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A PROJECT PROPOSAL ON

CENTRAL RURAL SANITATION PROGRAMME

(TOTAL SANITATION CAMPAIGN)

SUBMITTED BY

MISS PRATIBHA

MBA IN RURAL MANAGEMENT


(SEMESTER 2)

2009-11

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

DR. RITESH DWIWEDI

SUBMITTED TO

AMITY INSTITUTE OF RURAL MANAGEMENT


AMITY UNIVERSITY (NOIDA)

1
DECLARATION

I Miss Pratibha, MBA in Rural Management student of Amity University,Noida

hereby declare that I have completed this project work on this topic “TOTAL

SANITATION CAMPAIGN” in the academic year 2009-11.The Information

submitted is true and original to the best of my knowledge.

DATE- SIGNATURE

Pratibha
(MBA-rural management)

PLACE- NOIDA 2nd semester

(ASRUM) ASRUM, NOIDA

2
CERTIFICATE

I hereby certify that of Amity Institute of

Rural Management of 2nd semester has completed the project on TOTAL

SANITATION COMPAIGN in the academic year 2009-11. The information

Submitted is true & original to the best of my knowledge.

Signature of project coordinator signature of director

Date

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This project was a great opportunity for me to understand the value and
importance of the health and sanitation specially in the rural areas.
Individual Health and hygiene is largely dependent on adequate availability
of drinking water and proper sanitation. There is, therefore, a direct
relationship between water, sanitation and health. Consumption of unsafe
drinking water, improper disposal of human excreta, improper
environmental sanitation and lack of personal and food hygiene have been
major causes of many diseases in developing countries. India is no exception
to this. Prevailing High Infant Mortality Rate is also largely attributed to
poor sanitation.

Proper sanitation is important not only from the general health point of view
but it has a vital role to play in our individual and social life too.

I wish to thank and express my deep sense of gratitude to my project guide

Dr.Ritesh Dwiwedi for their expert guidance and valuable comments during
the course of the project.

I am indebted to Er. Sanjay Kumar Mishra, Sub-Divisional Officer, Public


Health Sub-Division, Sultanganj, for his advice, support and very useful
suggestions as to the preparation and how to improve this project. Mr.
Mishra is greatly experienced in the field of ecological sanitation and is
advising several projects in Bihar.
Last but not the least, all the mistakes and ignorance are responsibilities of
undersigned.

(PRATIBHA)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Sr.no. Particulars Page no.

1. Objectives of the project 06

2. Introduction 06-07

3. Sanitation coverage –present status 08-09

4. Sanitation policy initiatives

5. Total sanitation campaign 10-11

6. Total sanitation campaign – Bihar 12-13

7. Annexure 1- Visit in Sarha village 14-19

8. Conclusion and Recommendation 21

9. Annexure 2 22

10. Annexure 3 23

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OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT

 To accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas.


 Generate felt demand for sanitation facilities through awareness creation and
health education.
 Motivating local people for using the sanitation and making awareness and
understanding people.
 To give a training for good hygiene habits and usage of individual toilet.
 Reduce water and sanitation related diseases.

INTRODUCTION

 Sanitation is a Noble Mission for the Nation. - Dr A P J Abdul Kalam

 The day every one of us gets a toilet to use, I shall know that our country has

reached the pinnacle of progress,.

Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru,

The First Prime Minister of India

As India moves into the next millennium it has many things to be proud of. With a
landmass of 3.29 million square kilometers and a population of just over a billion India
has enormous natural resources, it also has the second largest pool of technical and
scientific personnel in the world and is one of the fastest growing economies in the
developing world in terms of its GDP growth.

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WATER AND SANITATION

India cannot achieve real development if majority of its people particularly live in an
unhealthy and unclean surroundings due to lack of access to safe water and sanitation.
Poor water and sanitation facilities have many other serious repercussions. A direct link
exists between water, sanitation and, health and nutrition and human well being
.Consumption of contaminated drinking water, improper disposal of human excreta, lack
of personal and food hygiene and improper disposal of solid and liquid waste have been
major causes of many diseases in India and it is estimated that around 30 million people
suffer from water related illnesses. Children particularly girls and women are the most
affected.

