Georgia in the south. It follow s the
Appalachian M ountains through over 3,200 km o f incredible natural beauty.
► W h a t can I see^
The trail passes through forests and valleys, across m ountain tops and down rocky paths. It's
home to some w ildlife you'll w a nt to see, and some you'll w a nt to avoid! There are harmless
deer, moose, and raccoons, but there are also dangerous black bears, coyotes and bobcats.
Don't w orry about getting lost. Every 400 metres, there are w hite signs called 'blazes' on
trees, rocks, and posts. If you climb above the forest, you'll see a breathtaking
view, but you'll also see piles o f stones called 'rock cairns' to guide you.
► W here can I stay?
M ost hikers stay at one o f the 250 campsites and shelters
(huts w ith an open fron t) along th e tra il.

L
Click on Accommodation links' for more information and special offers!

^ The w e b s ite is a b o u t th e A ppalachian Trail, Use w ords from th e Check these w ords
a hiking tra il in th e USA. W hich sentences box to com plete th e sentences.
b e lo w are T (tru e ) or F (false)?
1 From th e to p o f th e m o u n ta in , th e re was a
1 It's easy to w a lk along all o f th e tra il. ....................................................... vie w o f th e valley.
2 The cam psite on ly costs £10 per n ig h t. It's a
2 It covers five states.
3 It's over 3,200 km long.
3 They trie d to finish th e tra il, b u t th e y d id n 't
4 You m ig h t see dangerous anim als along
th e tra il. 4 Take a map w ith you in case you ..........................
5 You ca n 't camp along the tra il.
Tell you r p a rtn e r th ree thin gs you
w Listen and read th e te x t to find ou t. rem em ber a b o u t th e A p palachian Trail. Use
Correct th e false sentences. w ords from th e <З И Э Е 0Е box.

a) M atch th e w ords/phrases in bold to


ICT v j j j t ' ^ l n small groups, collect
these d efin itio n s: keep away from , the
in fo rm a tio n a b o u t an area o f n atu ral
whole distance, heaps, show the way, not
b ea u ty in you r cou ntry and create a short
dangerous, amazing, not finding your way.
w eb page ab o u t it. Include: w h at it is (nam e,
b) Nam e th e anim als in th e pictures using w h e re it is, etc), w h at you can see there, where
w ords from th e te x t. you can stay.
48
Everyday English l b
B o o k in g
accom m odation
<1 Q Listen and say. W hich o f
these types o f accom m odation
have you stayed in? W hen?
W h at w as it like?

a) «. Listen and say. Pay


a tte n tio n to th e
p ronu nciation.

• H ow can I help you?


• I'd like to book a room ,
please.
• Single, please.
• H ow m uch is it per night? 2 Find sentences in th e d ialo g u e w hich m ean: May I help
• Does th a t include breakfast? you? - 1want to make a reservation. - Do you want a room for two
• W h a t name, please? people or for one person ?
• We lo ok fo rw a rd to seeing
you. Intonation: stress in co m p o u n d nouns
b) О Listen, read and answer Д Q Read th e th eo ry, th en listen and repeat.
the questions.
The stress in com pound nouns usually falls on th e firs t
1 W h a t room is M r Jones booking?
syllable: double room
2 H ow m uch w ill it cost?
3 H ow iong w ill he stay?
4 W h a t flo o r is his room on? bedroom campsite youth hostel ski lodge room service

R: Good morning - Red Ridge Hotel. How Speaking


can I help you?
J: Hello. I'd like to book a room, please. Imagine you are going on holiday w ith your
R: Certainly. When for? friends and you w a n t to book accommodation at the Sea
J: 19th June, for tw o nights. View self-catering apartm ents. Act out your dialogue.
R: Do you w a n t a double or a single Follow the plan.
room?
J: Single, please.
R: Let me check what we have available ... О О
Yes, we have a room on the 3rd floor. Greet B, giving name o f Say you'd like to book a
J: Great. How much is it per night? accom m odation, o ffe r to help. flat.
R: It's £85. Ask date & how long they are State date & how many
J: Does that include breakfast? staying. nights.
R: Yes, it does.
Ask h o w m any bedroom s State num ber o f bedrooms.
J: OK. Can I book it then, please?
R: Certainly. W hat name, please? they w a n t.
J: Ethan Jones. Check fo r vacancies. Ask price.
R: OK. Your booking reference is 6793581. State cost. Agree and book it.
That's 6793581. We look forward to Ask fo r B's name. Give your full name.
seeing you. Give booking reference.- Thank & say goodbye.
J: Thank you. Goodbye.
;
energy
from
SUN

a Climate change
Reading
Read th e d e fin itio n and look a t th e
d iagram . W h a t causes high tem p eratu res?

global w a rm in g /gtaubal 'woimiq/ (n) th e increase


o f th e average te m p e ra tu re on Earth

Look a t th e p h o tog raphs in th e te x t. H ow


can g lobal w arm in g a ffe c t life on our
planet? W h a t can w e do?
Q Listen and read to find o u t.
global w arm ing, heat up, fault, fossil
fuel, greenhouse gas, surround,
Read again and m ark th e sentences
blanket, trap, trouble, m elt, clim ate,
T (tru e ), F (false) or NS (n o t s ta ted ). report, polar ice caps, vanish, low -
lying, wave, coastal, under threat,
1 M ost o f th e w o rld 's m o untain glaciers cover, serious, in great danger,
w ill m elt in the ne xt 100 years. starve, drow n, extinct, drought,
unpredictable, reduce, energy-saving
bulb, tu rn up, expert
2 It m ig h t n o t be possible to go on
holiday to th e M aldives in 2100.
anim als are in danger
3 Ice in G reenland is m eltin g o f losing th e ir h ab itats Global Warning!
m ore slo w ly th a n five years \ The Earth is heating up and most
ago. scientists believe that it's all our fault. When
w e burn fossil fuels, greenhouse gases such
as carbon dioxide increase and surround the
4 Polar bears come from earth like a thick blanket. This traps heat and
G reenland. temperatures rise. Scientists say that in the next
100 years, average temperatures w ill rise by
about 3°C. This doesn't sound like a lot, but it
5 In a hundred years, polar means BIG trouble! Ice is already melting, sea
bears may be e xtin ct. levels are rising and the climate is changing. How
exactly is all this changing our world, and w h at will
happen if w e don't act in time?
6 W arm er seas cause
m ore extrem e w eather.
Cities under the sea
According to recent climate reports, melting ice from
the polar ice caps and mountain glaciers could cause
M atch th e w ords in sea levels to rise by about 1 metre by 2100. If this
happens, w hole countries such as the Maldives w ill
bold in th e te x t w ith vanish and millions in low-lying areas like parts of
th e ir synonym s: changeable, Bangladesh w ill lose their homes. Already, tw o
ofte n, g e ttin g warm er, small Pacific islands have disappeared under the
waves. Coastal cities including Shanghai, Bangkok,
be a ll around sth, die out,
New York and London w ill also be under threat.
in danger, die from hunger, In Greenland, ice is melting three times faster than
m ake sm aller, catches, disappear. just a few years ago. If the ice sheets of
Greenland and Antarctica ever melt completely,
sea levels will rise about 60 m. That's enough
to cover almost every major city on Earth!
50
heat trapped by C<Vn ,he atmosphere

C o m p lete th e sum m ary w ith w o rd s from


a
th e box in th e co rrect
form . Com pare w ith y o u r partner.

Global warming happens because we burn


1) ..................... which produce
2 ) .......................These will
3 ) ..................... our world by up to 3°C,
which m eans big 4 ) ...................... !
Mountain glaciers and the 5 ) .....................
are 6 ) ...................... fast! Parts of the world
in 7 ) ................... areas may 8 ) ................
com pletely in 100 years. Many anim als are
also 9 ) ........................like the polar bear,
which may becom e 1 0 ) .......................
Extreme weather such as hurricanes and
1 1 ) ............. ....... will also becom e more
frequent.

W ildlife iii Speaking & Writing


great danger
W hy is global
Global warm ing is a serious
w arm ing such a serious problem
threat to w ildlife. In particular,
Arctic polar bears are in great for our w o rld ? In three m inutes
danger. The ice that they hunt from is w rite a fe w sentences. Read your
melting very fast, so they have to swim
sentences to the class.
further and further to find food. Many
starve or drown. By 2100, summer ice may
disappear completely in the Arctic, and polar If anim als could speak, w h at
bears probably w on 't survive. Changing w o u ld they te ll us ab out the problem s they
weather patterns and rising sea levels threaten face because o f g lob al w arm ing? In three
thousands of other species too. Some people
believe that 30-40% of the w orld's species could m inutes w rite a fe w sentences. Tell the class.
become extinct because o f climate change.
Find m ore facts ab o u t
th e e ffe cts o f g lo b a l w arm in g .
Wild wild weather! Present y o u r facts to th e class.
Heavy rain and snow, storms, heatwaves, droughts,
more powerful hurricanes and to rn a d o e s... these all
happen a lot more frequently these days and more
and more climatologists now believe this is because
of global warming. When sea temperatures rise, £
there are changes in the atmosphere. If you live in ,
a chilly place, you might think global warming
sounds great. But climate change doesn't just mean
hotter temperatures. It means more and more
extreme and unpredictable weather!

So ... what on earth can we do?


Reduce your carbon footprint*. Cycle, walk, or take a bus instead of travelling by car,
use energy-saving bulbs, and wear more clothes instead of turning up the heat.
Experts say we must do something NOW! If sea levels start rising even faster, it will be
impossible to stop!
* how much C 0 2 we personally produce due to our lifestyles!
danb 1 n VR71
о Survivors
Vocabulary
C am p in g Equ ipm ent
a) Q L iste n and say.

b) W h ich o f th e se w o u ld yo u n eed if:


you had an accident? there were lots of
m osquitoes? it was freezing cold? you
wanted to light a fire? it was boiling hot?
you wanted to go sailing? you got lost?

If you had an accident, you would need a first aid kit.

Q first a id kit
Reading
a) Read th e title o f th e te x t and th e in tro d u c tio n ,
th e n read th e w o rd s in th e C h e ck th e se w o rd

b o x. W h a t do yo u e x p e ct to read ? Read th ro u g h to
wilderness, rafting, terrifying, set
ch eck. off, horror, crash into, fast-
flow ing, crawl, suck, sweep,
B lake Stanfield w as so excited
bounce, surface, suffer from,

Trapped about his father’s birthday


su rprise - a rafting trip in A la sk a
but it turned into a terrifying
shore, shelter, branch, scare off,
alight, signal, overhead, pilot,
spot, rescue helicopter, pick

in the Wilderness 5-d ay fight fo r survival! som eone up

V / \ n a beautiful warm day in June 2003, Blake Stanfield was a problem. 3 Meanwhile, Neil was also fighting
decided to take his father, Neil, on a trip into the to stay alive. One time, he fell asleep and woke up just in
Alaskan wilderness. On their first morning, they set off time to keep his fire alight.
together down the Koyukuk River on their raft.
By Monday, both men were getting weaker and weaker
They had only travelled a few miles down the river when, to from lack of food. “If only I hadn’t left my father!” Blake
their horror, they saw a huge wall of ice in front of them! thought. But then, he had an idea. If he built a signal fire,
Their raft crashed into the ice and the men fell into the any planes flying overhead would hopefully see him. On
freezing cold water. If the water hadn’t been so fast-flowing, Tuesday evening, a pilot finally spotted Blake. After a short
they would have been able to crawl onto the ice, but instead while, a rescue helicopter picked him up. They quickly
it quickly sucked them under and swept them along 1 found Neil.
“What have I done?” Blake thought at that point. But just
“You don’t look so great yourself,” Neil replied.
then, he surfaced and saw his father holding onto an oar.
The two men
Freezing cold and with Neil suffering from hypothermia, promised each other
the two men made their way to the shore. Blake quickly lit they would go on
a fire. He knew his father would die from the cold if he another trip together, but
didn’t get warm soon. definitely without any
The next morning, Blake knew that he had to get swimming under ice!
help as they had lost all their supplies - their m T fr
food, tent and clothes. He left his father and *Лш .
made his way towards a town 104 km away, singing
loudly to scare off bears. He even caught and ate
ants and spiders to give him strength. But there

52
И
b) Read th e te x t a g a in . Fo u r se n te n ce s are Put th e v e rb s in b ra c k e ts in to th e co rre ct
m issin g . M atch th e se n te n ce s (A -E ) to te n se . W h a t ty p e o f c o n d itio n a l is each ?
th e g a p s (1-4 ). T h e re is o n e e xtra
1 If N e il............................................................(n o t gra b )
se n te n ce .
the oar, he p robably w o u ld n 't have survived.
A The river bounced Blake around and hit his 2 If y o u ........................................................................ (do)
head ag ain st the ice. more exercise, you w o uld feel better.
В W hen he reached a river, he realised it w as too 3 If the river .............................................................. (be)
w id e for him to sw im across w ith o u t g e ttin g narrower, Blake w ould have been able to cross it.
hypotherm ia! 4 If it stopped rain in g, w e ...........................................
С An oar surfaced in the w ater near Neil, and he (go ) for a w alk.
grabbed it. 5 If I w ere you, I ...............................................................
D "You look a w fu l!" Blake said to Neil w hen he (n o t g o ) h ikin g in such bad w eather.
first saw him, la u gh in g and crying w ith relief. 6 If Neil and Blake h adn 't slept by a fire, t h e y .....
E He also to o k a penknife and made a shelter out ...............................................................(d ie) o f cold.
o f branches.
a) W rite w h a t each person w ish e s for/regrets.

M atch the w o rds in bold to th e ir synonym s: 1 Jane d idn 't visit Tom in hospital because she
physical energy, in the sky, walked towards, arose, d id n 't know he w as there.
answered, started, frighten, shortage, collected him. I wish/lf only I had known Tom was in hospital.
2 She d id n 't bring her coat and now she's cold.
Д C h o o se th e co rre ct w o rd . 3 M att w e n t h ikin g in the rain and g o t ill.
4 We don 't have a ligh te r to ligh t a fire.
1 Their boat cracked /crash ed into the river bank.
5 She ate too much and she's go t stom achache.
2 To their h orror/alarm the boat started to sink
6 Sally is w o rkin g this w eekend, but she'd like to
slow ly.
go cam ping w ith her friends.
3 He m o ved /craw led on his hands and knees
to w ards the tent. b) W rite tw o t h in g s yo u w ish fo r th e
4 The storm su cke d /d re w their boat under the p re se n t and re g re t a b o u t th e past.
water.
5 They m issed/lo st their com pass and d idn 't Speaking & Writing
kno w w hich w ay to go.
g О Liste n and read th e te x t a g a in .
6 Six days later the rescue team sp o tte d /n o ticed
C o m p le te th e se n te n ce s. Use th e se n te n ce s
them on an isolated island.
to te ll y o u r p a rtn e r a su m m a ry o f th e s to ry
see
1 Blake and his fath er w en t r a f t in g ....................
Grammar ^ GR6
2 They left o n .............................................................
C o n d itio n a l typ e s 2 & 3 - W ishes
3 U n fo rtu n ately their r a f t .......................................
Read th e e xa m p le s. H o w do w e form 4 The tw o men fell ...................................................
c o n d itio n a l ty p e s 2 and 3, w is h e s ? Find 5 Blake helped his dad o ut o f the river and ....
e x a m p le s in th e te x t. 6 Neil w as su fferin g from .......................................
г Ifyou wore some warmer clothes, you wouldn't be cold. If I were you, 7 Blake left his dad alone t o ..................................
I'd take a first aid kit on your camping trip. (Type 2) 8 Blake lit a sign al fire w hich h e lp e d ..................
If we had heard the weather forecast, we wouldn't have gone
\ on the trip, (but we did) (Type 3) i 9 И ГЛ 11КШ Im agine you w ere Neil. You are
I wish/lfonly it wasn't that cold, (but it is - wish for the present) alone w a itin g fo r Blake to com e back. In
I wish/lf only I hadn't left my umbrella at home, (but I did - regret three m inu tes w rite a fe w sentences. Tell
about the past) yo u r p artn e r or the class.
(>►) Vocabulary Bank 3 pp. VB8-VB9) 5 3
2 aqua aerobics

4 cards in the park

paintballing
forest bird watching in a nature reserve
D e scrib e p ictu re 4 in
Ex. 1a to y o u r p artner.
5 ............
zip-lining Vocabulary A n sw e r th e q u e stio n s.
through the O u td o o r leisure W hy do you think these friends are
jungle a ctiv itie s enjoying them selves?
How im portant is it for you to
a) Fill in do, play, or go.
spend tim e relaxing w ith your
Q L iste n and ch e ck, th en
friends? W hy?
say.
Talk about an o utdoor activity th at
b) W h ich o f th e se a c tiv itie s you tried for the first tim e. W hat
w o u ld yo u (n o t) like to try ? w as it like?
Tell y o u r p artner.
Listening
Q You w ill h ear G e o rg e ta lk in g
on a rad io p ro g ra m m e a b o u t a
Describing pictures trip he's o rg a n is in g . For each
When describing a picture to someone, im agine the person can't q u e stio n ch o o se th e co rre ct
see it. Include details about the weather, the place, w hat people a n sw e r A, В or C.
are doing, w hat they are w earing and how they are feeling.
v. _ у The adventure cam p w ill last for
A a w eekend. В a w eek.
Speaking
С the w ho le m onth o f June.
2 Lo o k a t th e p ictu re and co m p le te th e d e s crip tio n w ith W hat does G eorge say about
th e w o rd s/ p h ra se s in th e list. p ain tb allin g?
• sn o w • freezing cold • the boy's father • a lot o f fun A It isn't for everyone.
• behind them • w arm w in ter clothes • ski lodge В It can be uncom fortable.
• a yo u n g boy • at a ski resort • sunny С He d oesn't really enjoy it.

For people w ho d on 't exercise a


In the photo, there is 1 ) ......................... lot, G eorge recom m ends
_ standing on a snow board and a man. I A yo ga on the beach.
th in k the man is probably В zorbing.
2) and he is teach in g the С aqua aerobics.
boy how to snow board 3 ) ...........................
Cam pers w ill stay in
It looks quite 4 ) ......................... , but there
A a tent. В a hotel.
is a lot o f 5 ) ...........................on the
С a se lf-catering flat.
ground, so it's probably 6 ) ..........................
They are both w earing 7 ) ............................ Teens can sign up for the trip by
There is also a dog 8 ) ........................... and A callin g G eorge.
a w ooden b uilding like a В go in g to the com m unity centre
9 ) ............................. The boy is sm iling so I w ebsite.
th in k he's having 1 0 ) ......................... ! С going Ц the com m unity centre.
invites you on our

Forest Adventure Weekend!


Ф *
J u n e 10 th - 1 2 th
к fun weekend of zip-lining,
Join us for a fun weekend!
paintballing... and much more!

7fyourre^16-24 years old and you’re interested in • Teaching in small groups


joining us on the trip, email • Comfortable accommodation
^ Brian Smith at: brian@bramptoncommunity.com j

A sem i-form al em ail a sk in g


fo r in fo rm atio n
^ a) The a d ve rts a b o ve ap pe ared in th e local
S e m i-fo rm a l sty le in e m a ils
n e w sp a p e r la st w e e k . W h at are th e y for?
We often write emails in a semi-formal style to people
W h a t in fo rm a tio n do th e y g ive ?
w e don't know well. Semi-formal style includes:
b) S a n d ra read a d v e rtis e m e n t A an d • a polite greetin g (Dear + person's name) & ending
d e cid e d to se n d an e m a il a s k in g fo r (Kind regards/Best wishes + full name)
in fo rm a tio n . Use th e p h ra se s A -E to • polite la n gu a ge and a respectful tone (I would
c o rre ct th e w ro n g re g iste r. like t o ..., Thank you for your tim e.. .)
• full form s (I am interested i n ...)
A Dear Mr Sm ith
В Kind regards Read th e W ritin g T ip and fin d e x a m p le s o f
С I am very interested in jo in in g you on the se m i-fo rm al sty le in th e em ail in Ex. 1b.
trip.
D I look forw ard to hearing from you. Writing (a semi-formal email
E W hat other activities w ill be available?
asking for information)
Portfolio: Read a d v e rt B, th e n w rite an em ail
To: Brian Smith a s k in g fo r m ore in fo rm a tio n . A s k a b o u t:
From: Sandra Harvey when exactly it is, the cost, the num ber o f people
Subject: Forest adventure weekend
in each group, the type o f accom m odation.
fl) Hi, Brian,
I read your advertisement for the forest adventure weekend W rite y o u r e m a il (1 2 0 -1 5 0 w o rd s). F o llo w
and 2) I’d love to come on the trip with you. However, I th e p lan b e lo w .
would like to ask you a Jew questions about it.
First of all, how much does the weekend cost? Also, where
exactly is the weekend going to take place?
Secondly, your advert mentions some of the activities we will
opening comments, reason for writing
take part in on the trip, such as zip-lining. 3) What else can
(I read.... I would like to ...)
we do? Also, will I need to bring any special clothes or
Paras 2 & 3: what information you would like/your
equipment with me?
questions (First of all, when ... .A lso,...
Thank you very much for your time. 4) Can’t wait to hear
Secondly,... .A lso,....)
from you.
Para 4: your closing comments (Thankyou...
5) Love,
and....)
Sandra Harvey
Kind regards,
(your full name)

ffr) W ritin g Bank 3 p. W B 3) 55


I;Curricular: Geography

W hat do you know about


caves? W hat would you like to stalactites

know ? W rite down three


questions.
чJ Listen and read the text.
Can you answer your questions?
Read the te xt again and match
the headings (A-E) w ith the
column
paragraphs (1-4). There is one
extra heading. Give reasons.

HOME TO STRANGE CREATURES These natural holes in the Earth form over thousands or even
EXPLORE THEM millions o f years! There are lots o f different types o f caves,
WHAT THEY ARE such as ice, sea, limestone, chalk, salt, and even lava caves.
AMAZING FORMATIONS
HOW THEY FORM
Different caves form in different ways. For example, limestone
Match the words in bold w ith caves form as acidic rain dissolves rock. Sea caves form as
their d efinition s: until now, ocean waves and heavy rain erode cliffs. Ice caves form as
remain alive, found, falls in small melting water runs under glaciers or through cracks in the ice.
drops, becomes stiff, develop,
In many limestone caves, stalactites grow slowly from the
changed, melts, eat away.
ceiling as calcite* from dripping water hardens. As water
Read the te xt again and find all drips from them, similar formations called stalagmites grow
the words related to w ater. up from the floor. When stalactites and stalagmites meet in
W rite them in the word map the middle, they form columns.
below. Compare your words
w ith your partner. Scientists have discovered over 7,700 'troglobites' so far.
These are unique species of fish, spiders, millipedes, crabs,
scorpions, and other creatures that live their whole lives in
dissolve
caves. They have often adapted to the dark conditions.
nouns
Some are blind but have a great sense of smell. Others
survive for a long time, such as the cave crayfish, which
can live for 175 years!

Caving is an adventure sport that


involves walking, crawling, climbing,
natural, hole, limestone, chalk, lava,
acidic rain, cliff, glacier, formation, abseiling, and even swimming and
species, millipede, crab, scorpion, dark, rafting through caves! It's
blind, crayfish, crawl, abseil, rafting
IH IN K . Imagine you are in a
cave. W hat can you see, hear
a m ineral
and sm ell? How do you feel? In
stalagmites three m inutes, w rite a few
sentences. Tell the class.

ICT Collect information


about caves. Present your
information to the class.
Language in Use J>
Phrasal verb s/P rep ositio ns W ord fo rm atio n
C h o o se th e co rre ct p a rticle . Fill in th e se n te n ce s w ith th e co rre ct w o rd
d e riv e d fro m th e w o rd in b rack e ts.
go around: be enough for everyone
go off: explode (of bombs) Word Formation - adjectives from nouns
go off: ring (of an alarm) We use -ous (poison-poisonous),
go off: spoil (of food) -al (function-functional), -ic (allergy-allergic),
go over: examine (details) -ical (economy - economical), -ish (fool-foolish),
look after: take care of -ive (expense-expensive), -ful/less (care-careful/less),
look for: search for -able (comfort-comfortable) and -y (salt-salty) to form
look through: read something quickly adjectives from nouns.
look up: find information in a book or list
1 Emma really enjoyed the .........................................
1 Can w e go a ro u n d /o v er the d etails o f the
beauty o f the A p palach ian Trail. (N ATU RE)
boo king again, please?
2 M att w as surprised at how ....................................
2 A lice w as lo o kin g for/up a cheap hotel in the
the pen gu in s w ere. (N O ISE)
city.
3 Barry d o e sn 't like extrem e sports because he
3 This chicken has go ne over/o ff. D o n't eat it!
th in ks t h e y 'r e ......................................... (D A N G ER )
4 He looked afte r/u p inform ation on the Internet
4 W arm ing the bottom o f your w o k is an ..............
for his report on A n tarctica.
w ay o f go in g faster. (EFFECT)
5 Are there enough sandw iches to go around/
5 Jake is very ................................................ and loves
off?
o utdo or activities like p ain tb allin g. (A TH LETE)
6 We heard the bom b go over/o ff, even th o ugh
6 Extrem e ironing is a ..................................................
w e w ere miles away.
sport at the m om ent. (FA SH IO N )
C h o o se th e co rre ct p re p o sitio n .
C o llo ca tio n s
1 They adapted w ell in/to the new conditions.
2 The river passes d o w n /th ro u gh a forest. Д Fill in: fossil, global, sea, greenhouse, survival,
3 Polar bears are in /under th reat due to global marine, research, stunning, nature, youth.
w arm ing.
1 ..... ................ fuels 6 ...... w arm ing
4 M any anim als are in /under d anger because of
2 ...... ............... gases 7 ..... ........... reserve
clim ate change.
3 ..... .............course 8 ...... ........... scenery
5 Before his visit, Sophie w arned Brian o f/ab o u t
4 ...... .........b io lo gist 9 ..... ..............hostel
the cold w eather in Canada.
5 ...... ........... station 10 ...... ............... levels

Read th ro u g h M o d u le 3 and a n sw e r th e q u e s tio n s. N o w w rite a q u iz o f y o u r


o w n . G ive it to y o u r p artn e r. C h e ck h is/h er a n sw e rs.

1 Name three types o f caves. 5 How long does it take to hike to the
2 H ow m any states does the A p palach ian top o f the Cerro Negro volcano?
Trail run th ro ugh? 6 W hat's a tro glo b ite ?
3 W h at kind o f w ild life can you see on 7 How can you go faster when w ok racing?
the A p palach ian Trail? 8 What's the difference between a stalactite
4 W hat's the w eather like in the sum m er and a stalagm ite?
in A n tarctica?

* M Region 3 P- 117 ) 5 7
Skills 3
Listening
( T r u e / F a ls e s t a t e m e n t s )
c a r in g f o r
a) Read th e ru b ric. U n d e rlin e
th e key w o rd s in th e
se n te n ce s (1-5 ). T h in k o f
There are a lot of animal shelters in Spain which look after
sy n o n y m o u s w o rd s.
aban do n ed or neglected pets, like cats and d o g s. But did you
Listen to an interview about know there is also one that cares for rescued chim panzees?
w o rkin g holidays. For questions The Mona Foundation is based in Girona, Catalonia. Since 2000,
1-5 mark the sentences T (true) or it has pro vided a safe hom e for chim panzees which were

F (false). perform ing in circuses or being by photographers and film


makers. The foundation was given used som e land by the local
b) Q Do the task. Com pare your council and they had the chim ps' houses and play areas
specially d esigned. The chim ps can run and climb, and they
answ ers w ith yo u r partner's.
even have their own pond!
1 Jiten's experience as a volunteer Although The Mona Foundation receives funding, it runs on
w as rew arding. volunteers. Those who live locally com e w henever they can
2 Jiten got paid for his services by the spare the time. The centre is often visited by community groups
locals. and also holds regular fundraising events. Volunteers help out
3 Know ledge o f Spanish isn't required on these occasions as well as d oing routine maintenance and
in order to join the Surf School in gardening at the centre. Volunteers also advertise the
foundation's work and visit schools in the community.
Latin Am erica.
There are other volunteers at the foundation, volunteer
4 In Sri Lanka volunteers w o rk under
keepers, who stay for six months. They live in accom m odation
guidance.
at the centre. The volunteer keepers are more closely involved
5 Fam ilies can 't participate in
in the daily care of the animals. They collect and prepare the
vo lun teer holidays.
chim panzees' foo d and keep their sleeping areas clean. O nce
they have been w orking at the centre for a while, volunteers
W ould you go are given more responsibilities. The work is dem anding and
on a v o lu n te e r h o lid a y? the hours are very long but the volunteers are getting the
W hy/W hy not? unique experience of w orking and playing with chim panzees.
Although, the chim ps are enco u raged to look after them selves
Reading as much as possible, som etim es the volunteers organise fun
(T / F / N S s t a t e m e n t s ) activities for them. What gam es would you play with a group of

2 a) Read th e firs t se n te n ce in
1 The M°na Foundation
each p a ra g ra p h . W h a t is the
provides shelter to wild
t e x t a b o u t? Read th ro u g h
and check. chimpanzees.

b) Do th e re a d in g task. The fo undation w as

C o m p a re y o u r a n sw e rs w ith opened by the M ayor


y o u r p a rtn e r's. in 2000.

You are go in g to read about an Only volunteers work


anim al shelter. Mark the there.
i
i statem ents 1-5 4 Volunteer keepers can
T (true), F (false) or
spend h a lf a year in the
i A/S (not stated)
I__________________ fou ndation.

Volunteers work 9-5.


Speaking Word formation
(Make decisions) Fill in the gaps w ith the proper grammar
and lexical form of the words in brackets.
Read the rubric. Do the task. Use phrases
from the Useful language box. ■ M H M H iiliiM M
Public services =
1% I I * •

Public services are services provided by a 1 ) ..........................


ЯШШЖ

Your parents are planning a holiday by the sea


for the whole family. You would like to find some (G O V E R N ) to its citizens. These services are run by the
federal government, a 2 ) ........................................ (PROVINCE)
reasonably priced hotels by the beach. Your
or country council or a local city or town council. The
parents would like to relax by the swimming pool
most common public services provided by government
and you and your teenage brother would like to agencies are health services, police and court systems,
do water sports. Your parents like to eat at 3 ) ................................................. (EDUCATE) systems and postal
restaurants with good seafood in the evenings. services. Depending on the number of citizens and the
Before making a decision, ask the travel money available to the government, there can be other
agent about: services provided as well such as public libraries,
transport systems and parks and recreation areas for the
• hotel resorts in the area and the facilities
locals.
they offer
Working for a public service can be very 4 ) ............................
• distance from the beach and closest town (R EW A R D ). Doctors, nurses and paramedics are popular
or village positions and require intelligent, responsible people. Police
• good restaurants in the area officers and firefighters are also jobs that are in high
demand.
You start the conversation. Your partner will If you're interested in pursuing a career in public services,
play the part of the travel agent. check out the websites 5 ) .................................... (VA R Y)
Remember to: government agencies have.
• be active and polite
• ask the questions and find out all the
information you need Writing (a story - W riting Bank
• decide on the hotel you will stay at and
p. WB2)
give reasons for your choice
a) Read the rubric and brainstorm for
ideas under the headings.
Useful language
A Could I have some information, please?
Your teacher has announced the school's annual
What kind of hotel resorts are near the beach?
Are there any (water) sports facilities? English short story competition. Write your story
How far is it from the town? I entitled 'A holiday to remember'150-200 words), i
Are there any good restaurants nearby?
Thank you very much for your help.
I think ... would be the best choice because ... CHARACTERS ( J>LACE DATE

В It has g o t... rooms, many with a seaview. even ts WEATHER


It's right next to the beach./lt's ten minutes on
foot from town.
It has got a wide variety of sports to do such a s ... b) Use your ideas to w rite a plot outline
It's not very big. of the story. Make sure you w rite the
It's got a great range of dishes.
events in the order they happened.
Then w rite your story.

О Listen to a person doing the task. What


place does he choose? Why?
59
T h e T a ig a , w hich m ean s ‘forest’ in R u ssia n , is the w orld’s
largest biom e. It co n sists of coniferous forests and co ve rs a
large part of R u ssia , S can d in avia, and North Am erica. Th e
T a ig a has a su b arctic clim ate with large differences in
Reading & Listening tem perature between se a so n s. W inters are long and very cold
^ Lo o k a t th e p ictu re s and th e with only snow fall, and tem peratures can drop a s low a s
title ? W h a t is th e w e a th e r like -54 °C . S u m m e rs are very short but warm and hum id;
in th e T a ig a ? W h a t liv e s th e re ? so m etim es tem peratures reach 30°C .
U Liste n and read to fin d o u t. T h e trees of the T a ig a have adapted to the low levels of
sunlight and the extrem e conditions. Most of them are
Read th e te x t and m a rk th e evergreen trees w hich m eans they keep their leaves all year
s ta te m e n ts T (tru e ), F (fa ls e ) or round. T h e leaves are also a very dark green colour so that
NS (n o t s ta te d ). C o rre ct th e they can ab so rb m ore sunlight for photosynthesis. T h e co n e
fa lse sta te m e n ts. sh a p e of the evergree n s h elps sn o w slide off of them so the
b ra n ch es d o n ’t break from the w eight of the snow . Th e
1 The w in ters are very long in
environm ent of the T a ig a e n co u ra g e s healthy tree growth and
the Taiga.
so m e of the trees there are th o u san d s of ye a rs old.
2 Life is very difficult in the Taiga. ...
T h e T a ig a also hosts a w ide variety of wildlife. It is hom e to
3 The Taiga is a good place
R u s s ia ’s largest populations of brown bear,
for trees to grow .
wolf, m oose, reindeer, and red fox. It also has
4 There isn't a lot o f anim al life
a s m any a s 300 sp e c ie s of birds including the
in the Taiga.
go ld en e ag le and the great grey owl. T h e T aiga,
5 C u ttin g dow n trees helps the
however, is in d an g e r b e ca u se of global
Taiga survive. w arm ing and an in crease in deforestation over
the past d e ca d e s. Fortunately, governm ents
Speaking & Writing
are now taking m easu re s to protect this
J C o m p le te th e ta b le w ith p re cio u s natural habitat.
in fo rm a tio n a b o u t th e T a ig a.
Ш
Use th e co m p le te d ta b le to
p re se n t th e T a ig a to th e class. biome, coniferous, subarctic climate,
drop, humid, reach, adapt, level, absorb,
photosynthesis, cone, slide, encourage,
Lo ca tio n grow th, host, moose, increase,
deforestation, decade, take measures
C lim ate
4 W h a t do yo u th in k it w o u ld be like to live
W h a t lives in th e T a ig a ? W o u ld yo u lik e to liv e th e re ? W h y?/W h y
th ere n o t? E x p la in .
R eason s it is
in d a n g e r ICT O p ” C o lle c t m ore in fo rm a tio n a b o u t th e Ta iga
and its w ild life . M ake a p oster. P re se n t it to th e class.
Vocabulary: health problems & technology, illnesses &
ailments, remedies, action verbs, teenage problems
Grammar: modal verbs (must, have to, should, can, could,
may, might), past modals (had to, could, was able to),
relative clauses; neither... nor,either... or,both... and
Everyday English: v isitin g th e d o cto r
Pronunciation: rhym ing w ords
W riting: an essay making suggestions for solutions
to a problem
Culture Corner: Australia's m ost dangerous animals
Curricular (PSHE): Catch some zzzs (the im portance
o f sleep)
Phrasal verbs: make, put
W ord form ation: adjectives fro m verbs
Russia 4: Banya: A Russian Tradition О п я то you/

W hich o f these activities can


help you have: a healthy body?
a healthy mind?

t 1 i :
g e t the sleep you need
make ethical
choices

practise m e d ita tio n to


spend tim e in
achieve peace o f m ind
th e sunshine

Ш Л

exercise regularly

manage your stress Ц


solve crosswords &
exercise your m ind
61
Technology and health
M o d e r n m am t e
м or n e w ^ H T
n a s ti« » I
How w ould you cope w ith o u t m odern gadgets? W h at
w ould you do if you d id n 't have your m obile phone, your
MP3 player, or your games console? Believe it or not, you shoulder strain
m ight be b e tte r off.

1
cope, be better off, m otion, confined
W ith new games consoles, you have to move around in fro n t o f
space, strain, ear canal, volume, hearing
the TV to control the action on-screen. W hen you make the same loss, lead to, restriction, swelling, pain,
m otion again and again in a confined space, the results can be prevent, bacteria, derm atologist,
q u ite serious. Repeated arm m otions can cause strain to your borrow, extended period, blurred
shoulder. Doctors w arn th a t you m ust not play for to o long, and vision, distinguish, optician
you should warm up first. Their advice is to prepare for the game
like you w ould fo r the real thing.
V o c a b u la ry
Health problems
Earphones play the music directly in to your ear canal. The type 'J a) О L iste n and say.
o f music doesn't m atter, b ut the volum e on your MP3 player
b) W h ich o f th e s e g a d g e ts do
does. It can cause hearing loss. Researchers recommend th a t
you set the volum e at a low level w here you can still hear y o u have? H o w o fte n do
conversations around you. If people have to shout so you can y o u use th e m ?
hear them , the volum e is to o loud.
• la p to p • m obile phone
• games console
Sending te x t messages is as easy as m oving your thum b. • MP3 player
However, to o much te x tin g can cause thum b a rth ritis. This can
2 H o w can th e p ro b le m s in Ex. 1a
lead to restriction o f m ovem ent, sw elling, and pain. To prevent
this co nd ition , know n as texter's thum b, you should send few er be re la te d to th e gad gets?
messages or use d iffe re n t fingers w hen you text. Q L iste n and read to fin d o u t.

