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ФГБОУ ВПО «НОВОСИБИРСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ АГРАРНЫЙ

УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»
ФАКУЛЬТЕТ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОГО И МУНИЦИПАЛЬНОГО УПРАВЛЕНИЯ
КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ

ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES

Методические указания по английскому языку для практических занятий студентов первого


курса всех направлений подготовки и уровней квалификации ФГБОУ ВПО «НГАУ»

НОВОСИБИРСК 2014

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УДК 802.0 (07)
ББК Ш 143-21, я 7

Редактор: Сементовская Е.Ю.


Рецензент: старший преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков
Комлева Н.А.

Сост.: Алишова З.М., Сементовская Е.Ю.

ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES


Методические указания по английскому языку. – Новосибирск, НГАУ, 2014 - 32 с.
Методические указания представляют собой сборник упражнений по грамматике английского
языка. Цель данных указаний – помочь студентам понять и закрепить основные
грамматические структуры английского языка. Данные методические указания предназначены
для практических занятий студентов первого курса всех направлений подготовки и уровней
квалификации ФГБОУ ВПО «НГАУ» и рассчитаны на изучение в одном семестре.

Утверждены и рекомендованы к изданию методической комиссией факультета


государственного и муниципального управления (протокол № 3 от 15.05 2012г.).

© ФГБОУ ВПО «Новосибирский государственный аграрный университет», 2014

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ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Методические указания предназначены для практических занятий студентов первого курса


всех направлений подготовки и уровней квалификации ФГБОУ ВПО «НГАУ» и рассчитаны на
изучение в одном семестре.
Цель методических указаний состоит в том, чтобы помочь студентам понять и закрепить
основные грамматические структуры английского языка и выработать у них необходимые
грамматические навыки. Методические указания представляют собой сборник упражнений по
следующим грамматическим темам: времена групп Simple, Continuous, Perfect в действительном
залоге, модальные глаголы, пассивная форма глагола. Методические указания состоят из 10
тематических разделов. Типичное содержание раздела:
- презентация теоретического материала в виде таблиц;
- простое и краткое объяснение грамматической структуры;
- примеры из современного английского языка;
- устные и письменные упражнения, побуждающие к активному освоению пройденного
материала;
- упражнения (Revision) на повторение и закрепление пройденного материала в заключении
каждого раздела;
- дополнительные упражнения (EXTRA), позволяющие варьировать в случае необходимости
продолжительность курса обучения и использовать дифференцированный подход в обучении
студентов грамматике английского языка.
Методические указания направлены на целевое формирование иноязычной коммуникативной
компетенции (речевой, языковой, социокультурной, компенсаторной и учебно-познавательной),
на формирование общекультурных компетенции по ФГОС ВПО: владение иностранным языком
на уровне не ниже разговорного (ОК-15); владение иностранным языком достаточным для
профессионального общения, владение иностранным языком на уровне бытового общения,
владение пониманием основной терминологии сферы профессиональной деятельности (ОК–
10); способность к письменной и устной коммуникации на иностранном языке (ОК–17).

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СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

Предисловие…………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
Unit 1 Present simple………………………………………………………………………………... 5
Unit 2 Past simple………………………………………………………………………………….... 6
Unit 3 Future simple…………………………………………………………………………………. 8
Revision: Present Simple, Past Simple, Future Simple ……………………………………………… 9
Unit 4 Present Continuous………………………………………………………………………….. 9
Unit 5 Past Continuous…………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Unit 6 Future continuous…………………………………………………………………………… 13
Revision: Present Continuous, Past Continuous, Future Continuous………………………………….14
EXTRA: Present Simple or Present Continuous…………………. …………………………………...14
EXTRA: Past Simple or Past Continuous……………………….......................................................... 15
Unit 7 Present Perfect Simple……………………………………………………………………... 16
EXTRA: Present tenses………………………………………………………………………………. 19
Unit 8 Past Perfect………………………………………………………………………………….. 19
Unit 9 Future Perfect………………………………………………………………………………. 20
Revision: Present perfect, Past perfect, Future perfect………...…………………………………… 21
EXTRA: Past Simple or Present Perfect Simple…………………………………………………… 21
EXTRA: ALL TENSES………………………………………………………………………………. 22
Unit 10 MODAL VERBS ……………………………………………………………………………23
EXTRA: Modal verbs…………………………………………………………………………………. 26
Unit 11 Passive Voice…………………………………………... …………………………………. 27
Revision: All active & passive tenses, modal verbs…………………………………………………. 29
EXTRA: All active & passive tenses, modal verbs………………………………………………….. 29
Список литературы………………………………………………………………………………….. 31

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Unit 1. Present simple
Positive and negative Question
I
We
You live (don’t live). Where do you (we, they, I) live?
They
He
She lives (doesn’t live). Where does he (she, it) live?
It
Short answers
Do you like Peter? - Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. Does she speak French? - Yes, she does. / No, she doesn’t.
Use
1. Present Simple используется для выражения привычек, повторяющихся действий, которые
происходят: регулярно (regularly), всегда (always), часто (often), обычно (usually, normally).
I get up at 7.30. I travel a lot.
2. Present Simple используется для выражения общеизвестных, всегда правдивых фактов,
непреложных истин и законов природы.
The sun rises in the East. We come from Russia.
3. Present Simple выражает факты каждодневной жизни, которые являются правдой на
протяжении длительного времени, постоянные состояния.
I live in Novosibirsk. She works in an office.
4. Present Simple выражает будущие действия, если речь идёт о расписаниях и программах.
The bus leaves at nine o’clock. (timetable) The film starts in ten minutes. (cinema programme).

Spelling of the third person singular


1. Most verbs add –s in the third person singular: wear – wears, speak – speaks, live – lives
But go and do are different. They add – es: go – goes, do – does
2. If the verb ends in -s, -sh, - ch, add –es: kiss – kisses, wash – washes, watch – watches
3. If the verb ends in a consonant + y, the y changes to –ies: fly – flies, study – studies
But if the verb ends in a vowel +y, the y doesn’t change: play – plays
4. The verb have is irregular: have - has

Exercises
1. Write the he/she/it form of these verbs.
1. read______ 2. listen______2. push______ 4. kiss _____ 5. dry_______ 6. love_______
7. do_______ 8. buy______ 9. watch_____ 10. have ______ 11. think______ 12. go_______
2. Complete the sentences. Use the correct form of these verbs:
boil close cost x 2 go have like meet open smoke speak teach wash
1. She’s very clever. She speaks four languages. 2. Steve ______________ ten cigarettes a day. 3. We
usually _________________ dinner at 7 o’clock. 4. I ____________ films. I often ___________ to the
cinema. 5. Water ____________ at 100 degrees Celsius. 6. In Britain the banks ______________ at
9.30 in the morning. 7. The City Museum ____________ at 5 o’clock every evening. 8. Food is
expensive. It _______________ a lot of money. 9. Shoes are expensive. They ____________ a lot of
money. 10. Tina is a teacher. She ___________ mathematics to young children. 11. Your job is very
interesting. You _________ a lot of people. 12. Peter ______________ his hair twice a week.
3. Write the negative.
1. I play the piano very well. ___________________________________________________________