Many children, particularly girls drop out of school and are denied their right to
education because they are busy fetching water or are deterred by the lack of separate and
decent sanitation facilities in schools. Women often suffer from lack of privacy,
harassment and need to walk large distances to find a suitable place for defecation in the
absence of household/ appropriate neighborhood toilet facilities. Poor farmers and wage
earners are less productive due to illness, and national economies suffer. Without safe
water and sanitation, sustainable development is impossible.

 On an average, 30 million persons in rural areas suffer from sanitation-related


disease

 5 of the 10 top killer diseases of children aged 1-4 in rural areas are related to
water and sanitation

 About 0.6-0.7 million children die of diarrhoea annually

Source: Central Bureau of Health Intelligence, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare,

1998-99

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SANITATION COVERAGE- PRESENT STATUS

The practice of open defecation in India comes from a combination of factors. the most
prominent of them being the traditional behavioral pattern and lack of awareness of the
people about the associated health hazards. As per the latest Census data (2001), only
36.4 percent of total population has latrines within/attached to their houses. However in
rural areas, only 21.9 percent of population has latrines within/ attached to their houses.
Out of this, only 7.1 percent households have latrines with water closets, which are the
most sanitized toilets.

Rural sanitation coverage in total India is only 22% as per the 2001 census.

Total sanitation campaign is the vehicle of reforms in the rural sanitation sector.TSC are
launched in 1999 and restructuring the central rural sanitation programme.

SANITATION POLICY INITIATIVES

Water supply and sanitation were added to the national agenda during the country’s first
five-year plan (1951-56). It was only in the early eighties, with the thrust of the
International Water and Sanitation Decade, that India’s first nationwide programme for
rural sanitation, the Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP), was launched in 1986
in the Ministry of Rural Development with the objective of improving the quality of life
of rural people and to provide privacy and dignity to women. The programme provided
large subsidy for construction of sanitary latrines for BPL households. It was supply
driven, highly subsidized, and gave emphasis on a single construction model. Based on
recommendations of the National Seminar on Rural Sanitation in September 1992, the
programme was again revised to make it an integrated approach for rural sanitation.

Since its inception and up to the end of the IXth Plan, 9.45 million latrines were
constructed for rural households under the CRSP.

Despite the massive outlays for sanitation the Programme led to only a marginal increase
in the rural sanitation coverage, with average annual increase in the rural sanitation
coverage of only 1 percent. This was because the There was total lack of community
participation in this traditional, supply driven, subsidy oriented, government programme.
8
There was poor utilization of whatever toilets were constructed under the Programme due
to many reasons i.e. lack of awareness, poor construction standards, emphasis on high
cost designs, absence of participation of beneficiaries, etc. Most of the States could not
provide adequate priority to the sanitation programme. The CRSP had also neglected
school sanitation, which is considered as one of the vital components of sanitation. CRSP
also failed to have linkages with various local institutions like ICDS, Mahila Samakhya,
women, PRIs, NGOs, research institutions, SHGs, etc.

With the emergence of the above findings the CRSP was restructured in 1999 with a
provision for phasing out the allocation-based component by the end of the IXth Plan i.e.
2001-2002 and moving from a project based mode of implementation into a people’s
campaign towards achieving total sanitation.

The primary responsibility of providing drinking water facilities in the country rests with
State Governments. The efforts of State Governments are supplemented by Government
of India by providing financial assistance under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of
Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP). ARWSP has been under
implementation since 1972-73. In 1986, the National Drinking Water Mission, renamed
as Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission in 1991, was launched and further in
1999, the Department of Drinking Water Supply was created, to provide a renewed focus
with mission approach to implement programmes for rural drinking water supply.