R e a d in g
A m obile phone is fu ll o f bacteria. W hen you press it against
your face and ear, it can lead to skin problem s such as acne, skin 2 a) Read th e te x t a ga in and
infections and rashes. Sharing your m obile phone makes these m atch th e h e a d in g s (A-F) to
problem s even worse. D erm atologists say th a t you should clean th e p a ra g ra p h s (1-5). There
your phone before you use it. If someone borrow s your phone, is one e x tra h e a d in g .
make sure to clean it a fte r they finish.
A SWITCH FINGERS

Com puters are useful tools fo r research and enterta inm ent. В KEEP IT DOWN
However, staring at a com puter screen fo r an extended period С CHANGE THE TECHNOLOGY
o f tim e can cause eye strain. Some o f the sym ptom s include
D PLAY IT SAFE
blurred vision, dry eyes and a d iffic u lty distinguishing betw een
colours. O pticians w arn th a t you m u stn 't spend to o much tim e E SAVE YOUR SIGHT
looking at the screen. Take freq uent breaks. You d o n 't have to F FACE THE CONSEQUENCES OF GERMS
g 2 leave room - ju st close your eyes and let them relax.
b) ■ 1111113» W h a t is th e a u th o r's p u rp o s e : to § R e w rite th e sen te n ce s, u sing
in fo rm ? to e n te rta in ? to p e rsu a d e ? G ive reasons. m o d a ls fro m Ex. 5.

F ill in : skin, restriction, frequent, set, hearing, blurred, 1 I th in k it's a bad idea to play
distinguish, confined, thum b, eye. com puter games fo r hours.
1 ...........................th e volum e 6 ....................... o f m ovem ent You shouldn't play com puter games
2 .......................................... loss 7 ...................................... vision for hours.
3 ...................................... space 8 ................................ betw een 2 It's a good idea to set the volum e
4 ..............................in fections 9 ..................................... breaks on your MP3 player a t a lo w level.
5 ................................. a rth ritis 10 ...................................... strain 3 It's fo rb id d e n to e n te r the
co m puter lab.
G ra m m a r see
4 You d o n 't need to pay in cash.
pp. GR6-
Must - Have to - Should GR7

M a tch th e sentences (1-7) to th e d e s c rip tio n s (A-G ). Find S p e a k in g & W ritin g


m ore exa m p le s in th e te x t.
"J Use th e p ic tu re s in Ex. 1a and
1 We m u s t/h a v e to sw itch our A It's my strong th e in fo r m a tio n in th e t e x t to
m obile phones o ff in class. advice. ta lk a b o u t h o w to use o u r
2 You m u st see a doctor. В I'm n o t o b lig e d ./ g a d g e ts w is e ly .
3 Tom has to go to an in te rn e t I d o n 't need to.
И/е should warm up before we start playing
cafe to use a com puter. С It's th e rule.
a video game or we can get shoulder strain.
D I th in k it's a good
4 You m u s tn 't bring yo u r MP3
id ea./lt's my advice.
player to school.
E He needs to.
5 I d o n 't have to share a
F I th in k it's a bad C o lle c t in fo r m a tio n
com puter at home - I have my id e a ./lt's my advice.
8 ICI
a b o u t o th e r p o s s ib le h e a lth
ow n laptop. G It's fo rb id d e n ./lt's p ro b le m s caused w h e n w e use
You s h o u ld /o u g h t to buy a against th e rules. o u r g a d g e ts fo r a lo n g tim e .
W ii - th e y 're great! W rite som e ru le s u s in g m o d a l
You s h o u ld n 't play video v e rb s. P resen t th e m to th e class.
games fo r to o long.
63
Ш •* '
ТА
. !■b Home remedies
Next time you wake up with a sore
throat or a few spots, perhaps you
don't have to run straight to the
doctor. You could try opening the kitchen
From the cupboard instead! There are many natural
remedies hiding there. In the past, people had to use
\ & Kitchen cupboard natural remedies to cure health problems.

GARLIC TEA
Garlic has a bad reputation because ot Can you feel a headache coming on? Boil some water
Ал л
■ its strong smell, but it’s great for your immune and make yourself a nice cup of tea! The caffeine in the tea
r svstemi u L a cold or the flu, you can add will open up the constricted blood vessels that cause a
headache. Also, if you suffer from hay fever and have itchy,
watery eyes all summer, put cold, wet tea bags over them.'
The tannin in the tea will really help!
qualities so the spots will disappear in no time.

VINEGAR BAKING SODA


People have used vinegar as a natural remedy for over Do you have smelly feet? Sprinkle some baking
6,000 years! It’s great for minor cuts or itchy rashes. soda in your shoes and have odour-free feet all
Do you have a sunburn so painful you can’t day long. Baking soda is a great natural an i-
move? You could try adding one cup of white perspirant. It can also help with indigestion
vinegar to a cool bath. This will soothe your skin, i because it neutralises stomach acid. Just mix a
teaspoon into a glass of water and drink it slowly.

HONEY
Next time you have a sore throat, ry GINGER
swallowing a spoonful of honey. Like garlic, Do you have an upset stomach? You could try
honey helps destroy bacteria. If you have a chewing a piece of ginger. You can also do this
lI H cut or a graze, just put a little honey on it and before a journey if you suffer from travel sickness.
cover it with a plaster. It might help you w,th Ginger may also help you if you have bad breath.
insomnia, too. Drinking a glass of warm milk
with some honey in it can help you sleep. These are just a few o f the natural remedies in
our cupboards! There are hundreds more!

ro c a b u la ry
Illn e sse s & a ilm e n ts R e a d in g
1 О Listen and say. W hen was th e last tim e 2 Look at th e headings in th e article. W h a t
you su ffered from any o f these? W h a t did h ea lth problem s can these food item s help?
you do? Tell th e class. Q Listen and read to check.

1 have a headache 8 have a sore th ro a t Read again. W hich rem edy (or rem edies):
2 have a stom ach ache 9 have a bad cough
1 kills germs?
3 get a sunburn 10 have an itchy rash
2 is extrem ely old?
4 have a m outh ulcer 11 have insom nia
3 helps you fig h t illness generally?
5 have sm elly fe e t 12 have bad breath
4 m ust you keep in yo u r m outh fo r a w hile?
6 have hay fever 13 have a m inor cut
5 m ig h t make others around you feel better?
7 g e t a c o ld /th e flu 14 have w a te ry eyes
a
Past modals
Study th e ta b le and find an exam ple in th e
te x t, th en com plete th e sentences.

4
had to/didn't have to
She had to stay in last night. She had a stomach ache.
(It was necessary.)
/ didn't have to go to the doctor's yesterday. My cough was much
better. (It wasn't necessary.)
could(n't) (general ability in the past)
Mum could run really fast when she was young, (was able to)
was/were(n't) able to (specific ability in the past)
I was able to win the race last night.

1 I ...................................................go to bed early last


The ............................................. system is designed n ig h t because I had a te rrib le headache.
to defend our bodies against bacteria. I ...........................................cure my upset stom ach
2 the cream on ge n tly u n til it is absorbed. w ith some raw ginger. It really w o rke d !
3 Honey is used as a natural ....................................... In th e past, people .....................................................
to tre a t w ounds, burns and cuts. buy m edicine and o th e r remedies fro m an
4 ....................................... is a sleep disorder in w hich apothecary.
a person ca n 't sleep. Sam sprained his ankle th is m orn ing a n d ..........
5 A rteries are b lo o d .....................................th a t carry ........................................................go to th e hospital.
blood fro m th e heart to th e rest o f th e body. S h e ..................................... cook d in n e r last nig h t.
6 Eating in a hurry can cause ...................................... Dan cooked it instead.
7 D rin king cham om ile tea if you have overeaten
can help soothe an u p s e t......................................... L isten in g
8 Some people te n d to g et trave l ...........................
у Q Listen to th re e people speaking. W h a t
w hen th e y are in a m oving car.
problem did each have? W h a t did th e y do
G ra m m a r see a b o u t it?
pp. GR6-
Can/Could/May/Might
Sally Greg S im n
4 GR7
j R e w rite th e se n te n ce s u s in g can, can't,
m ight, o r may.
S p e a k in g & W ritin g
1 You a re n 't allow ed to w e ar your shoes in here.
Use th e in fo rm a tio n in th e te x t to
You can't wear your shoes in here. 8
2 It's ju s t possible th a t I'll go to th e doctor's on w rite suggestions a b o u t these h ealth
Friday. problem s: a headache, the flu , an itch y rash,
3 You are allow ed to go now. a sore th ro a t, w atery eyes, an upset stom ach,
4 It's possible th a t a cup o f tea w ill help g e t rid o f sm elly feet. Tell th e class.
your headache. A: I have a terrible headache! It really hurts!
5 It's ju s t possible th a t some honey w ill help your B: You should/could have a cup o f tea. That m ight/m a y
sore th ro a t. help.
6 I'm not able to go out today. I've got a bad cold.
7 If you have sm elly feet, it's ju s t possible th a t ICT Do some research on th e
baking soda w ill help you. In te rn e t and m ake notes on m ore hom e
8 It's pro h ib ite d to enter this area. rem edies. Present you r findings to th e class.
(») Vocabulary Bank 4 pp. V B lO V B Il) 6 5
* ^
S p iders i
Australia has some o f th*
sP'ders in the world Theriz l T * dan9er°us
" * b spider is one o f , L COl0Ure<i,u" ^
Animals
< » tti are so strong ,h m°st W tonous. Its
A ustralia is a g re a t country, b u t it has some o f the
through a shoe) lf o „ l b ' “ « " bite m ost dangerous anim als in the w orld. Here are
M i-venin i/ery quick/у yo“ ' № need some o f the w o r s t... a void them a t a ll costs!

i a n d s o m p tim o r u_ ___________ i Eastern brown snake 1 „


Snakes -■is?*3
The ten most
poisonous snakes in the
\ vomiting. ' SWeatin9 and world all live in Australia! The inland
taipan is the most dangerous in the .
Funnel web spider world and its venom is 50 times I n l a n d Taipan snate

Sea creatures stronger than an Indian Cobra's. The


Watch out fo r Australian eastern brown snake is a long (up to 1.8
^ d a l l y the box jellyfish Т У dan3erous sea creatures metres!), fast-moving snake and the second
and has caused more deaths T ' *° S" mmers most dangerous in the world. Fortunately,
™ ™ f c p U, , „ gether ban snakes, sharks and both of these snakes usually stay away
r ^ w h a s 500,000 needles for № ™ | „ Т '° " 9 from humans so bites are quite
\ “ « ™ s. A |,hou„ h it's I I I 9 " om int0 '« rare.
™ 9ed octopus is I so 7 T " ' ,he Ы« '
octopus lives i„ rock ” У! Ш pre«V
/e n o m to kill , 0 men. W a t( s a" d has enough
J ^ ^ s a l t - w a t e ^ , 0^ ^

T , g S T
J
t 9i„ , ? im
nt0 the ocean and
” out

attack anything that


can
can last fo r up to 3 months! £
mo'/es, even sharks! 1
Platypus

Check these words


^
poisonous, bite, anti-venin, scary, stripe,
backyard, pain, sweating, vom iting, death,
shark, tentacle, needle, inject, venom,
victim, rock pool, inland, spike, self-defence M atch th e lists o f nouns (1-4) to th e verbs
(A -D ).
W hich sentences b e lo w do you th in k are 1 bees, je lly fish , wasps A scratch
tru e ab o u t A ustralia's dangerous anim als? 2 snakes, crocodiles, spiders В sting
Q Listen and read th e te x t to find o u t. 3 cats, parrots, guinea pigs С kick
The fu n n e l-w e b spider d o e sn 't have te e th ......... 4 horses, donkeys, camels D bite
Box je lly fish are easy to see.
There are crocodiles in A ustralia. Imagine you encountered one of
these animals w hile in Australia on holiday.
The eastern bro w n snake avoids p e o p le ..............
W hat w ere you doing? W hat did you see? W hat
Only fem ale platypuses are dangerous................
did you do? How did you feel? Tell the class.
Read again and m atch th e w ords/phrases in
ICT Collect in fo rm a tio n a b o u t a
bold to th e ir m eanings: im possible to see,
dangerous anim al in you r country. W rite
creating, unpleasant, try to h u rt, able to cause
seven T/F statem en ts a b o u t it. Exchange
death, under any circum stances, unusual, p re tty.
th em w ith you r partner.
V is it in g th e d o c to r
*1 a) Q Listen and say. take some (cough) syrup
g o to
b) W h a t m edical advice m ig ht hospital for
an X-ray
a doctor give you if you take some painkillers
have: an ear infection? a
sprained ankle or w rist? a
sore th ro a t? an infected
m osquito bite?

You have an ear infection.


You should use some ear drops.

2 a) W Listen and say. Pay 1 use some eye/ear/nose drops


a tte n tio n to th e pronu nciation
\ l put antiseptic/
• Come in and take a seat. antib iotic cream on it
• W h a t seems to be th e problem ?
• It's really sw ollen, itchy and painful. | Find parts o f th e d ialo g u e w hich m ean: I'm
• Let's take a look. sorry to tell you. - Tell me what's wrong. - Enter and
• I'm afra id it's infected. sit down. - I'm going to look at it.
• W h a t should I do?
P ro n u n c ia tio n : rhyming words
• I'll give you a prescription.
• Should I come back and see you again? w Listen and circle th e w o rd th a t does not
sound th e same as th e others. Listen again
b) The sentences above are from a and say.
dialo g u e at a doctor's surgery. W ho 1 rough - to u g h - cough - enough
says each sentence, th e doctor or th e 2 tw o - flu - th ro u g h - toe
p atien t? 3 b o u g h t - d ro u g h t - o u g h t - caught
О Listen, read and check. 4 round - w o u n d - sound - ground

Doctor: Hello, M r Hall. Come in and take a seat. S p e a k in g


Patient: OK. Thank you.
5 Im agine you have one o f the
Doctor: Now, w h a t seems to be the problem?
problem s in Ex. 1b. Act o u t you r d ialogue at
Patient: W ell, it's my shoulder. I g o t a m osquito bite
th e doctor's surgery. Follow th e plan.
a few days ago and now it's really swollen,
itchy and painful.
Doctor: OK. Let's take a look. Hmm ... yes, it's very О ©
G reet p a tie n t & invite-^- Thank th e doctor.
red. I'm afraid it's infected.
them in.
Patient: Oh no! W hat should I do?
Ask w h a t the problem is/* ^ D e s c rib e yo u r problei
Doctor: You should put some antibiotic cream on it
Take a look & say w h a t" * ' Ask w h a t th e d o c to r
three times a day. I'll w rite you a prescription.
you th in k the problem / can do fo r yo u r
Patient: Thank you. Should I come back and see you
is. j' problem .
- again?
Tell th e p a tie n t w h a t>(^ Thank th e doctor.
Doctor: Only if it gets worse.
th e y should do.
Patient: OK. Thanks again.
Reply. -«*-—'
Doctor: You're welcome.
67
Amazing
V o c a b u la ry
Action verbs
*1 Listen and say.

R e a d in g &
Listen in g
2 a) W ho is Spider-Man?
W hat is he famous for?
b) The te x t is a b o u t a
Frenchm an nam ed
A lain R obert. W hy
do you th in k he is
called 'The French
S pider-M an'?
Q Listen and
read to fin d out.

ledge, concrete, rope, safety net, bare


hands, gather, sigh w ith relief, vertigo,
broken bone, raise awareness, urban,
illegal, get a fine, daredevil, slippery
surface, get stuck, nickname

times, suffering dozens of broken bones, which has left


him partly disabled. But this doesn't stop Alain. "I only
think about what I can do, not what I can't do," he says.
So why does he do it? Apart from raising awareness
about world issues such as climate change, Alain wants
people to see their environment differently. He says,
While no one is looking, Frenchman Alain Robert
"Maybe they think their building is ugly, this big tower
jumps up an office building and starts to climb the wall.
w ith lots of glass - the opposite of a natural landscape. But
He hangs from balconies, crawls along ledges and grips
for me, it's a kind of urban mountain. So I use the place
the edges of the glass and concrete. There's no rope and
where they work, and I make it a kind of wonderland.
no safety net - he's using only his bare hands! By the time
Everywhere I climb, I see people who are happy."
he's halfway up, a crowd has gathered on the pavement
A fter a climb, Alain often leaves in handcuffs. What he
below. After an hour, he reaches the top and the crowd
does is sometimes illegal, but most of the time he just gets
sighs with relief.
a fine. The police say he can't climb public buildings, but
Alain has climbed over 85 of the tallest structures in
the only thing that stops this daredevil is rain! When it's
the world, including the Eiffel Tower, the Empire State
wet, Alain can't grip the slippery surfaces. In 2002, he got
Building and the Petronas Twin Towers in Malaysia. One
stuck on the 35th floor of London's Canary Wharf Tower
of his first climbs was at the age of twelve. He didn't have
when it started to rain. Alain risks his life every time he
his fla t keys and his parents were out, but he was able to
climbs a new building. His nickname may be Spider-Man,
climb up the outside of the building - seven storeys high -
but he is no superhero. He's just an ordinary man living a
and crawl through a window. Nowadays he can manage
very dangerous life!
eighty storeys but, amazingly, Alain suffers from vertigo -
he feels dizzy when he's up high! He has fallen seven You can see videos of Alain in action on YouTube.
C o m p le te th e se n te n ce s a b o u t A la in R o b e rt
u s in g w o rd s fro m th e Check these words
b o x in th e c o rre c t fo rm .

Read a g a in and fo r q u e s tio n s 1-6, choose 1 A la in 's ............................................... is 'S pider-M an'.
3 2 Crow ds o f p e o p le ......................................................
th e b e s t a n sw e r, А, В, С o r D. Find e vid e n c e
in th e te x t. to w a tch him w hen he clim bs up a b u ild in g .
3 The p e o p le ............................................... w hen A lain
1 W hen A lain R obert clim bs a structure,
reaches th e to p o f a b u ild in g safely.
A m any people w a tch him begin.
4 A lain do e sn 't use a ........................................or rope
В he rests on his w a y to th e to p .
to clim b a bu ild in g .
С he enjoys lo o kin g d ow n a t th e crow d.
5 He w a n ts to ................................................... a b o u t
D he d o e sn 't use any safety equ ipm ent.
clim ate change and o th e r issues.
2 W hen he was young, A lain clim bed up to his 6 The police som etim es arrest Alain, b u t he
fla t because doesn't usually go to prison - h e ............................
A his parents lost th e ir key. 7 It's very dangerous to clim b up a ............................
В he w a n te d to see if he could do it. w hen it rains.
С it was th e o n ly w a y he could g e t in. 8 A lain is a ..................................................- w h a t he
D his parents encouraged him to do it. does is very dangerous, b u t he enjoys it!
3 A lain has a problem w ith
A heights. С crowds.
В confidence. D doctors. C o llo ca tio n s
To sound natural in English, learn w h at words
4 A lain clim bs skyscrapers because he w a n ts to
usually go together. This w ill help you to become a
A shock people.
fluent speaker.
В challenge him self.
С m ake city life m ore exciting.
D change people's th in k in g . Fill in: broken, surface, net, awareness, relief, risks,
public, suffers, issues, bare. Use th e phrases to
5 A lain d id n 't reach th e to p o f th e Canary W h a rf
m ake sentences a b o u t A la in R o bert.
Tower because 6 sigh w i t h ................
1 s lip p e ry ...................
A th e police stopped him and arrested him. 7 safety .......................
2 ra is e .........................
В he slipped and injured him self. 3 ........................ bones 8 from ve rtig o
С th e w e a th e r stopped him. 4 ....................... his life 9 ........................ hands
D he fe lt to o dizzy h a lfw a y up. 5 w o r ld ........................ 10 ....................bu ild in g
6 The purpose o f th is te x t is to
W hich th re e a d je ctive s w o u ld yo u
A criticise A lain Robert.
use to describe A la in ? G ive reasons. In th re e
В stop people from try in g dangerous activities.
m in u te s w r ite a fe w sentences. Tell th e class.
С give in fo rm a tio n a b o u t A lain Robert.
D encourage people to su p p o rt A lain Robert.
S p e a k in g & W ritin g
E Д Im agine you are A lain R obert and g Im a g in e y o u are a jo u r n a lis t a n d y o u r
you are clim bing a skyscraper. W h a t can you see, p a rtn e r is A la in R o b e rt. Use th e t e x t to h e lp
hear and touch? H o w do you feel? Tell yo u r y o u p re p a re q u e s tio n s and a n sw e rs. Read
pa rtn e r o r th e class. y o u r in te r v ie w to a n o th e r p a ir o r th e class.
69
As the doors o f the lift close, your hands our brain sends signals to pump adrenalin around our
start to sweat. It's only a ten-second trip to the sixth body. Our heart beats faster, our skin sweats to keep
floor, but your heart is beating fast, you're shaking us cool and our muscles tense so that we are ready to
like a leaf and you can't catch your breath. Everyone escape the danger. This response is called 'fight or
else in the lift seems calm, so what are you afraid of? flight', which is necessary for our survival. If we met a
Well, it sounds like you have claustrophobia, which is bear while hiking, for instance, we would need to be
a fear of enclosed spaces. If you have a phobia like ready to escape ... fast!
this, you're not alone. 4 I | When someone suffers from a phobia,
People can have either common phobias, however, the danger is mostly in their minds ... it's
like a fear o f insects, needles and the dark, or some neither real nor rational. Maybe someone who is
very strange ones indeed! Vicki Larrieux's fear of afraid of bees, for instance, once got badly stung by a
vegetables, for example - lachanophobia - makes a bee. Their brain now remembers the experience and
trip to the supermarket a nightmare. There are many triggers a fear reaction every time they see a bee, or
other cases of odd phobias such as ablutophobia sometimes even just a photo of a bee. The fear signal
(fear o f washing), anthophobia (fear o f flowers), is very strong, so the person believes the situation
catoptrophobia (fear o f mirrors) and even that they are in is more dangerous than it really is.
hobophobia (the fear of phobias themselves)! So what's the solution for someone who has
Some o f these fears might sound ridiculous a phobia? Well, many try to avoid the places and
to you, but to a person who suffers from situations which make them afraid, but this only
them, they are very real. Sufferers may keeps the fear strong. It's much better for the person
miss out on opportunities, such as going to try to face their fear ... little by little. A person
holiday because they are afraid of who is afraid of dogs, for example, could start by
ing, feel embarrassed about their looking at a photo of a dog. Then they could stand
hobia and even get teased by their near someone with a dog on a lead and slowly work
friends. up to the most difficult thing for them - maybe
To understand the petting a dog. As they get used to the thing that
reason why some people have they are afraid of, they will realise that their worst
phobias, first we need to fear doesn't come true. In time, the brain will change
understand fear itself. how it reacts and their phobia will disappear for
When we sense danger, good!

V o c a b u la ry Check these words


Fears & phobias sweat, beat, shake, catch your breath, fear, enclosed,
nightm are, odd, ridiculous, suffer from , miss out,
1 Listen and say. W hich o f
sense, signal, pump, adrenalin, muscle, tense,
these can you see in the images? rational, get stung, trigger, little by little, w o rk up to
• th u n d e rs to rm s • spiders
• th e dark • lifts • in je ctio n s R e a d in g
• fly in g • snakes • h e ig h ts
• cro w d s • g o in g to th e d e n tis t 2 a) Think o f th re e questions a b o u t phobias. Read the
te x t. Does it answ er your questions?
Are you afraid o f any o f these
things? How do they m ake you b) Read th e te x t again and m atch th e headings (A-F)
feel: heart beat fast, shake like a to th e paragraphs (1-5). There is one extra heading.
leaf, palms sweat, feel dizzy, feel sick,
feel embarrassed, can't breathe? Tell A A lone w ith your fear D H ow to fix it
your partner. В G e ttin g to kn o w fear E A ffe c tin g lives
С N ot so rare F Im aginary fears
I'm a fra id o f injections. When I have one,
■ jQ my heart Ьeats f° st an(l 1feel d,zzy-
2 Fill in: beating, nightm are, sensed, g C o m plete th e re la tiv e clauses w ith th e correct re la tiv e
trigger, sweating, shaking, teased, p ro n o u n /ad verb . W hich are d efin in g (D) and w hich are
rational. n o n -d e fin in g (Л/)? Add commas w h e re necessary.

1 He was so scared he s ta r te d ......... 1 Ben ........................... lives n ext door is going to study M edicine.
2 His heart was ............................ fast. 2 Is it your b r o th e r ............................................... is afra id o f spiders?
3 She was te rrifie d , she was ........... 3 This is th e u n iversity ..................................................... I studied fo r
......................like a le a f and crying. fo u r years.
4 The w h o le experience was a ........ 4 M y sister ............................................... is ten years old g o t stung by
................ ; w e 'll never do it again. a bee yesterday.
5 She d id n 't w a n t to w ear a dress in 5 2006 was th e y e a r ...................................................I m oved abroad.
case her friends ..........................her. 6 The reason .....................I w a lk to w o rk is to g et some exercise.
6 The d o g ...................................danger 7 D an’s h o u s e ...................................is in a good area is up fo r sale.
and started barking. 8 M ary is th e girl ...................................................m o th e r is a doctor.
7 It's a ....................................fear to be
afra id o f snakes, as some o f them Join th e sentences using who, which, where, when or whose,
are poisonous. as in th e exam ple.
8 Bacteria on yo u r m obile phone
1 My a u n t w orks at Byron H ospital. She is a nurse.
can .................................................... an
My aunt, who is a nurse, works a t Byron Hospital.
allergic reaction and cause a rash.
2 The spider was very big. I saw it in th e bathroom .
3 A n n is com in g to th e party. Her b irth d a y 's on th e same day.
4 Fill in: miss out on, escape, pet,
4 That is th e Italian restaurant. We o fte n eat there.
enclosed, tense, worst, embarrassed.
5 Ann has a phobia o f dogs. A dog b it her w hen she was 8.
1 ..........................spaces; 2 ........................
o p p o rtu n itie s ; 3 f e e l ; 4 muscles g M ake sentences using relative pronouns and adverbs
.................... ; 5 ................... from danger; for the following: spiders, dentist, lift, plane, snake, doctor.
6 t o ...................... a dog; 7 ........................
fear come tru e both ... and, either ... or, neither ... nor
see 0 Read th e exam ples, th en re w rite th e sentences (1-4)
Grammar p GR8 using b oth...and, neither...nor or either...or.
Relative clauses Both Sam and Brian are a fra id o f heights. (Sam is afra id o f
heights. So is Brian.)
Read th e e xa m p le s. W h e n do
N e ither Jill n o r Sally likes flying. (Jill d o e sn 't like fly in g . Sally
w e use d e fin in g , n o n -d e fin in g
d o e sn 't either.)
clauses? W h ic h are p u t
Either Jane o r Greg is com ing w ith us. (Jane is com ing or Greg
b e tw e e n com m as? Find
is - one o f th e tw o .)
e x a m p le s in th e t e x t in Ex. 2.
4 M eg used to be afraid o f th e dark. A m y used to be afraid o f
The man has just bought a dog. He lives th e dark.
next door. Phil w a n ts to be a d o cto r or he w a n ts to be a de n tist.
The man who lives next door has just
M ark is n 't afraid o f heights. Rob is n 't afraid o f heights.
bought a dog. (defining relative clause)
M y mum hates crowds. My grandm a hates crowds.
This phobia makes my life very difficult. I've
had it since childhood.
This phobia, which I've had since S p e a k in g & W ritin g
childhood, makes my life very difficult.
(non-defining relative clause) (W07;thet
10 Q Listen and read th e te x t again. In th ree m inutes
w rite fo u r things you rem em ber from th e te x t. Tell your
l-V e-had---.-.')
partner.
71
V o c a b u la ry
P roblem s
Match the problems (1-8) to the possible solutions (A-H).
Can you think o f any other solutions to any o f these problems?
1 I need money. A Stand up to them . If you d o n 't w a n t to do
2 My parents are too strict and we're always arguing. som ethin g, th e n d o n 't!
3 I've fallen o u t w ith my friend(s) and n o w they В Try to g e t a p a rt-tim e job.
are gossiping a b o u t me. С V isit a d e rm a to lo g ist.
4 M y classmates laugh a t w h a t I wear. D Find a hobby and jo in a club. It's easier to make
5 I have lots o f spots on my face. friends w ith people w h o have sim ilar interests.
6 M y friends pressurise me to do th in g s I d o n 't E Ignore th e m ! You have th e rig h t to choose your
w a n t to . o w n style.
7 I've m oved to a new c ity and I'm fin d in g it F M ake a study plan.
d iffic u lt to m ake friends. G Phone yo u r friend(s) and try to w o rk th in g s o u t.
8 I feel stressed o ut because o f my schoolwork/exams. H Talk it th ro u g h and m ake com prom ises.
I f you need money, you could/should try to get a p a rt-tim e job.

2 Choose one o f th e pictures above. Describe: the people, S p e a k in g


w hat you th in k the situ a tio n is, how you th in k the people feel. M a k in g s u g g e s t io n s

ж т г ш м т Use the problems and


solutions in Ex. 1 to act out
M atching speakers to a description exchanges, as in the example.
Remember th a t in this kind o f task, the descriptions are summaries
o f w h a t the speakers say. Before listening, read each description Making suggestions
very carefully and try to guess w h a t words/phrases & ideas you You could/should ...
m ight hear - e.g., feels too busy: a lot to do, don't have enough time
The best thing to do i s ...
4 - _________________________________
Why d on't you ...?
Listen in g Have you thought about (+verb+ing)

Э Q Listen and m atch the problem s (A-F) to th e speakers (1-5). Replying


There is one extra problem . That's a good idea. You're right.
Yes, I think that will/could/m ight help.
A The speaker feels to o busy.
OK. I'll try that and see what happens.
В The speaker is unhappy w ith th e ir appearance.
С The speaker is w o rrie d a b o u t th e ir health. A: I need money!
D The speaker wishes they could do more w ith th e ir friends. B: Why d o n 't you try to get a part-tim e
E The speaker is having problem s w ith th e ir schoolw ork. job?
F The speaker is w o rrie d a b o u t a change in th e ir life. A: That's a good idea.

2 [У)~Vocabulary Bank 4 p. УВТ2)


Writing- |щ
A n e ssa y m a k in g s u g g e s t io n s
fo r s o lu t io n s to a p rob le m да ШШSoЯ у ш Ш У
Exam stress is normal, but it can sometimes get out of
W ritin g essays m aking suggestions control and make you unwell. What can you do, then, to
reduce stress and study for success?
W e usually w rite an essay making suggestions in a
To begin with, it’s important to make a study timetable
formal or semi-formal style. and stick to it. As a result, you will feel more organised and
• The first paragraph states the problem. confident that you have time to prepare well for your exams.
• The main body paragraphs present our Secondly, you should take good care of yourself by
eating healthy, getting enough sleep and taking regular
suggestions in separate paragraphs, together breaks to do something fun. Consequently, your body and
w ith the possible results or consequences. mind will stay healthy and you will be able to
• The last paragraph summarises our opinion. better when studying.
Another helpful suggestion is to study
We use linkers to organise our ideas:
with a friend. Some people might find this
To introduce suggestions: To begin/start with/Firstly, useful as they can discuss any problems
it's im portant to; Another (helpful) suggestion is to; that come up.
Secondly you should; In addition/Lastly, it's a good idea ^ All in all, I think exam stress can be a
major problem. However, if you are
to, etc
organised and healthy and get help from
To introduce results: Consequently; As a result; In this others, exam stress will never be a
way; By doing this; Then, etc problem for you again.
To conclude: A ll in all; To sum up; In conclusion, etc
2 Read th e rubric. M atch the
suggestions to th e results.
1 a) Read th e essay. In w hich paragraph(s)
does th e w rite r: present th e ir suggestions I The editor of your sixth form college magazine has |
& results? state the p ro b le m ? sum marise I invited you to w rite an article suggesting ways for |
I students to resist peer pressure. W rite your article for I
th e ir o p in io n ?
I the magazine (150-200 words). I
b) Replace th e linkers in th e essay w ith
o th e r a p p ro p ria te ones.
1
M atch th e suggestions (A -С) to th e possible 2
results/consequences (1-3).
3
A Another suggestion is to find a team sport you
like and join a club. Results
В Lastly, you should try to save a little money
They might be able to give you helpful advice, as they
each month. probably have experience with peer pressure too.
С Firstly, you should make a list o f things you like You will feel more confident in your actions.
about yourself. If your friends share your beliefs, you will reduce the
amount of peer pressure you may experience.
JJ In this way, you will eventually have enough
to go on a trip w ith your friends or buy yourself a Use you r answ ers in Ex. 3 to w rite your
treat. essay. Follow th e plan.

By doing this, you will get fit doing something P la "


Para 1: state the problem
you enjoy. i Paras 2-4: present the suggestions and results/consequences
in separate paragraphs (First o f all,.... As a result,....
As a result, you will focus on the positive Another helpful solution...)
and learn to respect yourself. Para 5: summarise your opinion (To sum u p ,....)
[>►
) Writing Bank4p. WB4) 73
W hat is sleep?
Until quite recently, scientists believed that sleep was a
sim ple, resting state, but it isn’t like this at all! W hen we
v.
sleep, our body tem perature drops, our heart rate and other
bod ily functions slow down, but our brains stay very active. Tips for getting a
W hat are the different stages
There are fo u r d iffe re n t stages o f sleep that repeat every 90 You should try to go to sleep and
wake up at the same time every
to 110 m inutes. Stages N1 and N2 are light sleep and we can
day. This helps your body to get
easily wake up. In stage N 3, we sleep m ore deeply and it’s
into a routine.
harder to wake up. Some people m ay also sleepwalk o r talk in
Avoid drinks like cola and coffee
th e ir sleep. The last stage is REM* sleep. O ur eyes m ove around,
before bedtime - they contain
o u r brain is very active, and we have a lo t o f dream s.
caffeine that keeps you awake.
Why do we need sleep? Don’t exercise or watch scary
W hile we sleep, our brain sorts through inform ation, replaces movies just before going to bed.
chemicals, repairs cells, and solves problem s. Lack o f sleep This will wake your body up too
seriously affects o u r m ind and body. W hen we d o n ’t rest enough, much and you might find it
we may feel grum py, forgetful and unable to concentrate. Lack of difficult to fall asleep.

sleep can also affect our im m une system. O ver a long tim e, it may Have a calming bedtime routine,
cause depression and personality changes and eventually even such as having a warm bath or

shorten our life. reading.

How m uch sleep do w e need? н я н я

It’s d iffe re n t fo r everyone, but on average, babies need 16 to resting state, drop, heart rate, bodily
18 hours o f sleep, teenagers about 9 and adults about 7 to 8. function, slow down, brain, active,
stage, light, deeply, replace, repair,
REM = rapid eye movement cell, lack of, affect, grumpy, forgetful,
concentrate, im m une system,
H ow m any hours o f sleep do you g e t each night? Read depression, shorten, get in to a
th e questions in th e te x t. Do you kn o w th e answ ers to routine, caffeine, keep you awake,
any o f them ? Q Listen and read to check. fall asleep

^ A n sw er th e questions
Read again and m ark th e sentences as T (tru e ) or F (false).
1 Do you usually get enough sleep?
1 We m ig h t feel colder w hen w e 're sleeping. 2 How do you feel the next day when
2 It is n 't easy to w ake som eone d u rin g stage N3. you haven't slept well? How does it
3 O ur brain is less active d urin g REM sleep. affect your day?
4 Not g e ttin g enough sleep causes problems in the long run. 3 W hich o f th e tip s in th e te x t do
5 People w h o g e t enough sleep may live longer than you already fo llo w ? W ill you try
those w h o d o n 't. any o f them from n o w on?
6 Exercising before bed tim e helps you sleep.
Щ 1 Collect m ore facts about
2 Tell th e class th ree facts you rem em ber fro m th e te x t. sleep. Present your facts to the
Use w ords from th e fC h e tk th e s e W o rd s box. class.
/

Language in Use
Phrasal verbs/ Word formation
^ eP° ^ Fill in th e sentences w ith th e correct w o rd derived from
Choose th e correct p a rtid e (s ). th e w o rd in brackets.

make out: see clearly W ord F orm ation - adjectives fro m verbs
make up: 1) invent (a story) We use -able (accept-acceptable), -ib le (access-accessible),
2) become friends again -ive (create-creative), -a n t (observe-observant), and
make up for: compensate -e n t (depend-dependent) to make adjectives from verbs.
put off: postpone
put on: 1) increase (in weight) In th e past, m any diseases w e re n 't ....................................(CURE)
2) get dressed The blue-ringed octopus is v e r y ........................................................,
put out: extinguish (a fire) b u t extre m ely poisonous. (ATTRACT)
put sb through: connect by phone It i s n 't ...................to play co m p u te r games fo r hours. (SENSE)
put up with: tolerate
We go th ro u g h ....................................... stages o f sleep. (DIFFER)
1 Put up w ith /o n your scarf and G e ttin g a je lly fish sting is n 't very ................................ ! (PLEASE)
hat. It's freezing outside. I like w e a rin g .....................................................shoes. (COMFORT)
2 Lucy c o u ld n 't p u t up w it h / o f f Her skin is very ................................................to th e sun. (SENSE)
her to o th a ch e any more, so she She's v e r y ...................................................... ; she never rem em bers
w e n t to the d e n tist. names or dates. (FORGET)
3 Just w a it a m om ent and I'll put you
o u t/th ro u g h to M r Thomas. Words often confused
4 Vera and A m y have made fo r/u p
Choose th e correct w ords.
a fte r th e ir huge argum ent.
5 David eats a lo t o f ju n k fo o d and Sophie gripped/grabb ed a sandw ich fo r lunch.
he has p u t th ro u g h /o n w e ig h t. Ouch! I've sprained/pulled my ankle and it really pains/hurts!
6 It to o k th e fire fig h te rs three A lain can han g/craw l from balconies w ith his bare hands.
hours to p u t o f f/ o u t th e fire. It's easy to g et a(n) injury/dam age from playing virtu a l sports.

