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WORLD VISION KENYA

ORWA INTEGRATED PROGRAMME AREA


WATER AND SANITATION PROJECT

HYDROGEOLOGICAL SURVEY REPORT

ORWA BOREHOLE SITE INVESTIGATIONS ORWA LOCATION


WEST POKOT DISTRICT

CLIENT CONSULTANT
Mr. Charles N. Kithome
The Chairman, Bsc(Hons). Msc. Diploma
ORWA Water Project Registered Hydrogeologist/Water engineer
P.O Box GRB,ERB,NEMA,ESRI
Kapenguria P.O BOX 22294-00100,
Nairobi, Kenya
Kithome@aridskenya.org

February, 2011
Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

SUMMARY
Background

The consultants were commissioned by the Orwa Community Water and sanitation Project/
World Vision ORWA IPA to undertake investigations for suitable borehole site within ORWA
village, Orwa Location of West Pokot district in different community designated areas with the
objective of supplying safe and clean water to the target communities. The current report
describes the objectives of the programme, the overview of the project area, the methodology
and the expected output. The report also describes the results of the geophysical surveys carried
between 16th November and 22th November 2010.

Project objectives and scope


The overall objective of the Project is to improve the water supply in various community areas
within the domain of Orwa Water project in West Pokot district and ensure reliable and safe
water by increasing the supply of potable water within the affected communities where distances
to safe water points are long and in places there are no safe water sources at all and the
communities have to depend on surface water.
The specific objectives of this Study were to:-
• To undertake hydrogeological/geophysical investigation on the occurrence of
groundwater in various community areas with a view to identifying suitable borehole
drilling site.
• Identify the most promising site for the proposed borehole drilling and advise the client
on the best drilling method.
• Present, to the client, a detailed qualitatative and quantitative report of the overall
findings and advice on project investment viability and substantial groundwater
abstraction feasibility
• Recommend the best method of the proposed borehole drilling
• Obtain the necessary groundwater water authorizations and permits on behalf of the
client and integrate the component of an EIA /audit report ahead of the actual drilling

Project area
Orwa IPA is located in West Pokot district, Rift Valley Province of Kenya. The Project is funded
by World Vision Hong Kong. The programme started in 2008 as a result of water needs
assessment findings carried out by World Vision Kenya in the region. The IPA area is composed
of Endough location of Sook Division of West Pokot district and Sekerr and Parkoyo locations
of Sigor division in Pokot Central district in the north rift zone, of Rift Valley province in Kenya
with an approximate area of 797km2
The current water demand for the investigated community areas is not known due to lack of
proper demographic data. It is however reported that the community anticipates about 20m3 of
water daily to meet their envisaged purposes.

Hydrogeological System
The IPA is divided into two agro-ecological zones. The lower zones consist of altitudes of less
than 1500m above sea level and characterized by dry weather with low rainfall. These areas are
prone to extensive soil erosion resulting in the loss of top soil thus reducing crop yield and
cause siltation to Turkwel Dam. The upper zones are located on altitudes between 1500m and
2100m experiencing fairly cooler climatic conditions enabling the practice of agro pastoralism.
Agro pastoralism is the main occupation for the majority of the community members in this
region. Crops such as maize, beans, and finger millet are grown. (WPDDP 2002-2008.)
Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

The hydrogeology of an area is determined by the nature of the parent rock, structural features,
weathering processes and precipitation patterns. The main constraint for aquifer development in
basement areas is probably the lack of recharge: the interplay of the shallow weathering of the
basement rock, the overlying thick laterite lenses and the sandy bars, both at shallow and deeper
levels is very complicated. This largely influences the groundwater flow mechanism (with no
geological surface manifestation): some sandy stringers are isolated in terms of recharge wedging
out into clay matrix, whereas others are hydraulically connected with recharge mechanism but
occur at variable depths. Groundwater occurrence in the Basement rocks is likely to be localized,
and limited to relatively small and isolated pockets. However, depending on the parent material,
water may be struck in the weathered top layers (regolith and saprock). The underlying fresh
Basement is in most cases dry, and significant amounts of groundwater can only be expected in
fractures (cracks, joints, fissures, and faults).
Geophysical Investigations
Combined geophysical and hydro-geological fieldwork was carried out between 26th - 27th
November,2010. The main aim of the geophysical investigations was to get an insight into the
hydrogeological conditions prevailing within the selected areas designated by the community as
well as identifying optimum borehole drilling sites in those particular community areas. These
investigations were carried out in four (4) community areas identified previously by Orwa
Water Project/World Vision ORWA IPA as areas that require intervention due high water
demand. In total Four (4)no. VES soundings and One(1) Control VES along an existing borehole
was executed for calibration purposes. A Garmin e-trex GPS Satellite Navigator and a Trimble
Juno SB Mapper (Data logger) with GPS and ArchPAD software were used to obtain accurate
geospatial information and co-ordinates of the measured/surveyed points and log the identified
VESs as well as collecting secondary hydro-geological data. All electrical measurements were
undertaken using a TERRAMETER SAS 300C with depth booster and LUND-Imaging. Data
analysis was qualitatively plotted in the field on Bi-logarithmic graph paper and later detailed
quantitative interpretations were undertaken in the office using Interpex-1D and Schlumberger
as well forward modelling and inversion using LOKE software
Results and Discussion
Vertical electrical soundings (VES) provide quantitative depth-resistivity information for a
particular site. VES sites were selected at representative points in relation to anomalies picked
by profiling technique as well as GIS-remote sensing technique (satellite imagery analysis). The
geomorphologic observations combined with the satellite imagery analysis during the desk study
and field reconnaissance phase was used as the criteria for selection of the profile sites.
Locations for profiling were selected at locations mapped as having structural lineaments and
geormophological interruptions. The VES measurements were executed in an expanding
Schlumberger array, with electrode spreads of AB between 260 and 400 m. This separation gives
fairly reliable interpretations down to a depth of respectively 65 to 100 m, but only approximate
solutions for resistivity layering at deeper levels. Depths beyond this level are only indicative,
and do not give the precise position of the interpreted layers.