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2. Jack plays the piano very well. Jack ___________________________________________ very well.
3. You know the answer. ______________________________________________________________
4. She works very hard. _______________________________________________________________
5. They do the same thing every day. ____________________________________________________
4. You are asking somebody questions. Write questions with do/does?
1. I work hard. And you? Do you work hard?
2. I play tennis. And you? _____ you _________________________________________________?
3. I play tennis. And Ann? ________ Ann ______________________________________________?
4. I like hot weather. And you? _______________________________________________________?
5. I drink coffee. And your father? ____________________________________________________?
6. I speak English. And your friends? __________________________________________________?
These questions begin with Where/What/How.....?
7. I wash my hair twice a week. (how often/ you?) How often do you wash your hair?
8. I live in London. (where / you?) Where _______________________________________________?
9. I watch TV every day. (how often / you?) _____________________________________________?
10. I have lunch at home. (where / you?)_________________________________________________?
11. I get up at 7.30. (what time/ you?)___________________________________________________?
12. I go to work by bus. (how / you?)___________________________________________________?
5. Make up questions to the underlined words.
1. He likes to take pictures of his friends._________________________________________________?
2. Pete never shares his thoughts with anybody.____________________________________________?
3. Jane always spends her holiday with her family. (What)___________________________________?
4. Ann has a new flat. ________________________________________________________________?
5. I like fishing in the river in summer.___________________________________________________?
6. Complete the sentences. Use the appropriate auxiliary verbs and the words in brackets.
Example: How often does she go to the theatre? (she, go)
1. What time _________________________? (the train, leave) 2. My brother
________________________ at home. (not live) 3. Where ___________________________ from?
(you, come) 4. I ______________ Jill ______ me very much. (not think, like) 5. What time
___________________________ after work? (Ken, get home) 6. Jane _________________ Calgary in
Canada. (come, from) 7. How many languages ____________________? (you, speak) 8. Anne
_______________ coffee, but she _______________ tea. (not drink, like)
7. Vocabulary: daily routines
What do you do first in the day? What do you do next? Use your dictionary and number the activities in
the correct order for you.
have lunch cook dinner have a shower watch television get up
have breakfast read a book start work go to bed
arrive home finish work get dressed leave home go to work

Unit 2. Past Simple


Positive, negative and question
finished
I, he, she, it, we, you, they went yesterday.
worked
finish
I, he, she, it, we, you, they didn’t (did not) go yesterday.
work

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When did I, he, she, it, we, you, they go yesterday?
Short answers
Did you work yesterday? - Yes, I did. / No, I didn’t. Did it rain last night? - Yes, it did. / No, it didn’t.
Use
1. Past Simple используется для выражения законченного в прошлом действия, произошедшего
в указанное время. We played tennis last Sunday. John left 2 minutes ago.
2. Past Simple употребляется для описания последовательных событий в рассказе.
First, they had lunch. Then, they watched TV.

Exercises
1. Complete these sentences. Use one of these verbs in the past simple:
clean finish live open play rain smoke start want watch
1. Yesterday evening I watched_ television. 2. I ______________ my teeth three times yesterday. 3.
Bernard _____________ 20 cigarettes yesterday evening. 4. The concert last night _______________
at 7.30 and _____________ at 10 o’clock. 5. When I was a child, I _______________ to be a doctor. 6.
Mozart _______________ from 1756 to 1791. 7. Today the weather is nice, but yesterday it
_____________. 8. It was hot in the room, so I _______________ the window. 9. The weather was
good yesterday afternoon, so we _____________ tennis.
2. Write sentences about the past (yesterday/last week, etc.).
1. He always goes to work by bus. Yesterday he went to work by bus. 2. They always get up early.
This morning they ___________________________________. 3. Bill often loses his keys. He
____________________________________ last Saturday. 4. She meets her friends every evening. She
_______________________________ yesterday evening. 5. I usually read two newspapers every day.
__________________________________________ yesterday. 6. They come to my house every
Friday. Last Friday ________________________________________.7. We usually go to the cinema
on Sunday. ________________________________________ last Sunday. 8. Tom always has a shower
in the morning. ________________________________________ this morning. 9. They buy a new car
every year. Last yeаr __________________________________________. 10. I eat an orange every
day. Yesterday _________________________________________. 11. We usually do our shopping on
Monday. ________________________________________ last Monday. 12. Ann often takes
photographs. Last weekend ______________________________________.
3. Complete these sentences with the verb in the negative.
1. I saw John but I didn’t see Mary. 2. They worked on Monday but they ____________________ on
Tuesday. 3. We went to the shop but we ________________ to the bank. 4. She had a pen but she
_____________________ any paper. 5. Jack did French at school but he _________________ German.
4. You are asking somebody questions. Write questions with Did......?
1. I watched TV last night. And you? Did you watch TV last night? 2. I enjoyed the party. And your
sister? _________ she ____________________________________? 3. I had a good holiday. And your
friends?_________________________________________________? 4. I got up early this morning.
And you? _________________________________________________? 5. I slept well last night. And
you? _________________________________________________?
5. What did you do yesterday? (Your sentence can be positive or negative.) 1. (watch TV) I
watched TV yesterday or I didn’t watch TV yesterday 2. (get up before 7.30) I
_______________________________ 3. (have a shower) I ____________________________ 4. (buy
a magazine) __________________________5. (speak English) _____________________________ 6.
(do an examination) _________________________________ 7. (eat meat) ______________________
8. (go to bed before 10.30) __________________________________________________
6. Write questions with Who/What/How/Why.....?

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1. I met somebody. Who did you meet? 2. Jenny arrived. What time ______ Jenny ___________? 3. I
saw somebody. Who _______ you _____________? 4. They wanted something. What
________________________? 5. The meeting finished. What time __________________________?
6. Pet went home early. Why ______________________? 7. We had dinner. What ________________
for dinner? 8. It cost a lot of money. How much __________________________?

Unit 3. Future Simple


Positive, negative and question
I, he, she, it, we, you, they will play football.
I, he, she, it, we, you, they will not (won’t) play football.
What will you/he play? Football
Will they/I/she play football? Yes, they will. / No, they won’t.
Use
1. Future Simple употребляется для выражения обычных, привычных (повторяющихся)
действий в будущем: Children will come to school again. Students will come to colleges.
2. Future Simple используют также для выражения не запланированных действий:
Oh, I’ve left the door open. I’ll go and shut it. (в данном случае нельзя использовать Present
Simple (I go…): I’ll go and shut the door. (not ’I go and shut’).
What would you like to drink? - I’ll have an orange juice, please.
Для запланированных действий используется Present Continuous: ‘Are you working tomorrow?’
(not ‘will you work’)

Exercises
1. Complete the sentences with will (’ll) + one of these verbs:
be x 2 come get like look meet pass
1. Don’t worry about your exam. I’m sure you’ll pass it. 2. Why don’t you try on this jacket? It
____________ nice on you. 3. You must meet George sometime. I think you ___________ him. 4. It’s
raining. Don’t go out. You ________________ wet. 5. They’ve invited me to their house. They
_______________ offended if I don’t go. 6. Goodbye. I expect we _______________ again before
long. 7. I’ve invited Sue to the party but I don’t think she _______________.
2. Put in will (’ll) or won’t.
1. Can you wait for me? I won’t be very long. 2. There’s no need to take an umbrella with you. It
______ rain. 3. If you don’t eat anything now, you ________ be hungry later. 4. I’m sorry about what
happened yesterday. It ______ happen again. 5. I’ve got some incredible news! You _______ never
believe what’s happened. 6. Don’t ask Margaret for advice. She ________ know what to do.
3. Read the situations and write sentences with I think I’ll... or I don’t think I’ll....
1. It’s a bit cold. You decide to close the window. You say: I think I’ll close the window. 2. You are
feeling tired and it’s quite late. You decide to go to bed. You say: I think
_____________________________________ 3. A friend of yours offers you a lift in his car but you
decide to walk. You say: Thank you but ______________________________ 4. You arranged to play
tennis today. Now you decide that you don’t want to play. You say: I don’t think
________________________________ 5. You were going to go swimming. Now you decide that you
don’t want to go. You say: __________________________________________
4. Are the underlined words right or wrong? Correct the sentences that are wrong.
1. I phone you tomorrow morning, okay? Wrong. — I’ll phone 2. I phone my sister every Friday.
Right. 3. I haven’t done the shopping yet. I do it later. ______________________________________

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4. ‘I don’t want to drive.’ — ‘Okay, I drive.’______________________________________ 5. ’How
do you usually go to work?’ — ‘I drive.’__________________________________________________
6. ’I haven’t got any money.’ — ‘I lend you some.’__________________________________________
5. Which form of the verb is correct (or more natural) in these sentences? Underline it.
1. Ann isn’t free on Saturday. She’ll work / She’s working. 2. I’ll go / I’m going to a party tomorrow
night. Would you like to come too? 3. I think Jane will get / is getting the job. She has a lot of
experience. 4. I can’t meet you this evening. A friend of mine will come / is coming to see me. 5. A:
Have you decided where to go for your holidays? B: Yes, we will go / we are going to Italy. 6. There’s
no need to be afraid of the dog. It won’t hurt / it isn’t hurting you.