2 Fill in : w ith, of, into, from.


Collocations
1 He s u ffe rs .......................... ve rtig o .
Fill in: ulcer, home, confined, self, immune, itchy, poisonous,
2 H ow can I get rid .................. a bad
nasty.
cough?
3 We sighed .....................re lie f as he ... system 5 ............. spike
reached the to p o f th e bu ild in g . space 6 ............ .. rash
4 W atch o u t! Y ou'll b u m p ............... remedies 7 ............. .. bite
th a t s tre e tlig h t! 4 ....................................defence 8 m outh

Read th ro u g h M o d u le 4 and answ er th e questions. Then w rite a


quiz o f your o w n .

W hat can happen to some people 4 Which natural remedy is best for smelly
w hen th e y play video games? feet?
W hy sh o u ld n 't you spend to o much 5 H ow long is an eastern bro w n snake?
tim e te xtin g ? 6 W here does Alain Robert come from ?
W hat can you p u t in a bath to soothe 7 H ow m any d iffe re n t stages o f sleep
sunburn? are there?
()►) Revision 4 p . 1 1 8 ) ~J5
Skills 4 - •г . t
'
' г ~ * :'•-**"••■■■■■
Л. '

Speaking
( D e s c r ib e a p i c t u r e )

Describe th e p h o to g ra p h . Then
answ er th e questions.
1 H ow do you th in k th e person in
fro n t feels a b o u t the exam?
2 Do you th in k students should take
exams? W hy?/W hy not?
3 Are you stressed before an exam?
W h a t do you do to feel less

2
stressed?

Q Listen to someone answering


So OtKers Car\ LIVE.
question 2 in Ex. 1. W h at reasons The near-m iraculous rescue o f a young Inuit boy makes fo r a heart­
does he give to support his w a rm in g story. O ur reporter Gayle Haines reports.
opinion?
It all began on 10th November, w hen 15-year-old Tommy Nakaluk
and his uncle Joe had started o u t on w h a t was supposed to have
Reading been a routine w eekend h un tin g trip . U nfortunately, w h ile th e pair
( T /F /N S s e n t e n c e s ) were on th e ir w ay back to th e ir camp on th e coast o f S outham pton
a) Read th e rubric and then Island, th e ir snow m obile broke dow n.
If it h a d n 't been so cold, th e tw o w o u ld have simply stayed where
read th ro u g h th e te x t.
they were until help arrived. However, as th e w e a th er forecast had
W h a t is it about?
shown n ig h t tem peratures falling to -20 degrees, Uncle Joe set o ff on
I You are going to read a te xt about i fo o t fo r th e settlem ent o f Seal Harbour. It was at this p oin t th a t
a rescue. Read and mark the things tu rne d deadly fo r young Tommy. The area o f ice he was
sentences T (true), F (false) or NS t standing on broke away from the main ice mass and he was suddenly
i (not stated). a floa t on an ice floe measuring approxim ately 50 m by 50 m. This was
b .............. „ J w here he w o u ld spend the next fo rty-e ig h t hours.
Luckily fo r Tommy, his uncle had made it back to Seal Harbour and
1 Joe and Tommy d id n 't have any
raised th e alarm. Im m ediately, th e Joint Rescue C o o rdination Centre
to o ls to fix th e snow m obile.
(JRCC), an organisation made up o f m em bers o f th e m ilitary and the
2 It was -20 degrees w h en th e y g o t coast guard, sprang in to action. A fte r a tw o -d a y search, Tommy was
stuck. spotted by a JRCC helicopter and th e dram atic rescue began.
3 Tommy spent tw o days alone on Searchers parachuted o n to a nearby chunk o f ice and then began
th e ice floe. m aking th e ir way, jum p in g from ice floe to ice floe, to Tommy's
4 Rescuers parachuted o n to the location. W hen they finally reached th e boy, they discovered he was
chunk o f ice Tommy was on. suffering from both fro stb ite and hypotherm ia. Despite th e boy's
5 Tommy was able to ta lk w hen the poor co nd itio n , he managed to th a nk th e rescue team fo r com ing to
rescuers fo u n d him. save him.
In an interview conducted on 13th November outside the hospital
b) Do th e reading task. where Tommy was being treated, Kevin MacDonald, one o f the
Com pare you r answ ers w ith searchers w h o to o k part in the rescue operation, stated th a t w h a t he
you r partner. and his team members had done had been nothing o u t o f the ordinary.
"The w ay I see it," com m ented MacDonald, " if Tommy had been on
th a t ice floe much longer, he m ight not have been so lucky. We were
just doing our jobs, it's all a part o f w h a t w e do. Our m o tto at JRCC is
'So Others Can Live' and w e take those w ords very seriously."

76
Listening Word formation
( M u l t i p l e c h o ic e ) | Fill in the gaps w ith the proper gram m ar and lexical form o f J
i the w o rd in brackets. i
Read th e rubric, th en read th e
questions 1-5 and possible
Some scientists think that humans are biologically programmed to
answ ers and u n d erlin e th e key
be afraid of certain things, like the dark and 1 ) ..................................
w ords. (POISON) insects. Others are convinced that a frightening event in
Q Do th e task. the past lies behind many phobias.
A recent breakthrough in 2 ) ............................. (MEDICINE) research
I You are going to listen to a i suggests that our memories can be rewritten and our fear erased.
story a b o u t a special person. Scientists at New York University have found that a retrieved memory
For questions 1-5 choose the can be 3 ) .......................... (PERMANENT) changed. However, it
I answ er А, В, С or D th a t fits i appears that this is only possible within six hours of the memory
best. emerging. After this time, the mind w ill simply form a second version
of the memory. This means that in the future, in times of stress or
1 W hile th e person is try in g to tie
anxiety, the 4 ) ....................... (ORIGIN) fear memory could resurface.
his shoelaces
Still, scientists are excited. Previously, they had thought that the
A he feels com plete ly lost. human long-term memory was fixed and that the fears and phobias
В he trie s to persuade him self which hid inside it could only be treated with drugs. Now, they may
n o t to do it. have discovered a much 5 ) .................................. (SAFE) way to
С he is on his ow n. prevent the return of fear.
D he feels confid ent he can make
it. Key word transformations
2 Frank's life com pletely changed Read th e rubric, th en do th e task.
A w hen he was fo u r years old.
I C om plete th e second sentence using th e w o rd in i
В on his s ix tie th birthday.
brackets.
С w h ile he was a t w o rk. К» ш mm mm ян mm швт mm им ю an mm mm mm mm mm ш иаж м ш аж иве шт гам от ют тт Л

D w hen he retire d from the 1 That man helped us fin d our way.
factory. W HO That w a s ...................................................... fin d o u r way.
2 They w e n t on a very expensive trip .
3 A fte r th e accident, Frank W HICH The trip ....................................................very expensive.
A lost his job. 3 Her yo un ger b ro th e r suffers from claustrophobia.
В c o u ld n 't help him self. W HO Her brother, ........................................................................ ,
С asked his w ife to leave him. is youn ger than her.
D could s till do some sim ple 4 Perhaps th e y are s till a t w o rk.
thing s. BE T h e y ........................................................................a t w o rk.
4 Frank became able to use his hand 5 It's fo rb id d e n to take p h o tog rap hs in here.
again MUST Y o u ............................................................................in here.
A using a rtific ia l fingers. W ritin g ( a n e s s a y m a k in g s u g g e s t io n s -
В a fte r he had a m inor operation.
W r itin g B a n k p . W B 4 )
С w ith th e help o f a ro b o t.
D a fte r undergoing a nightm are. Read th e ru b ric .
Q L iste n to t w o p e o p le d iscu ssin g th e to p ic and m ake
5 Frank and his w ife are planning
n o te s . Use y o u r n o te s to w r it e y o u r essay.
A to eat w ith friends next w eek. fm m m m m m m m m m m m m m т т < т ,т т ш т т т т т т т т т ш т т т т т т т ш т т т mm mm mm mm . mm mm ^

В to go fly-fish in g . i Your teacher has asked you to w rite an essay suggesting i


С to take a break. ways fo r teenagers to overcom e conflict w ith th e ir parents.
D to have a p a rty in a fe w years. • W rite your essay ju stifyin g your suggestions (200-250 words). <
77
People have always enjoyed bathing, not only as a way to keep
clean but also to relax. The ancient Greeks and Romans built
elaborate and expensive bathhouses in their cities all over the
R e a d in g & Listen in g world. Russian people enjoy bathing and the banya, or steam
*| Read the quote and the title o f bath, is a very old and popular tradition in Russian culture. Even
the text. How do you think they today, almost every village and town in Russia has its own banya.
are related? The banya can be in a small cabin or large building with several
bathing areas. They usually have at least three rooms; an
щтштт entrance, a washing room, and a steam room. The steam room is
I can't think of any sorrow in the world that a good
hot bath wouldn’t help, just a little bit.
called the parilka. It has rows of benches, a stove with very hot
Susan Glasee stones in it, and large buckets of water. Bathers take a ladle of hot
water and pour it on the stones, filling the room with hot, dry
steam. Bathers immediately begin to sweat and relax as the
Q Listen and read to find ou t.
steam opens up the pores in their skin. Russian people often hit
2 Read th e te x t and com plete th e themselves with bunches of dried branches and leaves from
sentences. white birch to improve blood circulation. They also wear special
1 The ancient Greeks used t o ............. hats to protect their head from intense heat.
in th e ir cities. Russian people believe that the banya is very good for them, and
2 The banya is very ............................... most health experts seem to agree. The banya helps remove
am ong Russians. toxins from the body, relieves stress, and may even prevent and
3 The banya usually .............................. heal a number of illnesses. Not surprisingly, they are growing in
rooms. popularity all over the world.
4 Bathers p o u r ............................ on h ot Check these words
stones to fill th e room w ith steam . 4 bathe, elaborate, steam, bath, cabin, row, bench, stove,
5 H ittin g the body w ith dry leaves bucket, bather, ladle, sweat, pore, bunch, dried, w h ite birch,
helps blood ........................................... blood circulation, intense, toxin, relieve, prevent, heal

3 Ask and answ er S p e a k in g & W ritin g


questions based on th e te x t. 4 W hy is th e banya good fo r you r health? Tell your
A: Why have people always enjoyed partner.
b a th in g ? C ollect m ore in fo rm a tio n a b o u t th e banya
B: Because it's a way to keep clean and or G reek and Roman baths. W rite a p arag raph. Present
relax. Etc it to th e class.
Vocabulary: annoying/bad habits, cultural
difficulties/adjustm ents, problems w ith neighbours,
life changes, appearance & character
Grammar: present perfect vs past simple, present
perfect continuous, modals m aking deduction (must,
can't, may/might); tenses o f the infinitive/-/ng form
Everyday English: com plaining and apologising
Pronunciation: linking sounds
W riting: a for-and-against essay
Culture Corner: Social etiqu ette in the UK
Life
Curricular [Science): Bodytalk (involuntary reflexes)
Phrasal verbs: take, turn
Word form ation: form ing negative adjectives
experiences
Russia 5: Ivan Kupala Day

V o c a b u la ry
W hich o f th ese even ts
Life events
have y o u /y o u r fa m ily or
Q Listen an d say, a frie n d o f you rs re c e n tly
exp erien ced ? H o w did
• m ove house
y o u /th e y feel?
• g e t a p ro m o tio n
• sta rt a fam ily
• g et m arried
• g e t fire d /lo se yo u r jo b
• g et divorced
• m ove abroad
• g et a jo b
• gradua te from university
• sta rt yo u r ow n business
• have grandchildren
• retire
• buy your o w n house

2 a) L o o k a t th e p ictures. W h ic h
o f th e e v e n ts in Ex. 1 are
th e y a b o u t ?

b) C h o o s e a p ictu re an d
d e scrib e it to th e class.

3 Q Listen to A n d y ta lkin g a b o u t an
experience he had. W h a t w a s it?
I— 1

a How annoying!
V o c a b u la ry
Annoying/Bad habits
'j a) M atch th e ann oying habits (A-G) to
th e pictures (1-7).
Q Listen and check.
| A | | have bad body o do ur
| В | | gossip a b o u t others
| С | I ta lk in th e cinem a
| D | | ta lk loudly on a m obile phone
| E | | have bad table manners (e.g. slurp your soup)
| F | | be late fo r an a p p o in tm e n t
| G | | take th in g s w ith o u t asking
b) W hich o f these do you find th e most
annoying? Discuss it in pairs.
A: It really annoys me when people gossip about others.
B: Me too. Also, I can't stand it/I hate it w h e n ...

R e a d in g
a) The blog entries are a b o u t annoying
situ ations.
Q Listen and read. W ho fe lt sorry fo r
th e w a ite r? W h a t happened to Liam?
W h a t happened to Chris?
b) Read again and m ark th e sentences
b e lo w T (tru e ), or F (false) or
A/S (n o t stated ).
1 Liam's friends w ere talking in the cinema.
2 He fe lt very angry.
3 The man in th e re sta ura nt was w ith
his w ife .
4 Suzy's dad is a resta ura nt critic.
5 The tra in Chris was on w a s n 't very
crow ded.
6 Chris' jo u rn e y to o k longer th a n usual.

Choose one o f the titles below for each story.


Can you think of an alternative title for each?

HEALTH WARNING HOLD yOUR NOSE


THROWN OUT A BAD NEIGHBOUR

M atch the idioms in bold in the te x t w ith


their meanings: sympathised with, got angry,
annoys me, I started to feel sad/worried, laughing a
lot, releasing my anger, the thing that made me feel
unable to accept a situation any more. Then use
each idiom in a sentence o f your ow n.
80
L llc L I v tIMC9C
hoCQ Ш
WUЛ гИ с
lU b
tm

usher, furious, be som eone's fa u lt, suffer from ,


com plain, sneeze, cover, deal w ith , res tauran t critic, see
plenty, pull into, press against, rail, break d o w n , be Grammar P; g r 9 . :
stuck, pollu ted
Present p erfe ct vs p ast sim ple
6th March - Annoying Situations
Match the uses (1-4) to the sentences (A-D).
It always gets on my nerves when people talk in the cinema,
Find examples in the text.
but you w on’t believe what has happened to me tonight! I went
out to the cinem a with my friends to see a film I’ve wanted to Ben has worked here for ten years.
H
see for ages. From the m om ent we sat down, a group of
2 | | Tom hasn't tidied his room. It's really messy.
teenagers behind us didn't stop talking and laughing, and
3 | | I've been to this restaurant before.
even chatting on their mobile phones. Anyway, eventually I lost
my temper. I turned around and shouted at them. Almost 4 | | They left the cinema an hour ago.
immediately, an usher appeared and angrily told me to leave.
A a life experience
My friends were laughing their heads off afterwards, but I’m
still furious. It w asn't my fault! So anyway, here I am back at В an action th a t began in the past and continues

home, letting off steam on my blog! So, what about you? to the present
Have you suffered from people's bad habits recently? Tell me С actions th a t started in the past and we can see
all about it and cheer me up! the result now
Posted by: Liam, 6 /0 3 ,22:14 D an action th a t was completed in the past (at a
stated or clearly implied time)

Oh, that’s awful, Liam. It’s really annoying. What gets on my Complete the sentences w ith the p re se n t
nerves is bad table manners, i've got a really funny story about p e rfe c t or p a s t s im p le form of the verbs.
this. A few months ago, I went to a restaurant with my family. 1 A: Apparently, Susan is angry because Mary
While we were trying to decide what to order, we heard some
........................................... (gossip) about her.
strange noises com ing from the table behind us. It was a man
B: Oh, that's old news. T h e y ..............................
slurping his soup really loudly. When he finished, he started
(not speak) to each other fo r weeks.
com plaining to the waiter that his steak was tough and the
2 A: ....................................... (anyone/see) my box
potatoes were overcooked. We felt really sorry for the waiter.
o f cookies? I ...................................(put) them
The final straw was when he sneezed loudly without covering
his mouth and a piece of bread flew out of his mouth and onto on the kitchen table yesterday.

our table. I’ve never seen anything like it. Anyway, about a B: Oh, sorry! My friends ........................ (come)
week later, my dad read an article in the food section of a over yesterday and we (eat) them.
newspaper about difficult custom ers and the way restaurants 3 A: ..................................................(you/visit) the
deal with them. At the top of the page, there was a picture of new restaurant yet?
the writer and ... you guessed it. It was the man in the B: Yes. W e ........................ (go) there last Friday.
restaurant with the bad manners! He w as a restaurant critic. 4 A: S arah ......................(arrive) late again today.
Posted by: Suzy, 7 /0 3 ,13:15 В: I know. S h e ............................ (be) late every
day this week!
Well, I have to travel on public transport every day and there are
plenty of things that annoy me. A few days ago, though, it was a
boiling hot day and when my train pulled into the station and I Speaking & Writing
saw the bodies pressed against the door, my heart sank.
Everyone was pushing to get on and I found myself next to a ~j Which of the three situations in
man with terrible body odour. He was holding onto a rail with his the text do you find the most annoying?
arm up in the air and the smell was just terrible. Has this man Why? In three minutes, w rite a few
never heard of a shower? Then, things got even worse. The train sentences. Read them to the class.
broke down in a tunnel and I was stuck there for an hour. When
I got off the train, I took som e huge deep breaths! I’ve never
g Think of an annoying situation that has
enjoyed the polluted air of the city so much.
happened to you. W rite your post. Write:
Posted by: Chris_T, 8 /0 3 ,19:21________________
w ho, when, w here, w h a t happened, h o w yo u fe lt.
►p o s t v o u r co m m ent
81
шCulture shock
р

Vocabulary
D ifficu ltie s abroad
Fill in: host, spicy, study, social, le a rn in g , kn ow , g et, im prove.
1 Q Listen and say.
Make sentences using the completed phrases.
b) The people in the pictures 1 ...................... opportun ity 5 ...................................food
have been living abroad. 2 ................ language skills 6 ...........................etiquette
W hat problems has each 3 ................................ family 7 to .........................abroad
been facing? 4 t o .................. the answer 8 to ...............................lost

Becky has been s tru g g lin g to g e t used to


Grammar see
the weather. p. GR9
Present p erfe ct co n tin u o u s
Reading Have/Has been + verb -mg form
a) Look at the questions in the ^ Find examples of p re se n t p e rfe c t c o n tin u o u s in the text.
tex t. W hat is the interview When do we use this tense? Which tim e adverbs are

about? used w ith this tense?


W Listen, read and check.
a) Put the verbs in brackets into p re s e n t p e rfe c t

b) Read again and mark the c o n tin u o u s .


sentences T (true) or 1 M ik e .................................................. (study) abroad fo r a year.
F (false). 2 Susan ................................................................(work) all night!

1 Steven had gone to Mexico 3 How long .................................. (your brother/live) in Spain?

on holiday. ...... 4 They ..............................................(learn) English for six years.

2 His host fam ily is very 5 You look really tired. W h a t....................................... (you/do)?

friendly to him. ...... 6 It ..................................................... (snow) since this morning.


3 His host fam ily doesn't
speak English w ith him. ...... b) Use verbs to ask questions,
4 Daily life in Mexico is
study walk rajn wait djg
faster than back home. ......
5 He doesn't like spicy fo o d .............
6 Steven feels his experience I'm really tired. 3 His clothes are dirty.

has changed his character............. Have yo u been stu d yin g? 4 They are annoyed.
It's w et outside. 5 My feet hurt me.
82
»
www.studentsabroad.com
Students abroad > Case studies >

So, Steven, why did you decide to spend a year studying abroad?
Well, generally I thought it would be an adventure and a great learning opportunity to live in a
totally different culture. I chose Mexico because I have been learning Spanish now for three years
and I wanted to improve my language skills.
W hat have been the best parts of your experience so far?
It's very difficult to choose just a few, but one of the best things has definitely been the experience of
living with a host family. Mexicans are very warm, outgoing people and my hosts have been treating me
like part of their family. During my first week, they invited their whole family for dinner to meet me and it
was fun but quite overwhelming trying to answer all their questions in Spanish. I've also been learning to
slow down and relax and take an afternoon siesta after a big lunch, like the rest of the family! It's been
fantastic living in one of Mexico's oldest cities, too, with its beautiful 16th century architecture. It's a great
feeling when you start to feel like you belong in a foreign place. Little things like knowing the answer when
strangers ask you for directions or getting around without getting lost are so rewarding.
And w hat about the challenging parts?
Well, I've been struggling a bit to get used to the hot weather, but now I wear a hat. It was also difficult to
get used to the spicy food, but now I'm really enjoying it. I still have difficulty understanding social
etiquette. Last week, for example, a new Mexican friend invited me for dinner and I turned up exactly on
time. My host seemed a bit surprised. I found out later that Mexicans usually turn up for an
appointment at least half an hour late.
W hat would you say to other young people considering studying abroad?
Go for it! Without a doubt, this has been the best experience of my life so far. I've become
more self-confident, patient and outgoing, and my Spanish has improved even more
than I expected.
C h e c k th e s e w o r d s

host family, outgoing, host, treat, overwhelming, foreign, rewarding, challenging, turn up,
go for it, self-confident, patient

lals m aking d ed u ctio n s


§ Put the verbs in brackets into p re s e n t
1 Read the theory and say the examples in
p e rfe c t, p a s t s im p le or p re se n t p e rfe c t
your language.
c o n tin u o u s . «— mmmmm i т~*шШтШШтЛтттш~т~тш~~ш*т. шшштттттшшштшт*тштшшшш*тттшттятшттттттшящ>

We use m u st/can 't + bare in fin itiv e when w e are


1 A: How lo n g ...........................................................
sure about som ething. Juan m ust be an overseas student.
(you/study) English? He can't be English. (I'm sure th a t he is an overseas
В: I .......................................................................... student. I'm sure he isn't English.)
(start) taking lessons when I was 8. We use m a y /m ig h t when we aren't sure about
2 A: ......................................(you/ever be) abroad? som ething. She m a y/m ig h t be from South America. (I'm
not sure if she is from there; it's possible.)
B: Yes, I ...................................................................
(go) to Spain a few years ago.
Look at the picture and choose
3 A: Sandra! W e ....................................................... 8
the correct words.
(w ait) fo r you fo r an hour.
They must/can't be lost.
B: Sorry. I ............................................. (get) lost!
They must/can't be in their
4 A: .............................................................................
home tow n.
(Dave/study) in Mexico all year?
They may/can't be tourists or
B: Yes. H e ...............................................................
overseas students.
(go) there last January.
The weather must/can't be
5 A: Ann .....................................................................
hot. It may/can't be summer.
(get back) from France yesterday.
It may/can't be a big city.
В: I know. She ......................................................
(have) a great time.
6 A: .............................................................................
Speaking & Writing
(you/finish) your project yet, Mike? 9 * llH w ia * W hat problems has Steve been
B: No. I ....................................................... (work) facing in Mexico? How has he coped w ith
on it all week, but I ......................................... them? In three minutes w rite a few
............................................ (not/finish) it yet. sentences. Tell the class.
83
Social Etiquette
in the UK
Are you planning to visit the UK in the near future? Since
every country has its own set of dos and don’ts, it’s
worthwhile to find out just what it means to be polite
before getting on that plane. Here are a few of the most
important rules of behaviour.

I1| | If you are meeting someone for the first time, extend a during mealtimes is considered to be extremely rude. Also, you
hand to say hello. Britons greet each other with firm handshakes. should say ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ in all situations.
Hugs are rare, but kissing on the cheek is not unusual between |3| | Giving a thumbs up or okay sign are all positive gestures.
friends or relatives. Also, it is important to make eye contact while Using your index finger to point at someone is impolite,- instead,
speaking with someone; otherwise you will seem rude or extend your entire hand, palm facing up. In the UK, a smile is a
insincere. Use titles, such as Dr Smith or Mr Norris, to show sign of friendliness and even politeness. So, if someone smiles at
respect, unless someone invites you to use their first name. you, return the gesture! However friendly Brits may seem,
Address a woman as Ms (as in Ms Banks) if you aren’t sure if she though, they still prefer that you don’t get too close to them.
is married or not. Keep a distance of about half a metre from people, unless you are
in a crowded place.
|2 | | When Brits ask how you are, they don’t expect a long
reply about your recent headaches or your sore throat. “How are | 4 1 | Sharing a meal with Brits shouldn’t be a stressful event.
you?” is a typical greeting that asks for a simple Nevertheless, there are a few things to remember when you find
answer such as “I’m fine.” You may compliment a yourself at a dinner table. If someone invites you over for a meal,
person on their new haircut or bringing a small gift, like flowers, is a nice token of thanks. Make
shirt, but never tell someone that sure to arrive on time and if you must be late, call your host to
they look tired or unwell apologise. Always wait until everyone has food in front of them
unless you are really afraid before you start eating and remember to keep your elbows off
that they may be ill. Don’t ask the table. Also, it is very important to keep your mouth closed
someone how much money they while chewing; Brits think talking with a mouth full of food is rude
make or how much money they’ve and disgusting. If you eat in a restaurant, expect to pay your
spent on something. Also, never talk waiter a tip that is 10 percent of the bill, but not if the service is
loudly on a mobile phone in public second-rate.
and be aware that taking a phone call

j.- .flH S S E B

exten d , firm handshake, rare, hug, m ake eye contact, typical, greeting,
in public, be aw are , cro w ded place, to ken , elbow , second-rate

a) Fill in: firm , betw een, typ ica l, extend, w ide, ta lk (x 2 ),


index, token, re turn , kiss, sh aring , m ake.
[with your 7 (the gesture
m outh full 8 loudly
o f thanks 9 friends
a meal 10 on the cheek
greeting 11 handshake
a hand 12 eye contact
finger

b) Use the phrases from Ex. 3a to make sentences


giving advice to someone visiting the UK.

4 W hat are the dos and don'ts of your country? Compare


the social etiquette of the UK w ith that of your country.
C o m p la in in g and a p o lo g isin g
^ Q Listen and say. Do you have/Have you
had any o f these problem s w ith your
play loud music \let their dog bark
n eigh b ou rs? If so, w hat happened?
all day and night
Our neighbour lets his dog bark all day and night. park front
\Ne complained once, but nothing has changed.
3 Find sentences in the d ialo gu e your driveway
w hich m ean: How can I help you?
a) О Listen and say. - 1apologise. - Can I discuss something with you?
- 1didn't know it was a problem. - That would be great.
• Could I talk to you for a minute?
• W hat can I do for you? Pronunciation: linking sounds
• I'm afraid I have a complaint.
• Oh, I'm really sorry about that. ^ Q Read the theory, then listen and say.
r—
• I'll make sure it doesn't happen again. “ “ *4

Linking sounds
• Thanks, I'd really appreciate that.
In spoken English, words may be linked togeth er when
b) The sentences above are from a dialogue one word ends with a consonant sound and the next word
betw een neighbours. W hat do you think begins w ith a vowel. The consonant is pronounced at the
the problem is? beginning of the next syllable.
Q Listen and read to find out.
Not at all.

Alan: Excuse me. I don't think we've met yet. I'm What can I do for you?

Alan Jones. I've just moved in next door. S a m js jlw a y s playing loud music.

Ray: Pleased to meet you, Alan. I'm Ray Newton. I've just moved in.

Alan: Pleased to meet you, Ray. Could I talk to you


for a minute?
Speaking
Ray: Sure. What can I do for you? Im agine you w ant to com plain to
Alan: Well, I'm afraid I have a complaint. It's just your n e igh b o u r about one o f the problem s
that you've been playing your music really in Ex. 1. Use the sentences in Ex. 2a to act
loud. My roommates and I are students, and out your d ialogue. Follow the plan
we just can't study with so much noise.
Ray: Oh, I'm really sorry about that. I didn't realise О
Greet В & introduce
О
Say 'Pleased to meet
it was bothering anyone.
Alan: That's OK. It's just that we have exams in a yourself. you'.
few w e e k s ... Reply & ask if you can Agree & ask what you
Ray: I understand. Don't worry. I'll make sure it have a word. can do for A.
doesn't happen again. Make your complaint. Apologise.
Alan: Thanks - I'd really appreciate that. Accept the apology. Promise that it won't
Ray: You're welcome. And sorry again. Thank B. happen again.
Alan: Don't worry about it. Have a nice day. End the conversation. Reply & apologise again.
move into a caravan in the countryside

start your own business


adopt a child from abroad

IKFop.
CHANGE
тне B E T T E R
win a scholarship Mahatma Gandhi once said ‘Be the change you want to see in the world’. This is
to a top university exactly what these three people have done. The changes they made took their
lives in completely different directions and helped them to
make the world a much better place.

Щ Ш M u rra y

Liz has shared the stage with world


leaders like Mikhail Gorbachev and the
Vocabulary Dalai Lama as an international speaker.
It’s hard to believe that at the age of 16
Life ch an ge s
she was homeless and sleeping on park

1 a) Q Listen and say. benches and underground trains! Liz’s


parents were drug addicts and couldn’t look after
b) Which of these changes
her and her sister. She says, "We ate ice cubes because it felt like
would you (not) like to make eating. We split a tube of toothpaste between us for dinner." When their
in the future? Why?/Why mother died, their father moved to a homeless shelter and Liz and her
not? Tell your partner. sister were out on the streets of New York. At this point, Liz decided to
• satisfying • exciting • d iffic u lt try to turn her life around. She went back to school and through
challenging • tirin g • scary • risky dedication and determination, she eventually won a scholarship to a top
university. Since Liz graduated from Harvard in 2009, she has been
I'd love to set up a c h a rity to help o th e r
speaking at events to teenagers about staying away from drugs and
people. It w o u ld feel very satisfying.
gangs. She wants them to understand that they can reach their goals,
I w o u ld n 't like to have cosm etic surgery. It's
whatever they have had to face in their lives.
to o scary.

Reading Read the article again and w rite L (Liz), M (M ark) or

Read the title and the N (Narayanan).


introduction of the article. Then Which person ...
read the first and the last 1 plans to live w ith people w ho share his/her ideas?
sentence in each te x t in the 2 helps people to look better?
article. W hat changes do you 3 wanted to show people th a t something isn't necessary?
think each of these people
4 has appeared at events w ith famous people?
made in their lives? 5 had an experience th a t changed his/her mind?
О Listen and read to find out. 6 was in a d iffic u lt situation along w itlj a fam ily member?
Match the headings to
the texts. In pairs, think of
alternative ones.

A few years ago, Economics graduate


CARING FOR THE HUNGRY

A LIFE WITHOUT CASH


i
Mark was the manager of an organic
food company. He has always been
i
FROM HOMELESS TO HARVARD [
passionate about the environment
and social issues, but he felt that he a) Match the phrasal verbs in
wanted to do even more. He argued bold in the te x t w ith the
that if we grew our own food instead of meanings below.
buying it, we wouldn’t throw a third of it away
while millions around the world go hungry. So, • installed • gives • created
Mark gave up his job and decided to prove that we don’t need • started living in • change
money to survive, by living without it for a year. He moved into an • care for • started
old caravan in the countryside, put in solar panels for power, and • stopped doing
started growing his own food and washing in a river. When he didn’t
b) Choose five of the phrasal
have enough home-grown food, he went into the forest to pick wild
verbs and make sentences
food, like berries. Mark enjoyed the year so much that he has been
about the people in the
living without money since then. Recently, he’s written a book, The
Moneyless Man: A Year o f Freeconom ic Living and hopes to use the text.

profits to create a whole community that lives without money.


Use words from the
box in the
correct form to complete the
fC r ie b w ® * 1
[@ |У а г а у а * * а п sentences.

1 Some people a r e .............................


Narayanan Krishnan was an award-
and live on the streets.
winning chef who was about to take
2 She decided to put i n ......................
up a top job in Switzerland. Then,
to reduce heating costs.
while visiting his parents at home in
3 They worked hard to .....................
India, he saw an old man starving
under a bridge. He says, "I fed that their goals and finally they made
man and decided that this is what I it.
should do for the rest of my life." He gave up 4 ...............................such as bullying,
his job and set up a charity called the Akshaya racism and poverty are matters
Trust. Every day, Narayanan now personally prepares and hands out th a t affect members o f a society.
400 simple, tasty hot meals to the homeless. He also carries a comb, 5 He has e n o u g h .................................
scissors and a razor so that he can give haircuts and shaves. food to last fo r months.
Narayanan sleeps in Akshaya’s kitchen, but he says he’s enjoying his
life. He has shown what one person can achieve when they set out to
change the world! Speaking & Writing
7 в ш а Who do you admire
C h e c k th e s e w o r d s
the most - Liz, M a rk or
share the stage, homeless, drug addict, shelter, dedication, N a ra y a n a n ? Why? W rite a few
determ ination, w in, scholarship, reach your goals, passionate, sentences on the topic, then
social issue, th ro w away, solar panel, hom e-grown, profits,
read them to the class.
community, aw ard-w inning, starving, shave, achieve
87
hen my best friend Alisha first invited me relatives taught me some dance steps for
to go with her to her cousin’s wedding in the wedding ceremony the following day!
India, I leapt at the chance. A wedding is very On the morning of the wedding, Alisha
important to Hindus because it signifies the surprised me with a gift - a green and gold silk
marriage of two families, not just a couple. It sari - and helped me to put it on. At first I felt a
sounded so exotic and I wanted to see it for myself! bit awkward, but soon I realised it was very
When we walked out of the airport into the comfortable to wear! The groom arrived
steaming hot day, a large group of Alisha’s relatives wearing white and riding a white horse with a
were waiting excitedly to greet us. After having greeted marching band closely following him. It was a
grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins, from the oldest to spectacular entrance, but it was nothing compared to the
the youngest according to tradition, we caught a taxi and I bride! She was wearing a magnificent sari of red and gold
got my first taste of the hustle and bustle of Jaipur. Bicycle velvet with stunning gold jewellery. Then the bride and
rickshaws bumped along beside us as I admired the groom sat under a mandap, a decorated tent with a small
architecture of the pink city - Jaipur’s nickname from the fire in the middle. During the ceremony, they seemed to
colour of its buildings. be doing lots of different symbolic things like walking
That night was the Sangeet, the first night of the around the fire or exchanging flower garlands. After
wedding celebrations. The garden at the bride’s house the ceremony, we ate lots of traditional Indian
was full of brightly-coloured decorations and women dishes - the ones inside banana leaves were my
wearing beautiful multi-coloured saris. One of favourite! Then, it was time for more dancing.
Alisha’s aunts soon pulled me up to dance. Thankfully, this time I didn’t seem to
Everyone seemed to know the steps - apart from embarrass myself so much!
me, that is! I really enjoyed watching the modern I feel lucky to have met such warm people
Bollywood* dances. My favourite of all was the and have experienced a traditional Indian
dandidas, a traditional dance using sticks. In the past wedding. It was like being at the fairytale
this party used to last for about ten days! wedding of an Indian prince and princess!
The following afternoon, it was the Mehndi party.
* Hindu cinem a consisting m ainly of musicals.
Mehndi is the decoration of the hands and feet with a
dye called henna. All of the women sat under a big tent C h e c k th e s e w o r d s
and some artists drew amazing designs on our hands.
The designs last for weeks and are a symbol of future leap at the chance, signify, steaming hot, greet, trad ition ,
prosperity and happiness. Later, Alisha and her hustle and bustle, nickname, stick, last, dye, prosperity,
silk, groom , marching band, entrance, stunning,
ceremony, embarrass oneself, fairytale w edding
Vocabulary
Sta g e s in life Use the phrases below to describe the pictures in Ex. 1.