In general, most of the profiles were executed in an east – west direction as the fault/fracture
zones generally trend north – south or northwest – southeast. In most cases the profiles which
were carried out using schlumberger array did not exceed 500 m. They were carried out at 20m
station intervals and an AB separation of 100 m. While carrying out this exercise, the target was
low anomalies which in this case indicate weathered or weak zones considering that the bedrock
in most places is fairly shallow. The points at which low anomalies were noted were marked for
vertical electrical soundings (VES). It is worth mentioning that in some cases, other indicators
like large trees (e.g. VES III (ORWA# 3), VES IV (ORWA # 4, clearly marked the fault/fracture
zones and this in combination with the profiles gave very excellent results.
Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

The VES measurements were executed on the anomalous points along the profile lines. The
most distinct characteristic noted on these measurements is the presence of weathered zones
between 50m and a maximum depth of 80 m bgl within the suspected aquifer zones. It is quite
clear that these aquifers are discontinuous and are not necessarily all connected. However in
some places, the resistivities observed from the measurements indicate the presence of clayey
material at depth and this is also noticeable where gullies expose the stratigraphy though to a
shallow depth of not more than 3 metres. In interpretation of the resultant curves, 6 – layer
models were adopted based on the trend of the curves. It should be noted that although there
was vastness of the area of investigations, there was a slightly distinct variation in the trend of
curves, hence similar layered models.

In general however, the most promising curves depict a high resistivity layer overlying the low
resistivity regime (aquifer) in most of the layers. In theory, this indicates that the main aquifer
does not derive its recharge locally but is connected to a wider, probably regional recharge
system which would mean a more reliable and stable supply. It is expected that such an aquifer
would be semi confined or confined depending on the recharge.

Conclusion and Recommendations


The results of the geophysical site investigations together with the recommended sites for
drilling and other relevant alternatives are summarised in Tables1. It should be noted here that
the recommended depths are the maximum depths but should sufficient water be encountered
after striking the main aquifer but before attaining the final depth, then drilling can be
discontinued. It is also recommended that proper construction of the borehole after drilling
should be adhered to. This is one of the greatest problems affecting the boreholes that lack
proper supervision. In particular, proper installation of casings and screens as well as installation
of gravel pack is emphasized.
After borehole construction where possible, proper test pumping should be carried out to
determine the yield of the borehole and other aquifer parameters.

Table 1: The results of the geophysical site investigation


SITE Name VES Coordinates (UTM) WSL Max. Prospective
No. Longitude Latitude Alt.(m) (m) Depth Yield(m3/hr)
(m)
0 0
1 Orwa I 035 27’ 19.78’’ 01 32’ 52.7’’ 918 25 130 Negative
2 Orwa II 035029’ 19.78’’ 01039’ 33.8’’ 923 25-80 150 Fair
3 Orwa III 035029’ 5.33’’ 01039’ 31.8’’ 903 20-80 130 Fair to
Good
4 Orwa IV 035028’ 57.8’’ 01039’ 30.5’’ 919 20-80 150 Good)
Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PROJECT SUMMARY SHEET .................................................................................................... vi


ABBREVIATIONS..................................................................................................................... vii
GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS ..................................................................................... viii
1.0 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................... 9
1.1 General Information ..................................................................................................... 9
1.2 Location ........................................................................................................................... 9
2.0 WATER SUPPLY SITUATION....................................................................................... 10
2.1 Sources of water ........................................................................................................ 10
2.2 Population and Water Demand ..................................................................................... 10
3.0 CLIMATE, PHYSIOGRAPHY AND LAND USE ............................................................. 12
3.1 Climate....................................................................................................................... 12
3.2 Physiography ............................................................................................................. 12
3.3 Hydrology ................................................................................................................. 13
3.4 Land Use Physical Development .................................................................................... 13
3.4 Soils 14
4.0 GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOLOGY .......................................................................... 14
4.1 Geological Setting.......................................................................................................... 14
5.0 HYDROGEOLOGY AND GROUND WATER RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE. ........ 15
5.1 Hydrogeology ............................................................................................................. 15
5.2 Recharge .................................................................................................................... 16
5.3 Discharge ................................................................................................................... 16
6.0 EXISTING BOREHOLES AND RECHARGE ................................................................. 16
7.0 AQUIFER PROPERTIES ................................................................................................. 16
7.1 Borehole specific capacities (S) Transmissivity (T) Coefficient.................................... 16
7.2 Hydraulic Conductivity (K) and Ground Water Flux ........................................................ 17
7.3 Assessment of Availability of Ground Water.............................................................. 18
7.4 Analysis of Reserve and Ground Water Level Evolution ............................................ 18
8.0 GEOPHYSICS.................................................................................................................. 18
8.1 Basic principles of the resistivity methods ........................................................................ 18
8.2 Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES).................................................................................... 18
8.3 Electrical Resistivity Method........................................................................................ 19
9.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ....................................................................................... 20
9.2 Results, Interpretations and Discussion ...................................................................... 21
9.3 Impacts of Proposed Drilling Activity. ........................................................................ 25
9.4 Impacts on Local Aquifer’s Quantity And Quality....................................................... 26
9.5 Impacts on Existing Boreholes In The Area: ................................................................... 26
10 CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................... 27
10.1 General ............................................................................................................................. 27
10.2 Conclusion. ................................................................................................................ 27
10.3 Recommendations: ..................................................................................................... 27
10.4 Further Recommendations: .............................................................................................. 28
11.0 APPENDIX .................................................................................................................... 29
Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

Encls. (To Be provided by the client)

• Copy of the Certificate of Land Ownership


• Group’s Registration Certificate
• Allotment Letter
• Copy of group’s PIN and ID card.
• Copy of letter of No objection from Area Chief
Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