Revision: Present Simple, Past Simple, Future Simple

1. What tense is it? (the Present Simple, the Past Simple or the Future Simple). Translate the
sentences into Russian.
1. They didn’t get married 10 years ago; they got married 15 years ago. 2. She earns a lot of money. 3.
Laura saw the film. It was interesting. 4. My husband returned from work. He was tired. 5. Pat will
travel by car. It will be exciting. 6. Hill kicks the ball and passes it to Beckham. It is the fantastic goal!
7. The prince won’t tell her the news. 8. I don’t believe you! 9. We had lunch. 10. They don’t often
visit their relatives.
2. Translate into English.
1. Мы играем в теннис каждое воскресенье. 2. Я часто читаю книги. 3. Моя мама видела её
вчера. 4. Что вы делали вчера? 5. Они прочитают эти книги в следующем году. 6. Я пойду и
закрою окно.7. Мы не изучали английский язык в школе.8. Мне не нравятся большие города. 9.
Как часто ты смотришь телевизор? 10. Вчера погода была хорошей.11. Я вчера играл в теннис,
но не выиграл.12. Мы сегодня встали поздно.13. На прошлой неделе я написал письмо
Джейн.14. Ты придешь завтра?15. Где ты купил эту вещь?

Unit 4. Present Continuous


Positive and negative Questions
I’m (am not) working. am I
He’s (isn’t) working. is he
She’s (isn’t) working. What is she wearing?
It’s (isn’t) working. is it
We’re (aren’t) working. are we
You’re (aren’t) working. are you
They’re (aren’t) working. are they
Short answers
“Are you going?”- “Yes, I am”. /”No, I’m not”. “Is Anna working?”-“Yes, she is.”/ “No, she isn’t”.
Use
1. Present Continuous используется для описания действия, происходящего в момент речи.
She can’t answer the phone because she is washing her hair.
2. Present Continuous используется для выражения действия, которое происходит не только в
настоящий момент, но и в настоящий более широкий отрезок времени и является более важным
для говорящего, чем другие действия, которые происходят в этот отрезок времени.
She’s studying Maths at university. She is collecting documents to study in England. (для нее в
этот отрезок времени это самое главное)

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3. Present Continuous употребляется для выражения запланированных договоренностей в
ближайшем будущем. Выполнение этих договоренностей зависит от говорящего:
They are buying a new car next month. = Они покупают новую машину в следующем месяце.
(выполнение этого мероприятия зависит только от них) He is leaving tomorrow. = Он уезжает
завтра. (это зависит только от него)
Сравните: The train leaves at 6 p.m. = Поезд отправится в 6 вечера. (отправление поезда
зависит только от расписания, и в этом случае употребляется Present Simple). To have в
значение «иметь, обладать» не употребляется в Present Continuous. I have a lot of spare time at
the moment. Когда have является частью устойчивого выражения: to have dinner – обедать, to
have a party - организовать вечеринку, to have nice time - хорошо провести время, тогда have
можно употребить в Present Continuous: They are having dinner now.

Spelling of verb + -ing


1. Most verbs add –ing: wear – wearing go – going cook – cooking hold – holding
2. If the infinitive ends in a silent –e, drop the – e: write – writing smile – smiling take – taking
But: be - being
3. When a one-syllable verb has one vowel and ends in a consonant, double the final consonant:
sit – sitting get – getting run – running
Exercises
1. Complete the sentences. Use am/is/are + one of these verbs:
building coming having playing cooking standing swimming
1. Listen! Pat is playing the piano. 2. They ______________ a new hotel in the city centre at the
moment. 3. Look! Somebody _________________ in the river. 4. ’You ___________________ on my
foot.’ – ‘Oh, I’m sorry.’ 5. Hurry up! The bus _______________________. 6. ‘Where are you,
George?’ - ‘In the kitchen. I _____________ a meal.’ 7. (On the telephone) ‘Hello. Can I speak to Ann,
please?’ – ‘She ___________________ a shower at the moment. Can you phone again later?’
2. What’s happening at the moment? Write true sentences.
1. (I/wash my hair) I’m (not) washing my hair. 2. (It/snow) _______________________ 3. (I/sit/on
a chair) ___________________________ 4. (I/eat) ____________________________ 5. (It/rain)
__________________________ 6. (I/learn English) _____________________________7. (I/listen to
the radio) ______________________________ 8. (The sun/shine) _________________________9.
(I/wear shoes) ________________________10. (I/smoke a cigarette)________________________ 11.
(I/read a newspaper) _____________________________
3. Ask the questions. (Read the answers to the questions first.)
1. (You/watch/TV?) Are you watching TV? - No, you can turn it off. 2. (the children/play?)
__________________________________ - No, they’re sleeping. 3. (What/you/do?)
______________________________ - I’m cooking my dinner. 4. (What/Rad/do?)
______________________________ - He’s having a bath. 5. (It/rain?)_________________________ -
No, not at the moment. 6. (that clock/work?)_____________________________________ - No, it’s
broken. 7. (you/write/a letter) ___________________________________ - Yes, to my sister. 8.
(why/you/run? ___________________________________ - Because I’m late.

Present Continuous (I am doing) or Present Simple (I do)


Present Continuous Present Simple
The kettle is boiling. Can you turn it off, please? Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.
‘Where’s Tom?’- ‘He’s playing tennis.’ Tom plays tennis every Saturday.
‘What are you doing here?’ What do you do? = What’s your job?

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Present Continuous описывает временные события, а Present Simple описывает постоянные
события:
I’m living in a hostel until I can find a flat. My parents live in London. They have lived there all their
lives. ‘You’re working hard today.’ - ‘Yes, I’ve got a lot to do.’ John isn’t lazy. He works very hard
most of the time.
Некоторые глаголы используются только во временах группы Simple.
want like belong know suppose remember need love see
realize mean forget prefer hate hear seem understand
think (=думать) believe (=считать, полагать) have (=иметь)
Do you like Novosibirsk? (not ‘are your liking’) I don’t understand. (not ‘I’m not understanding’)
What do you think Tom will do? (= What do you believe he will do? = Как ты
думаешь/считаешь…?) But: What are you thinking about? (= What is going in your mind? = О чем
ты думаешь (задумался)?