1 W Listen and say. A t which


get engaged/married/divorced/a job/a degree/ a promotion
stage: are you? is
have children/grandchildren/a baby/a wedding/a fam ily
your teacher? are
reception/a birthday party/m arital problems
your parents? is
buy a house/a car/a boat/land/property
your uncle? are
go to kindergarten/school/college/university
your neighbours'
attend someone's w edding/retirem ent party/funeral
kids?

in fa n t ( М 2 months)
toddler ( 1-2 years)
Reading
child (2-12 years) W hat do you know about Hindu weddings? W hat would
teenager (1 3-1 9 years) you like to know? W rite down three questions.
adult (20+) Q Now listen and read the text. Can you find the
middle-aged (40+) answers to your questions?
elderly (60+)
Read the te xt again and for questions 1-5, Fill in: flower, steaming, wedding, future, hustle,
choose the best answ er А, В, С or 0. fairytale, m ulti-coloured, marching. Use the
com pleted phrases to m ake sentences
1 The writer wanted to go to the wedding because
about the w ed d in g.
A her best friend Alisha was the bride.
hot day 4 ..........................saris
В she knew it would be interesting.
and 5 prosperity
С Alisha needed someone to go with her.
bustle 6 .........................band
D she had always wanted to go to India.
7 ....................garland
2 On the way from the airport, the writer
celebrations 8 ................. wedding
A got stuck in traffic. see
pp. GR9-
В rode on a rickshaw. G ro m m a r g r io
С looked at the unusual buildings.
fo-infinitive/-/ng form (Tenses)
D chatted to Alisha's relatives.
a) In a m inute w rite six verbs/phrases
At the Sangeet, the guests
th a t go w ith: (to) infinitive, -ing form.
A celebrate for ten days.
В take part in different dances. b) Read the table. Find exam ples in the
С put up decorations. text.
D decorate each other's hands. infinitive forms -in g forms
At the w edding, the writer seems to have been present simple (to) dance dancing
most impressed by present continuous (to) be dancing -
A the groom's entrance. present perfect (to) have danced having danced
В the ceremony under the mandap. present perfect (to) have been -
continuous dancing
С the food.
D the bride's appearance.
g Choose the correct verb form s.
The writer suggests that by the end of the
celebrations 1 Ann hopes to go/going to the wedding.
A her dancing skills had improved. 2 Sally seems enjoying/to be enjoying her new job.
В she felt awkward. 3 The curry was too hot eating/to eat.
С it got very hot. 4 Mark claims to have been/having been away
D she had good luck. from home on the night of the fire.
5 Mike can't stand dancing/to dance.
6 John denied to have told/having told a lie.
Choose the correct w ord. Check in your 7 They appear to w alk/to be w alking around the
diction aries. fire.
8 After to have eaten/having eaten, the wedding
1 He leapt/hopped at the chance of travelling to
guests started to sing and dance.
India.
2 It was such a steaming/simmering hot day that Speaking & Writing
we decided to go to the beach.
0 Look at the pictures in Ex. 1 and make
3 She greeted/w aved us with a big warm smile.
speculations about them . Use seem, tend,
4 She isn't used to the hustle and buzz/bustle of
appear and appropriate in fin itive form s.
the big city.
5 The party took/lasted until the early hours.
<| Q М Л Ш Ш Ш in three m inutes w rite a few
6 I felt very clumsy/awkward in the long red dress.
sentences com paring a typical w e d d in g in
7 He made a spectacular entry/entrance on a
your country to the Indian w e d d in g in the
white horse.
te xt. Tell your partner.
8 It was the best holiday we've ever felt/experienced.
()►) Vocabulary Bank 5 pp. VB13-VB14, ЕхТб) 89
Vocabulary
A p p earan ce & character
List the words under the
1 a)
correct headings.
Q Listen and check.

Ъ ? Ш М Fe/V№ 6$
FA£ 6 hC 16
Talk about your friends and fam ily
&UlU> H6I61HT 3
m em bers.

A: What does your sister look like?


• middle-aged • fat
B: She's tall and thin w ith...
• short • old • well-built
A: What's she like?
• in her early twenties
B: She's funny, but she can be rather bossy.
• tattoo • curly • skinny
• wrinkles • moustache Listening
• freckles • long • round
Q You'll hear an in te rvie w w ith a w om an
• of medium height • small
called Lesley about body im age. For
• oval • tall • overweight
questions 1-5, tick ( / )
• thin • beard • young
T (tru e ) or F (false).
• wavy • straight • in her early forties • in his mid-thirties
1 Lesley talks to groups of teenagers.
• plump • dark/pale skin • pierced ears
2 She says body image affects behaviour.
• glasses • blond(e) • dark • bald • in her late teens
3 She says a lot of celebrities have a
b) Describe the people in the pictures. poor body image, too.
Brian is w ell-built and probably o f medium height. He's... 4 She doesn't think teens should change
their appearance.
Fill in the correct character adjectives. 5 She advises teens with poor body
• patient • cheerful • honest • lazy • outgoing image to talk to a friend their own age.
• rude • shy • generous • selfish • popular
Speaking
1 A(n) .......................person always tells the truth. C o m m en tin g on ch an ges
2 A ( n ) ................................ person only cares about in appearance
him/herself.
3 A ( n ) .......................person doesn't mind w aiting. 5 Use the phrases and the prom pts to
4 A ( n ) ...................... person is impolite and doesn't act out e xchanges, as in the exam ple.

have good manners. • lose some w eight • just get new glasses
5 A ( n ) ...................................... person likes meeting • get a haircut • grow a beard • grow my hair
and talking to people.
• I d id n 't recognise you! Have • You've changed!/You
6 A(n) ......................person doesn't w ant to work.
you changed som ething? look different.
7 A(n) .................................person is always happy.
• You look nice! Is som ething • W hat have you
8 A ( n ) ....................person is liked by many people.
different? changed?
9 A .......................... person is always giving people
things. A: I didn't recognise you! Have you changed something?
10 A ........................................... person feels nervous B: Yes, I've lost some weight.
around others. A: You look great!
B: Thanks!
90 ( » ) Vocabulary Bank 5 p. VB14, Ex. 7 V B l I ) *
Writing Д
A fo r-a n d -a g a in st
essay _ Is it a good 1(363
*| Read the W riting Tip, then read
the essay and find the argum ents
to S t u d ^ abroad? Г
for and again st the topic. W hat These days more and more people are deciding to study abroad. Some think
exam ples/justifications does the this is a good idea because it is challenging and life enriching, but others believe
w riter use to support his it is not particularly beneficial and can cause certain problems.
argum ents? W ithout a doubt, there are some advantages to studying abroad. Firstly, you
can become flu e n t in the local language. This is a valuable skill th a t will improve
your em ploym ent prospects when you graduate. Secondly,
W riting for-and-against essays studying abroad allows you to learn a great deal about another

A for-and-against essay is a formal culture. You can gain knowledge and friends and have new and
valuable experiences th a t will enrich your life.
piece of writing which discusses the
On the other hand, there are a num ber o f disadvantages to
advantages and disadvantages of a
studying abroad. To begin with, it Is very expensive. This
topic.
could mean th a t you have a huge debt to repay at the
In the introduction we introduce the
end o f your studies. In addition, not all foreign students
topic.
enjoy studying abroad. They may have problems
In the main body we present the
adjusting or become and unhappy.
arguments for and against with All in all, there are both advantages and
examples/justifications in separate disadvantages to studying abroad. In my opinion,
paragraphs. Each paragraph starts people should consider all the pros and cons
with a topic sentence that presents carefully before making the decision.
the main idea of the paragraph.
In the conclusion, we summarise the W hich of the h igh ligh te d linkers in the essay: introduce
arguments and give our opinion (I an opinion? show contrast? list/add points? conclude?
think, I believe, In my opinion). We use S u g g e st alte rnatives.
linkers to join our ideas. 4 a) Q Listen to som eone ta lk in g about extrem e
d ietin g and make notes under the headin gs. W hich
Linking w ords/phrases
argum ents are: advantages ? disadvantages ?
• to list/add points: Firstly, Secondly, In
the first place, To start with, Finally, In IS IT A GOOD IDEA TO GO ON AN EXTREME DIET?
addition, Moreover, etc
ARGUMENTS EXAM PLES/JUSTIFICATIONS
• to introduce/list (dis)advantages:
The main/first advantage of...,
One/Another advantage of...
• to conclude: In conclusion, All in all,
Finally, Lastly, etc b) Use your notes from Ex. 4a, and the plan below, to
• to show contrast: On the other hand, w rite a for-and-against essay about the pros and cons
but, still, However, etc of extrem e dieting. (150-180 words).

Plan
tw mnnimmr _________

2 Find the topic sentences in the Para 1: introduction to the topic (These days, more and more people are
main body paragraphs. S u g g e st .... Some people..., but others....)
Para 2: advantages & examples/justifications (Without a doubt, there
other appropriate ones.
are some advantages.... Firstly,....)
Para 3: disadvantages & examples/justifications (On the other hand,....)
Para 4: Summarise the topic & express your opinion (All in a ll,.... In
my opinion,....)

(У W ritin g Bank 5 p. W B 5 ) 9 1
icular: Science
„ „ ,wn, blush, hiccup,
We can’t help it, but ^ what exactly is
cough or even s n o ^ J ^ ^ ^ things?
going on in our bod.es wn

It’s no secret that we blush when we’re


embarrassed, but why? Well, when you feel
self-conscious, your body releases adrenalin
which increases the blood flow to your face.
Babies don’t blush. You only blush when
you become aware of other people’s
thoughts and feelings.

i H IC C U P We get hiccups when something irritates the


diaphragm muscle below the lungs that helps
No one knows for sure why we yawn, but
pull air into them. When we eat or drink too
one theory is that when you’re tired or
much, or when we feel nervous or excited, the
bored, you don’t breathe as deeply as
diaphragm pulls down air in a jerky way.
usual, so yawning helps you to take more
When this air meets your voice box, you make
oxygen into the blood. Other scientists say
a hiccup sound.
that yawning stretches the muscles and
lungs and increases the heart rate, helping
us to stay more alert. Most people seem to When something such as dust, pollen
agree about one thing, though ... yawning or a virus irritates the inside of our
is contagious! nose, a message goes to the brain.
Even animals and unborn babies yawn! The brain then tells six different
muscles including your eyelids to
push air out through your nose at up
A cough is an
to 160 kmph.
important way of
clearing your airways,
throat and lungs of When you are asleep and air can’t move freely
irritations. When you through your mouth or nose, parts of your
cough, you breathe in mouth and throat vibrate and cause snoring.
and close your vocal Reasons why the air can’t get through might
cords. As you release include an allergy, a cold or being overweight.
the air, you make a Studies say that about 45% of men and 30%
barking noise - a of women snore regularly.
с
Check these words
Read the he ad in gs in the text. W hat causes
stretch, muscle, lung, increase, airways, throat, vocal cords,
these to happen? release, adrenalin, flow, jerky, voice box, dust, pollen, virus,
Q Listen and read the te xt to find out. irritate, brain, vibrate, allergy

W rite: sneeze, yawn, blush, hiccup, snore or


Match the h ig h lig h te d w ords w ith th eir
cough next to each sentence.
m eanings: know about, shake, awake, sudden
1 You may do this if you need to lose and fast, infectious, bothers, uncomfortable
weight.
around others.
2 It m ight help you stay awake.
3 It happens when you think about 4 Tell your partner one th in g you rem em ber
what others think of you. about each o f the reflex actions in the text.
4 You might do this if you are worried
about something. ICT У- jp L * Find out more interesting facts

5 It happens extremely fast. about these reflex actions. Use textb ooks,

6 You may sound like a dog when you encyclopedias or the Internet. Present your

do this. facts to the class.


92

Language in Use -J
Phrasal verbs/ W ord fo rm atio n
Prep o sitio n s _ .,, , , . ,
3 Fill in th e sentences w ith th e correct w o rd derived
1 Choose the correct particle. from th e w o rd in brackets.
take after: look/act like a relative
take off: 1) remove (clothes) Word Formation - forming negative adjectives
2) leave the ground (planes) We use non (existent - non-existent), un (happy-unhappy),
take up: start (a hobby) dis (satisfied-dissatisfied), in (accurate-inaccurate),
turn down: 1) reject il (before I) (le g a l-ille gal), im (before b, m, p) (p o lite-im polite) and
2) reduce volume (*turn up) ir (before r) (regular-irregular).
turn off: switch o ff (*turn on)
turn over: move to a new page
1 The sales assistant was very .......................................so I d id n 't
turn up: arrive/appear unexpectedly
buy a n yth in g . (HELPFUL)
1 John to o k o ff/up his jum per because Steve never considers th e results o f his actions. He can be
he was to o hot. v e r y ............................................................................. (RESPONSIBLE)
2 Can you tu rn up/dow n your music
I fin d it ..................... to sleep if som eone snores! (POSSIBLE)
please, Sam? I can't hear the TV. I t ' s ...................................................... to keep the m oney if a sales
3 N ow tu rn d o w n /o ver the page and assistant gives you to o m uch change. (HONEST)
look a t Exercise 3. It was a(n) .............................................d inner p arty so w e d id n 't
4 Fran turned dow n/up at the party at need to dress up. (FORMAL)
about 9 pm.
Tony's argum ents w ere .................................................... They ju st
5 M a tt tu rn e d o ff/d o w n th e jo b d id n 't m ake sense. (LOGICAL)
because he found a b e tte r one.
6 I take afte r/o ve r my grandfather.
We are both ta ll w ith green eyes. C o llo catio n s
Choose th e correct prepositions. Fill in: become, give, vocal, host, reach, lose, stay, take,
1 I fe lt really sorry fo r/a b o u t her. homeless, social.

2 Tania is always gossiping ab o u t/fo r


1 my tem p er 6 your goals
o th e r people.
2 a deep breath 7 a le rt
3 It gets in/on my nerves when people
3 fam ily 8 cords
talk loudly at/on their mobile phones.
4 a hug 9 e tiq u e tte
4 I enjoyed my tim e in Spain, b u t I
5 shelter 10 aw are
stru g g le d o f/w ith the language.
5 Stop sh ou ting o ff/a t them .
6 People tru s t you m ore if you look
them in /to the eye.

Read th ro u g h M o d u le 5 and m ark th e sentences T (tru e ) or F (false).


Then w rite a quiz o f you r o w n .
Mexicans never take an a fte rn o o n siesta.
Brits appreciate pun ctua lity.
Jaipur's nicknam e is th e red city.
A d ren alin increases th e blood flo w to your face.
Y aw ning increases th e heart rate.
11 1 ; : You s h o u ld n 't tip in a resta ura nt in th e UK.
•£ia*s*s U nborn babies yaw n.
Studies say th a t w om en d o n 't snore as m uch as men.
/

Skills
Reading
(M ultiple choice) givin g in tf,e
Read the rubric, the questions and the
possible answ ers and underline the key|
w ords. Do the reading task. Com pare
Fast Lane
hen Milka Duno told her parents that she wanted to be
your answ ers w ith your partner.
W a race car driver instead of a naval engineer, they
weren’t very pleased with her new career choice. “What? Are you
You will read a text about a person's crazy? Why do you want to drive a race car?” they said. She had
to explain that this is what she wanted to do and she was
career. For questions 1-5 choose the i
determined to be one of the best drivers in the world.
best answer А, В, С or D.
It was Milka’s competitive spirit that made her change gears
and become a race car driver. While she was working as a naval
engineer, she was invited by a friend to participate in a Porshe
Why did Milka decide on a career as a race Driving Clinic in her native Venezuela. The rest is history. “I got
car driver? hooked immediately,” she said. In a lesser way, her passion for
A To anger her parents. speed motivated her to leave her career as a naval engineer,
abandon four graduate degrees and move from Caracas to
В To feed her need for speed.
Miami. Since then, she has won several championships. She is
С She wanted to live in Miami. the only Latina who races professionally and the first woman in
D To satisfy her competitive spirit. history to win an international sports car race in North America.
In 2004, Milka and co-driver Andy Wallace won first place in the
Milka believes that the male drivers Miami Grand Prix.
A w ork harder than her. In perhaps the world’s most masculine profession, it would
seem strange if Milka had not encountered problems. In the
В look down on her.
beginning, she had to work very hard to earn the respect of the
С see her as one of them. men and make them see her as an equal. "I don’t get any
D give her special treatment. special treatment because I am a woman. Once I put on my
helmet, I’m just another driver. And I don’t give anyone a break
What message does Milka w ant to portray either."
as a role model? If anything, her presence has attracted a whole new
audience and she is seen as a role model for women. Milka is
A She thinks being an athlete is important.
approached by a number of fathers and daughters after big
В She wants to emphasise the races. The fathers come up to her all thetime and say, ‘‘Milka,
importance of education. my daughter is going to grow up and bearace cardriver just
like you!” While Milka thinks that is great, she also reminds
С She wants young girls to become race car
them how important an education is to people of all ages. In
drivers like her. addition, she points out that being an athlete is
D She thinks that family relationships temporary, but academic preparation lasts a
are important. lifetime.
When Milka is not racing she has a
What does the writer say about Milka's tough fitness routine - she spends several
hours a day training and driving at high
personal life?
speeds. The most important thing for her
A Her work is her main focus. right now is her career. She does not
В Her main objective is to start a family. have time for a personal life. “ I’m a
С Her social life is extremely important driver,” Milka says, "and one day,
I want to have a family and
to her.
children. But right now I am л Ю
D Her career is secondary. focused on racing.” 0?
Despite her JL
W hat's the writer's main purpose for achievements and growing
w riting this article? fame, Milka Duno is a
A To explain gender bias. pleasant, soft-spoken and
humble woman. She has a
В To present family problems.
genuine love of racing and a
С To talk about determination and success. competitive drive to win. Just do
D To explain how to stay in shape. not get in her way on the track!
94
Listening W ord fo rm atio n
(True/False statem ents) Fill in the gaps w ith the proper gram m ar
2 О Read the rubric and do the liste n in g and lexical form o f the w ords in brackets.
task. Ju stify your answ ers.
Г — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —— 4 At 5:30 every morning, before he got on the school bus,
1 You are going to listen to a strange 1 15-year-old Trevon Jenifer took his dog out for a walk. The
coincidence. Listen and mark sentences 1-5 1 ) ................. (DIFFER) between Trevon and any other early
« Г (true) or F (false). morning dog walker was that Trevon walked on his hands.
He was born in 1988 in Maryland, USA without legs and
1 Meredith was taken to her new family life was challenging in every way. The family were poor,
but they 2 ) ...................................(COURAGE) him to adopt
when she was a toddler. .......
the attitude that he could do anything he put his mind to.
2 She had a rather difficult childhood. .......
Even though he was given a pair of prosthetic legs, he
3 Jim and his wife didn't have any children........... preferred to do without them and use his arms and hands
4 Jim found out about Meredith through as his legs and feet instead.
the Internet. ....... He was a 3 ) ..................................... (CHEER) boy and he was
5 The two girls haven't met yet. ....... popular at school, always willing to help out and do
whatever he could. His teachers were 4 ) .............................
(CONSTANT) amazed at his abilities.
Speaking Trevon is now a member of the wheelchair basketball
(Describe a picture) team and has also published a book about his life. What
annoys him is when reporters ask him if his life would have
Describe the picture. Then answ er the been different with legs. His 5 ) ........................... (RESPOND)
q uestions. to this is that he thinks the question is as pointless as
asking, "What if the sun rose in the west?" His attitude is
1 How do you
that he is the way he is and he is happy that this attitude
think the girl's inspires others to do better things in their lives.
mother feels?
2 Do you think
higher
Grammar Text Completion
-

education Read the text. Fill in the gaps w ith the proper
is necessary? gram m ar form of the capitalised words.
Why?/Why
One evening, Ben 1 ) ................... video games
not? at Larry's house when suddenly a terrible
3 W hat are you storm struck. Larry's parents 2 ) ....................... SUGGEST
planning to that he stay until the storm was over but Ben
study? Why? decided to leave. He was only a few hundred
metres down the road when he heard a voice
3) ..................................him. He was too scared
to look around. Suddenly, Ben felt a hand
Writing (a f o r - a n d - a g a in s t e ssa y) 4 )......................his shoulder and he screamed. TOUCH
"Ben! It's me, Larry," the voice panted. Larry
Read the rubric.
looked around and saw his friend. "If you
Q Listen to tw o people d iscu ssin g the ever do that again, I 5 ) .............................. you."
top ic and make notes. Use your notes to shouted Ben. "Sorry, but I 6 ) ..............................
w rite your essay. to catch up with you for the last ten minutes.
You left your copybook at my place and you'll
need it to do your homework," said Larry.
Your teacher has asked you to write an essay "Larry, I 7 ) ........................so scared in my life. I NEVER/BE
discussing the pros and cons of studying thought a ghost was chasing me." "A ghost?
abroad. Write your essay in 200-250 words. Come on! There are no such things as ghosts."
said Larry and the two boys started laughing.
95
Reading & Listening
| Look at the pictures and the title o f the text.
W hat do you know about th is celebration?
Q Listen and read to find out.

The sun is w onderful. It's the 'giver of life' and all living
things on Earth depend on the energy that comes from it. It isn't
surprising then that people have always celebrated the sun. In Russia, people honour the sun on
M idsum m er Day, or Ivan Kupala Day, one of the most exciting celebrations of the year.

Kupala Day is an ancient holiday still celebrated On Ivan Kupala Day, the fun begins with children
in a lot of countries, including Russia. It is a huge playing tricks and having water fights. Swimming
celebration of the sun and takes place every year on Ivan Kupala Day is also a popular custom. In the
around the summer solstice, the day the sun evening people light huge bonfires as part of the
reaches its highest point in the sky. It is a popular celebrations. They dance around them and jump
and fun holiday filled with a variety of rites and over them. The person who jumps the highest is
ceremonies connected with water, fire, and plants. believed to be the happiest. In the past, many
On the evening before Ivan Kupala Day, people look people thought that on this night, the shortest one
through their gardens or wander around forested areas of the year, evil spirits came out and so they would
looking for fern flowers. People believe that these stay up all night performing different rites to keep
flowers only bloom for a few moments on the the evil spirits away.
eve of the summer solstice. Legend also has it ' " ч':v^- ^ :
that when the fern flower blossoms, you
can see all the treasures of the Earth. ancient, summer solstice, rite, ceremony, wander,
Finding a fern flower is thought to bring fern flower, bloom, blossom, prosperity, bonfire,
to the lucky finder. spirit

Match the h ig h lig h te d w ords to their


2 Read the te xt again and decide w hich of 3
m eanings.
the sentences (1-6) are T (true), F (false) or
A/S (not stated).
w alk around 4 arrive at a point
1 Ivan Kupala Day is a unique holiday only wealth 5 have a relationship to
celebrated in Russia. need, rely on 6 have great respect for
2 Russian people have celebrated Ivan
Kupala Day for thousands of years. Speaking & Writing
3 People perform different rites and
Д Tell your partner three th in g s you like
ceremonies on Ivan Kupala Day.
about Ivan Kupala Day. Give reasons.
4 People say that if you find a fern flower
on this day, you may become rich.
5 Not everyone believes the legends C ollect inform ation about
about Ivan Kupala Day. how people in an English sp eakin g country
6 People don't sleep on the night o f your choice celebrate M idsum m er Day.
of Ivan Kupala Day. W rite a summ ary. Present it to the class.
96
Vocabulary: types of crime, crime fighting, street art,
cybercrime, the law, problems in the community
Grammar: the passive, impersonal/personal passive
structures, make/let, the causative, reflexive pronouns,
reported speech (statements, orders/commands &
questions)
Everyday English: giving a witness statement Crime &
community
Pronunciation: epenthesis
W riting: a letter to the editor making suggestions
Culture Corner: Agatha Christie
Curricular (Citizenship): Neighbourhood Watch
Phrasal verbs: run, set, wear, work
Word form ation: prefixes burglary
Russia 6: GraFFFest
О л я TO \ov!
W hich o f these crim es do *
you th in k are the m ost
Vocabulary se rio u s? W hich are a problem
Types o f crim e in yo u r to w n /city? Have you
Match each description (A-H ) heard of/read a b o u t an y o f
w ith a type of crime ( 1 -8). these crim es recently? A
Q Listen and check then say. R eport it to the class. j h

taking things from a shop


w ithout paying
E H driving over the speed
limit
B H stealing things from
people's pockets or bag
Q H causing damage to
things, especially
public property
B H attacking someone
in order to steal •
their money ft
stealing money from a \
bank or company
M deliberately setting fire
to something
breaking into a house to
pickpocketing
steal things

2 Q Listen to three people


ta lk in g about crim es they
w itn essed. W hich type of
crime did each see?

vandalism
.....

Street Art divides public opinion; it is seen by some as a way to


Vocabulary brighten up our communities while it is considered by others to be
Types o f art nothing but vandalism. So, is it art or not?

1 О Listen and say. A It’s a Woolly World


These days, it is not only grannies who
• pottery • carving • painting
knit. In cities such as New York, London
• computer graphics «sculpting
and Berlin, community art groups are
• draw ing • graffiti busy ‘graffiti knitting’, creating colourful
• photography • architecture decorations for lampposts, parking meters,
• print making • collage cars and statues. The craze was started by
Magda Sayeg in the USA, when she decided to
W hat can artw ork be about? brighten up the steel and concrete landscape of
e.g. people, events, etc :in, Texas with her knitted creations. Now knitting
needles are clicking worldwide and cities are inviting the knitters to transform their
public spaces. Most people’s reactions are positive and even though it isn’t strictly
legal, Sayeg says, “You’d have to be the most bored police officer to want to arrest
Reading & Listening me.” So, next time you walk past a city statue, take a look - it might be wearing a
scarf!
2 a) The pictures in the te xt
show d iffe re n t types o f art.
В We built this city... with LEGO® bricks
Describe the pictures.
Most people remember playing with Lego bricks
b) How do you th in k people as a child. It seems, though, that toy towns aren’t
the only things they are used to construct, le g o
react to each type o f street
repair work’ was created by German artist Jan
art?
Vormann. Jan spent three years travelling the
Q Listen and read to find world, fixing crumbling walls and monuments
out. with Lego. Jan took his project to New York J
and together with a team of volunteers, I
constructed Lego repairs all over the city, j
Read the te xt again and m ark
3 including at the Brooklyn Bridge and Central f l
the sentences T (true) or Park. Cracks in buildings soon disappeared ■
F (false). Correct the false and were replaced with bright Lego shapes, f l
sentences. Most New Yorkers are pleased with the В
Lego-look._______________________________®
1 Some old ladies started the
first graffiti knitting group............ ^ Fill in: strictly, instantly, bulletproof, brighten up, crum bling,
2 You can only see Lego repair divided, immediate, neglected.
w ork in New York. ......
1 The local council is taking action to ...........................................
3 Many New Yorkers don't
the town centre and improve its appearance.
like the Lego repair w ork...............
2 Sm oking i s .....................................................................prohibited.
4 No one is certain who
3 There are easy ways to f i x ......................................w alls so that
Banksy really is. ......
they don't fall apart.
5 Banksy's work can only be
4 His style is so distinctive that it i s ............. recognisable.
seen on the streets. ......
5 Police officers wear ..................vests to protect themselves.
б Guerrilla gardeners have
6 His paintings are controversial so critics' opinions are ..........
permission for what they do..........
7 The park was It had broken benches and long grass.
7 The police often arrest
8 The police were asked to take ........................................action.
guerrilla gardeners. ......

Think o f an alte rn a tiv e title for each section


o f the text.
•p f*1— TtT".-т
г* '“ f t ** l i f T
С On the wall
Most big cities have their fair share of graffiti,
but, like it or not, one British graffiti artist is now
considered to be a worldwide phenomenon.
The true identity of Banksy is surrounded in
mystery, but his art is instantly recognisable. ~J C o m p lete th e sentences w ith
Some of his most famous images include a th e passive form o f th e verbs in
young girl with a heart-shaped balloon and a brackets.
dove of peace wearing a bulletproof vest.
Banksy’s work has even been exhibited in art 1 G r a f f it i...................................................
exhibitions and a lot of his works have been (consider) to be offe nsive by some
sold. Because of his striking images and people.
comments on social problems, public opinion 2 The new a rt g a lle r y ............................
is divided. Some find Banksy’s work offensive, ...............................(open) next w eek.
while others think he is one of the most
3 Two car th ie v e s ...................................
(catch) red-handed by th e police
yesterday.
4 M any houses on my s t r e e t ..............
(fit) w ith a bu rg la r alarm .
D Flower Power! 5 The Mona L is a ........................................
Guerrilla gardeners plant flower gardens and vegetable patches on (steal) fro m th e Louvre in 1911.
neglected land without permission. They believe it improves inner-city 6 The streets o f th e c i t y .......................
communities. The designs are made as artistic as possible; flowerbeds are ...............................(cover) w ith litte r.
planted in skips and sunflowers down pavement
grating! While some people see
this as a way to bring new life to g R ew rite th e facts in th e passive.
forgotten spaces, others point
out that, pretty or not, it’s still A n d y W a rh o l (1 9 2 8 -1 9 8 7 )
illegal. However, it seems that no
action is usually taken by the Did you know ... ?
public or the police. One group of 1 People consider him to be the
guerrilla gardeners were busy on a father o f pop art. He is considered
rundown London street recently to be the father of pop art.
when an old lady called out her 2 He often used bright colours in
approval to them: “Thank you for his paintings.
the sunflowers. They were lovely!” 3 He made 300 films.
4 An actress shot and nearly
divide, public opinion, brighten up, killed him in 1968.
steel, concrete, transform , arrest, 5 The Andy W arhol Museum in
crum bling walls, volunteer, crack,
Pittsburgh, USA, exhibits his
fair share, w o rld w id e phenom enon,
• see , images today.
b u lle tp ro o f vest, exhibit, offensive,
pp. GR10--
Grammar ,
GR11 , neglected, skip, grating, illegal,
rundow n, approval
The passive Speaking & Writing
0 Read th e exam ples and th e th eory. H ow do w e tu rn an
0 Say fo u r thin gs you rem em ber
active sentence in to a passive one? Find exam ples in
fro m th e te x t.
th e te x t.
/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Form: to be + past participle o f the main verb
*1 0 H o w w o u ld you
S V 0
Active Van Gogh painted Sunflowers. react if you w itnessed g u errilla
ent
Passive Sunflowers was^painted by Van (jojj/i! gardeners p la n tin g flo w ers on
We use the passive when we don't know who did the action, the action is neglected land? In th ree
more important than the person doing it or when we don't want to say m inutes w rite a fe w sentences.
who/what is to blame. Tell you r partner.
»
99
£J3 Crime fighters

Ben Langdon:
Forensic Scientist
On popular crime drama series like CSI: Crime Scene
Investigation, the latest scientific methods are used to collect
and analyse physical evidence and solve horrible crimes in
record time. But ju st how realistic is all this? We interviewed
26-year-old Ben Langdon to find out what the jo b o f a forensic 5
scientist is really like.
So, Ben ... is your job anything like what we see on CSI?
W ell... mostly no! On the show, investigators seem to end every
police detective work day with a dramatic arrest, but sometimes our cases aren’t
solved for months. Also, on CSI you see that everything is being ю
done by one or two people. They go to the crime scene, do DNA
analysis, then go and arrest the suspect. In reality, a lot of different
specialised technicians, forensic scientists and detectives are
involved in each case. I specialise in fibres and blood analysis, but
others look at fingerprints, footwear and many other things. 15
So what’s a typical day like for you, Ben?
There’s no typical day because every case is different. A few days
ago, I examined some evidence that had been collected from a
crime scene. A ski mask had been found after an armed robbery
at a pizzeria, so I had to search it for hair, blood and saliva. When 20
a stain was found, I used chemicals to remove the DNA from it
ocabulary private detective
and then i had the DNA compared to samples from the suspects.
Jobs rela ted to fig h tin g crim e Another time recently, I spent two whole days searching for fibres
in a car. Sometimes, I might even be asked to present my
^ О Listen and say. W hich person ( A - H ) ...
evidence in court in front of a judge. 25
1 is em ployed by a shop to catch shoplifters? Can you tell us a little about the equipment and scientific
2 advises people a b o u t th e law and methods you use?
Sure. As well as ordinary microscopes, we use powerful electron
represents them in court?
microscopes. We also use ultraviolet light to see traces of
3 w o rks in a prison supervising prisoners? evidence like tiny fibres and spectrometers which identify 30
4 uses scientific techniques to examine evidence? chemicals. Our techniques are becoming more high-tech all the
5 protects b u ildings such as banks or shops? time. Soon, we will have a kind of ‘lab on a chip’. DNA will be
6 decides h o w a crim inal is punished in court? identified simply by putting a tiny amount of fluid on a silicon chip.
7 tries to fin d o u t w h a t happened in a crim e Finally, what are the best and the worst parts of your job?
Well, this job definitely isn’t for everyone. Some crime scenes can 35
and to arrest th e crim inals?
be very distressing. On the other hand, it’s wonderful when a case
8 is paid to fin d o u t in fo rm a tio n ab o u t others? has been solved and your evidence played a role in that. You get
to help the community, and that’s a great feeling.
A store detective is employed by a shop to catch shoplifters.

Reading scientific m ethod, analyse, physical evidence, solve crimes,


2 The te x t is a b o u t a forensic scientist. Read in record tim e, dram atic arrest, crime scene, DNA analysis,
arrest, suspect, fibre, blood analysis, examine, saliva,
th e questions in th e article. Can you
electron microscope, ultraviolet light, trace, identify, lab,
an sw er them ? Q Listen, read and check. silicon chip, distressing
........................................................ I.
| Read th e te x t and com plete th e sentences. The C a u sative (h a ve + o b je c t +
p a st p a rtic ip le )
1 Ben Langdon w o rks a s ............................................
2 A case can take ........................................................ 7 Read th e th eo ry. Then, re w rite th e
3 Ben's s p e c ia lis e d ....................................................... sentences using th e causative.
4 Ben searched th e mask fo r ................................... 1 ’ " \
We use the causative to say that we have arranged for
5 Ben g o t th e DNA fro m th e mask ........................
someone to do something for us or when something is
6 A t w o rk forensic scientists u s e ............................ done to us. Compare:
7 Ben likes his jo b b e c a u s e .......................................

Fill in: solve, crime, blood, ultraviolet, record,


silicon. M ake sentences a b o u t Ben using th e
com pleted phrases. О Listen and check.
... crimes 4 ...........................scene
in tim e 5 ............................ lig h t
analysis 6 ............................. chip Tom is installing a burglar Tom is having a burglar
alarm alarm installed.

Grammar *5®
p. GR11 1 The policem an to o k Bill's fin g e rp rin ts.
Im personal/Personal >...
Bill had his fingerprints taken.
passive stru ctu res - m a k e /le t 2 Someone has stolen Ann's car. Ann ...
Read th e e xa m p le s. R e w rite th e fo llo w in g 3 An electrician is fittin g security lig h ts outside
se n te n c e s in th e passive. our house. We ...
.....................................................................»T"— -™ r- . 4 Tony w ill repair o u r broken lock today. We ...
• People think he escaped the country. 5 Peter's house was burgled yesterday. P e te r...
He is thought to have escaped the country.
It is thought that he escaped the country.
R eflex ive p ro n o u n s
Note how, make and le t change in the passive.
• He made me go out. - 1was made to go out. g Read th e th e o ry th en com plete th e correct
• They didn't let him enter. - He wasn't allowed to enter. reflexive pro n o u n .
v. -____ ________ _______________ ________________________

1 They le t him search th e scene o f the crime. myself ourselves


2 People believe th e police w ill catch th e robbers. yourself yourselves
3 They made him te ll th e tru th . himself/herself/itself themselves
4 They w o n 't le t us exam ine th e evidence. We use reflexive pronouns to emphasise the noun/pronoun of a
5 They announced th e police have fo u n d th e girl. sentence. He installed the burglar alarm himself, (on his own)
S ________________________

g R e w rite th e h e a d lin e s in th e passive vo ice . 1 They repaired th e locks ............................................


2 He fitte d th e w in d o w ................................................
3 She cleaned e ve rythin g ............................................
1 ROBBERS CAUGHT WITH £1,000,000
4 W e caug ht the b urglar .............................................
2 ONE-DAY STRIKE TO BE HELD NEXT MONDAY 5 I can do it ......................................................................

3 MISSING SKIERS FOUND Speaking & Writing


4 NEW MUSEUM TO BE OPENED BY MAYOR Choose a jo b from Ex. 1 and in
pairs act o u t an in te rv ie w sim ilar to th e one
5 B A N K ROBBERY C O M M IT T E D YESTERDAY in Ex. 2.