PROJECT SUMMARY SHEET

Project Details

Client ORWA WATER PROJECT


P.O. BOX
KAPENGURIA
Project Borehole at ORWA Location
L.R. No. (Documents encls)
Locality ORWA
District WEST POKOT
Selected Map Sheet 183/3
Borehole Site Coordinates (GPS) 035028’ 57.8’’ 01039’ 30.5’’
Elevation (GPS) 903 m asl
Projected Water Demand 20m3/day
Main Purpose of Water Use Domestic and Minor Irrigation
Investigating Geologists/Engineers Charles N. Kithome/ Mutie Simon/Ituli J.T.
Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

ABBREVIATIONS

(S.I. Units throughout, unless indicated otherwise)

agl above ground level


amsl above mean sea level
bgl below ground level
d day
E East
EC electrical conductivity (µS/cm)
GPS global positioning satellite
hr hour
K hydraulic conductivity (m/day)
l litre
m metre
N North
PWL pumped water level
Q discharge (m3/hr)
S South
sec second
VES Vertical Electrical Sounding
W West
WSL water struck level
µS/cm micro-Siemens per centimetre: Unit for electrical conductivity
o
C degrees Celsius: Unit for temperature
Ωm Ohmm: Unit for apparent resistivity
ρa Apparent resistivity
" Inch
Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS


Alluvium General term for detrital material deposited by flowing water.

Aquifer A geological formation or structure, which stores and transmits water and which is able
to supply water to wells, boreholes or springs
Conductivity Transmissivity per unit length (m/day).

Confined aquifer A formation in which the groundwater is isolated from the atmosphere by impermeable
geologic formations. Confined water is generally at greater pressure than atmospheric,
and will therefore rise above the struck level in a borehole.
Denudation Surface erosion.

Evapotranspiration Loss of water from a land area through transpiration from plants and evaporation from
the surface
Fault A larger fracture surface along which appreciable displacement has taken place.

Fluvial General term for detrital material deposited within a river environment and usually
graded.
Gneiss Irregularly banded rock, with predominant quartz and feldspar over micaceous minerals.
A product of regional metamorphism, especially of the higher grade.
Granitization The process by which solid rocks are converted into rocks of granitic character without
melting into a magmatic stage.
Gradient The rate of change in total head per unit of distance, which causes flow in the direction
of the lowest >head.
Heterogeneous Not uniform in structure or composition throughout
Hydrogeological Those factors that deal with subsurface waters and related geological aspects of surface
waters
Hydraulic head Energy contained in a water mass, produced by elevation, pressure or velocity.
Infiltration Process of water entering the soil through the ground surface.

Joint Fractures along which no significant displacement has taken place


Migmatite Rocks in which a granitic component (granite, aplite, pegmatite, etc.) is intimately mixed
with a metamorphic component (schist or gneiss).
Perched aquifer Unconfined groundwater separated from an underlying main aquifer by an unsaturated
zone. Downward percolation hindered by an impermeable layer.
Percolation Process of water seeping through the unsaturated zone, generally intimately mixed with
a metamorphic component (schist or gneiss).
Permeability The capacity of a porous medium for transmitting fluid.
Piezometric level An imaginary water table, representing the total head in a confined aquifer, and is defined
by the level to which water would rise in a well.
Porosity The portion of bulk volume in a rock or sediment that is occupied by openings, whether
isolated or connected.
Pumping test A test that is conducted to determine aquifer and/or well characteristics
Recharge General term applied to the passage of water from surface or subsurface sources (e.g.
rivers, rainfall, lateral groundwater flow) to the aquifer zones.
Regolith General term for the layer of weathered, fragmented and unconsolidated rock material
that overlies the fresh bedrock.
Specific capacity The rate of discharge from a well per unit drawdown.

Static water level The level of water in a well that is not being affected by pumping. (Also known as "rest
water level")
Transmissivity A measure for the capacity of an aquifer to conduct water through its saturated thickness
(m2/day).
Yield Volume of water discharged from a well.
Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 General Information


The Chairman, Orwa Community Water Project assisted by World Vision Kenya, ORWA
IPA requested the consultants to undertake a detailed hydrogeological survey for a borehole
site investigations in ORWA area, ORWA Location of West Pokot District. Subsequently,
hydrogeophysical surveys were undertaken within the community’s designated hotspots
within different areas of the locality to identify the most suitable site for sinking the
proposed borehole.

1.2 Location
Orwa IPA is located in West Pokot district, Rift Valley Province of Kenya. The IPA covers
Sekerr, Endough and Parkoyo locations with an approximate area of 630KM2. The IPA ’s
topography is characterized by rugged hills, undulating valleys, rocky outcrops, incised gullies
which form seasonal streams that drain into the many beautiful Valleys below. The
topography comprises Sekerr hills in the highlands favourable for agro-pastoralism and vast
plains on the low lands suitable for Pastoralism. Most of the population is confined along the
highlands and the slopes while the plain is inhabited by few pastoralists. Streams drain from
Sekerr hills to the valleys below. The area is relatively remote with very few access roads
and a larger part can only be accessed on foot. The area is classified as a hardship zone
because of its harsh environmental conditions..

The proposed borehole site is located in ORWA village, hinterland of ORWA Divison West
Pokot District some about 5km west of ORWA township town and 35km west Kapenguria
town. The map indicating the approximate location of the selected borehole drilling site is
shown in Figure1.

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

Figure 1: Location and Administration of the Borehole Survey Area

2.0 WATER SUPPLY SITUATION

2.1 Sources of water


Orwa IPA is relatively a water scarce area in the West Pokot District. Therefore, access to
safe water for domestic and livestock use is a key challenge. (West Pokot District Vision and
Strategy: 2005-2015). The most common water sources are water pans, shallow wells, rivers
and seasonal streams. Most of these streams were dried up due to prolonged drought.
Water quality in most of these sources is characterized by high turbidity levels due to
extensive mining (gold digging) along the river bed as well as human and animal pollution.
Parts of Mbara centre in Sekerr location is served by gravity piped water system from the
Mtelo hills. However, all of these sources are not adequate, palatable and wholesome. The
Orwa water committee assisted by World Vision Kenya deemed it wise to explore and
exploit supplementary groundwater source to boost their existing supply. The objective of
this investigation was therefore to establish the optimum location of a borehole which will
be near and more reliable to the client’s envisaged needs.