Government of India’s reforms in sanitation along with water supply thus started to gain
in strength from the middle of 1999 onwards. While the low subsidy policy met with
initial resistance, gradually, there is growing acceptance among implementers and local
communities.

The Bharat Nirman Programme was another important step to taken towards building up
a strong Rural India by strengthening the infrastructure in six areas viz. Housing, Roads,
Electrification, Communication(Telephone), Drinking Water and Irrigation, with the help
of a plan to be implemented in four years, from 2005-06 to 2008-09.

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TOTAL SANITATION CAMPAIGN
Sanitation denotes a comprehensive concept, in fact it is `way of life`, which is expressed
in clean home, community, institutions, for better health and safe environment.
Moreover, safe sanitary practice is a crucial indicator for qualifying indicator for standard
of living. This concern is triggered by the fact that approx. 55% of rural population still
reported practicing open defecation.

Total Sanitation campaign was launched in April 1999, advocating of a shift from a high
subsidy to a low subsidy regime, a greater household involvement and demand
responsiveness, and providing for the promotion of a range of toilet options to promote
increased affordability.

The TSC gives emphasis on Information, Education and Communication (IEC) for
demand generation of sanitation facilities, providing for stronger backup systems such as
trained masons and building materials through rural sanitary marts and production centers
and including a thrust on school sanitation as an entry point for encouraging wider
acceptance of sanitation by rural masses as key strategies. It also lays emphasis on school
sanitation and hygiene education for bringing about attitudinal and behavioral changes
for relevant sanitation and hygiene practices from a young age.

Individual Health and hygiene is largely dependent on adequate availability of drinking


water and proper sanitation. There is, therefore, a direct relationship between water,
sanitation and health. Consumption of unsafe drinking water, improper disposal of human
excreta, improper environmental sanitation and lack of personal and food hygiene have
been major causes of many diseases in developing countries.

India is no exception to this. Prevailing High Infant Mortality Rate is also largely
attributed to poor sanitation.

The concept of sanitation was earlier limited to disposal of human excreta by cess pools,
open ditches, pit latrines, bucket system etc. Today it connotes a comprehensive concept,
which includes liquid and solid waste disposal, food hygiene, and personal, domestic as
well as environmental hygiene. Proper sanitation is important not only from the general
health point of view but it has a vital role to play in our individual and social life too.
10
Sanitation is one of the basic determinants of quality of life and human development
index. Good sanitary practices prevent contamination of water and soil and thereby
prevent diseases. The concept of sanitation was, therefore, expanded to include personal
hygiene, home sanitation, safe water, garbage disposal, excreta disposal and waste water
disposal. In annexure-1, a visit report done by me in Sarha village in Bihar.

WHY HOUSEHOLD SANITATION

Excreta disposal is an important part of overall environmental sanitation. Inadequate and


unsanitary disposal of infected human excreta leads to the contamination of the ground
water and sources of drinking water supplies. It provides shelter to breed flies to lay their
eggs and to carry infection for several diseases. Faecal borne diseases and worm
infestations are the main cause of death and morbidity in a community where they go for
indiscriminate defecation.
See annexure -3
It is interesting to note that all such diseases are controllable or preventable through safe
disposal of human excreta.

NIRMAL GRAM PURASKAR


Government of India has separately launched an award scheme called the “Nirmal
Gram Puraskar” for fully sanitized and open defecation free Gram Panchayats, Blocks
and Districts. The ' Nirmal Gram Puraskar’ scheme will have the following
ingredients:
(i) Gram Panchayats, Blocks and Districts, which achieve 100% sanitation coverage
in terms of (a) 100% sanitation coverage of individual households, (b) 100%
school sanitation coverage (c) free from open defecation, dry latrines and manual
scavenging, and (d) clean environment maintenance.

(ii) Individuals and organizations, who have been the driving force for effecting full
sanitation coverage in the respective geographical area.