( » ) Vocabulary Bank 6 pp. V B16 VB17, ЕхГб) 1 0 1


а Culture Corner
. ^ i g a t h a Christie was a famous English crime writer
who is best known for her detective stories featuring
Hercule Poirot and Miss Jane Marple. Agatha was born
in 1890 in the seaside town of Torquay in Devon,
England to an American father and an English mother.
H er family was well-to-do and conservative and she was
the youngest of three children.
Although Agatha never attended school she didn’t lack
education. She taught herself how to read when she was only four and
later her parents hired tutors to provide lessons in subjects such as music,
dance, mathematics, and French. Agatha was a shy child and, having
problems expressing herself verbally, she first turned to music and later
to writing and became very good at making up stories. W hen she was
eleven, her father died and she became very close to her m other with
whom she started to travel a lot.
During the First W orld War, Agatha worked as a nurse in a hospital
and it was during this time that Agatha Christie got the idea of
writing a detective novel. Although she finished the story in a year it
wasn’t published until five years later. The Mysterious Affair at Styles introduced
the retired Belgian police officer, Hercule Poirot, to the world and was a great success.
Following this, Agatha would write more than 30 novels featuring Poirot. In all she wrote over
66 novels, the most famous being Murder on the Orient Express, and according to the Guinness
Book of records, Agatha Christie is the best-selling writer of her time with over four billion books
sold throughout the world. In 1971, she was awarded the high honour of Dame of the British
Empire before passing away peacefully on 21st January 1976.

Check th e s e w o rd s
] W h a t do you kn o w a b o u t A g ath a Christie? crime, w riter, w ell-to-do, conservative, lack, hire, tutor,
W h a t m ore w o u ld you like to know ? W rite verbally, make up, award, pass away
th re e questions.
G Listen, read and check. Did th e te x t ^ Find w ords/phrases in th e te x t th a t m ean:
answ er you r questions?
1 som eone w h o in vestigates crimes
2 Read th e te x t again and decide w hich o f 2 p re tty w e a lth y
th e statem en ts (1-6) are T (tru e ), F (false) or 3 teacher
NS (n o t s ta te d ). Justify yo u r answers. 4 a book o f fic tio n
5 in ve n t
1 A gatha's parents w ere Am erican. ......
2 A g ath a had tw o sisters. ......
4 Say fo u r things you have le a rn t ab o u t
3 Tutors ta u g h t A g ath a h o w to read. ......
A g ath a Christie.
4 A g ath a w a s n 't a very o u tg o in g child. ......
5 A gatha's firs t book was published
d urin g th e war. ...... Ejj Think o f a fam ous w rite r from
6 She sold m ore books than any yo u r county. W rite a short b iograph y ab o u t
o th e r w rite r o f her tim e. ...... h im /her. Present it to th e class.
»
02
г 1
Everyday English ГД
G iv in g a w itn e ss statem en t Щ M U G G I N G in tow n cen tre
^ Read the new spaper report extracts. W hat Police in Harley are was the sixth incident in
is each one about? investigating a m ugging a week ...

2 a) Q Listen and say. Below are questions a which took place on


Murphy Street at around
police officer asked a w itness o f a crime.
9 pm last Saturday. This
W hich report do they m atch, A or S?

• Where and when did you witness the incident? Mystery Vandal
• What exactly did you see? A m asked vandal attacked the Town Hall on
• What happened next? Shortland Street at 2 pm last Friday throwing glass
• Can you describe any of the gang? bottles and rocks and breaking two windows. The
• Is there anything else you can tell us about reason is unknow n...
the incident?
• Can I take your address and telephone
number, please? Pronunciation: epenthesis
b) Q Listen and read to find out. Д Read the d e fin itio n .

A: What's your name, please?


Q Listen to the w o rd s and find the added
sound.
B: Elliott Fisher.
A: OK. Now, where and when did you witness Epenthesis is the addition of one or more sounds
the incident, Mr Fisher? to a word to make its pronunciation easier. The
В: I was crossing Murphy Street at about 9 o'clock sound can be a consonant or a vowel.
on Saturday night.
• hamster • umbrella • dreamt • drawing
A: What exactly did you see?
• warmth
B: Yes. I saw a gang of boys shouting at another
boy. Then they pushed him to the ground and
took his bag.
Speaking
A: What happened next?
В: I shouted at the gang to stop and they all ran 5 4^ ? Im agin e you are the w itn e ss, John
away. Jo n es, in the in cid e n t in report B. Your
A: Can you describe any of the gang? p artn er is a police officer. A ct o u t yo u r
В: I noticed that one of them was very tall and d ia lo g u e . F o llo w the plan.
was wearing a green baseball cap.
A: OK. Is there anything else you can tell me
Ask B's name.- Reply.
О
about the incident?
B: Erm ... No, I don't think so. Ask where/when В witnessed- Tell A.

A: Can I take your address and telephone number, the incident.

please? Ask w hat В saw. Describe what

B: Of course. My address is 7, Scarsdale Drive you saw first.

and my telephone number is 382736. Ask w hat happened next. *»-Describe what

A: Thank you very much. happened next.


B: You're welcome. Ask if В can describe the- Describe him.
............■ j■ ■| - mjiilliH,jiпи' "inf ' i ' ll ' j m L J I U I person.
Ask if В can tell you anything else:4
2 Find sentences in the d ialo gu e w hich mean:
Ask for B's address/phone number/
What did you witness? - What took place after
Thank В for his time.
that? - Did you see what any of the gang looked
like? - Not really. - 1appreciate your help.
103
г 1

1РД Crime & Technology


Vocabulary
In a m inute list som e p o sitiv e and
n e g a tiv e asp ects o f u sin g the In tern et.
Com pare y o u r list w ith yo u r partner's.

PROS: have immediate access to information


CONS: exposes users to security risks
How would you feel if your computer was hijacked
2 Read in the list the d ictio n a ry entry. How and used to send nasty emails to your friends, or if
are these w o rd s related to it? Check in a virus destroyed all your data? Well, this happens
yo u r d ictio n arie s. more often than you m ight think. In fact, in the UK
alone hundreds of thousands of private computers
cybercrime /saibskraim/ (n) illegal activity are hacked every year. The people behind these
committed on the Internet attacks are called 'crackers' or 'hackers'. Hackers are
highly intelligent programmers who can easily break
• hacking • identity theft into computer systems. They use their expert
• illegal dow nloading of music/films, etc knowledge and skills to gain access and can then
• online credit card fraud • phishing steal data or infect computers with a virus or a
• spreading computer viruses worm. If you w ant to surf safely and protect your
computer you need to protect yourself against these
Listening cybercrimes.

О Listen to four people w ho have been


victim s of cybercrime. Match the people to the
When creating an email account you should choose
crime. a good username for your email address. Don't use
A phishing Speaker 1 your own name and don't include anything in your
В identity theft Speaker 2 username that could indicate your age or home
С computer virus Speaker 3 address. Avoid usernames like c o o il3 y rs or nicegirl.
D illegal downloading Speaker 4 Instead use a word from the dictionary that appeals
E email spam to you or a secret code that only means something
to you. Choose a smart and difficult to guess
password consisting of a com bination of letters and
numbers. Your date of birth or the name of your pet
KW LH w ould be very bad choices. Finally, don't share your
password with anyone and change it regularly.
Before reading a text, make a KW LH (know -w ant
to know -learn-how ) chart. This will help you use
your prior knowledge, understand the text better
and increase your knowledge.
у 5 Read the te xt and match the headings (A-E)
to the paragraphs (1-4). There is one extra
Reading heading.
Д Copy the chart b elow into yo u r n oteb o o ks.
A How they hack
Read the title o f the te x t and com plete the
В Filter your mail
first tw o row s o f the chart.
С Criminal minds
What I already Know D Start right
What I W ant to know E Common mistake

W hat I Learnt
How I can learn more
104
M ost people actually have th e ir em ail account
hacked due to th e ir o w n fa u lt. A llo w in g your
co m p u te r to rem em ber your password is one
m istake th a t could cost a lo t. D o n 't p u t yo u rse lf at
risk. You should always set your account so th a t you
have to typ e in your password each tim e and always
log o u t properly so th a t if som eone uses or steals
your co m p u te r th e y ca n 't access yo u r em ail.

Some em ail providers give you th e o p tio n o f being


listed in an online d ire cto ry so th e y can co n tact you
w ith offers. D o n 't list yo u r em ail unless you w a n t
to receive lots o f spam m ail. D o n 't open any emails
fro m people you d o n 't kn o w b u t delete them
instead. Likewise, d o n 't open any atta chm e nts
unless th e y w ere run th ro u g h an anti-virus
program and never
reply to spam or
any offe nsive or
harassing messages.
Finally, keep your
s o ftw a re upd ate d and
run a n ti-viru s scans
regularly. It's one o f the
best ways to p ro te ct
yo u r co m p u te r and stay
safe.

Check th e s e w o rd s

hijack, virus, expert, infect, w orm ,


account, username, password, provider,
directory, spam

Writing & Speaking


g M atch th e w ords in bold in the te x t w ith 1 a) C om plete th e o th er tw o rows o f th e
th e ir meanings. KWLH chart. Compare w ith your partner.

1 show b) Sum m arise th e te x t in 80 w ords.


2 unpleasant
3 access illeg ally ICT In small groups, find o u t m ore
4 causing pressure
8
in fo rm a tio n a b o u t cybercrim e. M ake notes,
5 quick searches th en re p o rt your in fo rm a tio n back to th e
6 collectio n o f d iffe re n t thing s class.

()►)Vocabulary Bank 6 p. УВ17, Ex. 7) 1 0 5


So, you thought animals and crime didn't mix? Well, they can actually be more
involved than you might think! Parrots often build strong friendships with their owners. That
was unfortunate for one gang of burglars, when Jack, a pet shop’s resident parrot, in P
Coventry, UK turned out to be no friend of theirs. One night, the burglars broke into
the shop and attempted to steal Jack along with some other animals, but Jack
scratched the thieves to pieces and the burglars had to make a quick getaway
through the back door. The next morning, pet shop owner Caroline Hobday found
Jack on top of his cage squawking loudly. Caroline said that it looked like Jack had
spent the rest of the night patrolling and protecting the other animals like a guard dog. She
added that she was very proud of him. A policeman later said that they would possibly be able to trace the
thieves from DNA samples taken from the blood they left behind. Well, Jack, who's a clever boy then!

B B SS
В That’s quite a story. Well, in Egypt, a That’s very funny. Last week I read that a court in
hungry donkey was ac:tually sent to prison for Boston, USA, accidentally ordered a cat called Tabby Sal to do
stealing sweetcorn from a fie ld ! It all started when jury service! Tabby Sal’s owner wrote to the court to explain the
the owner of an agric :ultural research institute mistake. Mrs Esposito said that Sal was a member of the family,
noticed that he had had some of his crops stolen, so she had put his name down on the last census form under
The police set up a chec kpoint to catch a thief, but ‘pets’. She added that, clearly, there had been a mix-up.
caught a donkey munch ing the corn. However, an official replied that the cat had to attend the court.
While the donkey’s ow r юг was given a fine of 50 Mrs Esposito then asked what the cat was supposed to say
Egyptian pounds, the dcinkey itself was sentenced when the judge asked if the defendant was guilty or not guilty.
to 24 hours in prison, The donkey refused to Miaow? A verdict was eventually reached and Tabby Sal didn’t
comment. Posted by: Henry 17:301 have to do jury service after all. Posted by: Andy 20:19

R e a d in g b) w h ic h animal

The texts in Mark's blog are ab o u t strange 1 was to ld to be som ew here at


la w cases. Read th e О Щ 3 3 3 2 В Э В Н Е Э box a p a rticu la r tim e?
and try to guess w h a t each is about. 2 possibly helped to id e n tify crim inals?
Q Listen, read and check. 3 spent some tim e in a d iffe re n t kind o f cage?
4 was punished along w ith its ow ner?
Check th e s e w o rd s 5 was arrested a t th e crim e scene by
th e police?
[A] parrot, gang of burglars, break into, steal,
scratched to pieces, make a quick getaway, squawk, 2 Fill in: guilty, getaway, patrol, sentenced, caught,
patrol, protect, trace, thieves, DNA samples verdict, attempted, checkpoint, breaking into.
[B] hungry, donkey, sent to prison, set up,
checkpoint, fine, be sentenced to 1 The police set up a .......................a n d ........................
[C] cat, jury service, attend, court, judge, defendant, the crim inals before they le ft the country.
guilty, not guilty, reach a verdict 2 The robbers made t h e ir ...............................th ro u g h
th e back door.
3 Police officers ................................. th e streets at
2 a) Read th e texts and match th em to the
n ig h t.
headings. One heading is extra.
4 The ju ry to o k thre e hours to reach a ....................
1 EAT THE EVIDENCE 5 The m a n ................................... to steal th e purse.
2 CLAW AND ORDER 6 The ju ry fo u n d h im ............................................. and
3 M IAO W THE COURT'S DECISION .................................. him to six m onths in prison.
4 HIDE THE STOLEN GOODS 7 The th ie f was caught .................................................
106 th e bu ild in g .
Л
4 Choose th e correct w o rd . Check in your 0 Report the sentences.
dictionaries.
1 The thieves to o k my new sm a rtp h o n e ," said
1 Dogs build/make strong relationships w ith th e ir Tracey. Tracey said th a t the thieves...
owners. 2 "Y ou're staying in prison to n ig h t," the judge said.
2 The robbers m ade/did a quick g e taw ay th ro u g h 3 "P ut your hands u p !" the policeman to ld the man.
th e w in d o w . 4 "The ju ry w ill reach a v e rd ic t," th e law yer said.
3 Parrots cry/squawk loudly. 5 "D o n 't park in fro n t o f th e g a te s !" he said.
4 They m anaged to discover/trace th e burglars 6 "I locked th e back d oo r before I le ft," Ann said.
from th e fin g e rp rin ts th e y found on the door. 7 "M y dog Paddy is a good guard d o g ," said M ike.
5 Police build/set up a checkpoin t in an e ffo rt to 8 "H o w much did the robbers steal?" Fran asked.
fin d th e robbers. 9 "D id th e vandals cause dam age?" A ndy asked.
6 He was very hun gry so he munched/crunched 10 "W h a t tim e did th e fire s ta rt? " Frank asked.
an apple and some sandwiches. 11 "Can you phone the police?" Jane asked.
Ej Find w ords/phrases in th e te x t w hich mean: 12 "Has the m urderer been caught yet?" Sam asked.

Text A: unlucky, proved to be, entered by force, tried, 1 0 Use the verbs in brackets to report the
escape, guarding, find sentences.
Text B: penalty, s a id "no", give his opinion
Text C: by mistake, charged, officia l survey, be 1 "Please, please le t me g o ," Ricky said. (BEGGED)
present, gradually 2 "You broke in to Harper's house," she said to the
man. (ACCUSED)
W h a t part o f speech is each? 3 " I'll te ll th e tr u th ," he said. (PROMISED)
g In pairs w rite six T/F sentences based on the 4 "D o n 't fo rg e t to call th e p o lice ," Ann said to
texts. Swap w ith your partner and mark your me. (REMINDED)
partner's statements T (true) or F (false). 5 "I'm sorry I stole yo u r w a lle t," she said
(APOLOGISED)
Jack owns a pet shop. F Jack is a parrot.
6 "I d id n 't take yo u r cam era," he said. (DENIED)
7 "Let's ta lk to a la w yer," he said. (SUGGESTED)
~J у л гж Г кШ Which story did you find most
8 "D o n 't go near this area," he said. (WARNED)
amusing? W hy? In three minutes w rite a
9 "I to o k the passport," he said. (ADMITTED)
f e w sentences. Tell th e class.
10 "Leave or I'll call th e p o lice ," he said.
see (THREATENED)
pp. GR11- i
G ra m m a r ^ GR12 /
Reported speech (statem ents, S p e a k in g & W ritin g
orders/commands & questions) 1 a) -■ im agine you are th e o w n e r
g Find examples o f reported speech in the o f the pet in th e first story in th e text.
te x t. Change th em into direct speech. W h a t Your partn er is a radio presenter.
special introd uctory verbs have been used Prepare questions and answers and
to introduce th e reported sentences? w rite a short in te rv iew . Read it to the
class.
Special introductory verbs
W e can use a variety o f o th e r verbs to re p o rt a person's b) Im agine you heard the in te rv ie w on the
w ords e.g. promise, offer, remind, agree, warn, explain, refuse. radio. Report it to your friend using
'There's so much graffiti," Ann said. Ann complained that there reported speech.
was so much graffiti.
“I'll help,"Steve said. Steve offered to help. The presenter asked why the thieves had broken in to the
p et shop. The owner said th a t...
1
r- Jj) Skills
Vocabulary Listening
Problem s in th e co m m u n ity
Q Y o u w ill hear Sam ta lk in g a b o u t a
^ a) Q Listen and say. W hich o f these N eigh bourhoo d W atch scheme. For each
problem s does your com m unity have? question, choose the correct answ er A, В or C.

Sam started th e scheme because ...


A he had recently been burgled.
I f j E W E L L E R y f H ': i
В his son asked him to .

т а SR
1 1 high crime rate
e.g. burglary, car theft
2 litter in the streets & parks
С th e police suggested it to him.
The m ain aim o f N e ighbourhood W atch is to ...
A prevent crim e before it happens.
В catch criminals w hen the police aren't around.
С pa tro l th e streets o f a n e ighbo urh ood.
Since Sam started N eighb ourhood W atch, ...

5 вй|

A o th e r schemes have been sta rte d in
d iffe re n t areas.
В th e council have agreed to im prove stree t
lig h tin g .
С th e re is n 't as m uch crim e in th e area.
The firs t m eeting is o fte n held ...
A in a pub lic place in th e n e ighbo urh ood.
В a t th e local police sta tio n .
- - • С a t th e hom e o f a g roup m ember.
О 5 traffic congestion 6 piles of rubbish outside houses
Finally, Sam suggests th a t the police ...
A should encourage m ore sim ilar schemes.
В can do a b e tte r jo b if the co m m u n ity helps.
С a re n 't doing a good enough job.

C o m m e n tin g
8 holes in pavements
Use th e prom pts to act o u t exchanges.
3
In my com m unity there's litte r in the streets and parks. 1 trip p e d - hole in th e pavem ent - sprained ankle
b) W h a t could th e council do ab o u t these 2 g o t stuck - tra ffic jam on the high street - an hour
problem s? Use ideas from th e list an d /o r 3 car - was broken in to - stole my CD player
your ow n ideas and tell th e class. 4 som eone - sprayed g ra ffiti - w a ll o f our house

• install m ore litte r bins Commenting


• b uild parks on w aste ground • Oh no! That's terrible!
• s ta rt N e ighb ourhood W atch schemes • You're joking! How awful!
• collect rubbish m ore o fte n • What a nightmare!
• p u t speed bum ps on roads • That's been happening a lot recently. Something
• organise clean-up days should be done!
• m ake repairs
A: What happened?
• im prove public tra n s p o rt
В: I tripped because o f a hole in the pavem ent and
If a com m unity has high crime rates, the council should sprained my ankle this m orning.
start Neighbourhood Watch schemes. A: Oh no! That's terrible!
A le tte r to th e e d ito r m aking Dear Sir/Madam,
su g g e stio n s !► I am writing in response to the
article in the Malton Daily on the 11th
May about the council’s decision to
renovate the factory on Willis Lane
A le tte r to th e ed ito r is a form al piece o f w ritin g and the area around it. In my opinion,
a b o u t a m a tte r o f public in te re st o fte n w ritte n in this is a marvellous idea and I have
response to a re p o rt in a newspaper. some suggestions about what the
• We sta rt the le tte r w ith Dear Sir/Madam and end council could do with the site.
w ith Yours Faithfully fo llo w e d by our fu ll name. Firstly, although it needs a lot of
work, the factory would be great as a
• The first paragraph contains our reason fo r
youth centre. A youth centre would
w ritin g as w e ll as our op in io n .
provide young people with a place to get together and take
• The second and third paragraphs contain our
part in different activities. As a result, they would be off the
suggestions and th e possible streets in a safe place doing something enjoyable.
results/consequences. Furthermore, the waste ground around the factory could
• The fourth paragraph includes a summary o f our be turned into attractive parkland. It could have trees,
opinion or a restatem ent o f it in different words. benches and sports facilities such as a football pitch and a
We use a p p ro p ria te linkers to jo in ideas: basketball court. Consequently, members of the community of
all ages would have somewhere pleasant to relax, play sport
To state our opinion: In m y opinion, . . . ; I (strongly) and come together. This would brighten up the area and
believe that/agree/disagree w ith ... ; I am (totally) contribute to a sense of community spirit.
opposed to/in favour o f ... ; I think this is a All in all, I strongly agree with the decision to renovate
m arvellous/terrible id e a ... the factory and believe that the council should turn it into a
To list points: To start with, First o f all/Firstly, What is youth centre and parkland. I hope my suggestions will be
taken into consideration.
more, In addition, Furthermore
Yours faithfully,
To express consequences/results: In this way, As a
Thomas Alden
result, Consequently
To conclude: In summary, To sum up, In conclusion, 4 a) О Read th e rubric, th en listen to a man
A ll in A ll ta lk in g on a radio program m e ab o u t th e
issue. M ake notes on his suggestions.
Read the extract. W h at is it about?
1 [ You read a re p o rt in W e dnesd ay's H alford Herald "J
Malton Daily 11th M ay 1 a b o u t a recent increase in vandalism and g ra ffiti
i on th e high street. W rite a le tte r to th e e d ito r
A fte r years o f com plaints from residents, th e local
1 m aking suggestions a b o u t w h a t th e police &
coun cil has fin a lly decided to renovate the
i local council can do to im prove th e situ a tio n
abandoned fa c to ry on W illis Lane and the large
1 (150-200 w ords).
area around it . The fa c to ry needs extensive repair, k — — — — — — — — — — — — —— — — — — — — — —

b ut th e coun cil now hopes to tu rn it in to som ething b) Use you r notes and th e plan to w rite
th a t can be enjoyed by local residents. you r letter.

Para 1: reason for w riting/opinion (I'm w riting in


2 N ow read Thom as' le tter. W h a t is its response t o ..., In my o p in io n ...)
purpose? W hich paragraph(s) contain(s): Para 2: suggestion 1 & results/consequences
Thom as' suggestions & results? his o p in io n ? his (Firstly ..., As a result...)
reason fo r w ritin g ? Para 3: suggestion 2 & results/consequences
(Furtherm ore,... Consequently...)
3 Read again and replace th e linking w ords in Para 4: summary/restatement o f opinion (A llin all...,
I th in k ..., I hope my suggestions w ill be thought of...)
bold w ith a lte rn a tiv e s from th e W ritin g Tip.
(V) Writing Bank 6 p. WB6) 1 0 9
д Curricular: Citizenship
Check these words

proverb, neighbourhood, security,


protect, crime, voluntary, com m unity,

Neighbourhood Watch burglary, install, vandalism

actions. However, they always w ork closely w ith the police


w ho provide advice and direct help when necessary. In
The English language is rich in sayings and proverbs such as
some communities, people come together to prevent
'there's no place like hom e' th a t show just how im portant
burglaries. W ith the help o f a local blacksmith they make
living in a nice, friendly, and safe place is to people.
all the homes in the neighbourhood more secure by
Unfortunately, not all neighbourhoods are so pleasant and
installing better locks and alarm systems. In other
peaceful and people often have to take security measures
neighbourhoods, people fig h t vandalism and other
to protect th e ir home and fam ily against crime. In the UK,
antisocial behaviour by providing young people w ith
a citizens' movement, started in the nineteen-eighties,
alternative activities.
watches over and protects neighbourhoods thro ughou t
the country.
Since 1995, the Neighbourhood Watch Association has run
Neighbourhood Watch is the UK's largest voluntary the annual Neighbourhood W atch Awards. The awards
organisation. Its objective is to prevent crime and make give the m illions o f participants the opp ortunity to
sure th a t no one has to feel afraid, vulnerable, or isolated publicise th e ir successes and celebrate the role th a t their
in the com m unity in which they live. It's prim arily about organisation plays in
keeping an eye on what's going on in the neighbourhood keeping their
and watching o ut fo r you and your neighbours' safety and com m unity safe.
property. But it also tries to improve the quality o f life in
the com m unity and can involve other activities such as
caring fo r elders and environm ental work.
J
Groups are organised by the people o f the local
com m unity and each group decides on th e ir own

Reading &
Listening
*| W h a t types o f crimes
are com m itted in
neighbourhood? How
do you th in k th e y could be

2 Look a t th e title o f th e te x t. W h a t do you th in k


it means? W h a t is th e te x t about?
Q Listen, read and check. Speaking
Read the te x t again and match the headings Im agine you are a m em ber
(A-E) to the paragraphs (1-4). There is one extra o f N eigh bourhoo d W atch.
heading. Try to persuade
A A ctions D Answers n eig h b o u r to join
В A necessary service E Aims local group.
С A chievem ents
ICTj Find o u t
Д M atch th e w ords in bold to th e ir m eanings.
m ore in fo rm a tio n ab o u t
1 safe 3 alone N eig h b o u rh o o d W atch.
2 a person o f 4 actions Take notes. Present them
advanced age 5 stop sth fro m happening to th e class.
rJ

Language in Use ©
Phrasal verb s/P rep o sitio n s W ord fo rm atio n
'j Choose th e correct p a rtid e (s ). Fill in th e sentences w ith th e correct w o rd
d erived from th e w o rd in brackets.
run aw ay: escape
run out (of): use all o f sth W ord Formation - Prefixes
run into: meet by accident Prefixes are added at the beginning o f w ords to make new
set off: start a journey, firew ork, etc words. We use: re- (= again) (write - rewrite), super- (big/more)
(m arket-supermarket), multi- (= many) (vitam ins-m ultivitam ins),
set up: arrange sth; start a business, organisation, etc
over- (= to o much) (eat-overeat), under- (= n ot enough) (value
w ear off: no longer have an effect, gradually disappear
-undervalue) and pre- (= before) (book-prebook) to make new
w ear out: become th in or weak & unable to be used words using prefixes.
any more
w ork on: study, research or develop sth 1 T h e .............................................(n atio n al) com pany
w ork out: 1) take some exercise, 2) solve sth had its w e bsite hacked in to.
1 W e've ju s t set o ff/u p a N e ighb ourhood W atch Foxton council w a n ts t o ......................... (design)
th e c ity centre to m ake it a car-free area.
scheme in our n e ighbo urh ood.
The river .................................... (flo w ) and flooded
2 Expert hackers can w o rk o u t/o n a password
very easily. th e nearby village.
3 I ran in to /o u t John on th e high stre e t today. W e sh o u ld n 't ......................................... (estim ate)
4 I need a new pair o f jeans - my old ones have n o n -vio le n t p ro te st - it can achieve a lot.
nearly w o rn o ff/o u t. Ken w a n te d t o ............................................. (pay) his
5 Ann w o rks o n /o u t fo r an hour every day at the e le ctricity b ill before going on holiday.
gym. Batm an is a ..................................(hero) w h o fig h ts
6 The boy th re w a stone at th e w in d o w and then crim e by n ig h t.
ran a w a y /in to .
C o llo catio n s
2 Choose th e correct prepo sition.
Fill in: robbery, traffic, spam, public, spread,
1 Crime in the city is increasing a t/to an alarm ing gain, stay, theft, computer, open.
rate.
1 id e n t it y ................... 7 ...................................
2 The hacker g o t th e password fo r/in record tim e.
2 arm ed ..................... congestion
3 I've replaced my old password w ith /fo r a more
3 ................ tra n s p o rt 8 t o ..............................
d iffic u lt one.
4 to ................ access an a tta ch m e n t
4 To/In all, she w ro te over 66 novels.
5 .................... system 9 to ...............viruses
5 The robbers w ill appear to /in court to m o rro w .
6 .......................... mail 10 .......................... safe

M ark th e sentences T (tru e ) or F (false). Read th ro u g h M o d u le 6 and


w rite a quiz o f your ow n .
Banksy is a guerrilla gardener. 5 Crackers break in to com puter systems.
Forensic scientists usually solve 6 Miss Jane M arple is a fictional
crimes very fast. character.
Agatha Christie married 7 A donkey in Egypt was sentenced
Hercule Poirot. to one day in prison.
Agatha Christie worked as a nurse. 8 G raffiti knittin g was started in Germany.
()►) Revision 6 p. 12(T) 111
P O ^ t m i MK TW IC E
The music industry is recovering from years of falling sales when CDs were replaced by MP3s.
Read th e te x t ab o u t Thanks to legal downloading, UK music sales rose from £101.5 million in 2008 to around
illegal music £154 million in 2010. However, the industry still has a big problem. More than three quarters
d ow nloads. For of music downloaded in Britain today is obtained illegally - £218 million worth, in fact. So,
questions 1-6 now, faced with a whole generation of young people who have only ever downloaded
music, how can the authorities persuade people that music should be paid for?
choose th e correct л
The record companies argue that for good music to survive, the writers and performers
o p tio n А, В, С or D. need to profit from their work. However, it seems the public and the record companies
disagree as to how much income the artists and record companies deserve. The band
Radiohead released their album In Rainbows online in 2008 and invited fans to pay
whatever they thought it was worth rather than a set price. The average price paid was just
£2.80, with three in five people paying nothing at all.
The American singer Tori Amos likens downloading music without paying for it to
shoplifting. She said in 2009: "Listening to a song is like a wine tasting. I can taste the wine, I
can decide if I like it orn o t... but you don't then take a bottle and put it in your bag. If you
don't support the wine producers you like, or the artists you like, then they're not going to be
able to continue."
Politicians seem to share Amos's opinion that illegal downloading is theft. In 2009, the French
parliament created an agency to monitor illegal file sharing. It also passed a law under which
anyone who is caught sharing copyrighted material such as music receives a warning letter. If
you are caught three times, you are cut off from the Internet. The Australian, New Zealand
and British governments have announced plans for similar legislation, but there have been
protests about the proposals in all those countries. Two British Internet service providers
have argued in court that they are not responsible for the traffic on
their services and it's unfair to expect them to take action against
people who download illegally. In Ireland, meanwhile, a judge has ruled
people who download music illegally cannot be cut off from the Internet.
One thing seems certain - there will be plenty more debate until harmony is restored between
record companies, governments, performers and music fans.

A ccording to th e article,
th e UK music industry's m ain problem is th a t
A young people have never paid fo r music, The French created a la w w ith th e aim o f
m ost music is n o w dow n lo a d e d illegally, A co u n tin g th e num ber o f people d o w n lo a d in g
people have stopped buying CDs. music illegally.
it d o e sn 't m ake enough money. В fo llo w in g a suggestion by Tori Amos.
С m aking people w a n t to dow nload music legally.
Radiohead's expe rim e nt suggested m ost music D destroyin g illegal files online.
fans w a n t music on th e In te rn e t to be
A free. С legal. In Britain, In te rn e t service providers have said they
В cheap. D p ro fita b le . A su p p o rt th e governm en t's e ffo rts to stop
illegal dow nloads.
Tori Am os th in ks people should be able to В cannot stop illegal dow nloads.
A te ll musicians w h a t they th in k o f th e ir music. С d o n 't w a n t to stop illegal dow nloads.
В have music sharing parties. D d o n 't agree w ith the gove rnm en t's so lu tio n .
С decide h o w much music to d ow nlo ad
free o f charge. The w rite r th in ks resolving th e issue is
D sample only a small am ount o f music w ith o u t A im p o rta n t. С d iffic u lt.
paying fo r it. В sim ple. D im possible.
112
Listening Grammar & Vocabulary
( M u l t i p l e m a t c h in g ) Fill in th e gaps w ith th e proper gram m ar and lexical
> Q Y o u w ill hear five people form o f th e capitalised w ords.
ta lk in g a b o u t crim e. M atch th e The Internet 1 ) ...................................an important part BECOME
speakers (1-5) to th e statem en ts of society and our everyday lives, but how did it start?
(A-F). Use each s ta te m e n t once. Its history is quite interesting.
There is one e x tra s ta te m e n t. The Internet 2 ) ............................................ suddenly but NOT APPEAR
was the result of many developments. The first form of
A The speaker was th e victim of the Internet, as we know it, 3 ) ......................................... CALL
cybercrim e. Arpanet. On 29th October 1969, two computers at the
В The speaker feels th a t pun ishm ent universities of Stanford and UCLA 4 ) .............................. CONNECT
for the first time. Then in 1971, email 5 ) ....................... DEVELOP
should be m ore severe.
by Ray Tomlinson who decided to use the symbol @
С Someone burgled th e speaker's 6) the username from the computer SEPARATE
house. name. Email became popular very quickly and in 1975
D The speaker th in ks there are not the first email programme was born.
enough police. The 1980s was a decisive period for the Internet. The
E The speaker th in ks th e police do a USA wanted 7 ) ................................their Internet system MAKE
standard while European countries pushed for their OSI
great jo b.
system. By 1987 the USA 8 ) ................................. and the WIN
F The speaker is afraid at nig h t.
Internet became the World Wide Web system. 1991 saw
1 2 3 4 5 the creation of the first web page.
W o rd fo rm a tio n

Fill in th e gaps w ith th e proper gram m ar and lexical


Speaking
form o f th e w ords in brackets.
(G iv e a t a l k )
W e’ve all seen heroes from 1) (A C T )..............................films fight
a) Read th e rubric. W rite dow n off gangs of bad guys, and many of us have seen similar acts of
as m any w ords as you can 2) (B R A V E)...............................in the real world. But the story of
th in k o f relate d to th e topic 70-year-old Ann Timson is one of a kind! One afternoon Mrs
Timson was in N ortham pton town centre with a friend.
under th e headings, th en
Suddenly, she saw six men trying to break into a jewellery shop.
do th e task.
Mrs Timson, wearing a long red coat (although a long red
• Types o f crim e • Reasons superm an cape might have been m ore 3) (S U IT ).........................),
ran towards the criminals and started hitting them with her
• Ways to prevent crim e
Г ——————————————n handbag. The men tried to escape on their scooters but Mrs
Give a 1.5-2 m inutes talk about Timson managed to hit one of them so hard that he fell to the
ground. O ther bystanders 4) (E V E N T )....................................... ran
crime in your community.
to help. Due to Mrs Tim son’s 5) (H E R O )........................................
Remember to say: courage, the men were arrested and nothing was stolen.
• w h a t typ e o f crimes people
com m it in your com m u nity
Writing (a n e s s a y m a k in g s u g g e s t io n s )
• w h y you th in k people com m it
these crimes Read th e rubric.
• ways you th in k w e can Q Listen to tw o people discussing th e to p ic and m ake
prevent crim e notes o f th e ir suggestions and possible results. Use
!■ mm ят mm шшш я т шшш ш шт — ■■ MB шт шт M i J
your notes to w rite you r essay.
b) Q Listen to som eone doing
th e task. W h a t w ays does he i You have had a class discussion abo ut ways to make the »
city's neighbourhoods safer. W rite an essay in w hich you
suggest to prevent crime?
« present your suggestions and possible results.
1
Reading & Listening
1 W h a t do you kn o w ab o u t St Petersburg
Graffiti may not be what first comes to mind when you
Read the title and the first sentence in each think of Saint Petersburg but that may be changing.
2
paragraph. W hat do you think the text is about? GraFFFest, The International Petersburg Graffiti Art
w Listen and read to find o u t. Forum, is a new exciting and innovative art festival held in
Saint Petersburg every summer. It is one of the few of its
Read th e te x t and m ark th e sentences kind in Russia. The festival aims to promote street art and
3 hopes to help people appreciate this growing art form. It
T (tru e ), F (false) or NS (n o t stated ).
brings together a variety of graffiti artists and hosts a
1 GraFFFest is th e firs t g ra ffiti festival to range of events that mix graffiti with other arts such as
be held in Russia. photography, film, and computer animation.
2 The festival is o n ly fo r g ra ffiti artists. Artists and designers from all over the world create their
3 A rtists fro m around the w o rld come to graffiti masterpieces in the streets of the city and the best
th e festival. ones appear on a website after the festival. The artists
4 During th e festival several artists w o rk usually work together as a group on a common piece of
on one piece o f art. art on a large wall somewhere in the city. The festival also
5 You d o n 't have to pay to a tte n d the organises many interesting events. There are hip-hop and
other concerts in support of street art and documentaries
festival.
and films about graffiti are shown to the public. GraFFFest
Speaking & Writing is a great festival that brings people together. What is
even better is that all the events are completely free of
a) C o m plete th e ta b le w ith in fo rm a tio n
4 charge.
from th e te x t.
Check these words

W/IMfl innovative, aim, prom ote, appreciate, range,


masterpiece, group, in support o f
PLACE
L j b) Im agine you a tte n d e d last sum m er's
DATS J GraFFFest. Use th e com pleted ta b le to
te ll you r p a rtn e r w h a t it w as like.
RSASOh
) : 5 W h a t do you th in k o f s treet
ACTIVH
g ra ffiti? Do you th in k it is really a rt or
ENTRAN vandalism ? In th ree m inutes w rite a fe w
sentences. Tell th e class.

Revision
Fill in: parachute, curious, earn, take, campus, Put th e verbs in brackets in to th e correct
1
enthusiastic, breath, carry, duty, champion. (to) infin itiv e or -ing form .