2.2 Population and Water Demand


The current water demand for the investigated community areas is not known due to lack
of proper or scanty demographic data. It is however reported that the mass influx of the
Turkana Pastoralists is very high and this is evidenced by the heavy bush clearing in the area
which is being carried out by people who are moving their livestock in search of water and
pasture. The major water supply sources in most places however are surface water ponds
and ephemeral rivers which run dry at the peak of the dry season. Once these sources are
depleted, people have to walk long distances to places where boreholes have been drilled.

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

According to Sphere Standards however, the longest distance to a water point should be
500 meters while a single hand-pump should serve 500 people. This means that due to the
scattered patterns of settlement in the area, the coverage is far from complete and more
will have to be done in the way of safe water provision.
It has been estimated that a demand of about 8 cubic metres of water per hour suffices the
community needs. Water from the proposed borehole is to be used for domestic and
micro- irrigation purposes by the target community.

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

3.0 CLIMATE, PHYSIOGRAPHY AND LAND USE

3.1 Climate
Orwa is characterized by landscapes with high altitude ranges with spectacular escarpments
of more than 700m. The lower parts of the IPA area is located between 1500m- 2100
m.a.s.l and receives low bimodal rainfall of between 200mm and 1600mm. The long rains fall
between April and August while the short rains occur between the months of October and
February. There is however great variations in the amount of rainfall received. Annual
rainfall ranges between 300mm and 700mm. The temperature ranges between 150C and
300C. (WPDDP 2002-2008). The groundwater recharge is through infiltration and
subsequent percolation of part of the mean annual rainfall as well as regional lateral
replishments from areas of higher elevation of the project area.

3.2 Physiography
The Orwa topography consists of rough hilly areas, deep and steep valleys, rock outcrops,
natural gulleys that act as seasonal streams flowing down the valleys. It comprises of Mtelo
hills and large tracts of plain land on the lower parts. All streams originates from the Mtelo
hills to the west draining below the valleys and ultimately into Lake Turkana. The
topography is undulating with basement and granite intrusive rock outcrops in many places.
The general physiography of the area is attributed to prolonged period of weathering,
deposition and volcanic intrusions. There are 3 dome-shaped hills namely Motong, Mtelo and
Chachai which expose the country rock. These outcropping features are dominantly
basement in nature and include gneiss, paragneisses as well as undifferentiated basement
rocks. Figure 2 shows the topography of the surveyed area

Borehole survey

Figure 3: Digital Terrain Elevation Model showing the Topography of the studied area

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

3.3 Hydrology
Maghany and Orwa stream which strad the survey area drains into the Weiwei River with
many, more parallel, seasonally flowing tributaries. The entire area belongs to the Turkwe
Turkwell
catchment area and the waters finally flows into Lake Turkana if it has not evaporat
evaporated and
infiltrated before that.

The rivers in the suevey area are seasonal with flow ceasing a few months after the rains.
There is no discharge data available, but it is obvious that the floods are received during the
rainy season with the rivers drying a few months after. Figure 3 shows the catchment and
streams in the study area

Figure 3: Map showing the land use and infrastructure within the local area

3.4 Land Use Physical Development


Orwa area and the whole of the IPA is covered with thorny acacia plants, cactus, green
reeds and very little or no grass cover in most parts. Grass for pasture and thick shrub
cover the flat lowlands where the borehole survey was carried out. On the highlands around
Chachai and mtelo hiils farming is practised because
because of the good fertile soil and longer
flowing riversections. Apart from the thickets, other vegetation types predominant in the are
dependent on the topography and soil types and nearness to the river.. In the ‘black cotton’
covered areas, tree-less grass
ass cover with occasional trees dominates the vegetation. The areas

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

adjacent to the black cotton grasslands are covered by different species of acacia while the hill-
tops and riverrines are covered by bushes and woodlands.

3.4 Soils
Orwa IPA falls within the Arid and Semi Arid lands (ASAL) characterized by complex
soils consisting of rocky and sandy soils and with different drainage conditions, which have
developed from alluvial deposits. Some of these soils are saline in nature and characterized
by shallow and stony soils with rock outcrop and lava boulders. The area is adversely
affected by lack of adequate rainfall with annual rainfall ranging from 300-700mm per annum
(WVK-OARDP 2008).

4.0 GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOLOGY

4.1 Geological Setting


The metamorphic Basement forms the most extensive group of rocks, and comprises mainly
schists and gneisses. Several younger intrusive bodies, such as ring dikes and batholiths
(mainly consisting of granites and rhyolites) are also part of this series. Unfortunately, the
Basement Complex of Pokot has not been surveyed in detail, and remains largely
undifferentiated. In the West Pokot and Central Pokot, they include gneisses, paraschists,
paragneisses, syenites, granites, granodiorites and quartzites

(a) Regional Geology


These are even-grained, holocrystalline rocks composed chiefly of feldspars and quatrz with
some ferro-magnesium minerals. They are mostly medium to coarse-grained in texture.
The common types of granites found in the Region are hornblende granites, biotite granite,
augite granite, e.t.c. Granites in the country are outlined as Granitoid Shield on the
Geological Map. The granites are contaminated by inclusions of the older metamorphic
rocks, the inclusions varying in sizes. The inclusions irrespective of size may be highly
migmatized or remain undigested with sharp boundaries. The granitoid shield is considered
one vast outcrop of Palingetic granite. The geology of the investigated area is presented in
figure 4

(b) Structural Geology


Since a detailed geological mapping of this North rift Region has not been extensively carried
out, little is known about the structure of the Basement formations in the area. Foliation
trends are reported to be constant over wide areas, and vary from 340 to 020° further
south. This is in line with the drainage pattern and the direction of the major watercourses.
The downwarping of the central basin, and the rift-controlled evolution of the Great Rift
valley, must have been accompanied by intensive folding of rocks. One would expect that
regional tectonism of such a scale must result in structural features of hydrogeological
significance.