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TOTAL SANITATION CAMPAIGN: BIHAR

In a marked improvement from last year, 51 panchayats and one block from Bihar
applied for the Nirmal Gram award this year. Among them, about 37 have been finally
selected for the award. This year an entire block of Vaishali district. Desri has been fully
sanitized and is on its way to win the Nirmal Block award.

A Herculean effort was required to make this possible. The Bihar government, NGOs,
UNICEF and other supporting bodies worked tirelessly to make gram panchayats fully
sanitized.

During 2005-2006, 320008 families, including 43769 APL families got toilets
constructed. The total toilet coverage in Bihar in 2001 was 14 percent which increased to
23 percent in 2006. In Bihar, approximately 80 percent population (12 million families)
defecates in open as they do not have a toilet at home. Sixty percent of the 53,275 schools
have toilet facilities now in Bihar.

Six lakhs families registered their demand for toilets during the campaign.

The awareness campaign was carried out in all blocks of 38 districts of Bihar for five
days.

The campaign informed people about the benefits of sanitation and the range of toilet
options available. During the campaign, field personnel visited villages and told people
about the importance of sanitation and how it can be achieved. Mobile vans with crowns
and posters carrying important messages on sanitation and playing informative songs did
the rounds of villages. Health workers reached out to villages with the twin objectives of
raising awareness as well as recording demand of toilets. The campaign became such a
hit that villagers mobbed the sanitation vehicles wherever they went. In some villages,
there was cent percent demand for toilets.

Due to the traditional Purdhah custom and their own shame poor women were hesitant in
venturing out in search of a place to relieve them during daytime. During dusk most
women especially young girls, pregnant women become vulnerable to sexual harassment.

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Due to TSC women and other are able to use safe sanitation facilities in the vicinity of
their own homes. A lot of time which could have been utilized for a productive work was
wasted going out to the fields and coming back previously.

A women based social organization (Mahila Samkhya) is also making a significant


contribution to the total sanitation campaign. They have mobilizes who motivate people
through songs and other means to adopt good sanitary practices. The group also has a
special team of female masons who help in construction activities. The Mahila Samakhya
members adopted ingenuous means like lota snatching (every time a villager was spotted
venturing out with the ubiquitous lota), Flashing torches when someone would sit down
to ease himself or herself, and whistle blowing.

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ANNEXURE-1
VISIT IN SARHA VILLAGE

The people living in the village use the open fields as their toilet. Due to such unhygienic
practices they, especially the children, constantly suffer from hookworm and diarrhea.
Mahadalits in Sarha are affected by this open toilet system and as they do not wear
chapels due to their culture they are often affected by disease.

Executive Summary

The overall goal of this survey was to assess the present situation of Sarha village
Panchayat-Belthu, Block-Shahkund, Sub-Division-Sultanganj, District-Bhagalpur, State -
Bihar) in the field of Environmental Sanitation, which comprises water supply, excreta
and wastewater management, solid waste management, and storm water drainage. Goal
of the survey was to identify the willingness of stakeholders on different levels to
introduce a decentralized sanitation system. Perceptions on prefecture, county and
commune government levels as well as on household level were considered and included
in the analysis.

Reasons for selecting the Sarha village:-

The people living in the village use the open fields as their toilet. Due to such unhygienic
practices they, especially the children, constantly suffer from hookworm and diarrhea.
Mahadalits in Sarha are affected by this open toilet system and as they do not wear
chapels due to their culture they are often affected by disease.
Population of Mahadalits is very high in Sarha village and they are not well educated
due to that they do not understand the importance of close toilet system. My main
objective of this project is motivating the people for using the closed sanitation system. I
select this Sarha village for increasing awareness and improving their health situation and
good hygiene habits.
one of the reason for selecting this reason is it is very convenient for me because my
relatives is living in Bhagalpur district and due to that I was easily went for visiting the
area of Sarha village and saw the real situation of rural areas.

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INTERVENTION STRATEGIES:-

 Firstly consulting with the Public Health and Development office and then collect
a information about water and sanitation condition of the Sarha village.