Exercises
1. Choose the correct verb form. Underline it.
a. He is smoking/smokes 20 cigarettes a day. b. What are you looking/do you look at? c. ’Excuse me.
Are you speaking/Do you speak French?’- ‘No, but I’m speaking/ speak a little German.’ d. ’Come
and have a drink.’- ‘I’m sorry, I can’t just now. I’m working/work.’ e. ’Why are you driving/do drive
so fast?’- Because we’re late.’ f. I’m going/go dancing every Friday night. g. ‘Do you often travel/Are
you often traveling abroad.’ - ‘Four or five times a year.’ h. Do you spell/Are you spelling your name
with one ‘n’ or two? i. ‘What are you thinking/do you think about? - ‘I’m not going to tell you!’ j.
Water is boiling/boils at 100 degrees Centigrade. k. Can I turn off the TV? You aren’t watching/don’t
watch it.
2. Put the verbs in the correct tense.
Example: My wife normally works at home, but she is spending this month in Nottingham. She is
teaching in a summer school there. (work, spend, teach)
1. A: Look, it____________________again. B: Yes, it_______________most days at this time of year.
(rain, rain) 2. Good night, I ______________________ to bed. I always ________________ to bed
early during the week. (go, go) 3. A: Where are the children? B: They _____________________ in the
garden. They _____________________ home from school at about four and usually
___________________ straight out to play with their friends. (play, get, go) 4. We usually
____________________ the news on TV at seven o’clock, but tonight we _________________ that
new soap opera. (watch, watch).
3. Use the Present Simple or the Present Continuous (for the future).
1. I know that he (leave) __________________ for the village tomorrow. 2. I am not going (have)
___________________ a car much longer. I (sell) __________________ it next week. 3. The next
train (leave) __________________ Tonbridge at 6 o’clock. You can still catch it. 4. Ted (come)
__________________ here this morning? 5. Duncan said: ‘I (go) _____________________ to the
University tomorrow. The term (begin) ____________________ soon. 6. What you (do)
______________________ tonight?
UNIT 5. Past Continuous
Positive and negative Question
I was (wasn’t) working I
He was (wasn’t) working he
She was (wasn’t) working. What was she doing?
It was (wasn’t) working it

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We were (weren’t) working. we
You were (weren’t) working. What were you doing?
They were (weren’t) working. they
Short answers: ‘Were you working yesterday?’ - ‘Yes, I was.’/ ’No, I wasn’t.’
Use
Past Continuous используется для описания длительных действий в прошлом. ‘What were you
doing at 9.00 last night?’ - ‘I was watching TV.’ (I started watching before 9.00, and continued after
9.00.)
Past Simple and Past Continuous
1. Past Continuous: I was doing my homework at 7.00 last night. (= I was in the middle of the
activity.) = делал
Past Simple: I did my homework last night. (= I started and finished.) = сделал
2. Past Simple + Past Continuous:
I was doing my homework, when Jack arrived. When the teacher arrived, the students were talking.
(Doing my homework и talking – длительные действия, которые были прерваны. Используйте
Past Continuous для описания длительных действий и Past Simple для описания действий,
прерывающих длительные.)
The moon was shining through the window. James Bond came into the room and sat down on the bed.
(В рассказах Past Continuous часто используется для описания сцены, фона, Past Simple
описывает происходящее.)
3. Past Simple + Past Simple: The teacher arrived. Then they started the lesson. (Past Simple
показывает, что действия произошли одно за другим).

Exercises
1. Decide which is correct verb form. Underline it.
a. I saw/was seeing a very good program on TV last night. b. While I shopped/was shopping this
morning, I lost/ was losing my money. I don’t know how. c. Last week the police stopped/were
stopping Alan in his car because he traveled/was traveling at over eighty miles an hour. d. A: How did
you cut/were you cutting your finger? B: I cooked/ was cooking and I dropped the knife.
2. Put the verb in brackets in the correct verb form, the Past Simple or the Past Continuous.
a. While I ___________________ (come) to work this morning, I ____________________ (meet) an
old friend. b. I ___________________ (not want) to get up this morning. It ____________________
(rain) and it was cold, and my bed was so warm. c. I __________________ (listen) to the news on the
radio when the phone ___________________ (ring). d. But when I ___________________ (pick) up
the phone, there was no one there. e. I said ‘Hello’ to the children, but they didn’t say anything because
they _____________________ (watch) television. f. We were in a very difficult position. We
___________________ (not/know) what to do. g. How fast ___________________ (you/drive) when
the accident ____________________ (happen)? h. I _________________ (walk) along the street when
suddenly I __________________ (hear) footsteps behind me. Somebody __________________
(follow) me. I was frightened and I ___________________ (start) to run.
3. Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. Use the Past Continuous.
a. Tom burnt his hand while he was cooking the dinner. b. The doorbell rang while I
____________________________.c. We saw an accident while we ________________________. d.
Mary fell asleep while she ___________________________. e. The television was on but nobody
_____________________.
4. Put the verb in brackets in the correct tense (the Past Simple or the Past Continuous).
Example: I was working upstairs when the accident happened. (work, happen) 1. He ____________
the book and _____________ to read (open, start). 2. We ______________ the film, when suddenly the

12
electricity _____________ off. (enjoy, go) 3. When she ____________ the news, she ______________
to cry. (hear, begin) 4. Everyone _____________ quietly. Suddenly they ___________ a noise. (talk,
hear) 5. When I _____________ the doorbell, I _____________ downstairs. (hear, run) 6. The
translator _____________ the contract when the manager _______________. (check, call) 7. The
students _______________ a test when the bell _______________. (write, ring) 8. The thieves
_______________ while we _____________. (break in, sleep) 9. Someone _______________ with my
clothes while I ______________. (run off, swim) 10. I _____________ in the supermarket when I
____________ my purse. (shop, lose) 11. He _______________ tennis when he _____________ his
leg. (play, break) 12. I first _____________ my wife when we ____________ in London. (meet, work).

Unit 6. Future continuous

Positive and negative Question


I, he, she, it, we, you, they will be working. What will I, he, she, it, we, you, they be doing?
I, he, she, it, we, you, they won’t be working
Short answer:
‘Will you be watching TV from 5 to 6?’ – ‘Yes, I will.’/ ‘No, I won’t’.
Use
Future Continuous употребляется для выражения действия, которое будет совершается,
протекать в то или иное время в будущем. Эта форма выражает действие, хотя и реальное, но
всего лишь планируемое, ожидаемое или предполагаемое.
‘I’m afraid I’ll be having a lecture at that time on Wednesday,’ she said. = “Боюсь, что у меня будет
лекция в это время в среду”, - ответила она.
Примечание:
1. В современной разговорной речи Рresent Continuous и Future Continuous могут быть
взаимозаменяемы.
He isn’t coming to the party. = Он не придет на вечер.
He will not be coming to the party. = Он не придет на вечер.
2. Следует иметь в виду, что Future Continuous имеет сравнительно узкую сферу употребления.

Exercises
1. Read and translate these sentences into Russian.
a. ’He’ll be leaving next week,’ John said. b. She says she’ll be having lunch in a café at that time. c.
We’ll be having coffee after dinner. d. ’Hurry up! The train will be leaving in a minute,’ Mary said. e.
Will you be staying here long? f. Will you be writing to her next week? g. Where will you be spending
your holiday?
2. Put the verb into the correct form (will be (do)ing or I’ll + a suitable verb).
1. Don’t phone me between 7 and 8. We’ll be having (we/have) dinner then. 2. Tomorrow afternoon
we’re going to play tennis from 3 o’clock until 4.30. So, at 4 o’clock ________________ (we/play)
tennis. 3. A: Can we meet tomorrow afternoon? B: Not in the afternoon. ______________________
(I/work). 4. I’m too tired to walk home. I think ________________ (I/get) a taxi. 5. A: We haven’t got
any milk.B: Oh, haven’t we? ________________ (I/go) and get some. 6. If you need to contact me,
_________________ (I/stay) at the Lion Hotel until Friday. 7. A: Would you like tea or coffee? B:
_________________ (I/have) coffee, please. 8. Thank you for lending me your camera.
_________________ (I/give) it back to you on Monday, OK? 9. A: Is it all right if I come at about
8.30? B: No, I ________________ (I/watch) the football then. 10. That bag looks heavy.
______________ (I/help) you with it.