(c) Geology of the study Site

The alluvium sediments overlie the Basement Complex uncomformably. Fresh and compact
bedrock occurs variably at very shallow depths (<10m) in some areas. The thickness of the
alluvium sediments can vary within the floodplains to a depth of about 30m in some places.

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

In the floodplains, the nature of the bedrock is largely concealed by


by the overlying alluvium
but along the eroded stream channels and within the hills, basement outcrops are a common
sight. Due to the thick cover of weathered material and sediments (and the fact that the
area remains largely unsurveyed), faults/fractures were
were identified using the satellite imagery
and related to vaguely identified linear features like streams, depressions and vegetation
changes on the ground. The prevailing trend of faults/fractures in the study area is roughly
north - south and northwest-southeast.
southeast. These major faults/fractures and the extensive
deposition control the drainage pattern of the surface water in the area. These
faults/fractures, where present, rarely reach the surface, but are instead covered by the
younger alluvium.

Figure 4: Geology of the study area

5.0 HYDROGEOLOGY AND GROUND WATER RECHARGE AND DISCHARGE


DISCHARGE.

5.1 Hydrogeology
The hydrogeology of an area is determined by the nature of the parent rock, structural
features, weathering processes and precipitation patterns. The
he central and western part of
the location drains into the Weiwei River. The entire area belongs to the Turkwell
catchment area and the water of both rivers finally flows into Lake Turkana if it has not
evaporated and infiltrated before that.

The only perennially


erennially flowing rivers in the study region are the above mentioned rivers. At
the moment there are no discharge data available, but it is obvious that the discharge will be

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

much less in the dry season than in the rainy season. In the latter period the rivers may
flood in years with a high amount of rainfall while in a dry year the Kerio River might not
even reach Turkana District but may stop flowing above ground before that. Specially in the
dry season, when the concentration of dissolved minerals is relatively high the water of the
Kerio River may be rather polluted due

5.2 Recharge
There are two possible ways through which aquifers in this area may be recharged.
• Direct replenishment at the surface: this may be by way of percolation of rainwater
through the overlying sandy soils and fracture/faults
• Indirect recharge: there is a obvious indirect recharge from the Motong, Mtelo and
chachai hills through faults and fractures that connect to the aquifers in the study
area.

5.3 Discharge
There are two ways through which groundwater is discharged in the area. The first one is
through abstraction from the scattered boreholes. Secondly, groundwater in the area may
also flow through fractures and faults to the areas of lower elevation. For this to happen
however, the fractures and faults have to be extensively interconnected to allow for
movement of water.

6.0 EXISTING BOREHOLES AND RECHARGE

Borehole data within a locality is useful in estimating the depth of a new borehole, expected
water quality and yield. Only one borehole was found within the vicinity of the project area.
The data is given in Table 2.

Table 2: Chepkolol Borehole Data


B/H Borehole owner Distance/ Total Water Water tested Pumping
No Bearing Depth Struck Rest Yield water level
level level M3/h
C- Chepkolol BH 7km NW 140 60 10 5 125

7.0 AQUIFER PROPERTIES

7.1 Borehole specific capacities (S) Transmissivity (T) Coefficient


The borehole specific capacities have been calculated based on the formula;
S=Q/s (Driscoll, 9860);

Where Q is the yield during the pump test and s is the draw down i.e. PWL-WRL
Transitivity on the other hand is calculated using the formula T= 0.183 Q/s. however this
formula is applicable where well test data is available in long scale.

Logan’s formula T=1.22Q/s is the best for estimating Transmissivity. The area does not have
aquifer test and it is difficult to ascertain specific yields, storage coefficients of existing
boreholes in the project area.

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

From Driscoll 1986 the following summary of specific yield ranges for earth materials:

Specific capacity = tested yield / (pumping level – water rest level)

Transmissivity = 1.22 x specific capacity x 24hrs

Table: 3 Specific capacities and Transmissivity of existing boreholes

Borehole name. Specific capacity(m2/hr) Transmissivity (m²/day)


Chepkolol BH 0.04348 1.2731

7.2 Hydraulic Conductivity (K) and Ground Water Flux


Locations laboratory investigations and isotope methods are very expensive methods and
are the best for determining hydraulic conductivity and ground water flux correctly. The
results are confined to few location and they depend on the scale of the investigation
method. Rock sample measurements in the laboratory vary from well test results. Ministry
of water and irrigation data is also not very reliable.

Hydraulic conductivity is calculated using the formula K=T/D where K is the hydraulic
conductivity, T is the transmissivity and D is aquifer thickness. D is assumed to be 30m. In
the ministry of water and irrigation data the start of the aquifer is the one recorded and
most of the time, the thickness is not given. Due to this a lot of assumptions will be made in
order to calculate the Hydraulic conductivity.

Darcy formula is used to calculate ground water flux. It is given as Q=T .I.W, where T is the
transmissivity of the borehole, I is the gradient and W is the width.
From the above formula I is the hydrostatic head. Where I=0.0375 and the width (W) is
considered as 1000 meters.

Hydraulic conductivity is calculated using the formula K=T/D

Thus Ground water flux = Transmissivity x 37.5

The calculated hydraulic conductivities and ground water fluxes of the existing boreholes are
presented in the table below.

Table 4: Hydraulic conductivity and ground water flux


Borehole Name Hydraulic conductivity Ground water flux
m3/day
Chepkolol BH 1.6 48

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

7.3 Assessment of Availability of Ground Water


Regarding assessment of available ground water, the following conclusions can be made:
• Assuming an abstraction of about 20m3/ day for all the boreholes in the area, then the
abstraction per day can be estimated to be about 100m3 / day
• The available ground water can be calculated as the available through-flow (ground water
flux) less the amount of water abstracted per day.

7.4 Analysis of Reserve and Ground Water Level Evolution


An adequate estimate of the availability of ground water in storage beneath an area requires
determination of the ground water basin boundaries, both vertical and horizontal, and of
aquifer dimensions and characteristics. Such an analysis requires careful and accurate
determination of the aquifer characteristics, GIS techniques to indicate the extent of the
aquifer in question and accurate pump test to determine the capacity of the aquifer(s) In
addition, recharge and discharge must be fairly quantified.