1 Sam is v e r y ..................................... and always asks She's lo o kin g fo rw a rd ...................................... (go)


lots o f questions. to university.
2 I w a n t to ...........................................up stre e t luge Peter has d iffic u lty ........................................ (find)
because it looks am azing. an evening jo b.
3 Sally is very ....................................a b o u t her w o rk. They d o n 't le t him ....................................... (w ork)
4 I can g e t to the university lib ra ry very quickly th e n ig h t sh ift.
because I live o n ........................................ He agreed ........................... (w o rk) a t w eekends.
5 He ju m pe d o u t o f th e bu rn in g aeroplane and I'd p r e f e r .............................. (g et) a p a rt-tim e jo b
opened h is ........................................ at th e university library. 5 x 2 = 1 0 m a rk s

б It's a d o ctor's ................................... to do his best


5 Put th e adjectives in brackets in to th e
to save a p a tie n t.
correct form .
7 I hold my ...................................every tim e I dive in
th e sea. 1 He earns .................................(much) m oney than
8 .................................on w ith yo u r w o rk. You m ust his brother.
finish it before 5 pm. 2 Days are g e t t in g and .................. (long).
9 He's th e w o rld ..........................fo r th e th ird tim e. 3 Ann's a lo t ..................................... (h ard-w orking)
10 Students o fte n do odd jobs to .............................. th a n Sheila.
extra money. 4 Claire w o r k s ................\ . . .................. (long) hours
1 0 x 2 = 2 0 m a rk s o f everyone in th e office.
5 S h e 's ............................. (friendly) person a t w o rk.
5 x 2 = 1 0 m a rk s
2 Circle th e correct w o rd .

1 Samuel does his jo b good / w ell. g M atch 1-4 w ith A-D to m ake exchanges.
2 Be carefully / careful w ith my bag.
3 Does Liam always arrive lately / late to school? 1 Do you have any A Thank you.
4 Jim th in ks th a t th e task is easy / easily. experience? В I can s ta rt
5 Lola is great. She w orks hardly / hard. 2 W e'll be in touch. im m ediately.
б Sm okejum pers are brave / bravely men. 3 Please have a С Yes, I w o rke d part-
6 x 2 = 1 2 m a rk s seat. tim e last summer.
4 W hen can you D Thank you very
start? much fo r yo u r tim e.
C o m p lete th e sentences w ith p resent simple
3 4 x 2 = 8 m a rk s
or p resent continuous form o f th e verbs in
W rite a cover le tte r fo r a jo b you w o u ld like
brackets.
to do (80-100 w ords). 2 0 m a rk s
1 Dan .................................... (go) to a jo b in te rv ie w
T o ta l: 100 m a rk s
to m o rro w .
/~ l
2 Patricia .............................................. (w a n t) to buy Check your Proqress
some old coins.
3 Dean ................................. (n o t/b e lie v e ) in ghosts. talk and w rite about jobs and careers
talk and w rite about hobbies
4 W hat .............................................(C laire/do) at th e
talk about immediate plans for the future
m om ent?
talk and w rite about part-tim e jobs
5 A m y ................................................... (think) her new act out a job interview
jo b is great. ask for personal information
5 x 4 = 2 0 m a rk s
w rite a cover letter
4 GOOD / VERY GOOD / / EXCELLENT / / / x

115
'т)
(L Revision
Fill in: locals, biting, shared, seasick, caught, Put th e verbs in brackets in to p ast perfect or
lightin g, carried, audience, rose. past perfect continuous.

1 Nicky g o t .......................... because there w ere big 1 He ..................................................................... (w alk)


waves and the b o a t was m oving up and dow n. fo r an hour before he reached th e cabin.
2 He g o t ...............................................in bad w eather. 2 She was tire d because she ....................................
3 Beth really enjoys m eeting t h e .............................. ...............................(n o t/sleep ) th e previous n ig h t.
w hen she's tra ve llin g . 3 G re g .................................................................. (look)
4 T h e .....................................................m ade th e w h o le fo r his book fo r tw o hours before he fo u n d it.
th e a tre lo ok red and gold. 4 They w ere lost because th e y ..................................
5 H e ......................................... his trave l experiences .................................. (n o t/ta k e ) a map w ith them .
w ith his friends. 5 H e ..................................................................... (w o rk)
6 M ax had tro u b le sleeping because the since m orn ing on his com puter and his eyes
m osquitoes w e r e ................................him all nig h t. w ere red.
7 The cu rta in ...................................... and a b e a u tifu l 5 x 4 = 2 0 marks
actress appeared on stage.
8 T h e .........................................clapped lo udly a t the
end o f th e perform ance. M atch 1-5 w ith A-E to m ake exchanges.
9 The singer's voice ...................................... over th e
sound o f th e crow d. W h a t was the
A Sure! I'll give you
9x2=18 marks concert like?
a call.
Do you w a n t to go „ , w a(che[| a fi|m
Put th e verbs in brackets in past sim ple or fo r a w a lk later?
on TV.
past continuous. W h a t did you do on
С N ot really. It was
Friday?
1 Gary was w ritin g postcards w h ile L a u ra ............. n o th in g special.
Did you enjoy the
....................................... (take) photos. D It was fa n ta stic!
concert?
2 We ...................................................(w atch) a film a t E No, I'm n o t really
Is yo u r book good?
8 o'clock yesterday evening. enjoying it.
3 Susan opened th e do o r and ................................... 5 x 4 = 2 0 m a rk s
(run) o u t o f th e house.
4 Larry Page and Sergey B r in ......................................
(m eet) in 1995. W rite a story e n title d "A d ay to re m e m b e r"
5 ..................................................(yo u /listen ) to music ( 120-200 w ords).
w hen I called? 2 0 m a rk s
5x2=10 marks
T o ta l: 100 m a rk s

C o m p lete th e sentences w ith used to.

1 In ancient tim es th e a c to r s ......................................


(w ear) b rig h tly-co lo u re d costum es in Chinese Check your Progress
opera.
talk and w rite about travel experiences
2 ................ th e ancient Greeks .................................... talk and w rite about Google and Facebook
(perfo rm ) in o u td o o r theatres? talk about actions in progress in the past
3 L ily ................................ (n o t/liv e ) in th e c ity w hen talk and w rite about music and pop stars
she was 5. express positive and negative opinions
4 Harry ................................ (tak e) long w alks in the w rite a descriptive email
coun trysid e w h en he was young. GOOD / VERY GOOD / / EXCELLENT / / /
4 x 3 = 1 2 m a rk s

116
Revision
Fill in: melt, unpredictable, competitors, extinct, 4 Put th e verbs inbrackets in to th e correct
backwards, footpath, special offer, drizzle, tense.
self-catering, rise. 1 If I ........................................................................... (be)
1 Follow th e ........................................... th a t leads up you, I'd go to Chile this year.
to the to p o f the hill. 2 If you had been m ore careful, you ..........................
2 The w e a th e r is v e r y ......................................... these ..............................................................(hurt) yourself.
days. You never kn o w w h a t it's going to be like! 3 If t h e y .............................................................. (come)
3 M any anim als could become .................................. earlier, w e 'd have gone o u t.
because o f global w a rm ing . 4 I w ish I ..................................................... (n o t/ta k e )
4 These days, there are lots o f .................................. th e ir advice. I w o u ld n 't be in tro u b le now.
in th e W orld W ok Racing C ham pionship. 5 I w ish he ......................................................... (be)
5 W e prefer staying in a ........................ ap a rtm e n t here. W e'd go to th e lake.
and cooking o u r ow n meals on holiday. 5 x 4 = 2 0 marks

6 G lobal w a rm in g is causing ice t o ..........................


and te m p era tures to .................................................
7 There's a ................................... at th e hotel a t the M atch 1-4 w ith A-D to m ake exchanges.
m o m e nt - 3 nights fo r the price o f 2.
8 The problem w ith g o in g ........................................... 1| I'm playing g o lf A Thanks, I'd love
w h ile river bugging is th a t you can't see where today. H ow ab o u t to !
you're going. jo in in g me? В Yes, it's Joan
2 H ow can I help you? Thom pson.
9 I h a t e .........................................! It's only lig h t rain,
3 Can I take your С It's a b o u t tw e n ty
b u t you s till get really w e t!
name? m inutes by car.
10xl= l0m arks
4 H ow far aw ay is the D I'd like to book a
C o m plete th e sentences w ith th e correct hotel? room , please.
fu tu re tense. 4x5=20 marks

1 I prom ise I ........................................(go) on holiday


w ith you next year. You have seen an ad vert fo r a w eeken d
2 Zoe d o e sn 't believe i t ...................... (be) possible nature w alk . W rite an em ail asking fo r m ore
to co n tro l the w e a th e r in th e fu tu re . in fo rm atio n . Ask: w hen exactly it is, how
3 D a n ..........................(m eet) his friends in th e park long th e w alk w ill be, w h a t it involves, w h a t
in h a lf an hour. to bring (80-100 w ords).
4 Do you k n o w w h ere ............................ (you/stay) 2 0 m a rk s
T o ta l: TOO m a rk s
on th e Appalachian Trail yet?
5 I ........................................... (do) yoga on th e beach
w hen I'm on holiday next m o nth. s X 2= i0m arks

Complete the Conditional type 0 or 1 sentences


w ith the correct form o f the verbs in brackets. /1
Check vour Progress
1 W hen th e w e a th e r gets w arm er, ice ................... • talk and w rite about weather —
(m elt). • talk and w rite about extreme activities —
• book accommodation —
2 Unless you go to Nicaragua, you ..........................
• talk and w rite about climate change —
(n o t/b e able to) go volcano surfing. • w rite an email asking for inform ation —
3 W hen w a te r (drip) fro m rocks in caves, GOOD / VERY GOOD / / EXCELLENT / / /
it slo w ly creates stalactites and stalagm ites.
4 If you d o n 't w e ar a coat today, you ....................
(be) cold.
4 x 5 = 2 0 marks
11
4? Revision
| Fill in : concentrate, venom, upset, loss, slippery, Join th e sentences using th e w ords in
sickness, soothe, cure, strain, blurred. brackets.

1 Drive carefully! The roads are r e a lly .................... 1 Dave lives in th e fla t upstairs. He is a fire fig h te r,
a fte r last n ig h t's rain. (w h o ) ..............................................................................
2 A lo t o f teenagers suffer from h e a rin g ..................
because they set th e volum e to o high on th e ir 2 Lisa is afraid o f spiders. Sarah is afraid o f
MP3 players. spiders to o . (both ... and) .......................................
3 W o rkin g long hours in fro n t o f a co m p u te r can
c a u s e ................................. vision. 3 I th in k Jane called you or it m ig h t have been
4 Cold w a te r w i l l .......................................the pain if Katy. (e it h e r ... or) .....................................................
you burn your hand.
5 Take a break fro m th e com puter, Sam - y o u 'll 4 M y fa v o u rite resta ura nt is on th e high street. It
...................................................................... your eyes. is closing do w n , (w hich) .........................................
6 Some poisonous anim als in ject .............................
in to th e ir victim s. 5 Lyn is n 't com ing to th e party. She is u nw ell,
7 Eating all th a t spicy fo o d yesterday gave me (w h y) ..............................................................................
a ( n ) .................................................stom ach.
8 Scientists h a ve n 't fo u n d a ....................................... 5 x 4 = 2 0 m a rk s
fo r th e com m on cold yet.
9 Steve always gets trave l .......................w hen he 4 M atch 1-5 w ith A-E to m ake exchanges.
goes on long car journeys.
1 Should I come back A Oh no. W hat should I
10 I c o u ld n 't...........................................a t w o rk to d a y
and see you again? do?
because I d id n 't g e t enough sleep last nig h t.
2 I'm afraid it's infected. В W ell, it's my back.
1 0 x 2 = 2 0 m a rk s 3 Is there anything you С Only if it gets worse.
C hoose th e c o rre c t w o rd . can give me fo r it? D Yes, I th in k th a t m ight
4 W hat seems to be the help.
1 M ax was ill yesterday so he w a s n 't able t o /
problem ? E You should put some
d id n 't have to go to w o rk. W hy d o n 't you make
5 antib iotic cream on it.
2 You m ig h t n o t/m u s tn 't clim b public buildings a study plan?
- i t ’s illeg al! 5 x 4 = 2 0 m a rk s

3 A redback spider m u st/ca n give its victim s a


nasty bite. W rite an article m aking suggestions a b o u t
4 People w ith hay fever shou ld/can keep th e ir h o w young people can stay h e a lth y w h ile
w indow s closed in the summer. leading such busy lives (120-180 w ords).
5 Tom m u s tn 't/c a n 't play fo o tb a ll next w eek. 2 0 m a rk s

He's broken his leg. T o ta l: 700 m a rk s


6 People w h o share m obile phones s h o u ld /m ig h t
g e t skin infections.
7 If you sit in fro n t o f a la p to p fo r to o long, you Check your Progress
m a y /h a v e to get backache. • talk about 21st century health problems ____
8 A lain Robert had to /c o u ld clim b buildings from • talk and w rite about home remedies ____
the age o f tw elve. • talk about someone w ith amazing abilities ____
9 You m u s tn 't/d o n 't have to go to th e d o cto r • act out a dialogue at the doctor's surgery ____
• talk about teenage problems ____
fo r m in o r health problem s. You c a n /m u s t try a
• w rite an essay making suggestions ____
natural rem edy!
1 0 x 2 = 2 0 m a rk s
GOOD / VERY GOOD / / EXCELLENT / / / ^

118 »
Revision
*] Fill in: lost, sneeze, sank, reach, cheerful, bark, Д Fill in: m ay/m ight, must, can't.
gossip, blush, overweight, look after.
1 John .................... be pleased. Look a t his huge
1 Anya is alw ays so ........................... She's always sm ile!
sm iling and I've never seen her in a bad m ood! 2 Alan d o e sn 't w e ar glasses, so t h a t .....................be
2 Tom trie d hard t o ...................................... his goals. him.
3 Narayanan Krishnan gave up a great jo b to 3 Look a t all o f Sara's b irth d a y cards. S h e ..............
........................ homeless people. be popular.
4 O ur neighbours le t th e ir dog ........................ all 4 I t ...................... rain later, so take an um brella ju s t
n ig h t. It's so ann oyin g! in case.
5 Sam is a b i t ........................ ; he should stop eating 5 Tessa .................... change her career, b u t she
ju n k food. is n 't sure yet.
6 A ........................... is a reaction to an irrita tio n in 5 x 2 = 1 0 m a rk s
th e nose.
Put th e verbs in brackets in to th e correct
7 Some p e o p le ..................................... w h en th e y are
(to )-in fin itiv e or -ing form .
embarrassed.
8 It's annoying w hen people ...................................... 1 Peter s e e m s .................................................(w a it) fo r
a b o u t me. som eone. He looks very nervous.
9 H e .....................his te m p e r and started shou ting. 2 Ann a p p e a rs .................................................... (have)
10 W hen she saw him leave, her heart .................... d iffic u lty g e ttin g a job.
3 Laura ca n 't stand ......................................... (w ear)
1 0 x 2 = 2 0 m a rk s
long dresses.
4 Sue s e e m s ........................................... (lose) a lo t o f
Fill in: retirement, pale, m arital, pierced, win, w e ig h t. Has she been on a diet?
manners, late, reach, social, leap. 5 They denied ...............................(take) th e money.
5 x 2 = 10 m a rk s
1 7ears
to ....................
2 in his .......................... a scholarship M atch 1-5 w ith A-E to m ake exchanges.
teens 8 to ....................
1 You look d iffe re n t. A Pleased to m eet you.
3 a t th e chance yo u r goals
2| Can I have a quick word? В That's OK.
4 ............................ party
3 I've ju s t m oved here. С I have a com plaint.
5 ...............................skin e tiq u e tte
4 I'm sorry a b o u t th a t. D I've lost w e ig h t.
6 to have ....................... 10 to have bad
5 W hat can I do for you? E Sure.
problem s
1 0 x 1 = 1 0 m a rk s 5 x 4 = 2 0 m a rk s

W rite a fo r-an d -a g ain st essay on 'Is it a


Choose th e correct tense. good idea to becom e a veg eta rian ? '
(120-150 w ords). 2 0 m a rk s
1 M aria found/has been finding it hard to make
T o ta l: 100 m a rk s
friends so far a t college.
2 She has changed/changed her life com pletely /П
Check your Proqress
since she moved abroad.
talk and w rite about annoying habits
3 Julie has lost some w e ig h t. She did/has been
talk about culture shock
doing a lo t o f exercise recently. talk and w rite about social etiquette
4 You're all w e t! Did you w a lk /H a v e you been make deductions
w alkin g in th e rain? complain and apologise
5 W h a t has M ark been doing/did M ark do since talk about appearance
he q u it his job? w rite a for-and-against essay
5 x 2 = 1 0 m a rk s GOOD / VERY GOOD / / EXCELLENT / / /
» 119
9) Revision
Fill in : dangerous, evidence, brighten up, tutor, 4 M atch 1-5 w ith A-E to m ake exchanges.
arrested, speeding, lawyer, fake, prevent, private
detective. u Thank you fo r yo u r tim e.
Is there a n yth in g else you can te ll us?
1 The robber refused to answ er th e policem an's W h a t happened next?
questions u n til his ........................................arrived. M y car has ju s t been broken in to !
2 N e ighbourhood W atch h e lp s .................................. Can you te ll me w h a t you saw?
crim e in th e com m unity.
A The thieves drove away.
3 Jane g o t a fine f o r ..................on th e m otorw ay.
В Y ou're jo kin g ? H ow a w fu l!
4 The p o lic e m a n ..............................th e g ra ffiti a rtis t
С I d o n 't th in k so.
and to o k him to th e police sta tion.
D Two men w ere m ugging a n o th e r man.
5 The council have been p la n tin g a lo t o f flo w e rs
E Y ou're w elcom e.
to try t o ................................th e to w n . 5 x 4 = 2 0 m a rk s
6 John has hired a ( n ) ................................ to fin d o u t
w here his b ro th e r is.
R e w rite th e sentences using th e causative.
7 He was sentenced to tw o years in prison fo r
................................driving. 1 John's car was stolen last nig h t.
8 Forensic scientists a n a ly s e .......................... found
a t a crim e scene such as blood, hair and saliva. 2 Jane w ill p u t a new lock on th e d oo r to m o rro w .
9 M ary needed a ............................................... to help
w ith her M aths and Science lessons. 3 A th ie f is picking th a t man's pocket!
10 The shop assistant to ld Tim th a t he c o u ld n 't
accept th e £20 note as it w a s ................................. 4 Burglars broke in to o u r house.
10x2=20 marks
2 C o m p le te th e se n te n ce s w ith th e c o rre c t 5 Someone has vandalised the m ayor's statue.
passive fo rm o f th e v e rb in b ra c k e ts .
5 x 4 = 2 0 m a rk s
1 A gatha C r is tie ............................................. (a w ard)
the honour o f Dame o f the British Empire.
2 An electron m ic ro s c o p e ................................. (use) J You recen tly read a new spaper article a b o u t
to exam ine th in g s th e eye ca n 't see. n o t having enough green spaces in your
3 In th e fu tu re , c r im e ...................................... (fig h t) to w n . W rite a le tte r to the editor giving
in d iffe re n t ways. suggestions ab o u t w h a t could be done to
4 Your la p t o p ....................................... (c a n /p ro te c t) im prove th e situ ation (150-200 w ords).
w ith a n tiviru s so ftw are.
2 0 m a rk s
5 U n fo rtu n a te ly, th e bank r o b b e r s ..........................
T o ta l: 100 m a rk s
(n o t catch) yet. 5x2=10 marks

R e w rite th e d ire c t speech as re p o rte d speech.


/4
1 "The m ugger was sentenced to six m onths in Check your Progress
p riso n ," said Alex. talk and write about street art ____
2 "S tep o u t o f your car," th e policem an ordered talk and write about jobs related to crime ____
th e driver. give a witness statement ____
talk and write about cybercrime ____
3 "Is there a Wi-Fi hotspot nearby?" Beth asked me.
report what people said ____
4 "Everyone has the right to a safe neighbourhood," talk about neighbourhood problems ____
said the mayor. w rite a letter to the editor ____
5 "D id anyone d is tu rb the evidence?" asked the GOOD / VERY GOOD / / EXCELLENT / / /
forensic scientist. 5x2=10 marks

120
W o rk

Use th e w ords to com plete th e


jobs (1-18).

• a rtis t • tra in e r • c o n tro lle r


• expert • chaser • person
• w a lke r • o ffic e r • d ire cto r
• designer • d e co rator • assistant
• o p e ra to r • driver • w o rke r 3 delivery
• a tte n d a n t • counsellor • teste r

10 air tra ffic 11 personal 12 crane

14 camp 16 in te rio r 18 video game

Choose th e correct w o rd .

1 I'm sure th a t w o rk in g as a gardener is a pleasant 5 W hy do you w a n t to tra n s p o rt/tra n s fe r him to


w a y to e a rn /w in a living. a n o th e r d e p artm ent?
2 Sue decided to apply/ask fo r the p o sition o f 6 They fire d /s e t o ff M ike a fte r he spoke rudely to
shop assistant. his boss.
3 The com pany teaches/trains all its new 7 A fte r Sally was made redundant/u nem ployed
employees. a t w ork, she opened her ow n business.
4 They are th in k in g o f prom oting/advancing him 8 They to o k /o ffe re d Dan the jo b once they saw his
to manager. CV.

VB1
i
Vocabulary Ban
a) M atch th e descriptions to th e jobs.

A A person w h o looks a fte r a large b u ild in g , school or block o f flats.


1 hairdresser
В This person makes m en's clothes.
2 b io lo g ist c This person can cut, style, colour and even curl yo u r hair.
3 m e te o ro lo g ist D This person w o rks und erg rou nd and extracts substances like gold
4 caretaker and coal.
5 TV presenter E A scientist w h o studies all livin g things.
6 d e n tis t F This person w o rks in an o ffice , types le tters, answers phone calls
7 a rtis t and arranges m eetings.
8 G A person in charge o f a collectio n o f books.
librarian
H This person exam ines and trea ts people's te e th and gums.
9 ta ilo r I A person w h o hosts or introduces a program m e on TV.
10 secretary J This person studies th e Earth's atm osphere and predicts the
11 m iner w eather.
12 cashier К A person w h o paints or draw s pictures, or creates sculptures fo r a
13 life guard living.
14 surgeon L A d o cto r w h o operates on a p a tie n t.
M A person in a bank or a shop w h o receives or pays o u t money.
N Someone w h o is trained to save people from drow ning in the sea or
swim m ing pool.

b) W hich o f these jobs: need a university Fill in: perks, bonus, 9-5, qualities, profession,
degree?, are m anual jobs?, are o u td o o r training, underpaid, application, recommendation.
jobs?, in volve shifts?, are dangerous?,
1 The business made a p ro fit this year and all the
o ffe r high salaries?, in volve contact w ith
workers got a (n )..............................................
the public?
2 Barry's father is a lawyer b y ........................................
3 I need to include tw o letters o f .................................
Д Choose th e correct w o rd . from my old employers.
4 Do you p ro v id e .....................................w ith this job?
1 Tim's g o t a part-tim e/full-tim e jo b delivering
5 Tom hates shifts and just w ants to w o r k .................
pizzas at the weekend.
2 Gary's w orking overtim e to n ig h t because he's got
6 W h a t skills and personal .........................................
so much job/w ork.
................................................. does th e jo b require?
3 The local swim m ing pool has a job career/vacancy
7 I w ro te a letter o f ................................................ saying
for a lifeguard.
w h y I w anted the job.
4 She's g ot five years' experience/qualifications
8 Holly works harder than everyone else, b ut she's
w o rking w ith dogs.
s t ill.................................................
5 My company pays my wages/salary in to my bank
9 A company car is one o f t h e ........................................
account every m onth.
o f Emily's new job.

VB2 »
Sports
Use the words to complete
the table in your notebooks,
Each sport can match more
than one category. horse-riding skydiving

rock clim bing w in d s u rfin g

snooker ta b le tennis lacrosse

ice-skating w a te r polo ice hockey hockey skiing boxing

TYPES OF SPORTS Choose th e ad jective th a t best com pletes each


sentence.
Indoor
1 Sailing offers peaceful/shallow m om ents w hen the sea is calm.
O u td o o r 2 One o f th e m ost pop ular com p etitive/relaxin g sports in the
w o rld is fo o tb a ll.
Summ er 3 It m ust be a b o rin g /th rillin g experience to go skydiving.
4 He enjoys doing brave/dangerous sports like rock clim bing.
W in te r 5 A good gam e o f squash is alw ays careful/challenging.
6 H iking could be tirin g /fu n if a person is n o t f it enough.
Team 7 Surfing th e waves is very fearless/exciting.
8 Playing hockey fo r an hour is gentle/exhausting.
Individua l
C o m plete th e sentences a b o u t you and sports.
W ater
1 I l i k e .................................... b e c a u s e ....................................................
Land 2 I d o n 't really l i k e ................................................................. because

A ir 3 I p r e f e r ....................... t o ................................................
because I f i n d ..................................................
Extreme 4 I hate ................................... b e ca u se ...................................................
5 I e n jo y ............................... b e c a u s e .........«..........................................
VB3
Vocabulary Bank
The Internet F ill in : website, link, password, blog, profile,
a) M atch th e w ords to form n ew w o rd s / hardware, forum , server.
phrases. 1 The central com puter from which other computers
get inform ation is called a .........................................
1 search A so ftw a re
2 You sh o u ld n 't te ll anyone w h a t yo u r ..................
2 em ail В name is.
3 social С n e tw o rk 3 A ............................................is an online discussion
4 user D account site w here a large group o f people can exchange
5 a n tivirus E engine ideas on m any topics.
4 The parts you can actually see and touch on
b) C o m plete th e sentences w ith w o rd s/ yo u r co m p u te r are th e .............................................
phrases from Ex. 1a. 5 Can you recom m end a ............................... th a t has
1 In te rn e t users need to have ................................... in fo rm a tio n I could use fo r my science project?
to p ro te c t th e ir com puters. 6 The university's hom epage contains a ................
2 M y ............................................. is penguin_7, w h ich w h ich takes you to th e lib ra ry w e b page.
is n 't my real name o f course. 7 Jack has a lo t o f in fo rm a tio n a b o u t him se lf on
3 Jenny do e sn 't have a ( n ) ............................................ his F a ce b o o k ...........................................
so I ca n 't send her th e in fo rm a tio n she needs. 8 M y frie n d has a ......................................and w rite s
4 G oogle has been the m ost pop ular ..................... a b o u t his travels.
since 2010 and 91% o f all In te rn e t users prefer
4 F ill in : access, hack, browse, download, upload,
it.
scan, crash, go online.
5 T w itte r is a very p o p u la r ...........................................
fo r people to send and read sh ort messages. 1 A th ie f trie d t o ............................................ in to the
bank's system and steal cre d it card num bers.
a) M atch th e addresses. Use th e key to
2 A w e b site can s u d d e n ly ................................ w hen
read th em .
to o many people w a n t to use it a t the same tim e.
3 You need a password t o ................................. your
1 h ttp ://tw itte r.c o m /la d y g a g a em ail account.
2 http ://w w w .e n g lish g ra m m a r.co m 4 M ary to o k photos o f her baby and she w ill
3 peter_allen17@ yahoo.uk ........................................ them to her PC and share
them w ith her friends and fam ily.
A em ail address
5 If you go to this w e b site you c a n .........................
В social n e tw o rk in g site a n tivirus s o ftw a re fo r free.
С w e b pag e/w ebsite 6 Tom likes t o ................................ on the In te rn e t in
K e y :. d o t, / slash, @ at, _ u n d e rs c o re ,: colon his free tim e.
7 M y frie n d and I live in d iffe re n t cities so w e
b) Do you kn o w w h a t these ab b reviatio n s ................................................. every n ig h t and chat.
stand for? C om p lete th e phrases. 8 Please ................................these pages so th a t w e
1 FAQ fre q u e n tly asked ............................. have them in d ig ita l form .
2 AWS As w e ..................................................
3 AFAICT As far as I c a n ................................... A n s w e r th e q u e s tio n s .
4 AFC aw ay f r o m .........................................
1 H ow o fte n do you go o n lin e and fo r h o w long?
5 AIR As I .......................................................
2 W h a t w ebsites do you usually visit?
6 ASAP As soon a s .........................................
3 Do you use social n e tw o rk in g sites? W hy?/W hy
7 TTYL Talk to you ........................................
not?
8 F2F Face to ................................................
VB4
Vocabular nk
Types o f books Fill in: set in, w ritten, p lot, twist, chapter,
M atch th e types o f books to th e extracts. character.

1 5 This crim e th rille r was 1 ) ....................... by a young


crim e th rille r adventure
2 6 author, Andrew Watts. It’s his firs t book and already
n o n -fic tio n romance
7 it has become a bestseller. From the first
3 b iography science fic tio n
2 ) ...................... you will find the 3 ) .........................
00
4 h o rro r fantasy
gripping. It is 4 ) .........................the city o f Rome. The
A Born in a tiny Welsh village in 1853, no-one mam 5 ) ....................... is a man who has lost his
expected Danny Wells to become the most important memory. The police suspect he has com m itted a
inventor of his time. terrib le crim e. I w on’t te ll you any more, because I
don’t want to spoil the 6 ) ......................... in the story.
В When the fairy appeared before Alice, the little girl Highly recom mended!
was crying. “Why are you crying Alice?” asked the fairy.
“How do you know my name?” Alice replied. Fill in w ith : a bore to read, an unexpected twist,
a waste o f tim e, a dull story, yo u 'll love it.
С C lim bing to the to p o f the bridge was th e only
И The Attic Light is James Boyd's new book.
w ay to escape w ith o u t being seen. Jonathan trie d
1 ) ........................................ ! I c o u ld n 't p u t it do w n . The
n o t to th in k a b o u t w h a t m ig h t happen if he d id n 't
best th in g a b o u t th e story is 2 ) ......................................
succeed.
w h ich makes it very in te re stin g .

D This is a complete guide to recycling at


[~B~| I used to like M ike Jameson's books. However,
school. There are m any helpful tips and
his last book is 3 ) ................................................ I have
ideas to make recycling ju n .
never read such 4) ............................................. in my
д р » | II rr

life ! D o n 't buy it because it's 5 ) ....................................


E The th ie f had escaped once and m oney!
a ga in le a vin g no fin g e rp rin ts . This
was th e second ro b b e ry in a w eek.
M usic
11 Use w ords from th e boxes to com plete th e
F In deep space, Planet Oron is at war w ith Planet
sentences a b o u t you r ta s te in music.
N ordid. The Galactic G overnm ent is sending
spaceships to th a t far corner of the universe.
reggae P°P jazz loud happy f ast

G Trevor said to A nnie, “I ’m glad you g o t hom e dance 9 arage hjp hop enthusiastic lively
before I left. I w anted to say goodbye to you.” slo w aggressive
techno punk metal
“W hen will you be back?” A nnie asked. “I w on’t
boring e m o tio n a l
be back,” said Trevor w ith tears in his eyes. heavy metal rock 'n' roll
m onotonou s
classical music
p o w e rfu l
R&B (rhythm and blues)
H Jean h a d never fe lt so scared in h e r life .
W h a t w as th a t th in g c h a sin g her? It w a s a kind
I love ............................. because i t 's ..................................
o f m onster. W h e re d id it com e from ? I like ......................................because i t 's ..........................
I ca n 't stand .......................because i t 's ..........................
................................................. is n 't really my cup o f tea
because i t 's ..............................................
»
VB5
Vocabulary Bank
The w e a th e r
a) Choose th e correct w o rd .

3 blizzard/
1 flo o d /d riz zle (^y^^^^lig^douds
th u n d e rsto rm

( 5 h u rrica n e /to rn a d o ^ I( 6 sle et/ha il } I[ 7 sunshine/breeze ^ 8 snow sto rm /


I th ic k foq i

b) W hich o f these w e a th e r conditions are co m m o n /rare in you r country?

Fill in: temperatures, cold, overcast, boiling, C o m plete th e sentences w ith th e verbs: set,
lightning, clear, winds, heavy. pour, blow, drop, reach, wipe, gather, rise.

1 We have to lig h t a big fire ; it's going to be 1 The te m p e ra tu re w i l l .................................................


fre e z in g .....................................................to n ig h t. a high o f 19°C.
2 W henever there is th u n d e r a n d .......................... .. 2 The rising w a te r level could ...................................
our cat hides under th e bed. o u t m any coastal villages.
3 Global w arm ing is already causing m ore extrem e 3 The sun w ill ..............................................a t 6:54 pm
.....................................w o rld w id e . th is evening.
4 It's only spring and it's a lre a d y .............................. 4 I heard it's g oing t o ......................................... w ith
h o t; I w o n d e r w h a t sum m er w ill be like. rain all a fte rn o o n .
5 On a ..................................................day in G ibraltar, 5 Strong w in d s w ill .................................................. in
you can see all th e w ay across to A frica. from the A tla n tic la te r today.
6 ...............................................skies m ake me gloom y. 6 The sun w i l l .............................................. a t exactly
7 Close all th e shutters! W e're expecting high 5:58 am to m o rro w m orning.
...................................................... this a fte rn o o n . 7 They're expecting th e te m p e ra tu re t o ................
8 Look a t t h o s e ................................................ clouds! by 5°C at th e w eekend.
It's going to s ta rt pou ring soon. 8 Clouds w ill .................................................. over the
m ountains b rin g in g rain by th e early a fte rn o o n .

VB6 ♦
Vocabulary Bank
The environment
W hich o f these e n v iro n m en tal problem s can you see in th e pictures?

• burning fossil fuels • rising sea levels • o v e rflo w in g la n d fill sites • in d u stria l w aste
• exhaust fum es • acid rain « d e fo re s ta tio n • d e stru ctio n o f th e ozone layer « o v e rfis h in g
• extrem e w e a th e r • w a te r shortage • oil spills • noise p o llu tio n • global w a rm ing

Fill in th e gaps w ith th e correct form o f th e a) Fill in: conserve, turn off, take, public,
verbs in th e list.

• becom e • add • rise • use • vanish • cut


• lose • reduce • m elt • starve

1 Sea levels c o u ld ........................................... a no the r


3 fe e t w ith in 100 years.
2 The polar ice c a p s .......................................................
a t an alarm ing rate due to global w a rm ing .
3 P o llu tion from po w e r plants ..................................
to poo r air quality.
4 If sea levels co ntin ue to rise, m any anim als
............................................ th e ir natural habitats.
5 Scientists predict th a t a lo t o f a n im a ls ...............
.....................................e x tin c t in th e next 50 years.
6 W e have to reduce th e a m o u n t o f trees we
.............................................dow n.
7 Some islands ................................................................
under th e waves already.
8 Polar b e a rs ...................................................... as food
becomes harder to find.
9 If w e w a n t to help th is planet, w e all have to
................................................. ou r carbon fo o tp rin t.
10 We can m ake a difference if w e ............................ b) W hich o f these do you do to help
less energy. pro tect th e environm en t?
Vocabulary Bank
Sp o rts & E q u ip m e n t
a) Label th e pictures w ith w ords from th e list.

• mask « life ja c k e t « b icycle « o a rs • snorkel • b o w « h e lm e t « p o le s « flip p e rs


• ra ft • skates • racquet • k it • w e ts u it • ta rg e t • skis • arrow s • ball • puck
• stick • net • gloves • boots • fo o tb a ll

\
Ж

b) W hich o f these sports do w e: go? do? play?

VB8 *
Vocabulary Bank
M atch th e sports in Ex. 1a to th e C am p in g e q u ip m e n t
descriptions. Д Label th e pictures w ith : tent, rucksack,
In this spo rt... penknife, first aid kit, insect repellent, matches,

1 you need good balance and compass, m ap, rope, sleeping bag, sunscreen.

m ust alw ays keep yo u r eyes on


th e road or path ahead.
2 you need to be flexible , and
have stron g arms and legs to
keep yo u r balance on th e h ill.............
3 you need to be in co n tro l in
d iffic u lt cond ition s. If you
a re n 't, you m ig h t fall in.
4 you need to have lots o f
stam ina and be able to kick................
5 you need steady hands and
a good eye to be able to h it
yo u r ta rg e t.
6 you need to tu rn quickly and
shoo t w ith o u t losing your
balance on th e slippery surface.........
7 you need to run across the
co u rt to h it th e ball w ith
stre n g th and accuracy.
8 you d o n 't need to use your
hands to m ove in th e w a te r;
ju s t le t yo u r legs do all th e w o rk ......

Fill in: break, hold, beat, score, points, take.

The Chicago B u lls ................................................ th e


record fo r th e m ost w ins in an NBA season.
You should check yo u r fitness w ith a do cto r
before you ...................................... up a new sport.
Sam is hoping to ..................................... th e record
in his next m arathon.
Anna ............................... me thre e tim es at chess
yesterday. -J
O ur team lost 12 ..................................... in th e last
ten m inutes.
Danny w ill keep t h e ....................................... w h ile I
w e play.