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3. Put the verb into the most suitable form. Use a present tense (simple or continuous), will (’ll)
or shall.
Conversation 1 (in the morning)
Jenny: Are you doing (you/do) anything tomorrow evening, Helen?
Helen: No, why?
Jenny: Well, do you fancy going to the cinema? ‘Strangers on a Plane’ is on. I want to see it but I
don’t want to go alone.
Helen: OK, _____________ (I/come) with you. What time _____________ (we/meet)?
Jenny: Well, the film __________________ (begin) at 8.45, so ____________________ (I/meet) you
at about 8.30 outside the cinema, OK?
Helen: Fine. _______________ (I/see) Mary later this evening.
_____________________ (I/ask) her if she wants to come too?
Jenny: Yes, do that. ____________________ (I/see) you tomorrow then. Bye.

Conversation 2 (later that day)


Helen: Jenny and I _________________ (go) to the cinema tomorrow night to see ‘Strangers on a
Plane’. Why don’t you come with us?
Mary: I’d love to come. What time __________________ (the film/begin)?
Helen: 8.45.
Mary: ___________________ (you/meet) outside the cinema?
Helen: Yes, at 8.30. Is that OK for you?
Mary: Yes, __________________ (I/be) there at 8.30.

Revision: Present Continuous, Past Continuous, Future Continuous


1. What tense is it? (the Present Continuous, the Past Continuous or the Future Continuous).
Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. He wasn’t at home at 6 o’clock yesterday evening. He was swimming in the pool. 2. They are
using a computer. 3. Susan is looking at some photos. 4. This time tomorrow I will be driving home.
5. He is having lunch now. 6. They aren’t doing their homework. 7. We won’t be playing tennis
tomorrow from two to five. 8. Our friends weren’t living in Novosibirsk this time last year; they were
living and working in the USA. 9. I am studying English grammar now. 10. We aren’t dancing at the
moment.
2. Translate these sentences into English.
1. Он будет работать завтра в 5 часов. 2. В субботу у нас вечеринка. 3. Я шёл домой, когда
встретил Дэйва. 4. Ты сегодня много работаешь. 5. Смотри! Этот мужчина пытается открыть
дверь нашей машины. 6. Я голоден. Я хочу что-нибудь поесть. 7. Я видел тебя в парке вчера. Ты
сидел на траве и читал книгу. 8. Завтра в 10 часов она будет в офисе. Она будет работать. 9. Он
собирается посмотреть новости. 10. Мы работали в саду с трех до четырёх часов. 11. Они
играют в футбол в понедельник. 12. Что ты делаешь? - Я делаю домашнюю работу. 13. Мои
родители строят новый дом. 14. Мы будем смотреть телевизор с девяти до одиннадцати часов.
15. Ты понимаешь меня?

EXTRA: Present Simple or Present Continuous


1. Read the text about country life in Australia and complete the gaps with a verb given in
brackets in the correct form of the Present simple or the Present Continuous.
Sarah Davis 1) ____________ (live) in Dalton, Australia, where her parents 2) _____________ (own) a
sheep farm. She 3) ____________ (like) her life on the farm.

14
At the moment their father, Jack Davis, 4) ________________ (work) in the wool shed. It’s the sheep-
shearing season and six men 5) _________________ (shear) his sheep. He 6) __________________
(sort) the good wool from the bad wool and 7) _________________ (put) it into two piles. Sarah 8)
__________________ (help) her Dad. She 9) __________________ (take) the good wool to the wool-
store. The work in the wool-shed 10) __________________ (be) hard, but Sarah and her brother, Jeff,
11) _________________ (not mind) because it 12) ________________ (be) good fun. The sheep-
shearing 13) _________________ (happen) once a year. Jeff 14) __________________ (enjoy)
working with the animals. When he 15) __________________ (not help) his father, he 16)
__________________ (read) books about farming. He 17) __________________ (go) to university
next year to study farming.
2. Correct the wrong statements about the Davis family using negative sentences like this:
Sarah lives in a city. No, she doesn’t, she lives in a small country town.
1. Sarah’s father is a veterinary doctor. 2. Her parents own a goat farm. 3. Sarah has a sister. 4. At the
moment Sarah is working with her mother. 5. Jeff is going to study German next year. 6. Sarah is
carrying the bad wool to the wool-store.
3. Read the letter from Richard to Martin. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present simple or
the Present Continuous.
Dear Martin,
How are you and Sally? I 1) _______________ (hope) you’re well. I 2) _________________ (write) to
give you some good news. I have got a summer job for the holidays! I 3) _________________ (repair)
telephone lines for a telephone company.
I 4) _________________ (usually/ride) my bicycle to work because it’s only a ten minute ride from
home. We 5) _________________ (start) work at 8:30. We 6) _______________ (finish) at 4:30 on
Mondays to Thursdays, but at 2:30 on Fridays, so I 7) _________________ (have) long weekends.
I 8) __________________ (work) very hard at the moment. To tell you the truth, I 9)
________________ (be) a bit nervous because my boss 10) _________________ (leave) for Scotland
on business next week, so I’ll be on my own. Lizzie says I 11) ______________ (worry) about it too
much. She’s probably right!
Please write with your news. Say hello to Sally for me.
Yours,
Richard

EXTRA: Past Simple or Past Continuous


1. Read the text about a very strange incident happened in Gulf Breeze, a town in the USA, and
complete the gaps with a verb given in brackets in the correct form of the Past simple or the Past
Continuous.
It 1) _________________ (be) seven o’clock in the evening. Two friends, Ed Walters and Charlie
Bennett, 2) __________________ (walk) through the park. They 3) __________________ (go) home.
They 4) ________________ (talk) and 5) ________________ (laugh). Suddenly the sky 6)
____________________ (go) very dark. Charlie 7) __________________ (look) up and said. ‘it’s
going to rain’. Then Ed 8) _________________ (hear) a loud bang and the sky 9)
___________________ (go) bright green. He 10) _________________ (think) he 11)
__________________ (dream). There 12) _________________ (be) a huge, shiny spaceship just above
their heads. It 13) ___________________ (not move). It 14) ____________________ (pull) them off
the ground. Seconds later they 15) _________________ (be) inside it. Twenty strange creatures 16)
_________________ (look) at them. They all 17) ________________ (have) wrinkled skin and hands

15
like pincers. They 18) __________________ (not hurt) Charlie and Ed. They 19)
___________________ (smile) and they 20) __________________ (seem) very friendly. Charlie and
Ed don’t know how long they 21) _________________ (be) in space, but they think the spaceship 22)
________________ (move). Suddenly the door 23) __________________ (open) underneath them.
They 24) __________________ (fall) out of the spaceship onto the ground. They 25)
__________________ (be) back in the park again. Charlie and Ed just 26) ________________ (stare)
at each other. They 27) _________________ (shake) because they 28) __________________ (be) so
scared. Then they 29) _________________ (run) home as fast as they 30) _________________ (can).
That’s all the boys can remember. They say they know it sounds crazy but it’s the truth.
2. Correct the wrong statements about Ed Walters and Charlie Bennett:
The incident happened late at night. No, it didn’t, it happened at seven o’clock in the evening.
1. Charlie heard a loud bang. 2. Ed and Charlie were playing football in the park. 3. The aliens were
unfriendly. 4. The sky went dark red. 5. The boys could remember everything in detail. 6. The
kidnapping happened in the UK. 7. Charlie and Ed were happy.
3. Read the letter from Kevin to Rick. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past simple or the Past
Continuous.
Dear Rick,
I’m writing to you from my hotel in Switzerland. I’m having a lovely time here but you can’t imagine
what 1) _______________ (happen) to me yesterday. I 2) _________________ (be) on the mountain
with my friends and we 3) __________________ (have) a lovely time because the snow 4)
________________ (be) perfect for skiing. Unfortunately the sun 5) ________________ (shine) on the
snow, so it 6) ________________ (be) difficult to see. Suddenly, I 7) _______________ (hit) a rock
and I 8) ________________ (fall) over. Luckily I 9) _______________ (not/be) seriously hurt – I just
10) ________________ (get) a few bruises. Now I’m trying to be more careful!
I’ll see you when I get back.
Best wishes,
Kevin