8.0 GEOPHYSICS
Several geophysical methods are available to assist in the assessment of geological sub
surface conditions. In the present survey the resistivity method also known as the (geo
electrical method) has been used. Four (4) Vertical electrical soundings (VES) were carried
out to probe the cautions at such anomalous zones within the sub-surface and to confirm
the existence of deep ground water. The techniques are described below.

8.1 Basic principles of the resistivity methods


The electrical properties of the upper parts of the earth’s crust are dependent upon the
lithology. Porosity and the degree of pore space saturation and the salinity of the pore
water. Saturated rocks have lower resistivities than unsaturated and dry rocks. The higher
the porosity of the saturated rocks the lower its Resistivity. The higher the salinity of the
saturating fluids, the lower the resistivity. The presence of clays and conductive minerals also
reduce the resistivity of the rock.

8.2 Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES)


Vertical Electrical Soundings were carried out to probe the electrical properties and depth
to sub surface layered formations below the site of measurement at the most anomalous
zones.
When carrying out a resistivity sounding electric currents is led to the ground by means of
two electrodes and the potential field generated by the current measured. The separation
between the electrodes is step – wise increased (in what is known as schlumberger array)
observed resistivity values are plotted in log-log paper and the graph obtained depicts
resistivity variation against depth.
This graph can be interpreted with aid of a computer and the actual resistivity lying of the
sub soil is obtained. The depths and resistivity values provide the hydro geologist with
information on the geological layering and thus the occurrence of ground water.

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

8.3 Electrical Resistivity Method


This is a major geophysical tool used in groundwater exploration efforts. Resistivity, the
inverse of electrical conductivity is the resistance of the geologic medium to current flow
when a potential [voltage] difference is applied for a given material with a characteristic
Resistivity ‘ƒ’ the resistance ‘R’ is proportional to the length ‘L’ of the material being
measured and inversely proportional to its cross-section area ‘A’

i.e. R= ƒL or ƒ= RA
A L

In this procedure, a series of stations is established and careful depth soundings are taken by
evaluating the Resistivity values at different electrode spacing, an understanding of the sub-
surface materials can be developed.
This method is useful for estimating the depth to water bearing strata or estimating the
thickness of selected formations. In order to help probe the subsurface rock conditions
capable of groundwater storage, the schlumberger configuration method was used. One
Horizontal profiling and Six (5) vertical electrical Resistivity soundings designated as ORWA
VES I-V were carried as shown below:-

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

9.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

9.1 Geophysical Field Data

For the Orwa survey area 5 sites named as VES I to VES V were conducted with VES V
being an existing borehole which served as a control. The location of the four survey sites
and the control borehole are presented in Table 5. The VES data is presented in table 6

Table 5: The VES sites on Orwa Study


SITE Name VES No. Coordinates (UTM)
Longitude Latitude Altitude(m)
1 Orwa I 035027’ 19.78’’ 01032’ 52.7’’ 918
2 Orwa II 035029’ 19.78’’ 01039’ 33.8’’ 923
3 Orwa III 035029’ 5.33’’ 01039’ 31.8’’ 903
4 Orwa IV 035028’ 57.8’’ 01039’ 30.5’’ 960
5 Control point V 035027’ 19.78’’ 01032’ 52.07’’ 962

Figure 5: Layout of the borehole VES points

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

Table 6: VES DATA


Stn.N ORWA VES I ORWA VES II ORWA VES IV ORWA VES III CALIBRATION
o. DATA
AB/2(m ∂V/I Rho(Oh ∂V/I(Ωm) Rho ∂V/I(Ωm) Rho(Oh Rho ∂V/I(Ω Rho ∂V/I(Ωm)
) (Ωm) m-m) (Ohm-m) m-m) (Ohm-m) m) (Ohm-m)
1.6 4.39 32 4.69 34 4.70 34 1.871 36 287.00
2.0 1.967 23 2.46 29 1.863 22 2.42 29 250.00
2.5 0.661 12 1.422 27 1.193 22 1.037 20 215.00
3.2 0.319 10 0.694 22 0.778 24 0.555 17 136.00
4.0 0.275 14 0.459 23 0.487 24 0.330 16 91.00
5.0 0.1794 14 0.312 24 0.328 26 0.222 17 82.00
6.3 0.1131 14 0.221 27 0.1873 23 0.145 18 82.00
8.0 0.0668 13 0.1521 30 0.1133 23 0.0156 17 81.00
10 0.0421 13 0.0646 20 0.074 23 0.0575 18 87.00
13 0.0212 11 0.0378 20 0.0439 23 0.0382 20 75.00
16 0.01566 13 0.0230 18 0.0274 22 0.275 22 69.00
20 0.00673 8 0.009 11 0.01622 20 0.0206 26 72.00
25 0.00434 9 0.0133 11 0.01052 21 0.01592 31 67.00
32 0.1296 19 0.0971 14 0.00527 17 0.1766 26 17.00
40 0.0594 14 0.0649 15 0.0292 7 0.1143 27 20.00
50 0.0263 10 0.0328 13 0.01415 5 0.0657 25 17.00
63 0.00965 6 0.0142 11 0.00687 4 0.0379 23
80 0.00428 4 0.00991 10 0.00530 5 0.0225 22
100 Aborted 0.00641 10 0.00330 5 0.01495 23
130 0.00532 14 0.00385 10 0.00982 26
160 0.00382 15 0.00101 40

9.2 Results, Interpretations and Discussion

Vertical electrical soundings (VES) provide quantitative depth-resistivity information for a


particular site. VES sites were selected at representative points, and at locations of particular
interest for groundwater resources development. The measurements were executed in an
expanding Schlumberger array, with electrode spread of AB/2=160 to 250 m. This
separation gives fairly reliable interpretations down to a depth of 80 to 120 m, but only
approximate solutions for resistivity layering at deeper levels. Depth indications beyond this
level are only indicative, and do not give the precise position of the measured contact zone.
The locations of the geophysical soundings (those carried out within the plot) are shown in
figure 2 Apparent resistivity curves were interpreted using the "Schlumberger" program
(Hemker, 1989).