/11 ................................... \

VB9
Health Choose th e correct w o rd .
a) C o m p lete th e spidergram s w ith w o rd s/ 1 The d o c to r gave Janet a recipe/prescription
phrases from th e list. fo r some cough m edicine.
• eye • sick • ear • w ris t • dizzy • ankle 2 John had a(n) o peration/surgery to im prove
• a bad back • skin • insom nia • depression his eyesight.
3 I have a sore th ro a t and it is very h u rt/p ain fu l
1
2 to sw allow .
4 This skin cream helps to disappear/rem ove
3 acne scars.
5 The a th le te ju s t broke his arm and he's in
te rrib le pain/ache.
6 Tom's eye is sw ollen and he should pour/use
some eye drops.
7 D o n 't itch/scratch th e rash because it w ill get
w orse.
8 H ow can I relieve/recover sunburn?
9 This is a very deep cut and it w ill take tim e to
cure/heal.

9
Idioms
Fill in: fit, picture, back, white, weather, rain.

1 Take this m edicine and in a fe w days y o u 'll feel


as rig h t a s ......................................................................
b) C o m p lete th e gaps w ith phrases from
2 The injured man had lost a lo t o f blood and
Ex. 1a in th e correct form .
looked as .................................................as a sheet.
1 Eva's g o t a(n) ..........................................on her arm 3 H olly has recovered fro m th e flu and n o w looks
th a t's really red and itchy. th e ...............................................................o f health.
2 People w h o ..............................................fin d it hard 4 Even th o u g h G randad's 73, he's a s .......................
to enjoy an yth in g . as a fid d le .
3 A ( n ) ................................. is very p a in fu l, b u t rarely 5 B e tty is n 't com ing to school to d a y because
causes hearing loss. she's feeling a b it under t h e ...................................
4 If you ...................................., you should e ith e r sit 6 Jake had an o p e ra tio n last m onth b u t he is
or lie do w n . ............................................................on his fe e t now.
5 I ca n 't w a lk fo r a fe w days because o f my ........

6 Steve ate to o m uch ju n k fo o d a t th e p arty and Circle th e odd one ou t.

1 pain - ache - illness


7 Robby always looks tire d because he .................. 2 germ - sw e lling - virus
8 She's w e a rin g sunglasses because she has a(n) 3 acne - in fe ctio n - spots
4 fever - w o u n d - in jury
9 M y .........................................m ade it im possible fo r 5 flu - cold - bruise
me to w rite . 6 cut - sneeze - cough
10 D o n 't lift heavy w e ig h ts if y o u .............................. 7 p ill - th e ra p y - m edicine
8 bandage - plaster - rem edy

VB10
Vocabulary Bank
a) M atch the w ords to make phrases. W h a t is each person's problem ? M atch the
pictures w ith the sentences.

1 upset A nose
2 watery В cough
3 sore С sickness
4 itchy D throat
5 high E eyes
6 broken F stomach
7 runny G temperature
8 dry H strain

9 travel I rash
10| eye J bone

b) Fill in w ith the phrases from Ex. 5a.

1 Some people suffer f r o m ............................


when they go on a trip.
2 When I touch this kind of plant, I get a(n)

3 If you have a(n) ................................................. .


a doctor has to put it in plaster.
4 John, you feel warm. I'll get the thermometer
and see if you've got a ( n ) ..................................
5 A good way to prevent .....................................
is not to watch TV in a dark room.
6 Katy ate a lot of pizza and now she's got a(n) 1 I ate far too much at Alex's birthday party.
2 I stayed at the beach all day and didn't use
7 The baby caught a cold and has a ( n ) ................ sunscreen.
............................................... but no fever. 3 I can't take it any more! I really must go to the
8 When you have a(n) ........................................... dentist's.
eating or drinking can be really painful. 4 I need another pack of tissues because I've got
9 I've got (a) ....................................................that a runny nose.
feels like a tickle in my throat. 5 I went for a walk in the park and now I can't
10 Emma's not crying; she's just got ..................... stop sneezing.
6 I shouldn't have played video games for four
hours without a break.

Discuss these questions w ith a partner.

1 How can we prevent sunburn?


2 Have you ever been in hospital? W hat happened?
3 Do you think everyone should know first aid?
W hy?/W hy not?

VB11
*
ary
Feelings Problems
a) Label the pictures w ith : exhausted, bored, Fill in: peer, difficult, welcome, advice, approve,
confused, confident, depressed, furious, similar, right, distance, fit, common.
excited, surprised.

Agony Aunt
a problem shared is a
problem halved

D ear Agony A unt,


I ’ve got a problem and I don’t
know what to do.
My family just moved to a new city
and I had to change schools, but I’m
finding it 1 ) ...............................to m ake new friends.
My classm ates keep their 2 ) ........................................
and ignore m e all the tim e. W hen I try to be
friendly, they just walk away. It might be
because they d on ’t 3 ) .................................... o f the
clothes I wear. They all seem to dress differently
from me. Should I buy som e new clothes to
4 ) ...................................... in?
Can you help m e? W h at should I do?
Lonely

В D ear Lonely,
b) Use the w ord s from Ex. 1a to com plete Try not to w orry too m uch. This is a
the sentences. 5 ) ................................... problem when people
change schools. First of all, d on ’t try too hard.
1 "I've got nothing to do. I feel re a lly .................
Everyone needs a little time to get to know
today."
som eone else and this is true for both you and
2 "I'm completely ........................... I need a good
your classm ates. Give it a couple o f weeks and I
night's sleep."
think you’ll find they’ll get used to you and
3 "That exam was easy. I'm ........................... that
you’ll feel m ore 6 ) ....................................... In the
I've passed." m eantim e, what about joining a school club? It’s
4 "I didn't expect that to happen to me! I'm very a great way to m eet people who have
7 ) .................................... interests. Now about your
5 "I don't know what to do next. I'm completely clothes, d on ’t change a thing! Y o u have the
8 ) ................................... to choose your own style.
6 "How dare you tell lies about me! I'm absolutely D on ’t fall into the trap of 9 ) ...................................
pressure. W e should all respect each oth er even
7 "I'm so ...................................... ! I've just won a if we are different. I hope my
holiday to Italy!" 10 ) ................................... helps.
8 "I've just argued with my best friend. I'm very

VB12
*
Vocabula
Sta g e s in life a) M atch the w ord s to make phrases.

Label the pictures.

• infant • toddler • child • teenager • adult


1 start A grandchildren
• senior citizen
2 live В a wedding
3 buy С abroad
4 lose D to the countryside
5 have E your job
6 move F on a career
7 arrange G a business
8 get H a wedding anniversary
9 decide I divorced
10 celebrate J a house

b) Fill in the sentences w ith phrases from


Ex. 3a in the correct form.

1 Harry can't stand renting and wants to ...........


............................................... as soon as he can.
2 Sarah's been so depressed since she ................
..................................................... at the factory.
3 Fran was a young grandparent a n d ..................
......................................when she was just fifty.
4 They were married for ten years before they
............................................................ It's so sad.
5 When y o u ............................................. you get
to experience another culture in depth.
6 The city was too much for John so h e ..............
.................................................. when he retired.
7 They ............................................this weekend.
They've been married for five years now.
Put these events in the correct 8 I need some advice because I'm finding it really
chronological order. difficult to ...........................................................
9 Dan's got a lot of courage to ............................
1 get married/start a family/go on honeymoon/
.....................................in this economic climate.
get engaged
10 Mum would love t o ............................................
2 get a promotion/leave school/find a job/retire
but I'm not getting married yet!
with a pension
3 start primary school/go to kindergarten/go to
high school/attend college
4 apply for university/graduate with a degree/
take a gap year/go to university

VB13
*
4 Discuss these questions in class. Choose the correct w ord.

1 Do you remember your first day at school? The bride and her father entered the church
How did you feel? and walked down the corridor/aisle.
2 Was going to high school a major turning point The film actress decided to have her marriage/
in your life? W h y? w edding on the beach.
3 W h at was the most important event in your Jason was getting married the next day so he
life? W h y? had a bachelor m eeting/party.
It is a custom in some countries for the couple
to exchange vows/promises when they get
A w edding
married.
Label the pictures. Use the w ord s in the list. After the wedding ceremony, all guests were
invited to the reception/event.
• bride • groom • bridesmaid • best man
The bride's parents paid for the tickets to
• wedding dress • wedding ring «veil
Hawaii where they're going on their holiday/
• bouquet • tuxedo
honeym oon.
The best man made/did a toast to the couple
and wished them a happy life.
If you catch the bouquet/bunch that the bride
throws, it means you will be next to get married.

Character
Fill in: honest, hard-working, patient, ambitious,
stubborn, optimistic, sensitive, sociable, modest,
generous.

Charlie is top of his class because he is very


................................................ and studies a lot.
Grandparents are usually v e r y ...........................
with their grandchildren and give them lots of
presents.
Our teacher is a very .........................................
person and never gets angry with us.
Although the scientist has a Nobel Prize, he is
q u ite ............................ about his achievements.
Kate is re a lly ........................................ and loves
being with other people.
He is so .................................. ; I've never heard
him tell a lie in all the time I've known him.
Betty is a v e r y ................................. person and
understands people's feelings and problems.
I like Jason because he i s .................................. ;
he always looks on the bright side of things.
My father is s o .................................. ; when he
makes up his mind about something he doesn't
change it.
10 The young lawyer is v e r y ...................................
N ow describe the first photograph.
and wants to go to the top of his profession.
VB14
t
Vocabula
g M atch th e o p p o site s.
Appearance
C o m p le te s e n te n ce s 1-5 u sin g w o rd s from
th e ta b le .
1 generous A lazy
2 neat В pessim istic H air: curly, wavy, straight, short, long, spiky, bald I

3 nice С messy H e ig h t: tall, short, o f average heigh t


1
4 optim istic D dem anding thin, slim , plum p, fat, o ve rw e igh t, w ell-
W e ig h t:
5 hum ble E nasty built

6 easy-go ing F mean in his late teens, m iddle-aged, in her


Age:
7 hard-w o rking G arro gant early tw enties, child

Face: long, round, square, oval

S k in : pale, dark, olive, fair


W rite th e o p p o s ite s o f th e se a d je c tiv e s . Use
Sp e cial
un-, im-, ir-, dis-, in-. mole, freckles, moustache, beard, glasses
fe a tu re s:
selfish * ......... 6 sensitive * .....
polite * .......... 7 tid y * ...............
honest * ....... 8 reliable * ........ 1 This is Janet. She's six years old.
responsible / 9 patient * ........ She's go t long b la c k .....................
10 tru stw o rth y * hair a n d ................... skin.
5 considerate /

2 Tom is ............................... He's


o f average h eigh t w ith short
*1 Q M atch th e c h a ra c te ris tic s (A -H ) to th e
...............................hair.
d e s c rip tio n s (1-8).

A shy E arro gant


В aggressive F considerate
3 M ike i s ...................................
С reliable G e asy-go in g
w ith short dark hair and a
D dem anding H vain

1 A n ge la 's parents have ta u g h t her to be


polite and th in k about others.
2 Som e people shout and becom e violent 4 Lisa is in her m id-tw enties.
w hen they have an argum ent w ith others. She has .................................... 1m
3 W ho does he th in k he is? He th in ks he is blonde hair, blue eyes and an
better than anyone else. ..................................... face.
4 Som e children are sp o ilt and are alw ays
askin g for th in gs from their parents.
5 Poor Ben! He alw ays feels nervous w hen he
5 Mr Jones is my teacher. He
m eets new people.
w e a r s ............................. and he's
6 John is a person you can alw ays depend on.
alm ost ......................... because
He w ill never let you dow n.
he's lost a lot o f hair.
7 David spends far too much tim e ch eckin g his
hair and clothes in the mirror.
8 My best friend is a person th at gets along U se th e w o rd s in th e ta b le in Ex. 11 and
w ith anyone. d e scrib e y o u r b e st frie n d .
VB15
»
Crim e Fill in: arrested, broke into, committed, broken,

M atch th e n e w s p a p e r h e a d lin e s (1-8 ) to th e charged, stole, robbed, accused.

ty p e s o f crim e (A -H ). 1 The police ..................................... him w ith m urder


and to o k him to prison.
burglary sh o p liftin g
2 T h ie v e s ................................. O scar-w inn in g actress
В arson sm u gg lin g M ary Stone at g u n p o in t last n ight.
robbery G | I speeding 3 Dan's friends and fam ily co u ld n 't believe he'd
D vandalism H kid nap p in g .......................................a crime.
4 Som eone sm ashed my w in d o w in the car park
1 Hollywood star arrested for driving his I a n d .........................................my bag.
Porsche at 180 kmph! 5 They w aited until he left the shop and then
....................................... him for sh o p liftin g .
Millionaire caught stealing clothes in I 6 He w asn 't ............................... o f a n yth in g because
department store the police d id n 't have enough evidence.

J
7 G ary's an honest person w ho's n e v e r .................
3 Girl disappears from home - ransom note found
the law in his life.
4 H o o lig a n s d e s tro y p la y g ro u n d 8 T h ie v e s .................................................. her flat w hen
she w as out and stole cash and jew ellery.
5 Man burns his house down to get
insurance money J
The law
Thousands of exotic pets brought into the |
country illegally 4 C h o o se th e co rre ct w o rd s.

7 Arm ed men steal £2 m illion from bank 1 The you n g man p le a d e d /b e gge d not g u ilty to
robbery.
8 H o u se b r o k e n in to tu h ile f a m ily on 2 A fte r a 3-m onth trial Jam es w as tried for/
h o lid a y co n victed o f arson.
3 The judge exam ined/tested the e vidence/proof
against the accused man.
4 The ju ry go t/reach e d a verdict and the crim inal
C o m p le te th e ta b le . w as taken to prison.
5 The court fo u n d /said the accused guilty.
Person Noun Verb 6 Jack is g o in g to w itn e ss/te stify ag a in st his
burglary burgle friend in court/jury.

vandalism 7 You have to sw ear/say to tell the truth in court.


8 The th ie f w as sen te n ce d /ch a rg ed to ten years
robber robbery
in prison.
arson set fire (to)

th ie f
sm u gg lin g
kidnapper kid nap p in g 10

VB16

»
M atch the people (1-7) to the descriptions
6 a) M atch the w ords to make sentences.
(A-G).
1 armed A service
2 life В sentence
3 death С robbery
4 guilty D penalty
5 crime E station
6 court F scene
7 jury G verdict
8 police H case

b) Fill in the sentences w ith phrases from

6 detective Ex. 6a.


5 witness

1 Most countries do not have the .......................


.......................... and no prisoners are executed.
2 The jury returned a ............................................

3 The thief was arrested and taken to the

4 Some citizens are asked to d o ..................


.....................................in a court.
5 The police are looking for evidence at the

6 There was a ( n ) ....................................................


at the jeweller's and a man was shot.
7 The murderer got a(n) .......................................
.....................and will never come out of prison.
8 This ......................................................... was in
the news for months.

Cybercrime

7 Fill in: hacker, access, identity, piracy, spam,


viruses.
The person who is accused of a crime.
Don't o p e n ..................................emails because
The person who saw or knows things about
they could harm your laptop.
a crime. 2 A ( n )...............................................broke into our
С The person who represents the accused in company's computer system.
court. 3 The most common form of cybercrime is ........
D The group of people who have to give a theft.

verdict in court. 4 My laptop has a software program to protect


ag a in st..................................
The person who makes the decisions in court.
You can't ........................ this account without
This is a person who takes the defendant
the correct password.
from their cellto the courtroom. g
Illegally downloading computer programs is
G This is the person who investigated the crime. so ftw a re ...................................
VB17
Writing Bank 1
Form al letters/em ails
Formal letters/emails are usually sent to
You see an advert at your college in England for a part-time
people we don't know or people in an official
position, e.g. w hen a p p ly in g fo r a jo b /c o u rs e , assistant in their children's daycare centre. Write a letter of
m a k in g a c o m p la in t o r re q u e stin g in fo rm a tio n , etc. application (120-150 words) in which you:
They include:
• say where you saw the advert and w hy you are interested in
a formal greeting (D ear Sir o r M ad a m , D ear
M r S m ith),
the job,
an introduction with our opening remarks • state your age and any suitable qualifications you have,
and the reason for writing, • mention if you have previous experience and why you have
main body paragraphs, one for each
a suitable personality for the job,
separate topic,
• say how many hours a week you can work and when you
a conclusion with our closing remarks,
a formal ending (Yours fa ith fu lly , w hen yo u can come for an interview.
d o n 't k n o w the person's nam e/Y ours sincerely,
w hen y o u k n o w th e person's n a m e ) + your full
name.
formal
Formal style is characterised by: Dear Sir or Madam,
greeting --------------------- ' use of the passive
• formal expressions, advanced vocabulary
I am w ritin g to apply for the position , of part-time
& longer sentences (I a m a va ila b le fo r an
in te rv ie w a t a n y tim e co n ven ie nt to you.) daycare centre assistant which was advertised on the
• formal linking words (However, In a d d itio n ) college noticeboard. I am interested in this job since I
• full verb forms (Ia m w ritin g t o . . . )
enjoy working with children. forma| iink in g ^ d
• use of the passive (I can be c o n ta c te d . . . )
I am twenty-one years of age and am currently studying

Useful Language Child Psychology. In addition, I have a good command of


both written and spoken English advanced vocabulary
Applying for a job/course
• I am writing to apply for the position o f ... Despite not having any formal w ork experience in
advertised in (ye ste rd a y's‘Evening Post'). childcare, I have often done babysitting for neighbours
1full verb
• W ith reference to your advertisement in ... form and friends. I feel I w ould be w ell suited for this position
• I have been working as a ... for the last ...
as I am enthusiastic, energetic and creative. I also consider
years.
• Despite my lack o f ... experience, I feel that I myself to be patient when dealing with young children.
would be ... I am available for work for up to 15 hours a week during
: longer
• I consider myself to be (p u n ctu a l, h a rd w o rkin g , the afternoons and would be glad to attend an interview
sentence
etc.)
j a t any time convenient to you.
• I enclose a reference from my previous
employer. I look forward to hearing from y o u .^ ' formal exPression
• I would be grateful if you would consider Yours faith fu lly, ^ formal ending
my application. Eva K o w a l full name
• Can you tell me the duration of the course?
• Please send me a prospectus giving the course
details.
• Is it possible to enrol online?
• I look forward to hearing from you.

Complaining
ЯШШЯЯЯШШЯН
• I am writing to draw your attention to ...
• I am writing to express my strong
Read the le tte r again and match the form al expressions
dissatisfaction at the ...
in bold to the inform al ones below .
• I am writing to complain about the quality
o f ... I recently purchased from you.
1 I'm really good at
• The sales assistant was extremely rude and ...
• I demand an immediate replacement or a full 2 I'm sure I'd be great at this job
refund. 3 Whenever is good for you
• I would appreciate it i f ... could be replaced. 4 Best wishes
• I hope you will replace ...
5 I just wanted to ask about
• I hope that this matter will be dealt with
promptly. 6 Although I've never done anything quite like this before
7 I'd love to have a go at
WB1
i
Writing Bank 2
Stories
Г _ _ ——_ —— ————_ _ _ —_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1
Stories can be written either in the first or the
> Your school is holding a story-writing competition. You have i
third person and present a series of events,
real or imaginary. The events in the story been asked to write about a scary experience. Write your story
should be written in the order in which they i (120-180 words) for the competition.
happen. Stories include:
• an introductory paragraph which sets T ra v e lle r's R e st by John Smith
activ ty
the scene (describes th e tim e , place, people, time. place P,e°P le .
" \O n e weekend last autumnjmy cousin Jack and l/went on\a
a ctivity, w eather, etc),
hiking trip in the countryside. We had planned to stay at a
• main body paragraphs (de scrib ing in cid e n ts
village hotel on Saturday night and return home on Sunday.
le a d in g up to the m a in event, the m a in event
As we were walking late on Saturday afternoon, we realised
its e lf a n d its c lim a x ).
weather .we had lost our way. It was getting dark and we were very
• a concluding paragraph (describing w h a t
tj ti№dTThen\it started to rain and we started to feel desperate.
happens in the end, people's reactions/feelinas. etc)
segupnre\The next moment, we saw an old-fashioned stone cottage, so
Stories are characterised by:
linker we decided to stop and ask directions. A little old lady came
• the use of past tenses (The sun was shining
b rig h tly w hen they set o u t. She p u t on her coat, descriptive110 c,oor' was wearin9 a lon9 dress ancJ smilin9
adverbX s w e e tly . When she heard that we were lost, she invited us
opened the d o o r a n d w e n t outside. When the w aiter
inside. "You're welcome to stay the night," she said. "You can
b ro u g h t the bill, M r B artle tt was embarrassed to fin d direct .
reach the village easily in the morning." We felt grateful for
he h a d fo rg o tten to b ring his wallet.) speech
her hospitality and sat down to a hot tasty meal in her cosy
• linking words/phrases th at convey time
kitchen. After that, she showed us upstairs to two clean
and sequence of events (firs t/a t first, th e n /
comfortable beds. descriptive adjectives
next, a fte r/b e fo re th a t, d u rin g , w hile, m ea n w h ile ,
The next morning, the old lady was nowhere to be found. We
as soon as, the m o m e n t th a t, by th e tim e , in the
left a thank-you note and set off towards the village. We
e n d /fin a lly, etc)
stopped for a coffee at the village hotel. Imagine our
• descriptive adjectives/adverbs to make
amazement when the hotel owner told us who we had stayed
the story more interesting (elegant, pleasant,
with. "That's old Mrs Heron," he said. "She's been dead for
b re a th ta k in g , fast, p olitely, softly, etc)
sixty years. She used to put up travellers overnight."
• direct speech to make the story more
Jack and I looked at each other in horror. Did we imagine it or
dramatic (“ W hatever are y o u d o in g ? " she yelled.)
had we seen a ghost? I suppose we will Inever know.

Useful Language people's reactions/feelings


Starting a story/Setting the scene
• Karen felt (exhausted) as she had been (studying
ha rd fo r her exam s fo r six m onths). ; 1222ЕЭ
• The birds were singing happily when Tom
woke up on Saturday. Put the events in the story in the order in which they
Leading up to the main event happened.
• At first, we didn't notice (a n y th in g s tra n g e ).
• The (p a rty) had only just (started) when ... They reached the hotel.
• The next thing (Tom) knew, (he w a s ...).
An old lady came to the door.
The main event/climax o f the story
• They started (scream ing a n d s h o u tin g in p a n ic). They heard a scary story.
• I felt sure (th e p la n e ) was going to (crash). The writer and his cousin were out hiking.
Describing people/places/objects/feelings
They talked to the hotel owner.
• The old man behind the co u n te r...
• The streets of the small town were crowded They stopped to ask the way.
and bustling during Carnival week. They went to bed.
• Small puffy white clouds drifted lazily above
our heads.
They got lost.
• To their (surp rise /d isg u st/h o rro r, e t c ) ..., They ate a meal.
• Imagine our (d is a p p o in tm e n t) when ...
She invited them to stay the night.
Ending a story
• I've never felt so (relieved/scared, etc) in my
They saw a cottage.
whole life.
• He knew he would n e v e r... again.
Underline all the tim e words and phrases in the story that
• It was the most (e m b arra ssin g ) moment I've
show the sequence o f events. Compare w ith your partner.
ever experienced.

WB2
»
Writing Bank 3
Sem i-form al letters/emails
Semi-formal letters/emails are usually sent to
You want to book a camping holiday online. You have found a
someone we know but not very well, e.g. a
routine email to a business/website asking for campsite you like, but you w ant some more information. W rite
or giving information, a thank-you letter to an email to Bill Forbes of Golden Sun Campsite in which you
your friend's parents, etc. They include:
ask about:
a formal greeting (D ear Ms Cole, D e a r M r a n d
M rs Ja c ks o n ),
• bringing a pet with you,
an introduction with your opening remarks • the cost of parking,
and the reason for writing, • what cooking facilities are available,
main body paragraphs each containing a
• which water sports are offered in the area.
separate topic,
a conclusion with your closing remarks,
an informal ending (Best w ishes,/K indest
Dear Mr F o r b e s ^ formal 9reetin9
regards,/Yours, + y o u r fu ll n am e).
Note: when we want to be brief and to the I'm writing to enquire about staying at your campsite
point, emails are usually preferred to letters. this summer. Can you please give me some further
Semi-formal style is characterised by: information? \ polite respectful tone
relaxed, friendly language (Thanks so
short Firstly, I'd like to know about the cookingfacilities. For
m uch fo r h a vin g m e to stay w ith you.)
a polite and respectful tone, depending
verb form example, is there a shared kitchen for cooking and if so,
on the relationship you have with the will I need to bring any equipment? Also, could you tell
person (I'm re a lly g ra te fu l fo r a ll y o u r help.) me if there is an extra charge for car parking and
some short verb forms (I'm w ritin g to enquire linking
whether I can bring my dog along to the campsite?
a b o u t tennis lessons in m y area.) word to
full inclusion o f pronouns (W e'd be h a p p y
list points. Finally, your advert mentions the campsite is near the
to a n sw e r y o u r queries.) beach, but it doesn't say which w ater sports are
some use of idioms/colloquial expressions inclusion available. I am particularly interested in doing
but use with care (I hope this in fo rm a tio n w ill of pronoun-
windsurfing and would like to know if this is possible.
com e in h a n d y som etim e.)
linking words/phrases for listing points
relaxed ^ .Many thanks in advance for your help.
friendly
(first o f a ll, secondly, also, finally, etc)
language Yours, informal ending
^ fu ll name
Aleksander Belinski
Useful Language
Opening remarks
hope you are well.
m sorry I haven't been in touch sooner,
m writing in connection with ...
122221
Thanking Read the model below . Compare and contrast it w ith
1
I can't thank you enough. the model above. W h y isn't it a p p ro p riate ? Think about:
I don't know how to thank you.
I really appreciate it. layout • the way it starts/ends tone and style of language
Giving inform ation use of pronouns/linking words
I'd be glad to answer your questions.
Another point to bear in mind (is t h a t ) ... Dear Bill Forbes,
I would also like to point o u t ... Just writing to ask about staying at your campsite this summer.
Asking for inform ation Unfortunately, quite a bit of information is missing from your website!
I'd like to (a s k /e n q u ire /k n o w e tc )...
I'd like to know if there is a shared kitchen for cooking. If there is, I'll
Could you please inform me ... ?
probably need to bring some equipment, won't I? Do you charge extra
Will it be necessary to ... ?/Will I need to ..
Is there an extra charge f o r ... ? for car parking? Furthermore, are pets prohibited from the campsite1
W h at kind of (e q u ip m e n t) is provided? It's great that you're just a stone's throw from the beach. However,
Closing remarks your advert doesn't say which water sports are available. I would
Many thanks (in a d va n ce ) f o r ...
particularly welcome the opportunity to experience windsurfing for
I'm looking forward to hearing from you.
the first time.
Please give my regards to ...
I hope you find this information helpful. Yours faithfully,
Aleksander
WB3
«
Essays suggestin g
solutions to a problem
Your teacher wants her class to write about a problem t h a t 1
Essays suggesting solutions to a problem are
affects your local community. You have chosen the topic of
formal pieces of writing in which a problem is
introduced and suggestions are made on how litter on the streets. W rite an essay (120-180 words) suggesting
to deal with it. The expected result of each ways that individuals can help to fight this problem and
suggestion is mentioned, together with the
mentioning the possible results.
writer's opinion at the end of the essay.
Essays suggesting solutions to a problem
include:
• an introductory paragraph stating the Fight litter now!
problem.
Para 1 Nowadays, litter on the streets is a common problem in
• main body paragraphs (up to 3) each
states many cities and towns. There is no doubt that it is an
presenting a separate suggestion, a
problem + unpleasant and annoying sight. The question is, what can
supporting sentence to develop the idea or
I possibility of we as individuals do about it? In fact, there are a number
give an example and the possible results. solving it
_of solutions.
• a concluding paragraph which restates
the problem and summarises the writer's In the first place, we should make sure we dispose of our
Para 2
opinion. 1st suggestion own rubbish responsibly. In other words, we should all get
Essays suggesting solutions to a problem + supporting into the habit of finding the nearest rubbish bin or taking
are characterised by: , sentence +
it home with us for recycling. If everyone does this, the
: result
• formal/semi-formal vocabulary and some .streets will be much cleaner and tidier.
longer sentences (If these suggestions are
taken in to co n sid e ra tio n , I a m convinced th a t the Para 3 Secondly, don't ignore litter that you see lying around -
p ro b le m w ill be resolved.) 2nd suggestion pick it up. It is important to set a good example for others.
+ supporting Then, when someone sees your concern for the
• formal linking words to join ideas (Moreover,
sentence + environment, they will hopefully follow your example and
Nevertheless, However, etc) I result
• full verb forms (There is n o d o u b t t h a t... ) _do the same.
• a mild impersonal style that avoids
Para 4 As a final idea, you can join or create a local litter group.
colloquial expressions or strong personal
3rd suggestion You could not only get involved in litter picking but also
feelings (M o st p e o p le w o u ld agree stree t litte r is 1+ supporting work with the local council to give talks in schools. As a
u n p le a sa n t.) sentence + result, children will learn at an early age how important it
; result
js not to litter.
Useful Language
Listing points Para 5 To sum up, it cannot be denied that street litter poses a
• Firstly,/In the first place, • Secondly, restates problem in many neighbourhoods. It is an ugly nuisance
problem + that will not go away unless we do something about it. I
• Furthermore, • In addition, • Finally,/Lastly,
gives writer's believe we should do more as individuals to reduce the
M aking suggestions opinion
_problem.
• One w ay of solving the problem ...
• Another helpful suggestion would be to ...
• We/People should ...
• It is important/lt would be a good idea to ...

Adding supporting details


Developing a point:
Find and replace all the linking w ords and phrases in the
• In other words,/In short, • This means t h a t ...
essay w ith d iffe re n t ones from the Useful Language box.
• After all,
Giving examples:
• For instance,/For example, • In particular, Find exam ples o f form al vo cab u lary and mild im personal
Presenting results style in the essay. Compare w ith your partner.
• As a result, • Consequently, • By doing this,
• In this way, • Therefore, • Then,
• If (people) ..., the (s itu a tio n ) will/would ... .
W rite a supporting sentence and a sentence presenting

Expressing opinion
results for the fo llo w in g suggestions. Use language from
• In my opinion/view, the Useful Language box.
• I believe/think/feel (th a t)...
• It seems to me/lt is obvious (th a t)... 1 One w ay of solving the problem of graffiti is for the

Concluding council to provide a graffiti park.


• To conclude,Я о sum up, • All in all, 2 People suffering from stress should take up yoga.
WB4
*
Writing Bank 5
For-and-against e ssa ys
For-and-against essays are formal pieces of
writing which discuss the advantages and 1 W rite an essay (120-180 words) for publication in a home-and-
disadvantages of a topic. Arguments on both garden magazine discussing the pros and cons of buying your
sides of the topic are presented in equal detail
I own home. I
and the writer's opinion is included at the end
of the essay.
For-and-against essays include:
• an introductory paragraph introducing the To buy or not to buy?
topic and its tw o sides.
• tw o main body paragraphs - one Many young people today, especially those planning to
Para 1
presenting arguments for together with get married, dream of owning their own home some
introduces topic
justifications/examples and the other + presents the day. Some people would agree that home ownership is a
presenting arguments against with tw o sides good thing, while others believe it is not worth the
justifications/examples. .trouble. topic sentence
• a concluding paragraph which summarises
Para 2 There are certain advantages to having a home of your
the arguments and gives the writer's 1st advantage own. To begin with, it can be considered a good
opinion. + justification
.investment. After all, you can sell it at any time and
Note: in for-and-against essays, each main
"possibly make a profit. Furthermore, home ownership
body paragraph begins with a topic sentence
2nd advantage means you have greater freedom to please yourself. You
that outlines the main idea of that paragraph. + example can redecorate your house or keep a pet dog, for
For-and-against essays are characterised by:
.example, without having to ask the landlord, topic
• formal/semi-formal vocabulary and / s e n te n c e
some longer sentences (A lth o u g h som e However, buying a house can also have a number of
p e ople m a y disagree, In m y view, the a d va n ta g e s Para 3 disadvantages. One major drawback is the high cost.
fa r o u tw e ig h the disa dva n tag e s.) 1st disadvantage This is because you need a large amount of money as a
+ justification
• formal linking words to join ideas down payment before you can buy, in addition to the
(A lth o u g h, Whereas, For this reason, etc). .expense of maintaining and repairing your house.
• full verb forms (It is w e ll w o r t h ...) "Secondly, a homeowner tends to be tied down to one
2nd
• a mild impersonal style that avoids place. This means that you can't just get up and move if
disadvantage +
colloquial expressions or strong personal justification you do not like the neighbourhood, because you will
feelings (R enting a h o m e is th o u g h t by som e have to sell your house first.
p e o ple to be a b e tte r s o lu tio n th a n b u yin g one.)
Para 4 All things considered, there are both advantages and
summarises the
Useful Language arguments +
disadvantages to buying your own home. It seems to
me, though, that it is a good idea if you can afford it. It
Listing points gives the
writer's opinion is something that belongs to you and can give you
• Firstly,/To begin with, • Secondly,
security in the future.
• Furthermore,/Moreover, • Finally,
Introducing advantages
• One/An important/The main advantage of
• Another/An additional benefit o f ...,
• Some/Many people are in favour o f ...,

Introducing disadvantages
• A serious drawback/major disadvantage o f ...,
• Some/Many people are against Find exam ples o f longer sentences and form al/advanced
Justifying points and giving examples vocab u lary in the essay.
Justifying a point:
• This is because ... • The reason for this i s ...
• This means t h a t ... • After all,
R e w rite the topic sentences in the main body
Giving examples: paragraphs o f the model. Use phrases from the Useful
• For instance,/For example, • such as Language box to help you.
Contrasting ideas
• On the other hand, • However,/Nevertheless,
W rite one ad d ition al a d van tag e and one ad d ition al
• Despite/In spite o f (the fact that)...
d isad vantag e o f buying your o w n home, to g e th e r w ith
Expressing opinion
• In my opinion/view, • I believe/think/feel.... justifications/exam ples.
Concluding
• In conclusion, • All things considered,

W B!
»
Writing Bank 6
Letters to the editor
making suggestions r — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 4

I You have just read an article in your local newspaper The Daily s
Letters to the editor making suggestions are
Chronicle about people who have had their computers hacked.
pieces of writing which appear in newspapers
or magazines. They express the writer's ideas I W rite a letter in response, suggesting ways that you can j
concerning issues of public interest at local, 1 protect yourself (120-180 words).
Ь н н ш в а н н ж н к а ш ш н ш ш м а н и а ш а ш шш м ям м м я» mm тш ят mm в т mm mm тт яш тт Л
national and even international levels, e.g.
improving community facilities, health issues,
etc. Letters to the editor are often written in
direct response to a published article or news
Dear Sir/Madam, J ° rmal greetin9
item and are usually formal in style. They
include: Further to your article in today's issue of The Daily
• a formal greeting (D ear S it/M a d a m , D ear Chronicle about cyber hacking, I would like to express my
Editor, Sir,), concern about this issue. Most of us are familiar with
• an introduction in which we refer to the
firewall and anti-virus protection. However, there are one
article/news item we are responding to
(when applicable), say when and where or tw o other suggestions which l|hope readers may find
we read it. state our reason for writing (to h e lp f u l formal linking word

make suggestions on a given topic), and First of all, it is important for PC users to keep their
briefly give our opinion.
security programs up-to-date. You should upgrade them
• at least two main body paragraphs, one
for each suggestion and the possible frequently and regularly to ensure you have the latest
results/consequences. versions of security software. These are often free over
• a conclusion which summarises our the Internet. As a result, your chances of being hacked
opinion/restates the topic,
will be reduced.
• a formal ending (Yours fa ith fu lly, + your full
name). Another point to keep in mind is to change your personal
Letters to the editor making suggestions password from time to time. Do this regularly, say, every
are characterised by: 90 days, to keep your PC access secure. Consequently,
• formal vocabulary & some longer
you will make it more difficult for hackers to break into
sentences (In vie w o f th e w id e sp rea d e xte n t o f
the p ro b le m , se cu rity systems sh o u ld be your account. full verb form

u p g ra d e d fre q u e n tly as a p re ca u tio n .) To conclude, cyber hacking can pose a serious security
• formal linking words to join ideas threat to information systems. Nevertheless, I believe a
(Furtherm ore, Nevertheless, For this reason etc)
few simple suggestions like the ones above can
• the use o f full verb forms (It is im p o rta n t
th a t we raise p u b lic awareness o f this issue.)
considerably reduce our risk of a cyber attack.
• a mild impersonal style that avoids Yours fa ith fu iiy T 7
colloquial expressions or strong personal Edwina G o o d w i n ^ ^ [ormal vocabulary/
feelings (A n o th e r p o in t to keep in m in d is th a t formal ending longer sentence
se cu rity systems need re g u la r u p d a tin g .)