Unit 7. Present Perfect Simple


Positive and negative
I, we, you, they ’ve (have) haven’t bought a phone.
He, she, it, ’s (has) hasn’t worked in a factory.
Question
Where have you been?
Short answers:
‘Have you been to Egypt?’ – ‘Yes, I have.’ / ’No, I haven’t.’
‘Has she ever written poetry?’ – ‘Yes, she has.’ / ‘No, she hasn’t.’
Use
Present Perfect Past Simple
1. Результат имеем сейчас, не важно, когда 1. Самое важное, когда произошло действие.
произошло действие. Her son got a place at the institute in 1997.
I’m happy because my son has got a place at the
institute.
2. Present Perfect обозначает период 2. Past Simple используется для обозначения
времени, который начался в прошлом и законченного периода времени в прошлом -
продолжался до настоящего момента (то есть yesterday, last year, in 1947.
когда мы начали об этом говорить). Этот Действия произошли и закончились тогда

16
период выражен такими обозначениями (then), в то время (at that time), и нет связи с
времени: just, already, ever, never, yet, настоящим.
recently, lately, of late, so far, this morning, in I lived there when I was a child. (законченный
the last few days. период времени в прошлом, нет связи с
They’ve just bought a new flat. Do you want to настоящим)
see it?
3. Указанный период времени еще не 3. Указанный период времени еще не
закончился. закончился, но указано место действия.
He has done a lot this year. I saw him at the Disco this week.
Present Perfect никогда не употребляется:
1. В вопросах начинающихся с вопросительных слов when, where, how: When did you see this
man? How did my friend find you? Where did they live? (Кроме вопроса ‘Where have you been?’,
если с этого вопроса начинается разговор.)
2. Когда описываются исторические события: The battle of Hastings took place in 1066.
3. Если есть точное указание, когда произошло событие: yesterday, 2 hours ago, in 1974, when
they were at school. They played football a lot, when they were at school.
Вместо Present Perfect во всех перечисленных случаях следует употреблять Past Simple.
При употреблении в разговорной речи Present Perfect используется в начале разговора
(репортажа). Весь последующий разговор (вопросы – ответы) передается в Past Simple.
A: Have you seen John?
B: Yes, I have.
A: Where did you see him?
B: I saw him in the street.

Exercises
1. Complete the sentences with a verb from the list. Use the Present Perfect (have/has + the past
participle of the verb).
break buy finish do go x 2 lose paint read take
1.’Are they still having dinner?’ - ‘No, they have finished. 2. I _______________ some shoes. Do you
want to see them? 3. ’_________ you _________ the shopping?’ - ‘No! I’m going to do it later.’ 4.
’Where’s your key?’ - ‘I don’t know. I ________________ it.’ 5. Look! Somebody
___________________ that window. 6. Your house looks different. ________ you ____________ it?
7. I can’t find my umbrella. Somebody __________________ it. 8. I’m looking for Sarra. Where
_______ she ____________? 9. ‘Do you want the newspaper?’ - ‘No, thanks. I _________ it.’
2. Mary is 65 years old. She has had an interesting life. Write sentences about the things she has
done. Use the Present Perfect.
1. she/do/many different jobs She has done many different jobs. 2. she/travel/to many places 3.
she/do/a lot of interesting things 4. she/write/ten books 5. she/meet/a lot of interesting people
3. Put the verb in brackets in the correct tense (the Present Perfect or the Past Simple).
1. Barbara Lively _______________ (write) a lot of books. She __________________ (write) her first
fifteen years ago. 2. _____________ you ever _____________ (try) French food? 3. He can’t call his
friend because he _______________ (lose) his note-book. 4. He ______________ (live) in London for
three years, and then in 2001 he _______________ (move) to Cardiff. 5. We _______________ (meet)
Tim and Maureen two years ago. How long _________ you _____________ (know) them? 6. What
____________ you _____________ (do) last night? 7. I _________________ (learn) English for two
years. 8. We ________________ (go) to London two years ago.

17
4. Put just/already/yet/for/since/never into each gap.
1. He’s worked there ________ many years, _________ 1976, I believe. 2. ‘Would you like something
to eat?’ – ‘No, thanks. I’ve ________ had lunch’. 3. ‘Is Ann coming to the cinema?’ – ‘No, she has
___________ seen the film’. 4. ‘What does Tim think about your plan?’ – ‘I haven’t told him
________’. 5. I haven’t seen Keith _________ a long time. 6. She has ________ been to France. 7. My
father has been the manager of this firm _________ ten years. 8. They are married. They have been
married _________ 1983. 9. Jane has been on the phone _________ ages! 10. I have known Neil
_________ last May. 11. ‘Are your friends here yet?’ – ‘Yes, they have __________ arrive’. 12. My
brother has ___________ played football. 13. _________ I moved to Budapest, I’ve been much
happier. 14. Karen hasn’t bought a new coat __________ three years.
5. Make questions with the verb in brackets (the Present Perfect or the Past Simple). Then
answer the questions about you.
1. How long _________ you ________ (live) in your town? 2. _________ you ever _________ (be) to
the theatre? 3. How many foreign countries ________ you ________ (visit)? 4. When ________ you
_________ (enter) the university? 5. _________ you ever _________ (been) to Moscow? 6. How long
________ you ________ (know) your best friend? 7. Where _________ you _________ (go) on
holiday last year?
6. Write questions with how long and when.
1. It’s raining. (how long?) How long has it been raining? (when?) When did it start raining?
2. Kate is learning Italian. (how long/learn?) (when/start/learn?) 3. I know Martin. (how long/know?)
(when/first/meet?) 4. Bob and Alice are married. (how long?) (when?)
7. Write sentences about yourself using the ideas in brackets.
1. (something you haven’t done today) I haven’t eaten any fruit today. 2. (something you have done
today) __________________________________________________ 3. (something you didn’t do
yesterday) __________________________________________________ 4. (something you did
yesterday evening) __________________________________________________ 5. (something you
haven’t done recently) __________________________________________________ 6. (something
you’ve done recently) _________________________________________________
8. Put the verb in brackets in the correct tense (the Past Simple or the Present Perfect).
Example: We moved to Liverpool in 1990 and have lived in the same house since then. (move, live)
1. A: There’s a great film at the Odeon this week. ________ you _________ it? (see) B: Not this week.
I___________ it in London last year. (see) 2. When we were kids, we ______________ to Brighton for
our holidays, but I ________________ there for years. (go, not be) 3. A: This is Caroline. I don’t think
you _______________ her before. (meet) B: Oh, yes I have. We know each other very well. We
_______________ at school together. (be) 4. A: I ______________ to phone John, but he’s not at
home. (try) B: He should be. He _______________ work an hour ago. (leave)
9. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense. Translate the text into Russian.
A trip to Australia
Linda ______________ (receive) a letter from her brother Richard. He is in Australia. He
______________ (be) there for six months. Richard is an engineer. He _____________ (work) for a
big firm and he _______ already __________ (visit) a great number of different places in Australia. He
________ just ____________ (buy) an Australian car and _____________ (go) to Alice Springs, a
small town in the centre of Australia. Richard __________ never __________ (be) abroad before, so he
_____________ (find) this trip very exciting.
10. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense.
1. I _______________ (travel) a lot since you last saw me. 2. Mr. White never ______________ (call)
me before. 3. When ___________ he ___________(call)? 4. I often _____________ (play) football
when I ____________ (be) boy. I ________________ (not play) very often since then. 5. Who