 For visiting and collecting a primary data consulting the involved NGO in the
Panchayat that is Bhartiya Nagrik Vikas Parishad. NGOs have an important role
in the implementation of TSC in the rural areas. Their services are required to be
utilized not only for bringing about awareness among the rural people for the need
of rural sanitation but also ensuring that they actually make use of the sanitary
latrines.

 Consulting with PRI also because Gram Panchayats have a pivotal role in the
implementation of Total Sanitation Campaign. The TSC will be implemented by
the Panchayati Raj Institutions at all levels. They will carry out the social
mobilisation for the construction of toilets and also maintain the clean
environment by way of safe disposal of wastes.

 Awareness through print media. Print media play an important role for creating
awareness.

 Arranging meeting and with the help of meeting, creating awareness and
providing a training.

 In the meeting, brainstorming to the local people, how the disease spread through
water and sanitation.

 With the help of PRI, NGO, creating awareness about the grey water
management, drainage and solid waste management and also providing training
for that.

The strategy addresses all sections of rural population to bring about the relevant
behavioral changes for improved sanitation and hygiene practices and meet their sanitary
hardware requirements in an affordable and accessible manner by offering a wide range
of technological choices.

15
Water supply
The survey in Sarha village showed that in general the households having Hand-Pumps
(30 to 40% of the households) are satisfied with the source. According to the households
interviewed, the water quality seems to be acceptable, but unfortunately no data on the
quality of the different water sources could be found.

It can be assumed that the groundwater is contaminated. The inappropriate drainage and
toilet systems most probably affect the groundwater quality. The groundwater level is
very high in the village and sometimes even reaches the surface. Assuming that several
households will still use groundwater as drinking water source in the future, protection
measures (construction as well as education measures) must be developed and
implemented.

Main constrains of the present water source are the insufficient quantity and lacking
storage capacity, leading to unavailable piped water supply.

Sanitation
Sanitation problems are very important in Sarha village, but underestimated by the
communal/local government. The approach people have towards sanitation is very
ambiguous; the product of sanitation – faecal sludge – is perceived as something very
precious for agricultural purposes, but the facility where this precious good is produced –
the toilet – is strongly neglected. Up to now no strategies have been developed to manage
sanitation effectively. The local government explained that they were waiting for
solutions from external experts.

Fifty of the households now have a Individual private toilet next to their house
constructed in the month of December 2009 under Total Sanitation Campaign-
Lohiya Sanitation Scheme. The survey showed that people are not satisfied with their
private toilets. People do not clean their toilets, which leads to very malodorous,
unhygienic and harmful conditions. People with upgraded sanitation systems complained
about the ineffectiveness of their system to achieve a clean environment. Some
households wish to have a flush toilet, but most of them would regret to loose the

16
precious resource of faecal sludge. People who do not have a private toilet generally wish
to construct one. However, they would not build it inside the yard or inside the house.

Interviewed households were very interested in the dry toilet with urine diversion, but
they expressed their wish to see an example, a pilot toilet, that they could test. The more
demanding operation and maintenance tasks of the urine diverting system (separate paper
collection, addition of ash, sitting when urinating etc.) are not perceived as problematic
by potential users. The monetary aid per toilet is Rs. 2500/- given by government through
NGO. Involved NGO in the Panchayat is Bhartiya Nagrik Vikash Parishad.

Government gives a fund to the NGO per toilet is Rs.2500/- for mahadalits Rs.2200/- for
the BPL and Rs.2000/- for the APL. NGOs don’t take any charge from the mahadalits,
but they take a charge of Rs.300/- from BPL and Rs. 500/- from APL.

Totally 15 public toilets were identified in the village, most of them in a very bad state
due to lack of clear assignment of responsibilities. With exception of the two well
functioning public toilets with user fees, nobody is really in charge of the maintenance of
the toilets. The good examples of the public toilets with user fees and the readiness of the
population to pay for it supports the idea of the extension of this approach to all other
public toilets. Mr. Sanjay Kumar Mishra, Sub-Divisional Officer, Public Health Sub-
Division, Sultanganj, believes that in future public toilets must foresee user fees, although
it will certainly take some time until the users accept the system.

