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Finite element method I

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lecture notes.

INTRODUCTION 1

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 Course Title: FINITE ELEMENT METHOD I Type of course: undergraduate, graduate Field of study (Programme), specialization Aerospace Engineering, Power Engineering, Robotics, Computer Aided Engineering Format (Teaching methods) Lectures: Laboratory: Private study: 2hours/week 1hour/week 2hours/week Lecturers (Course leader): Grzegorz Krzesiński Objective: To supply the basic knowledge and skills required for understanding and simple practical applications of FEM Contents (lecture’s programme): Approximate methods in mechanics of structures - Finite Element Method, Finite Difference Method, Boundary Element Method/ Approximate solutions of 2D Poisson equation./ FEM versus Ritz method / Basic relations in analysis of truss structures/ Simple finite elements for 2D and 3D stress analysis/ Typical algorithms of FEM in static linear stress analysis, popular commercial FE software packages/ Accuracy of FE analysis. Computer lab: Introduction to practical problems of FE modeling in ANSYS/ 2D and 3D linear stress analysis/ Static analysis of simple shell structure/ Discretization error and adaptive meshing Abilities: After completing the course the students will be able to built simple FE model and will know the possible applications and limitations of the method in mechanics of structures. Assesment method: Assesment based on tests and results of computer lab work. Practical work:Project/laboratory classes, where students will built and analyse the results of simple FE models of structural elements Recommended texts (reading): [1] Huebner K. H., Dewhirst D. L., Smith D.E., Byrom T. G.: The finite element method for engineers, J. Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001. [2] Zagrajek T., Krzesinski G., Marek P.: MES w mechanice konstrukcji. Ćwiczenia z zastosowaniem programu ANSYS, Of.Wyd.PW 2005 [3] Bijak-Żochowski M., Jaworski A., Krzesi ński G., Zagrajek T.: Mechanika Materiałów i Konstrukcji, Tom 2, Warszawa, Oficyna Wydawnicza PW, 2005 [4] Saeed Moaveni: Finite Element Analysis. Theory and Application with ANSYS, Paerson Ed. 2003 [5] Cook R. D.: Finite Element Modeling for Stress Analysis, John Wiley & Sons , 1995 Zienkiewicz O.C., Taylor R.: The Finite Element Method.- different publishers and editions [6]

Finite element method I

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INTRODUCTION 1

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FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

The FEM is a numerical procedure that can be used to solve a large class of engineering problems including mechanics of structures, heat transfer, electromagnetism, fluid flow and , as well , so called coupled fields problems (e.g. electro-thermal). The simplest description. The method involves dividing the geometrical model of the analysed structure into very small, simple pieces called finite elements, connected by nodes. The behaviour of of the element is described by adequate physical laws. An unknown quantity (e.g. temperature, displacement vector, electrical potential) is interpolated vver an element from the nodal values using specialy defined polynomials. The procedure leads to set of simultaneus algebraic equations with the nodal values being unknown. In stress analysis these equations are equilibrion equations of the nodes. During the solution process the nodal values (DOF of the model) are found first and then all interesting quantities ( strains, stresses) are calculated within the elements. Finally the results may be presented in the required graphical form.

MPa

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MPa
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-15
-30
-45
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-75
-90
-105
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-135

Finite Element Mesh

3D finite elements

Von Mises stress distribution

Contact pressure between the shaft and the rotor disk

w
v
u

The method was devoloped in 1950s for solving complex problems of stress analysis for aeronautical industry. This development was strictly connected with the progress in digital computers and numerical techniques. Today the method is considered as the most powerful analysis method for problems described by partial differential equations.

Finite element method I

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INTRODUCTION 1

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FEM – one of the approximate methods for solving continous problems of mathematics and physics

Approximate methods – flow chart

Real object

Real result w r

geometry, boundary (initial) conditions material properties, laws pf physics

Methematical model (continous)

Exact solution of the mathematical model w s

discretization
approximation
Discrete
model
numerical calculations

Numerical result - w n

Exact solution of the

discrete model w d

FINITE DIFFERENCE M.
BOUNDARY ELEMENT M.
FINITE ELEMENT M.
FDM
BEM
FEM
Partial differential
Boundary integral
Functionals
equations
equations
minimalisation

Finite element method I

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INTRODUCTION 1

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Discretization of the continuous problem – numerical estimation of the integral

The example – wooden board Different models for the problem

a)
model belki
one dimensional model - beam
N
q 0
m
b)
two- dimensional model - plate
model płyty
N
p 0
m
2
three dimensional model – solid volume
c)
model trójwymiarowy bryły
N
0
m
3
f(x)
f
i
f
3
f
2
f
1
f
0
h
h
h
h
x =a
x
x
x =a+ih
b
x
0
1
2
i

Finite element method I

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INTRODUCTION 1

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BASIC STEPS IN THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD (FE modelling)

Preprocessor (preprocessing phase)

In the preprocessing phase the problem is described in the numerical, discrete form:

Tasks performed: definition of the analysed domain (geometry of the analysis object) material properties boundary conditions (loads and constraints) meshing (dividing the domain into the finite elements of the reauired density distribution)

FE model of the bolted joint of the high pressure vessel

entire connection, representative part and its discretization, FE nodes with load symbols

Finite element method I

Processor (solution phase)

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In this phase the user of FE program defines type of analysis (static, linear or nonlinear, dynamic, buckling decribing the method of calculations and solution process. FE program performs the calculations and writes the results in the adequate files.

) and other details

Postprocesor In this phase it is possible to present the interesting results in different forms: plots, graphs, animations, listings e.t.c. The user can create the pictures, tables, graphs and generate the reports.

Von Mises equivalent stress distribution (MPa)

Finite element method I

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The results of FE analysis

Deformed model compared to undeformed structure

Displacement vector ( u x , u y , u z )

Stress state components

Z
z
yz
xz
yz
xz
y
xy
xy
Y
x
X
{
,
,
x
y
z
, xy
,
yz
, xz
}

Strain state components

Equivalent strass distribution according to an arbitrary criterion Principal stresses . Any other functions defined by the user (ANSYS – APDL commands)

{ x

}

,

y

,

z

,

xy

,

yz

,

xz