Useful Language
Listing points
• Firstly/In the first place • To begin with,
• Secondly, • Additionally, • Finally/Lastly,

M aking suggestions
• One good idea is to ... .
Underline the topic sentences in the main body paragraphs.
• We/You/People should/could ... .
Then, rewrite them using language from the Useful
• Another helpful suggestion would be to ... .

Presenting results
Language box.
• By doing this, • In this way, • Therefore,
• If (people). .., the (situation) will/would .... W rite tw o main body paragraphs making suggestions on
Expressing opinion h ow your local to w n council can im prove road safety in
• I believe/think/feel (th a t)....
your tow n/village.
• It seems to me/lt is clear (th a t)....

Concluding
• To sum up, • All things considered,

WB6
t
Grammar Reference
MODULE 1 • глаголы чувственного восприятия ( appear, feel, hear,
look, see, smell, sound, taste и т. д.): She sounds
worried.
Adverbs (Наречия)_____________________ • глаголы, описывающие мыслительную деятельность
Формообразование (believe, forget, know, understand и т. д.): I don’t
• наречия обычно образуются путём добавления -/у к believe what you’re telling me.
прилагательному: beautiful - beautifully • глаголы, выражающие чувства и эмоции ( desire,
• у прилагательных, оканчивающихся на согласный + enjoy, hate, like, love, prefer, want и т. д.): I hate
-у, окончание -у меняется на -ily. lucky - luckily dancing.
• у прилагательных, оканчивающихся на -/е, оконча­ • некоторые другие глаголы: belong, contain, cost, fit,
ние -е меняется на -у: simple - simply have, keep, need, owe, own и т. д: This bag costs 75
• некоторые наречия являются исключениями, они ли­ pounds.
бо похожи, либо полностью отличаются от прила­
гательного, от которого образованы: Некоторые из этих глаголов могут употребляться в
Ions ’ l ° n S> fast ’ fas(>hard >hard, early >early, present continuous, но в другом значении.
late >late
PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT CONTINUOUS
Примечание: good >well
1think it's good. 1am thinking of buying a car.

Употребление (= believe) (= am considering)


Наречия обычно описывают глаголы: Не walks slowly. He has a motorbike. 1am having lunch. {= eating)
Наречия показывают образ действия (как), место (куда), (= own, possess) He is having a bath.
время (когда), частотность (как часто) и ставятся обычно (= taking)
после глаголов:
You can see the park from He's seeing his friends
Не speaks loudly. (How does he speak? Loudly. - образ
my room. (= it is visible) tomorrow. (= meeting)
действия)
/see what the problem is.
He went upstairs. (Where did he go? Upstairs. - место)
(= understand)
She left early. (When did she leave? Early. - время)
He visits us every week. (How often does he visit us? Every This pie tastes very good. Ken is tasting the soup to see
week. - частотность) {= it is/has the flavour of) if it has enough salt. (= is
trying)
Present simple vs present continuous The roses smell great. The dog is smelling the
Употребление (= have the aroma) bushes. (= is sniffing)
Present simple употребляется, когда речь идёт о: He appears to be upset. Rihanna is appearing in
• постоянных действиях: John lives in Russia. (= seems to) Madrid this week. ( = is
• повседневных действиях: Не works from 10 to 6 performing)
every day.
• повторяющихся действиях: He usually plays golf at The jacket fits him well. They are fitting new windows
the weekends. ( = it's the right size) in their house. (= are
installing)
Present continuous употребляется, когда речь идёт о:
Примечание: Глагол enjoy может использоваться в present
• действиях, происходящих сейчас, в момент речи:
continuous для выражения определённого предпочтения:
Топу is watching TV right now.
I really enjoy dancing, (общее предпочтение)
• действиях, происходящих в настоящий период вре­
НО: I ’m enjoying a quiet afternoon at home, (опреде­
мени, но не обязательно в момент речи: Laura is
лённое предпочтение)
looking for a new job these days.
Глаголы feel, hurt и ache могут использоваться в present
continuous без разницы в значении:
Некоторые глаголы состояния ( stative verbs) обычно не
I feel hungry. = I am feeling hungry.
имеют форму present continuous. Среди них:
have (=possess), like, love, want, know, live, remember,
understand, believe, need, see, smell и т. д. -in g form - (-in g форма глагола)_______
I need a pen. (Неправильно: I'm needing a pen.) -ing форма глагола употребляется:
I have a car. (Неправильно: I'm having a car.) • в роли подлежащего: Drinking milk is very good for
HO: I’m having breakfast now. (= I'm eating) your bones.
• после глаголов: admit, appreciate, avoid, consider,
Stative verbs (Глаголы состояния)_______ continue, deny, fancy, go (for activities), imagine,
mind, miss, quit, save, suggest, practise, prevent.
В английском языке есть глаголы, которые обозначают
I suggest eating out tonight.
состояние, а не действие предмета/лица. Эти глаголы не
• после глаголов: love, like, enjoy, prefer, dislike, hate,
употребляются в present continuous Среди них:
чтобы выразить общее предпочтение . I love watching

»
Grammar Reference
old films. НО: для выражения определённого • после слова help может употребляться инфинитив с
предпочтения (с w ould lik e /w o u ld p re fe r/w o u ld частицей to и без частицы to I helped her (to ) move
love) употребляется инфинитив с частицей to: the sofa.
• после таких выражений, как: be busy, it's по use, it's
(not) w o rth, there's no p o in t (in), w h at's the use of, Различия в значени и м е ж д у инф инитивом с
can't help, can't stand, have d iffic u lty (in), look частицей t o и - i n g ф ормой
fo rw a rd to, object to, prefer (doing sth to doing sth
else): I look forw ard to seeing you next week. He isn ’t После некоторых глаголов может употребляться инфи­
used to s e ttin g up early. нитиве частицей to и -in g форма с разницей в значении
• после глаголов spend, waste или lose (time, money • forget + to-infinitive = not remember
и т. д.): Don’t waste time tryin g to fix this. He forgot to take his wallet with him.
• после предлогов: John is good a t fix in g computers. • forget + -ing form = not recall
I ’ll never forget skiing down the Alps.
Infinitive ( И н ф и н и т и в ) ______________________
Инфинитив с частицей to употребляется: • remember + to -infinitive = not forget
• для выражения цели: H e ’s saving money to buy a car. Did you remem ber to wish Sue a happy birthday?
• после глаголов, относящихся к будущему: agree, • remember + -ing form = recall
appear, decide, expect, hope, plan, promise, refuse, I remem ber going bungee jum ping fo r the fir s t tim e.
и т. д.: I prom ise to re tu rn the money soon. • mean + to -infinitive = intend to
• после w o uld like, w o uld prefer, w o uld love и т. д. для I d id n ’t mean to h u rt her feelings.
выражения определённого предпочтения: I would • mean + -ing form = involve
love to go to the theatre tonight. I f we go there by car, it w ill mean spending a lo t on
• после прилагательных, описывающих чувства/эмоции p e tro l.
(happy, glad, sad и т. д.), желание/нежелание {eager,
reluctant, w illing и т. д.) или характер людей {clever, • regret + to-infinitive = be sorry to (norm ally used in
kind и т. д.), а также после прилагательных lucky и present simple w ith verbs such as say, tell, inform )
fortunate He's always eager to help out. I regret to inform you th a t your flig h t is delayed.
• после to o /enoug h. It is too cold to go swimming. • regret + -ing form = feel sorry about
• после выражений to te ll you the tru th , to be honest, I regret spending so much money.
to sum up, to begin w ith и т. д.: To te ll you the
• try + to -infinitive = attem pt, do one's best
tru th , I didn’t really think th ey’d win.
I trie d to open the draw er b u t it was stuck.
• try + -ing form = do something as an experiment
TENSES OF INFINITIVE He should try cu tting down on fa tty foods.
Active voice Passive voice
• stop + to -infinitive = stop tem porarily in order to do
Present (to) play (to) be played something else
Present cont. (to) be playing - On our way to the beach, we stopped to take some
photos.
Perfect (to) have played (to) have been played
• stop + -ing form = finish doing something
He stopped talking when the teacher walked in.
Perfect cont. (to) have been playing -

present sim ple/will >present infinitive


Comparisons ( С т е п е н и с р а в н е н и я
present continuous/future continuous > present
п р и л а г а т е л ь н ы х и н а р е ч и й ) _______________
continuous infinitive
past simple/present perfect/past perfect > perfect Употребление
infinitive • Сравнительная степень используется для сравнения
двух людей, животных, предметов, мест и т. д. В этих
past continuous/present perfect continuous/past perfect
случаях обычно используется than.
continuous >present perfect continuous
Chris is ta lle r than John.
Инфинитив без частицы to употребляется: • Превосходная степень указывает на высшую сте­
• после модальных глаголов: Не should see a doctor. пень качества у того или иного лица или предмета в
• после глаголов let, make, see, hear и feel They made группе подобных. Для выражения превосходной сте­
him pay extra. НО: после выражений be made, be пени используется the... o f/in :
heard, be seen и т. д. (в форме страдательного Anne is the oldest o f the three children.
залога) употребляется инфинитив с частицей to: Pedro is the best student in the class.
Не was made to pay extra.
• после w ould rath er (n o t)/h a d better (not). Правила правописания прилагательных и наречий
You had b e tte r book early. • К односложным прилагательным добавляется ~(е)г
для образования сравнительной степени и -(e )st для
» GR2
Grammar Reference
образования превосходной степени: Ф орм ообразование: w a s/w e re + глагол с оконча­
cold - colder - the coldest нием -ing.
Примечание: У односложных прилагательных, окан­
чивающихся на гласную + согласную, эта согласная I was standing, you were standing, he
УТВЕРЖДЕНИЕ
удваивается: was standing, etc
thin - thinner (than) - the thinnest I wasn't standing, you weren't
• У прилагательных, состоящих из двух или более сло­ ОТРИЦАНИЕ
standing, he wasn't standing, etc
гов сравнительная и превосходная степени обра­
Was I standing?, Were you standing?,
зуются при помощи тоге (б о п е е )/m ost (наиболее): ВОПРОС
Was he standing?, etc
Примечание: У прилагательных, оканчивающихся на
согласную + у, -у заменяется на -/: Yes, l/h e /s h e /it was.
busy - busier - the busiest КРАТКИЕ Yes, you/w e/they were.
• Некоторые двусложные прилагательные, такие, как ОТВЕТЫ No, l/h e /s h e /it wasn't.
clever, common, cruel, friendly, gentle, narrow, No, you/w e/they weren't.
pleasant, polite, quiet, shallow, simple, stupid и т. д.
образуют сравнительную и превосходную степени Употребление
сравнения как с -e r/-e s t, так и при помощи т о ге / Past continuous употребляется для:
m ost quiet - q u ie te r/m o re quiet - the quietest /th e • описания двух или более одновременных действий,
most quiet происходивших в развитии в прошлом: I was reading а
• Некоторые прилагательные полностью меняют свою book while John was watching television.
форму в сравнительной и превосходной степенях: • описания действия, которое происходило в прошлом
good - b e t t e r (than) - the best (хорошо - лучше и которое было прервано другим действием: She was
(чем) - самый лучший) leaving the house when the telephone rang.
• К наречиям, которые по форме совпадают с прила­ • описания действия, которое происходило в опре­
гательными (hard, fast, free, late, high, low, deep, делённое время в прошлом. При этом не указы­
long, near, straight) для образования сравнительной вается, когда действие началось или закончилось:
и превосходной степени добавляется - e r/- e s t hard Jane was watching television a t 8 o ’clock la st night.
- harder - the hardest • описания атмосферы, обстановки и т. п., а также во
Примечание: У наречий, оканчивающихся на -1у, вступлении к рассказу: It was snowing heavily when
сравнительная и превосходная степени образуются Tom le ft home yesterday morning.
при помощи m ore/m ost: quickly - more quickly -
the most quickly Указатели времени (сигналы), употребляемые с
past continuous: while, when, as, all day/night/
Исклю чения morning, yesterday и т. д.
Сравнительная Превосходная
Начальная форма
степень степень
good/well better best Past simple (Прошедшее простое
much/many/a lot of more most время)______________________
far farther/further farthest/furthest УТВЕРЖДЕНИЕ ВОПРОС
bad/badly worse worst 1walked/went. Did 1walk/go?
little less least You walked/went. Did you walk/go?
Изучите примеры: He walked/went. Did he walk/go?
• very + adjective/adve rb: Diego is a very nice person. She walked/went. Did she walk/go?
• much + com parative form o f adjective/adverb: Your It walked/went. Did it walk/go?
hair looks much b e tte r now that you’ve cut it. We walked/went. Did we walk/go?
• (n o t) as + adjective/adve rb + as: David is as old as You walked/went. Did you walk/go?
Carl. Tom isn’t as polite as his sister. They walked/went. Did they walk/go?
• com parative + com parative: The weather is getting ОТРИЦАНИЕ
colder and colder.
• a b it/a little /fa r /s lig h tly + com parative form o f Полная форма Краткая форма
adjective/adve rb: I feel a b it b e tte r today. 1did not walk/go. 1didn't walk/go.
• by fa r + superlative form o f adjective/adve rb: You did not walk/go. You didn't walk/go.
This is by fa r the best meal you've ever cooked. He did not walk/go. He didn't walk/go.
She did not walk/go. She didn't walk/go.
MODULE 2 It did not walk/go. It didn't walk/go.
We did not walk/go. We didn't walk/go.
Past continuous (Прошедшее You did not walk/go. You didn't walk/go.
продолженное время)_____ They did not walk/go. They didn't walk/go.
GR3 »
Gra ar Reference
КРАТКИЕ ОТВЕТЫ Past continuous употребляется для:
• описания действия, которое происходило в опре­
Yes, l/you/he/etc did. делённое время в прошлом. При этом не указы­
Did l/you/he/etc walk/go?
No, l/you/he/etc didn't. вается, когда действие началось или закончилось:
At eleven o’clock last night we were watching a
Формообразование
film. (We don't know when the film started or finished.)
Утвердительные предложения
• описания действия, которое происходило в прошлом
• past simple правильных глаголов образуется путём
и которое было прервано другим действием:
добавления -ed к начальной форме глагола без
She was cooking dinner when the phone rang.
частицы to I play - I played
• описания двух или более одновременных действий,
• Другие (неправильные) глаголы образуют форму past
происходивших в развитии в прошлом:
simple не по правилам: I соте - I came
She was talking on the phone while he was having a
Вопросительные предложения shower.
• Вопросительные предложения в past simple обра­ • описания атмосферы, обстановки и т. п., а также во
зуются при помощи did + подлежащее + основная вступлении к рассказу:
форма глагола: Alex was driving to work. It was raining heavily.
Did you play golf yesterday? Did you go to the cinema
yesterday? Past simple употребляется, когда речь идёт о:
• действиях, которые произошли в определённый мо­
Отрицательные предложения мент времени в прошлом. Время либо упоминается
• Отрицательные предложения в past simple образуют­ или подразумевается:
ся при помощи didn't + основная форма глагола: They travelled to India last summer. (When? Last
I didn’t watch a film on TV yesterday. She didn’t summer. The time is stated.)
sleep well last night. They had a great time. (The time is already known.)
• Краткие ответы в past simple образуются при • последовательных действиях в прошлом:
помощи did или didn't First, he had a shower. Then he had breakfast.
"Did you call him?” ‘‘Yes, I did. ” • прошлых привычках. В этих случаях может упо­
“ Did you go shopping?” “No, I didn’t. ” требляться выражение used to
Paul walked/used to walk to school every day last
Правила правописания правильных глаголов в ут­ year.
вердительной форме
• К глаголам, оканчивающимся на -е, добавляется
только -d: I move - I moved
Used to________________________________
• К глаголам, оканчивающимся на согласную + у, -у • Used to + инфинитив или past simple употре­
заменяется на и добавляется -ed: бляются для обозначения привычек и регулярных
I try - I tried действий в прошлом. Used to не изменяется по
• В односложных глаголах с гласной между двумя лицам и числам: I used to play/played the guitar in a
согласными удваивается последняя согласная и band. (I don’t play the guitar in a band anymore.)
добавляется -ed • Вопросы и отрицания с used to образуются с помо­
I drop - I dropped щью вспомогательного глагола did/did not (didn't),
подлежащего и глагола use без окончания -d
Употребление Did you use to go to the cinema very often?
Past simple употребляется, когда речь идёт о: Robert didn’t use to eat junk food.
• действиях, которые начались и закончились в • Past simple употребляется, когда речь идёт о дейст­
прошлом: виях, которые произошли в определённый момент
I met Kobe Bryant and he gave me his jersey. времени в прошлом:
• действиях, которые произошли в определённый мо­ Не went to Paris last month. (Неправильно: He used
мент времени в прошлом. Время либо упоминается te-geto Paris last month.)
или подразумевается:
Не moved to the US from England in 2003. Used to/pa st simple____________________
Beethoven composed a number of symphonies and
• Used to употребляется для обозначения привычек и
concerts.
регулярных действий в прошлом. В этом случае
Примечание: When/While/As + past continuous (бо­ вместо used to может употребляться past simple без
лее длительное действие) разницы в значении:
When + past simple (более короткое She used to go/went to work by bus. (She doesn't
действие) anymore.)
• Past simple употребляется, когда речь идёт о дейст­
Past continuous vs past simple виях, которые произошли в определённый момент
времени в прошлом: Не went to а rock concert last

GR4
»
Gra ar Reference
week. (Неправильно: He used to go to a rock concert
Указатели времени (сигналы), употребляемые с
last week.)
past perfect continuous: for, since, how long, before,
until И Т. Д.
Past perfect (Прошедшее завершённое
время)___________________________________
MODULE 3
Формообразование: подлежащее + had + past parti­
ciple.
Future simple (Будущее простое время)
УТВЕРЖ Д ЕН И Е ОТРИЦАНИЕ
УТВЕРЖ Д ЕН И Е
l/You/He/etc had not/ ВОПРОС
l/You/He/etc had played. Краткая форма
hadn't played. Полная форма

I will play. I'll play. Will I play?


ВОПРОС КРАТКИЕ ОТВЕТЫ You will play. You'll play. Will you play?
Yes, l/you/he/etc had. He will play. He'll play. Will he play?
Had l/you/he/etc played?
No, l/you/he/etc hadn't. She will play. She'll play. Will she play?
It will play. It'll play. Will it play?
Past perfect употребляется, когда речь идёт о: We will play. We'll play. Will we play?
• действии, которое произошло перед другим You will play. You'll play. Will you play?
действием в прошлом или до обозначенного They will play. They'll play. Will they play?
момента в прошлом: All the quests had left when she
arrived at the party, (past perfect: had left before ОТРИЦАНИЕ
another past action: arrived) Tom had finished his
Long Form Short Form
work by noon, (before stated time in the past: by noon)
• действии, которое завершилось в прошлом, при I will not play. I won't play.
описании его результата: She had passed her test and You will not play. You won't play.
she was really happy. He will not play. He won't play.
She will not play. She won't play.
Указатели времени (сигналы), употребляемые с It will not play. It won't play.
past perfect: before, after, already, just, for, since, We will not play. We won't play.
till/until, when, by the time, never и т. д. You will not play. You won't play.
They will not play. They won't play.

Past perfect continuous (Прошедшее КРАТКИЕ ОТВЕТЫ


совершённое продолженное время)
Yes, l/you/he/etc will.
Will l/you/he/etc play?
УТВЕРЖ Д ЕН И Е No, l/you/he/etc won't.
I/You/He/She/It/We/They had been running. Формообразование: will+ инфинитив без частицы to
Употребление
ОТРИЦАНИЕ Future simple употребляется, когда речь идёт:
ll/You/He/She/It/We/They had not/hadn't been running. • о прогнозах и предсказаниях на будущее обычно с
выражениями I think, I hope, I believe, I expect;

КРАТКИЕ ОТВЕТЫ наречиями probably и perhaps


ВОПРОС
I expect he’ll be here at 10 o’clock tomorrow morning.
Had l/you/he, etc Yes, l/you/he/she/it/we/they had.
• о сиюминутных решениях:
been running? No, l/you/he/she/it/we/they hadn't.
This dress is beautiful. I ’ll buy it.
Формообразование: had + been + present participle • об обещаниях (обычно с глаголами promise/swear
Употребление и т. д.): / promise I won’t be late.
Past perfect continuous употребляется, когда: • об угрозах: Don’t do this again or I’ll leave.
• подчеркивается длительность действия, которое • о предупреждениях: Get down from the tree or you’ll
началось и закончилось в прошлом перед другим fall!
действием в прошлом, обычно с since или for • о надежде: I hope I’ll see you soon.
I had been watching TV for an hour when I 9 о предложениях: I ’ll carry the bags for you.
remembered I had forgotten to call my friend. 9 об информации о будущем действии:
• обозначается действие, которое длилось некоторое When we go to Athens, we’ll visit the Acropolis.
время в прошлом, и описывается его результат (в
прошлом): Sharon was very tired because she had Be going to______________________________
been painting her room all day.

GR5
*
Grammar Reference
Условные предложения состоят из двух частей: услов­
I am
going to ного придаточного предложения с союзом if (условие) и
УТВЕРЖ Д ЕН И Е He/She/It is
^ leave. главного предложения (результат). Если придаточное
We/You/They are
предложение условия стоит перед главным предло­
I am not жением, эти два предложения отделяются запятой:
going to
ОТРИЦАНИЕ He/She/It is not If you don’t leave now, you’ll miss the bus. HO:
^ leave.
We/You/They are not You’ll miss the bus if you don’t leave now.

Am I
[ going to Conditional type 0
ВОПРОС Is he/she/it
Формообразование
Г leave?
Are we/you/they
IF-CLAUSE M A IN CLAUSE
Yes, I am./No, I'm not.
If + present simple present simple
КРАТКИЕ Yes, he/she/it is./No, he/she/it isn't.
If the temperature drops below 0°C, water freezes.
ОТВЕТЫ Yes, we/you/they are.
No, we/you/they aren't. Употребление
Conditional type 0 употребляется для выражения
Употребление общеизвестных истин или о том, что всегда случается в
Be going to употребляется, когда речь идёт о: результате чего-либо. Вместо if может использоваться
• планах на будущее и намерениях: Kim is going to when.
start her new job soon. (She's planning to ...) If/When you heat water to 100°C, it boils, (law of nature)
• прогнозах, основанных на том, что мы видим или / get seaside when I travel by boat, (always happens)
знаем: Look out! You’re going to drive into that tree.
• принятых решениях по поводу действий в Conditional type 1
ближайшем будущем: Dylan is going to travel to Формообразование
China. (He has already decided to do this.)
IF-CLAUSE M A IN CLAUSE
If + present simple will/can/must/etc + bare infinitive or
Present sim ple/present continuous
imperative
в форме будущего времени____________ If you study hard, you’ll pass the exam.
• Present simple употребляется, когда речь идёт о рас­ If you don’t like it, don’t eat it.
писании/программе: The last bus leaves at 9:00 pm.
Употребление
• Present continuous употребляется, когда речь идёт о
• Conditional type 1 употребляется для выражения
запланированных действиях в будущем, особенно,
реальной или очень вероятной ситуации в настоящем
когда известно время и место действия: We’re having
или будущем.
dinner at an Italian restaurant tonight. I booked a
• Conditional type 1 может употребляться с unless (если
table yesterday.
не) + глагол в утвердительной форме вместо if...not:
If you don’t do your homework, you’ll be in trouble.
Clauses of time (Придаточные Unless you do your homework, you’ll be in trouble.
предложения времени)_________________
• Придаточные предложения времени вводятся при Conditional type 2
помощи таких слов и выражений, как after, as, as Формообразование
long as, as soon as, before, by the time, every time, IF-CLAUSE M A IN CLAUSE
immediately, just as, once, the moment (that),
until/till, when, while и т. д.: They waited for three If + past simple would + bare infinitive
hours before their plane took off.
• Когда глагол в главном предложении стоит в настоящем If I had more money, I would travel the world. (But I
или будущем времени, глагол в придаточном предло­ don’t have more money. - untrue in the present)
жении времени стоит в настоящем времени. В If I were you, I would ask for help, (advice)
придаточных предложениях времени форма будущего
Употребление
времени не употребляется: I ’ll help you as soon as I
• Conditional type 2 употребляется для выражения
finish my work. (Неправильно: as soon as I w ill finish)
воображаемой или маловероятной ситуации в
• Если придаточное предложение времени стоит перед
настоящем или будущем, а также для выражения
главным предложением, после придаточного предло­
совета.
жения ставится запятая: When you get home, call Mr
• Were может употребляться вместо was для всех лиц в
Smith. HO: Call Mr Smith when you get home.
условном придаточном предложении с союзом if:
If Топу was/were here, he would help us.
Conditionals: types 0, 1, 2, 3
(Придаточные предложения условия -
типы 0, 1, 2 и 3)_________________________
GR6
*
Grammar Reference
Conditional type 3 крайне необходимо: If your licence expires, you must
IF-CLAUSE M A IN CLAUSE renew it. My room is a mess. I must tidy it. (It is your
duty./You are obliged to do it.)
If + past perfect would have + past participle
• Have to выражает обусловленную обстоятельствами
If he had left earlier, he would have caught his flight [But
необходимость: Our teacher says we have to finish
he didn't.)
the report by Friday. (It's necessary.)
If you had studied harder, you wouldn't have failed the
• Had to - форма прошедшего времени для must и
exam, (criticism)
have to
Употребление • Should/ought to выражает обязательство, рекомен­
Conditional type 3 употребляется для описания нереаль­ дацию:
ной ситуации в прошлом и для выражения сожаления You should send him a thank-you letter for all his
или критики. help. (It's your duty. - less emphatic than must)

Отсутствие необходимости (don't have to/need to,


Wishes (Выражение желаний) needn't)
Wish/if only используются для выражения желаний. • Don't have to/don't need to/needn’t выражает
FORM USE отсутствие необходимости делать что-либо в
настоящем или будущем: She doesn’t have to book
1 wish 1 was/were at
to say that we would the tickets in advance. You don’t need to bring
home now. (But I'm
+ past like something to be anything to the party. I needn’t take the dog for a
not.) 1 wish my tooth
simple different about a walk again later. (It isn't necessary.)
didn't hurt. (But my
present situation • Didn't have to выражает отсутствие необходимости в
tooth hurts.)
прошлом. Неизвестно, было это сделано или нет:
1 wish 1 had called him to express regret about They didn’t have to take them out to dinner. (We
+ past earlier. (But 1 didn't.) If something which don't know if they took them out. It wasn't necessary.)
perfect only they hadn't broken happened or didn't Разрешение/Запрет (can, may, mustn't, can’t)
up. (But they did.) happen in the past
• Can/may употребляются для того, чтобы попросить/
Примечание: дать разрешение на что-либо. May является более
• Конструкция if only используется так же как и wish, официальным, чем can CanlMay I sit here? Yes, you
но придаёт высказыванию большую экспрессивность can/may. (Is it OK i f ...?)
и яркость. • Mustn't/can’t употребляются, когда запрещается
• Were может употребляться вместо was после wish и что-либо делать (правилами, законом): You mustn’t/
if only: I wish I were/was on holiday now. can’t eat in the classroom. (You aren't allowed.)
MODULE 4 Возможность (can, could)

Modals (Модальные глаголы)__________ • Сап + инфинитив употребляется для обозначения


общей, теоретической возможности действия. Не
К модальным глаголам относятся can/could, m ay/
используется для конкретной ситуации: Магу сап be
might, must/have to, ought to, shall/should,
will/would. quite unfair at times, (general possibility - it is
theoretically possible.)
• Форма модальных глаголов, кроме have to, не
изменяется.
• Could/may/might + инфинитив употребляется для
выражения возможности действия в определённой
• После модальных глаголов инфинитив следует без
ситуации: It might rain later, so bring an umbrella. (It
частицы to
is possible./It is likely./Perhaps.)
• Модальные глаголы употребляются перед подлежа­
Примечание: can/could/might может употребляться в
щим в вопросительных предложениях. В отрица­
вопросительных предложениях, НО: may не может:
тельных после них употребляется частица not.
• Когда за модальным глаголом следует инфинитив
Could he still be at work? (Неправильно: may)
смыслового глагола, он относится к действию в • Could/might/would + перфектный инфинитив
настоящем или будущем: We should send them a gift употребляется, когда речь идёт о действии в
for their wedding. Когда за модальным глаголом прошлом, которое было возможно, но не произошло:
следует перфектный инфинитив, он относится к She would have come to the meeting but no one had
действию в прошлом: We should have sent them a told her.
gift when they got married. Формы инфинитива образуются следующим образом:

Обязательство/Долг/Необходимость (must, have to, Present: (to) do


should/ought to) Present continuous: (to) be doing
Perfect: (to) have done
• Must выражает долг/строгое обязательство сделать i Perfect continuous: (to) have been doing
что-либо, показывает, что какое-либо действие
GR7
»
Grammar Reference
Способность/Неспособность (can, could, was able to) to ride her bike yesterday because it had a puncture.
(past single action)
• Can('t) выражает умение (неумение), способность
(неспособность) сделать что-либо в настоящем или Relative clauses (Определительные
будущем: She can('t) sing very well. (She is (not) able придаточные предложения)____________
t o ...)
t Could выражает способность делать что-либо в Употребление
прошлом: Не could walk for hours when he was • Определительные придаточные предложения начи­
younger. (He was able to ...) наются с относительных местоимений ( who/whose/
• Was(n't) able to выражает (не)способность сделать which/that) или наречий ( where/when/why)
что-либо в прошлом: Не was(n’t) able to attend Relative Clause
yesterday’s meeting. (He (didn't) manage to ...)
• Couldn't выражает неспособность выполнить дейст­ I ’ 1
The woman who stars in this play is my aunt.
вие в прошлом: Sue couldn’t ride a bike when he was
three, (past repeated action) She couldn’t/wasn’t able • l/l/hoCmj/fhaf употребляются по отношению к людям:
to ride her bike yesterday because it was being The man who/that rescued the children from the fire
repaired, (past single action) is a local hero.
• Which/that употребляются по отношению к вещам,
Предложения (can, would, shall, could)
предметам или животным: The house which/that had
• Can: Сап I get you more coffee? (Would you like me t o ...?) the best-kept garden was photographed for a
• Would: Would you like some coffee? (Do you w a n t...?) magazine.
• Shall: Shall I help you carry these? (Would you like me 9 Where употребляется по отношению к месту: That’s
to ...?/ Do you want me to ...?) the town where they filmed the TV series.
• Can/Could: We can go to the Thai restaurant. You • Whose употребляется по отношению к людям, живот­
could ask him for help. (Let's...) ным или предметам, чтобы обозначить принад­
лежность: This is the man whose dog barks all night.
Вероятность (will, should/ought to).
• When употребляется по отношению ко времени
• Will: She will agree to marry him. (100% уверенность) обычно после слов time, period, moment, day, year
• Should/Ought to: He should/ought to be here by noon. and summer: That was the year when they got
(90% уверенность; только будущее время; это вероятно) married.
• l/l/hy выражает причину: He won’t tell me why he quit
Совет (should, ought to, shall)
his job.
• Should: совет общего характера: She should stop
worrying so much. (It's my advice./I advise you to ...)
Defining and N on-defining relative
• Ought to: совет общего характера: We ought to
respect the others. (It's a good thing/idea to do.)
clauses (Ограничительные и неограни­
• Shall: просьба дать совет: Shall I look for another чительные определительные прида-
job? (Do you think it's a good idea to ...?) точные предложения)__________________
• Ограничительные определительные придаточные
Past modals (Модальные глаголы в предложения дают необходимую информацию, кото­
форме прошедшего времени)__________ рая является существенной для значения главного
предложения. Такие предложения не обособляются
• Had to выражает необходимость/строгое обяза­
запятыми. Они вводятся словами who, which, that,
тельство в прошлом. Had to - форма прошедшего
whose, where, when или why: The students who were
времени для must и have to: The students who failed
noisy were asked to leave the classroom.
the test had to take it again.
• Неограничительные определительные придаточ­
• Didn't have to/Didn't need to выражает отсутствие
ные предложения дают дополнительную инфор­
необходимости делать что-либо в прошлом. Неиз­
мацию, которая не является существенной для глав­
вестно, было ли что-либо сделано или нет: They
ного предложения. Такие предложения обособляются
didn’t have to take them out to dinner. (We don't
запятыми. Они вводятся словами who, whom,
know if they did.)
which, whose, where или when: My mum, who is an
• Could выражает способность делать что-либо в прош­
excellent cook, was asked to cater for a dinner party.
лом: Joan could ride a bike when she was three. (She
had the ability.)
• Was(n't) able to выражает (не)слособность сделать Both/N either-A II/N one-Either__________
что-либо в прошлом: Не was(n’t) able to attend • Both относится к двум людям, предметам или
yesterday’s meeting. (He didn't) manage to ...) группам. Both несёт в себе положительное значение
• Couldn't выражает неспособность выполнить действие и употребляется с глаголом в форме множественного
в прошлом: Sue couldn’t ride a bike when she was числа: Both boys are playing basketball this season.
three, (past repeated action) She couldn’t/wasn’t able (Оба мальчика играют в баскетбол в этом сезоне.)

GR8
I
Grammar Reference
• Neither относится к двум людям, предметам или ОТРИЦАНИЕ
группам и несёт в себе отрицательное значение.
Полная форма Краткая форма
Конструкция Neither of + plural noun употребляется
1have not worked. 1haven't worked.
с глаголом в форме единственного или множест­
венного числа: Neither of them is/are coming to the You have not worked. You haven't worked.
party. (Никто из них не идёт на вечеринку.) Н О : He has not worked. He hasn't worked.
Neither car is cheap enough for me to buy. She has not worked. She hasn't worked.
• All употребляется, когда речь идёт о более чем двух It has not worked. It hasn't worked.
людях, предметах или группах. All несёт в себе We have not worked. We haven't worked.
You have not worked. You haven't worked.
положительное значение и употребляется с глаголом
в форме множественного числа: All the students are They have not worked. They haven't worked.
taking part in the charity football дате. (Bee ВОПРОС КРАКИЕ ОТВЕТЫ
студенты принимают участие в благотворительном
Have 1worked? Yes, 1have./No, 1haven't.
футбольном матче.)
Have you worked? Yes, you have./No, you haven't.
• None употребляется, когда речь идёт о более чем двух
Has he worked? Yes, he has./No, he hasn't.
людях, предметах или группах. None несёт в себе
Has she worked? Yes, she has./No, she hasn't.
отрицательное значение и употребляется с глаголом в
Has it worked? Yes, it has./No, it hasn't.
форме единственного или множественного числа:
Have we worked? Yes, we have./No, we haven't.
None of ту students has/have finished the
Have you worked? Yes, you have./No, you haven't.
presentation yet. (Ни один из моих студентов не
Have they worked? Yes, they have./No, they haven't.
закончил пока работать над презентацией.)
• Either относится к двум людям, предметам или Формообразование
группам и употребляется с исчисляемым существи­ • Present perfect образуется при помощи вспомога­
тельным в единственном числе: Do you want to order тельного глагола have/has и причастия прошедшего
Italian or Chinese for dinner? Either is fine with me. времени основного глагола. Причастие прошедшего
(Блюда какой кухни заказать на ужин, итальянской времени, образованное от правильных глаголов,
или китайской? Любой.) образуется путём добавления -ed к глаголу: play -
Конструкция either of + plural noun phrase может played.
употребляться с глаголом в форме единственного или • Причастие прошедшего времени, образованное от
множественного числа: Either of these two CDs неправильных глаголов, образуется иначе: feel - felt
contain!contains all the latest hits. (На обоих (см. List of irregular verbs).
дисках есть все последние хиты.) Н О : Either CD
contains all the latest hits. Употребление
• Both ... and употребляется с глаголом в форме мно­ Present Perfect употребляется, когда речь идёт:
жественного числа: Both Mum and Dad are coming to • о действии, начавшемся в прошлом и продол­
the school play. жающемся до сих пор: Не has worked as a doctor for
• Neither... nor/Either... or употребляются с глаголом five years. (He started working as a doctor 5 years ago
в форме единственного или множественного числа в and he is still working as a doctor.)
зависимости от того, в каком числе стоит подлежащее • о действии, произошедшем в прошлом, но имеющем
после nor или or: Neither т е nor т у parents are видимый результат в настоящем: She is happy. She
computer literate. has passed her exams.
Either you or Mark has to help with the project. • о личном опыте, переживаниях, изменениях, кото­
рые произошли: Не has tried bungee jumping.
MODULE 5
Указатели времени (сигналы), употребляемые с
Present perfect (Настоящее совершён- Present perfect: already, yet, for, since, ever, never и т. д.
ное время)______________________________
УТВЕРЖДЕНИЕ Already - Yet - For - Since - Never - Ever
Полная форма Краткая форма • Already употребляется в утвердительных предложениях:
1have worked. I've worked. Jack has already watered the plants.
You have worked. You've worked. • Yet употребляется в вопросах и отрицаниях:
He has worked. He's worked. “Has Ryan