18
________________ (hear) from Mary lately? 6. He is very excited. This is the first time
he___________ (fly). 7. How’s Jane‘s son? I ______________ (not see) him recently. 8. He’s the only
clever man I _________ ever __________ (speak to). 9. They ____________________ (live) in Minsk
for 10 years. Then they ____________________ (move) to Novgorod. 10. I _________________ (not
have) any English lessons this month. My teacher ________________ (be) ill since February. 11. I
________________ (meet) Duncan at my friend’s house today. 12. She _______________ (not go)
anywhere so far. 13. Hi, I _______________ (not see) Jane today. Where _________ you _________
(see) her? ___________ (Be) she alone or with her friend? 14. You know, Mr. Tipping
______________ (publish) a new book. When __________ he __________ (publish) it? 15. She
_______________ (work) for this company since 1993. 16. James Perkins ________________ (invent)
the refrigerator in 1834. 17. How many poems _________ Pushkin __________ (write)? 18. They are
not in. They ________________ (go) on holiday. 19. Look! Somebody _________________ (open)
the windows. 20. Why is he crying? He _______________ (break) his leg. How __________ it
__________ (happen)?
11. Translate the dialogue into English.
- Здравствуй, Дик! Не видел тебя целую вечность. Ты был в Англии, не так ли? Когда ты был
там?
- Я был там в октябре.
- Ты ездил один?
- Да.
- Какие города ты посетил?
- Я провел неделю в Лондоне, а затем поехал в Брайтон (Brighton). Это лучший город, который я
когда – либо видел.
- А ты был в Ковентри (Coventry)?
- Да. Мне очень понравился собор. Ты когда – нибудь слышал о нем раньше?

EXTRA: Present tenses


1. Read the letter from Mum to her daughter Constance, or Connie for short. Put the verbs in
brackets into the correct Present tense.
Dear Connie,
I 1) ______________ (hope) you 2) _______________ (enjoy) yourself at university. I’m sure you 3)
_______________ (make) progress in your studies.
Everything 4) _______________ (be) fine here at home.
Billy 5) ___________________ (just/received) his school report. It was bad, as usual. He 6)
________________ (decide) to leave school next year and find a job.
Fiona 7) _________________ (go) to the gym at present. She 8) _________________ (try) to get in
shape for the summer. She 9) _________________ (already/plan) her holiday in the sun.
Your father 10) _________________ (sell) the old car and he 11) _________________ (buy) a new
one/ It’s lovely – much nicer than the old one.
Anyway, write soon.
Love,
Mum

UNIT 8. Past Perfect


Positive and negative Question
I, he, she, it, we, you, they’d (had) gone. Had I, he, she, it, we, you, they left?
I, he, she, it, we, you, they hadn’t arrived before 10.00. Had I, he, she, it, we, you, they walked?

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Short answers: ‘Had the play already started when you arrived?’ - ‘Yes, it had. / ‘No, it hadn’t.’
Use
Past Perfect используется для того, чтобы показать, что одно действие в прошлом произошло
раньше другого. When I got home, John had already cleaned the house and cooked a meal.
Note:
Past Simple When I got home, John cooked a meal.
(= First I got home, then John cooked.)
Past Perfect When I got home, John had cooked a meal. (= John cooked a meal before I got
home.)
Past Continuous When I got home, John was cooking a meal.
(= John cooked a meal before I got home and he was in the middle of cooking.)

Exercises
1. There are two verbs in brackets in each sentence. Put one in the Past Simple and one in the
Past Perfect.
Example: He died (die) after he had been (be) ill for a long time.
a. I______________ (thank) her for everything she ______________ (do). b. When I got to the office, I
__________________ (realize) that I ___________________ (forget) to lock the front door. c. When
they __________________ (finish) their work, they ____________________ (go) home. d. I
________________ (call) you at 8.00, but you ___________ just _______________ (go) out.
2. Make a sentence.
Example: I had a bath. I went to bed. (after) After I’d had a bath, I went to bed.
a. I read the letter. I threw it away. (when) b. He passed his driving test. He bought a car. (as soon as) c.
I took the book back to the library. I finished reading it. (when) d. I didn’t go to bed. I did my
homework. (until)
3. Read the situations and write sentences from the words in brackets.
a. You went to Jill’s house but she wasn’t there. (she/go/out) She had gone out.
b. You went back to your home town after many years. It wasn’t the same as before. (It/change/a lot) c.
I invited Rachel to the party but she couldn’t come. (she/arrange/to do something else) d. You went to
the cinema last night. You arrived at the cinema late. (the film/already/begin) e. I was very pleased to
see Tim again after such a long time. (I/not/see/him for five years) f. I offered Sue something to eat but
she wasn’t hungry. (she/just/have/breakfast)

UNIT 9 Future Perfect


Positive and negative Question
I, he, she, it, we, you, they will have swum. What will I, he, she, it, we, you, they have done?
I, he, she, it, we, you, they won’t have worked.
Short answers: ‘Will you have worked by 5 o’clock?’ – ‘Yes, I will.’/’No, I won’t.’
Use
Future Perfect обозначает действие или состояние, которое закончится к какому-то моменту в
будущем времени. Sally always leaves for work at 8.30 in the morning, so she won’t be at home at 9
o’clock. She‘ll have gone to work. We’re late. The film will already have started by the time we get to
the cinema.
Сравните Future perfect (= will have (done)) с другими формами perfect:
Present perfect: Ted and Amy have been married for 24 years.
Future perfect: Next year they will have been married for 25 years.
Past perfect: When their first child was born, they had been married for three years.

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Exercises
1. Put the verb into the correct form of the Future perfect (= will have (done)).
1. Phone me after 8 o’clock. ___________________________ (we/finish) dinner by then. 2. Tom is on
holiday and he is spending his money very quickly. If he continues like this,
___________________________ (he/spend) all his money before the end of his holiday. 3. Jane is
from New Zealand. She is traveling around Europe at the moment. So far she has traveled about 1,000
miles. By the end of the trip, _____________________________ (she/travel) more than 3,000 miles. 4.
_____________________________ (he/write) an article about the results of his experiment by next
Monday. 5. By the time of your arrival ___________________________ (I/pass) all my examinations.
2. Read about Colin. Then you have to tick the sentences which are true. In each group of
sentences at least one is true.
Colin goes to work every day. He leaves home at 8 o’clock and arrives at work at about 8.45. He starts
work immediately and continues until 12.30 when he has lunch (which takes about half an hour). He
starts work again at 1.15 and goes home exactly 4.30. Every day he follows the same routine and
tomorrow will be no exception.
1. At 7.45 4. At 12.45
a he’ll be leaving the house a he’ll have lunch
b he‘ll have left the house b he’ll be having lunch
c he’ll be at home c he‘ll have finished his lunch
d he’ll be having breakfast d he’ll have started his lunch
2. At 8.15 5. At 4 o’clock
a he’ll be leaving the house a he’ll have finished work
b he’ll have left the house b he’ll finish work
c he’ll have arrived at work c he’ll be working
d he’ll be arriving at work d he won’t have finished work
3. At 9.15 6. At 4.45
a he’ll be working a he’ll leave work
b he’ll start work b he’ll be leaving work
c he’ll have started work c he’ll have left work
d he’ll be arriving at work d he’ll have arrived home

Revision: Present perfect, Past perfect, Future perfect


1. Translate into English.
1. Мы закончили работу к их приходу. 2. После того как она поела, она помыла посуду. 3. Они
никогда не были в Новосибирске. 4. Мы закончим работу до того, как вернется наш инженер. 5.
Он пришел. 6. Я перевел эту статью сегодня. 7. Она еще не приехала в Москву. 8. Она живет в
Москве два года. (с 2008). 9. Наш магазин выполнил план этого года к декабрю. 10. Я никогда
не видел этого человека. 11. Я напишу доклад к сегодняшнему вечеру. 12. Тарелка была пустая.
Мы все съели. 13. В доме грязно. Они не убирали уже несколько недель. 14. Он никогда прежде
не летал на самолете. 15. Мой папа сегодня ещё не читал газету.