Looking at the material flows it must be assumed that 50% of the effluents from latrines
infiltrate into the soil, corresponding to 500-1000 tons per year. The horizontal distance
between the latrines and the groundwater wells is often lower than 20m. Due to the very
high groundwater level it must be assumed that the capacity of the soil to filter and treat
the effluent is not sufficient to avoid groundwater contamination. Unfortunately,
groundwater quality is not monitored and nobody is able to confirm this presumption.
Quality analysis of the groundwater must be undertaken in order to determine the extent
of contamination.

Toilet owners and farmers tend to empty the chambers of the latrines whenever they need
fertilizer, regardless of the retention time in the chamber. 300 to 600 tons of fresh faeces
are spread on the fields every year unto crops such as rice, wheat, maize or beans, thus
17
considerably increasing the risk of infectious disease transmission. There is definitely a
need to explore new ways how to effectively sanitize human waste and to increase
hygiene awareness. Ways to sanitize human excreta together with farmyard manure by
means of biogas digesters have to be investigated as many households and representatives
of the government appreciate this system. The final choice of technological options
strongly depends on costs for construction, operation and maintenance. The decision
should be taken by both the government (responsible for the public toilets) and the
households (responsible for their private facilities).

Greywater management and drainage

The greywater and drainage situation in Sarha village is neither satisfying nor particularly
alarming. Nobody is complaining about it and the flood problems that periodically occur
are perceived as natural.

Only the main streets in the village are drained. Drainage on household level is strongly
neglected. Another important issue is the inadequate use of the drainage network. Many
people use drainage channels as dumping place for their solid waste. This solid waste
often blocks the channels, which leads to local overflows. Thus, improving solid waste
management may mitigate problems of flood due to blockage. The drainage problem
cannot be solved without solving the solid waste problem.

Greywater is not perceived as something hazardous in Sarha village, although it is both


contaminated with micro-organisms and polluted with chemicals and particulates. This
wastewater is disposed in the yards where it infiltrates into the soil or flows into nearby
3
drainage channels. The daily greywater amount averages 150 to 190m .

Two different approaches for greywater management can be considered. The centralized
approach is characterized by an open channel system leading the greywater together with
rainfall runoff out of the yard to bigger drainage channels and finally to a safe treatment
and disposal site. Centralized treatment is complicated and expensive. Local skills have
to be created in order to operate and maintain the treatment plant.

In a decentralized approach, each household (or a group of household) treats reuses or


eliminates its greywater on household level. In contrary to the centralized treatment

18
decentralized systems have to be financed by the households. The fact that no regulations
exist to enforce on-site treatment, people have to be convinced of the necessity of
appropriate greywater treatment.

A further controlling mechanism could be the combination of water supply and greywater
management. Households who wish to have an own water tap must develop and
implement a greywater management concept, too.

Solid waste

Sarha village produces between 400 and 900 tons of solid waste every year. 60 to 80% of
the waste is organic, 20 to 40% inorganic. Almost half of it is collected and dumped on
landfills. Easily biodegradable waste is fed to animals. The rest is either burned or
dumped into drainage channels or into the river. The solid waste of shops and restaurants
is collected and disposed on dumps at the outer-zone of the village. The fees for waste
collection range from Rs 1 to 5 depending on the stakeholder and the amount of waste
generated. Three family enterprises recycle plastic-/beer bottles, paper and hard paper
and some metal.

The present waste management system is inadequate. The steady rise of solid waste
amounts generated demands for an improved waste management concept. The waste
collection system based on a polluter-pays-principle is a promising attempt in this
direction, but needs further development. A future solid waste management concept has
to focus on the waste generation, separation and recycling, collection, and disposal. The
growth of the population, transitory people, their behavior and customs must be
considered in planning and implementation. Awareness building, education and training
plays in significant role as an integral part of a new concept.