The main aim of the measurements was to determine the depth to the fresh basement
formation rocks, the degree of fracturing at depth, which should be directly related to the
Transmissivity layer and thus the potential yield. As a general rule, it can be assumed that in
this case the sounding with the lowest basal resistivity’s in the expected water bearing range
represent the most favorable drilling site. The Hydrogeological Interpretation of ORWA
VES’s is represented in following table

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

Table 7: VES Interpretations


VES Depth Apparent Expected formation Acquiferous
No. Resistivity
(Ohm-m)
I 1.6 32 Dry Sands No
3.2 10 Lithic material(Dry) No
10 13 Highly weathered gneissic material Moist, No
20 8 differentiated) pelitic-gneisses material No
50 10 Fresh Basement (Dry) No, impervious
80 4 Fresh Basement (Dry) No, impervious
II 2.5 27 Dry Sands No
10 20 Lithic material(Dry) No
25 11 Highly weathered gneissic material Moist, No
50 13 Fractured basement wet with clays Probably and brackish
100 10 Fresh Basement (Dry) No, impervious
III 1.6 36 Dry Sands No
4 16 Highly weathered gneissic material Moist, No
40 27 Fractured basement wet with clays Probably and brackish
80 23 Fractured basement wet with clays Probably and brackish
160 40 Fresh Basement (Dry) No, impervious
V 1.6 34 Dry Sands No
5 26 Lithic material(Dry) No
20 21 Highly weathered gneissic material Perched aquifer, Yes
50 5 Fractured basement wet with clays Yes
100 5 Fractured basement wet with clays Yes
130 10 Highly weathered gneissic material Perched aquifer, Yes
160 15 Fresh Basement (Dry) No, impervious

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

Figure 6: Orwa VES I geophysical graph

Figure 7: Orwa VES II geophysical graph

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

Figure 8: Orwa VES III geophysical graph

Figure 9: Orwa VES IV geophysical graph

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

Figure 10: Control VES along Chepkolol Borehole.


The analysis of the VES sites is presented in Table 8 below

Table 8: VES sites ratings


SITE Name VES Coordinates (UTM) WSL Max. Prospective
No. Longitude Latitude Altitude(m (m) Depth Yield(m3/hr)
(m)
)
1 Orwa I 035027’ 19.78’’ 01032’ 52.7’’ 918 25 130 Negative
2 Orwa II 035029’ 19.78’’ 01039’ 33.8’’ 923 25-80 150 Fair
3 Orwa III 035029’ 5.33’’ 01039’ 31.8’’ 903 20-80 130 Fair to Good
4 Orwa IV 035028’ 57.8’’ 01039’ 30.5’’ 960 20-80 150 Good

9.3 Impacts of Proposed Drilling Activity.

In project’s study area, the rock formations are Metamorphic basement in nature. Basement
aquifers are localized, therefore drilling activity within the study area shall have no impact on
the aquifers, water quality, and the abstractors and neither shall there be a likelihood of
coalescing cones of depression. It shall have no negative implications for other ground water
users.

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

9.4 Impacts on Local Aquifer’s Quantity And Quality


The sustainability of water quality depends on the level of abstraction and recharge rate. If
ground water is abstracted at a rate greater than its natural replenishment rate, then the
water table lowers and the project will not be sustainable. Based on the yields of the
boreholes in the area, the proposed abstraction of 20m3/day based on a 10 hour pumping
regime is not expected to have any major impact on the aquifers, as the aquifer is expected
to be quit productive.

The water quality will mainly depend on the host rock and construction design. Overall, the
expected impacts resulting from the borehole to the environment and their mitigation
measures will be adequately addressed by the Environmental Impact Assessment Study
allready conducted

9.5 Impacts on Existing Boreholes In The Area:


It is noteworthy that the borehole examined in this study area is more than 7km away from
the proposed drill site. Therefore we do not expect any negative impacts on any other
existing borehole within the vicinity.

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

10 CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS

10.1 General
Insufficient water-quality data have hampered conclusive analysis of the
geological influence on groundwater in some parts of the area. High fluoride
contents and total dissolved solids around the West pokot area, as compared to
other areas, indicate an anomaly that has not yet been explained. While the
metamorphic rocks are relatively poor in terms of groundwater quantity and quality,
they have a useful function as barriers to water that percolates through the
relatively impermeable overlying metamorphic rocks. Where the contact is
exposed along the tongues of the volcanic flows, springs have developed within
the North rift. These springs have been the main sources of water supply some
areas, hence the significant positive influence of the metamorphic rocks on
groundwater storage.

10.2 Conclusion.
Based on the collected and analyzed data, the hydro geological prevailing conditions it can be
concluded as follows:-
1 There are good prospects of striking Groundwater within the investigated site.
2 Water from this borehole is expected to be of fair quality; and slightly brackish
3 Information from the existing boreholes suggests that the locality has moderate to
poor ground water potential.
4 The yield of a borehole drilled in the general area is expected to vary between 1
and 5 m3/hr and sometimes dry!.
5 Water occurrence is within the fractured politic-gneisses of the basement contact
zone

10.3 Recommendations:
Based on the above, it is recommended that:-
1 The study recommends that a borehole be drilled at the site designated as VES IV
ORWA, to an approximate depth of 150-metres below ground level: this will be
sufficient for a sustainable yield of approximately 3m3/hr. It is however expected that
if drilling proceeds to bottom with good construction and borehole design, more than
4 m3/hr can reasonably be attained.
2 It should be lined with appropriate casings and screens.
3 It should be protected from possible sources of contamination by grouting a certain
length of the borehole from the ground surface.
4 The borehole should be properly gravel packed to enhance yield.
5 The drilling and test pumping should be supervised by water office.
6 Upon completion, the borehole should be fitted with an airline/ piezometre and a
master meter to facilitate monitoring of static water level and groundwater
abstractions respectively.
7 A two (2) litres water sample of this water is to be collected in a clean container and
be taken to any competent water testing authority for a full chemical, physical and
bacteriological analysis.

