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III.

PHILIPPINE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM


Education During the Japanese Era (1943-45)
Education during the Pre-Spanish Period Aims:
Aims: For Survial, Conformity, and Enculturation To strive for the diffusion of the Japanese language in the
Contents: Informal Ecuation, Religion-oriented Philippines and to terminate the use of English language in schools
Methods: Tell me and show me, observation, trial and error. to stress the dignity of manual labor.
Education during the Spanish Period Contents: Vocational, Technical, Agriculture, Values rooted on love
Aim: To propagate Christianity for labor, physical physical education and singing Japanese songs,
Contents: Religious Education, Vocational courses health/vocational education.
Methods: Dictation and memorization Education During the Republic (1943-1972)
 The vernacular was used as the medium of instruction in the Aims:
parochial schools.  Full realization of the democratic ideals and way of life
 The religious orders introduced the parochial school.  Promotion of equal educational oppurtunities for all
 Education is suppressed, exclusive (for the elite), and Contents:
inadequate.  Social orientation as manifested by the conservation of the
Education during the American Period Filipino heritage.
Aim: To teach democracy as a way of life.  Training for occupation
Methods: Socialized recitation, Student’s participation.  Promotion of democratic nation building
Contents: Reading, writing, arithmetic, language, GMRC, civics,  A new thrust on community development
hygiene and sanitation, gardening, domestic science, American Education During the New Society (1972-1986)
History and Philippine History. Aims: For National development
 Formal Education was established  Curricular changes in Elementary Education
 Education during the Commonwealth Period (1935-1942) a) Focused on the 3Rs
Aims: (as provided for in the 1935 Constitution) b) Integration of values in all learning areas
 To develop moral character, personal discipline, civic c) Emphasis on mastery learning
conscience and vocational efficiency  Curricular changes in Secondary Education
 To teach the duties of citizenship a) Increased in time allotment
 To continue the promotion of democratic ideals and way of b) YDT and CAT introduced as new courses
life c) Elective offerings as part of the curriculum
Content: Character education and citizenship training  Made education relevant to the needs of the changing world
 Education under the Commonwealth helps prepare for the  Bilingual Education Policy – use of English and Filipino as
coming independence of a new Filipino nation. media of instruction in specific learning areas
Aims of education in the Philippines based on the 1973 Higher Education (CHED);
Constitution: b) Establishment of Teacher Education Council and
 Foster love of country Centers of Excellence;
 Teach the duties of citizenship; and develop moral c) Professionalization of teachers; and
character, self-discipline, and scientific, techonological and d) Technical-Vocational Education reform
vocational efficiency Education During 21st Century
Education During 1986-2000 Aim: To provide the school age population and young adults with
Aim: To promote national development and values education skills, knowledge and values to become caring, self-reliant,
 The national government appropriates the highest budgetary productive and patriotic citizens.
allocation to education  Republic Act 9155 (Governance of Basic Education Act).
 Promotion and improvement of the public school teachers Was passed transforming the name of the Department of
 Implementation of NESC – addressed to civic, intellectual Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) to the Department of
and character development of the child. Its features are: Education (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices
 Emphasis on mastery learning; Focused on fewer (regional offices, division offices, district offices and
learning areas schools). The act provides the overall framework for:
 Focused on the development of the 3Rs  School head empowerment by strengthening their
 Emphasis on the development of intellectual skills leadership roles
which are as important as work skills  School-based management within the context of
 Multi-disciplinary treatment of curriculum content transparency and local accountability
 Student-centered The K-12 program
 Cognitive-affective manipulate based curriculum  Implementation started on SY 2012-2013
 Values education offered as separate subject area  Kindergarten is now part of the compulsory education
 Emphasis on Science and Technology system
 Billigual policy  A new curriculum for Grade 1 and Grade 7 pupils and
students, respectively introduced.