This project will be completed in the month of April/May 2010.

19
FINANCIAL BUDGET FOR REGULATING TSC IN SARHA VILLAGE

FUNDS GIVEN BY GOVERNMENT;-

Mahadalit BPL APL

2500/- 2200/- 2000/

PROJECT
PARTICULARS AMOUNT DURATION TOTAL

House rent 1000/- 8 Months 8*1000=8000


a) Officers 5000/- 8 Months 8*5000=40,000/-
Salary b) Poen and staff
1000/- 8 Months 8*1000=8000/-
Transportation Charges 8 Months 8*1000=8000/-
1000/-
8 Months 8*200=1600/-
Stationary 200/-
8 Months 8*500=4000/-
Advertising Expenses 500/-
5000/- 8 Months 8*5000=40,000/-
Training Expenses

Telephone and mobile 1000/- 8 Months 8*1000=8000/-


expenses

Furniture expenses 2000/- 8 Months 2000/-

Office expenses 1500/- 8 Months 8*1500=12,000/

Other expenses 100/- 8 Months 8*100=800

Computer and projector 50,000/- 8 Months 50,000/-


(procurement)

1,96,800/-
TOTAL

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Conclusion and Recommendations

Discussions with the authority members showed that there is a will to improve the
situation in the field of environmental sanitation. The reactions to the presented
decentralized, household centered environmental sanitation approach were very positive.

Centralized sewerage systems are very expensive and need huge investments. It requires
expertise and specialized personnel. The operation and maintenance of a centralized
system is complex and expensive, and additionally burdens the water supply network due
to water consuming flushing toilets.

The decentralized, household centered approach is the adequate approach for a new
sanitation concept in Sarha and surrounding villages. The approach allows a step by step
implementation and does not burden the small financial budget of the local government,
issues often mentioned by the local government. Private households showed readiness to
pay for the new facilities. The household centered approach allows nutrient recovery and
reuse of human excreta in agriculture and is in line with the traditional Indian system.

In order to convince people to invest into new toilet and greywater treatment systems,
pilot units have to be constructed, which act as demonstration facilities and can be tested
by the citizens. Long-term training and comprehensive education programs will have to
be established to guarantee the operation and maintenance of the sanitary facilities. The
decentralized approach only makes sense when households can choose one technical
option out of a multitude of options. The suggestion of one option is not compatible with
the basic idea of the household centred sanitation approach. Therefore, the urine diverting
toilet (Nanning toilet) is only one out of several options. Technological solutions as the
combined biogas digester for faecal sludge, animal manure and organic solid waste
digestion, pour flush toilets and septic tanks or composting toilets should also be
considered as alternatives. The final decision must be based on economical aspects (costs
for construction, operation and maintenance) as well as on socio-cultural aspects. The
decision must be taken by the beneficiaries.

Mr. Sanjay Kumar Mishra, Sub-Divisional Officer, Public Health Sub-Division,


Sultanganj, expressed his cooperativeness in this project, too. Mr. Mishra is greatly
experienced in the field of ecological sanitation and is advising several projects in Bihar.
21
ANNEXURE 2

No of
S.No Total / Rural / Urban Households Persons Males Females
1 Total 26,878 153,407 80,943 72,464
2 Rural 26,878 153,407 80,943 72,464
3 Urban 0 0 0 0

Village Details of Shahkund

No of
S.No Town / Village Name Households Persons Males Females

94 Samastipur 214 1,332 676 656

95 Sarauni 702 3,905 2,057 1,848

96 Sarha 362 2,154 1,160 994

97 Sarhi 6 17 8 9

98 Sarokh 96 592 318 274

99 Shahzadpur 15 92 49 43

22
ANNEXURE 3

Transmission of Disease from Excreta

Channels of transmission of disease from excreta

Water

Death

Hands
Excreta Food
focus of And milk New
infection Vegetables host

Arthro
pods
Debilit
y

Soil

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