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

8 It is a legal requirement, stipulated in the water act 2002,that the client applies for a
ground water permit from the Water Resources Management Authority (WRMA) to
sink a borehole. For this purpose, three signed copies of the present report must be
submitted to the authority by the consultant for examination and approval.
10.4 Further Recommendations:
1 The site is known to the chairman, committee of Orwa water Project and the World
Vision, ORWA IPA WASH Engineer
2 The site is accessible by a drilling rig as it is plain and road infrastructure leading to
the site is motorable.
3 To achieve and maintain a high yield, and maximize the efficiency of the borehole, the
importance of proper design and construction methods cannot be overemphasized.
4 The water quality of the proposed borehole is expected to be palatable, though
slightly brackish.

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

11.0 APPENDIX
DRILLING METHODS/ TECHNIQUE

Drilling should be carried out with an appropriate tool-either percussion or rotary machine.
The latter are considerably faster. Geological rock samples should be collected at 2- metres
intervals. Struck and Rest water levels and if possible, estimate of the yield of individual
aquifer encountered should also be noted.

Borehole Design
The design of the well should ensure that screens are placed against the optimum aquifer
zones. An experienced works drilling consultant/hydro geologist should make the final
design, and should make the main decision on the screen setting.

Casings and Screens


The well should be cased and screened with good quality screens, considering the depth of
the borehole, it is recommended to use steel casing and screens of 153/6” diameter. Slots
should be maximum 1mm in size.

We do not encourage the use of torch-cut steel well casing as screens. In general, its use
will;
• Reduce well efficiency (which leads to lower yield).
• Increase pumping costs through greater draw down;
• Increase maintenance costs and eventually
• Reduction of the potential effective life of the well.

Gravel Pack
The use of gravel pack is recommended within the aquifer zones, because the aquifer could
contain sands or silts which are finer than the screen slots size. An 8” (203mm) diameter
borehole screened at 6” (153mm) will leave an annular space of approximately 1”, which
should be sufficient. Should the slot size chosen to be too large, the well will pump sand
thus damaging the pumping plant and leading to gradual siltation of the well. The grain size
of the gravel pack should be having an average of 2-4mm.

Borehole Construction
Once the design has been agreed, constructions can proceed. In installing screens and
casing, centralizers at 6 metres interval should be used to ensure centrality within the
borehole. This is particularly important to insert the artificial gravel pack all around the
screen. If installed, gravel packed sections should be sealed off top and bottom with clay
(2m). The remaining annular space should be backfilled with an insert material and the top
five meters grouted with cement to ensure that no surface water at the well head can enter
the well and thus prevent contamination.

Borehole Development
Development aims at;

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

• Repairing the damage done to the aquifer during the course of drilling by removing clays and
other additives from the borehole walls.
• Secondly, it alters the physical characteristics of the aquifer around the screen and removes
fine particles.
We do not advocate the use of over pumping as means of development since it only
increases permeability in zones, which are already permeable. Instead, we would
recommend the use of air or water jetting, or the use of the mechanical plunger, which
physically agitates the gravel pack and adjacent aquifer material. This is an extremely efficient
method of developing and cleaning wells.

Well development is an expensive element in the completion of a well, but is usually justified
in longer well life, greater efficiencies, lower operational and maintenance costs and a more
constant yield. Within this frame the pump should be installed at least 2m above the screen.

Borehole Testing
After development and preliminary tests, a long duration well test should be carried out on
all newly completed wells. This gives an indication of the quality of drilling, design and
development. It also yields information on aquifer parameters which are vital to the hydro
geologist. A well test consists of pumping a well from measured start level (water rest level
(WRL) at a known or measured yield, and simultaneously recording the discharge rate and
the resulting draw downs as a function of time. Once a dynamic water level (D.W.L) is
reached, the rate of flow to the well is equal to the rate of pumping. Towards the end of the
test a water sample of 2 litres should be collected for chemical analysis. The duration of the
test should be 24 hours; followed by recovery test until the initial W.R.L has been reached
(during which the rate of recovery to WRL is recorded.
The results of the test will enable the hydro geologist to calculate the following;
• Optimum pumping rate,
• Installation depth,
• Draw down for a given discharge rate.
• Pump size

WATER QUALITY

Classifications of Ground Water Quality

According to WHO (1984) water for human consumption should have a maximum TDS of
1000mg/1itre, see Table 5.1.

Table A1: WHO Water Quality Classification


TYPE OF WATER TDS (MG)
Fresh < 100
Brackish 1,000 – 10,000
Saline 10,000 – 100,000
Brine >100,000

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

A Guideline for Evaluating Water Quality

The guidelines given in Table 5.2 are used in evaluating the quality of groundwater.
Table 5.2: Water Quality Guidelines

PARAMETERS THRESH HOLD (Mg/1) LIMIT (Mg/1)


TDA 2500 5000
CALCIUM 500 1000
MAGNESIUM 250 500
SODIUM 1000 2000
BICARBONATE 500 1500
CHLORIDE 1500 3000
FLUORIDE 1 6
NITRATE 200 400
SULPHATE 500 1000
PH 6.0 – 8.5 5.6 – 9.0

Water from the proposed boreholes should be analyzed to ascertain its chemical,
bacteriological suitability before it is made available for domestic use.

Water Quality Protection


In order to protect the quality of the water, the borehole should be located as far as
possible from all sources of danger e.g. septic tanks, pit latrines, polluted water bodies e.t.c.

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Orwa Community Water and Sanitation Project, West Pokot Region Borehole Site Investigations

Well cover
Concrete slab

Sanitary casing

Groundlevel Schematic Design Groundlevel


for Borehole
CompletionCement grout

Inert backfill

Plain casing

Bentonite seal

Screens
2-4 mm Gravel pack

Bottom cap

NB: Not to scale

Schematic Design for Borehole completion

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