 Emphasis on Critical thinking
 By SY 2016-2017, Grade 11/Year 5 will be introduced, and
Grade 12/Year 6 by SY 2017-2018;
 The Congressional Commision on Education (EDCOM), in
its report 1991, recommended the following:  The phased implementation of the new curriculum will be
a) Trifocalization of DECS into the Department of finished by the SY 2017-2018
Education (DepEd), Technical Education and Skills IV. SOCIOLOGICAL AND ANTHROPOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF
Development Authority (TESDA), and Commission on EDUCATION
Sociology
 The science of man and society 1.) Family
 Study of patterns of human behavior  Smallest social institution
 Study groups and societies and how they affect the people Educative Functions of the Family (Home)
Society – a group of organized individuals who think of  Health Education – proper food to eat, proper hygiene
themselves as a distinct group, and who live together  Ethics, Morality, Religion – spiritual, moral and desirable
sharing the same culture occupying the same territory, who social values.
interrelates and interacts with one another, recruits its  Socialization – roles and status in society
members by inter group sexual reproduction and has shared  Psychomotor and manipulative skills – how to walk,
comprehensive culture, with common shared attitudes, dance and to use properly kitchen tools, utensils, etc.
sentiments, aspirations, and goals  Recreational Skills.
Socialization  Academic – reading, writing, arithmetic
 A process of adapting or conforming to the 2.) School
common needs and interest of a social group  An institution, center of learning, established by society in
 A process whereby people learn the attitudes, which the accumulated experiences of the past generations are
values and actions appropriate to individuals as passed on to the incoming generation by means of systemized
members of particular society, where a member of a programs of instructions.
group learns and internalizes the norms and Roles of Schools:
standards of the other member among whom she/he 1.) The School as an agent of Socialization
lives.  Children learn how to get along with other
Agents of Socialization: student in the scholl
a) Family – smallest social institution whose members are united  Social Ethics are taught in the schools.
by blood, marriage or adoption, constituting a household and  The student government trains the student to
having a common culture. become a good leaders and followers.
b) School / Education – established by society for the basic  The school prepares the individual to become
enculturation of the group; an agency which makes student worthy members of the society by making them
learns how to value oneself and eventually others; an agency aware of their responsibilities.
organized by society for the basic function of teaching and 2.) The school as an agent of cultural transmission
learning.  Culture can be transferred through:
c) Church a) Enculturation
d) Mass media  The passing on of group’s custom, beliefs and
Institutional Group Agencies for Education traditions from one generation to the next
Three (3) very important groups that serve as agencies for learning: generation
b) Acculturation  Accelerates adjustments of society
 Learning other culture; the passing of 3.) Church
customs, beliefs and traditions through  A lifetime school of learning
interactions/reading/intermarriages, etc. Education from the Church (through the bible)
 Values and attitudes formation are easily transmitted  History
through lessons provided by the teachers. Ex: Persia (now Iran), Mesopotamia (now Iraq)
 Culture can be transmitted through field trips, experiential  Prophecies
learning, experimentation, group dynamics, cooperative Ex: Earthquake, Famine, Calamities
learning, peer learning, role playing and dramatization.  Divine Values
 Knowledge about the latest development in science and Ex: Love, Hope, Faith, Wisdom
technology, and about the nations and people of the world Sociology of Education
can be acquired through different learning activities.  Provides a study of the relationships between society and the
3.) The school as an agent of cultural change educational processes which contributes to the analysis and
 Cultural changes are best discussed in the school. solution to problems confronting the educational system.
4.) The school as an agent of modernization Anthropology
 Educational systems are focused on future beeds of the  Science that studies the origin and development of man, his
students. work and achievements which includes the study of physical,
 Changes which are mostly attempts to modernization are intellectual, moral, social and cultural development of man,
being discussed in the school. including his customs, mores, folkways and beliefs
 The elements of cultural change which lead to Culture
modernization:  The shared products of human learning, the set of learned
 Development of oral and written behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values and ideals that are
communication and other modern means of characteristics of a particular society or population
communication  The complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, arts,
 Improvement of science and technology in all laws, morals, customs and other capabilities and habits
fields acquired by man as member of society
5.) Other functions of the schools:
 Serves as a multi-purpose institution Characteristic of Culture:
 Provides training of the mind, teaches the basic Culture is
 Develops problem solving and ciritical thinking  Transferable
 Promotes social integration, enculturation and cultural  Continous
perception  Symbolic
 Dynamic application of his technological knowledge and skills as
 Shared he adopts himself to environment
 Adaptive Examples of technological changes in education:
 Learned  Introduction of new methods of learning
 Universal  Vocational education, computer education and
 Borrowed practical arts in the curriculum
Elements of Culture  Inclusion of information and communication
 Language – an abstract system of word meanings and technology in the curriculum
symbols for all aspects of culturel verbal and nonverbal 3.) Social change – refers to the variation or modifications
 Norms – are established standards of behavior maintained in the patterns of social organization, of such groups
by a society; it must be shared and understood within a society or the entire society
 Sanctions – penalties or rewards for conduct concerning Example of Social changes in education:
social norms  Revival of nationalism themes in literature,
a) Positive sanctions – pay, promotion, medals, word music and arts, etc.
of gratitude Anthropological-Sociological Implications to Education:
b) Negative sanctions – fines, imprisonment, threats,  The curricular program of all learning institutions should be
stares, ostracism examined by the Commision on Higher Education (CHED) and
 Values – are collective conceptions of what is considered the Department of Education (DepEd) so that those will be
good, desirable and proper or bad, undesirable and improper responsive to the needs of the society.
in a particular culture.  Parents should be involved in the school projects and activities,
and in encultural and socialization process.
Change
 An enduring force in history; is inevitable, takes place from SOCIAL CONCEPTS:
time to time 1. Values
 The adjustment of persons or group to achieve relative  Generally considered as something – a principle,
harmony quality, act or entity – that is intrinsically desirable
2. Justice
Forms of Change:  giving others what is due to them; rendering to
1.) Cultural change – refers to all alteration affecting new every man that exact measures of his due without
trait or trait complexes to change the culture’s content regard to his personal worth or merit.
and structure 3. Freedom, Rights and Responsibility
2.) Technological change – revision that occur in man’s  Freedom is not absolute, it is not doing something
without restrictions or reservations or interference good as an end;
and influence others. b) Utilitarianism – believes that the greatest
 Right means what is just, reasonable, equitable, happiness of the greatest number is the test
what ought to be, what is justifiable, something that of right or wrong
is owed or due to others. c) Self-realizationism – holds that the ultimate
 Rights and responsibitility come in pairs. If one end ids the full development or perfection
wants more rights and freedom, she/he shale also of the self.
have to accept more responsibility. A right is 4) Non-consequentialism – claims that the morality of an
abused when it interferes with the right of others. action depends on its intrinsic nature or on its motives.
 The reciprocation of rights and duties is the true 5) Divine Command Theory – claims that the morality of an act
foundation of social order. depends on whether it is in accordance with the will of God.
 Duties – refer to those that are due justice, to 6) Categorical Imperative Theory – holds that for one’s action to
another individual or collective persons and to God. be morally right, s/he must be willing to have everyone act in the
 Authority – refers to the right given to give same way.
commands, enforce laws, take action, make 7) Egoism – claims that an action is right only if it is in the interest
decisions, and exact obedience, determine or judge. of the agent.
 Accountability – means to be answerable for; 8) Situation Ethics – claims that morality of an action depends on
emphasizes liability for something value either the situation and not on the application of the law.
contractually or because of one’s position of 9) Intuitionism – claims that one’s knowledge of right and wrong is
authority immediate and self-evident
 Responsibility – refers to trustworthy performance 10) Emotive Theory – claims that moral judgements do not state
of fixed duties and consequent awareness of the anything that is capable of being true or false but merely express
penalty for failure to do so. emotions like oaths or exclamations
4. Ethics/Moral law 11)Ethical Relativism – holds the view that there is no one correct
Ethics is based on one’s station in life: to each station moral code for all times and peoples, that each group has its own
corresponds a certain behavior according to which a morality relative to its wants
person must live.

THEORIES OF ETHICS:
1) Consequentialism – claims that the morality of an
action is determined by its consequences
a) Hedonism – views that only pleasure is