EXTRA: Past Simple or Present Perfect Simple


1. Read the letter from Rosie to Margaret. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past simple or the
Present Perfect Simple.
Dear Margaret,
Thank you very much for your letter which I 1) _______________ (receive) last week. I 2)
________________ (be) really happy to hear from you after all this time.

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I’ve got a lot of news to tell you about myself. I 3) _____________ (get) a new job nine months ago. I
work as a reporter for our local TV station now. I 4) ______________ (have) many interesting
experiences so far. When I first 5) ________________ (start) work, the manager 6) _______________
(ask) me to interview our old school headmaster. He 7) _______________ (be) so surprised to see me
with a microphone in my hand!
Last month, a fire 8) ______________ (break) out in a big factory in the area. I 9) _______________
(be) the only reporter who 10) _________________ (manage) to talk to the owner! That 11)
_________________ (make) me feel very proud.
As you can see, I enjoy my job very much. I 12) ________________ (meet) a lot of important people
and I 13) ________________ (have) the opportunity to see lots of new places. I 14)
_________________ (buy) a new car because my old one 15) __________________ (break) down a
couple of weeks ago.
I have to go now because they 16) ________________ (just/inform) me that I have to fly by helicopter
to Middleford. I have to talk to people whose homes were damaged by the storm which 17)
_______________ (hit) the area last night. You see, I don’t have a moment’s rest!
Keep in touch.
Love,
Rosie.

EXTRA: ALL TENSES


1. Read the letter from Roger to Bert. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.
Dear Bert,
I 1) _______________ (write) to tell you what a great time we 2) ______________ (have) at Sour
Grapes concert last weekend. It’s a pity you 3) ________________ (not/come).
The concert 4) _______________ (take) place in the football stadium near the university. There 5)
_________________ (be) about 80,000 people there. While we 6) _______________ (wait) to get in,
we 7) __________________ (see) the members of the group arrive in a big black limo. They 8)
_____________ (have) bodyguards with them.
Anyway, we 9) ______________ (find) our seats and 10) _________________ (wait) impatiently for
the concert to begin. The Sour Grapes 11) ______________ ____________ (recently/record) an album
which 12) ________________ (become) very successful.
The concert 13) _________________ (last) for two and a half hours. I 14) _________________ (send)
you some photos that Alex 15) ________________ (take) when we 16) __________________(be)
there. We 17) _________________ (hear) that the Sour Grapes 18) _________________ (give) a big
concert in London next month. Perhaps you can see them there.
Best wishes,
Roger
2. Read the letter from Nicky to Martha. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.
Dear Martha,
I 1) ____________________ (write) to tell you my good news.
I 2) ____________________ (save) enough money from my part-time job and, at last, I 3)
___________________ (open) a flower shop.
My father 4) _____________________ (own) a shop years ago and he 5) _____________________
(give) me some advice and suggestions. He 6) __________________ (think) that my shop 7)
___________________ (be) a success because there isn’t another flower shop in the area.

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The shop isn’t ready yet. My brother 8) ___________________ (already/paint) the inside of the shop
and tomorrow he 9) _________________ (paint) the outside.
I 10) _____________ (need) to buy a new sign. My mother 11) _________________ (want) me to call
the shop ‘Rose’, but I 12) ________________ (still/think) about it. Anyway, I just hope the local
people 13) _________________ (like) it.
I 14) __________________ (start) work next Monday. I 15) _______________________
(probably/phone) you some time next week if I 16) _________________ (have) time. Wish me luck.
Best wishes,
Nicky

Unit 10. MODAL VERBS

verb present past future


- Must I memorize this poem? – must must had to must/will
Yes, you must. должен обязательно have to
- Должен ли я выучить это что-то сделать
стихотворение? – Да.
- Do we have to wait long? have to have to/ had to will have
-Yes, you do. It’s raining hard and должен, приходится has to to
the fight is delayed. поневоле, вынужден (don’t/
- Нам придется долго ждать? (в силу doesn’t
- Да. Идет сильный дождь, и обстоятельств) have to)
рейс откладывается.
I am to meet her in the library be to должен am to was to
today. (я обещал, (am not) (wasn’t)
Я должен (мне предстоит, мы запланировал по are to to
договорились, я обещал) расписанию, по is to were to
встретиться с ней в библиотеке договоренности)
сегодня.
You should study the English should should
words before you go to bed. должен (следует по (shouldn’t)
Вам следует (Вы должны по- моему мнению,
моему мнению) учить совету)
английские слова перед сном.
You ought to return the book to ought to ought to
me on time. следует, должен (это
Ты должен (это твой долг) твой моральный
возвратить мне книгу вовремя. долг, когда мы
говорим о законе,
правилах)
You needn’t clean the windows. needn’t need =
They are clean already. нет никакой нужно
Тебе не нужно мыть окна. Они необходимости needn’t =
чистые. (нужды) не нужно
Can you read English books? сan выражает сan, сould Will be
I can’t come. способности, am/is/are (not), able to
Can you speak any foreign возможности и able to was/

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language? разрешения (can’t, isn’t were (not)
Are you able to speak any foreign совершить able to) able to
language? действие
She may know. may/might выражает may/might may/
She might know. разрешения или (not) might
I wonder why Kay didn’t answer предположения, (not) have
the phone. - She may have been относящиеся к done/
asleep. настоящему, been
I can’ find my bag anywhere. - будущему или
You might have left it in the shop. прошедшему
(perhaps) времени.
US usage: Americans use have to more than must. Be to is not used very often. Should is used more
often than ought to.

Exercise
1. Consult the table above and use an appropriate modal verb.
1. Нам пришлось уйти с бейсбольного матча, так как мы боялись опоздать на последний
автобус.
a were to b had to c must d should
2. Мы должны (договорились) встретиться у стадиона.
a have to b are to c must d ought to
3. Вам следует быть на занятиях в школе и за партой до того, как прозвенит звонок.
a must b have to c ought to d should
4. Вам следует делать домашнее задание ежедневно.
a must b have to c should d ought to e are to
5. Следует стучаться, перед тем, как Вы входите.
a must b ought to c should d have to e are you
6. Не нужно (занятия нет по расписанию) приходить сегодня на занятия.
a don’t have to b mustn’t c are not d)needn’t
7. Ученикам запрещено играть на улице.
a must not b don’t have to c needn’t
8. Вам не нужно покупать эту книгу. Она у меня есть.
a needn’t b mustn’t

Must, have to
Мы используем оба глагола must и have to, когда нам нужно выразить необходимость сделать
что-либо. Но между ними есть разница: Must выражает обязанность, долг, необходимость с
точки зрения говорящего. You must be at school by eight o’clock. (I insist.) I must go. (I have made
the decision myself.)
Have to выражает обязанность или необходимость, обусловленную обстоятельствами. I have to
be at home by eight o’clock. (My parents insist.) I have to wear a uniform at work. (somebody else has
made the decision.)

Exercises
1. Translate into Russian.
1. Who can translate this sentence? 2. You can go to Volga by train or airplane. 3. Could you speak
English a year ago? 4. I hope they will be able to reach the village before it gets dark. 5. You may go
away now, I will the work myself. 6. Every engineer must know at least one foreign language. 7. You

24
should take a taxi if you don’t want to be late for the concert. 8. Students are not allowed to smoke in
the classrooms. 9. He was not allowed to enter the concert hall after the third bell. 10. As he received a
bad mark, he had to go over the material again. 11. He was to stay at the office until the report was
ready. 12. We were to meet at the station at six. 13. You will have to repeat the material of the lectures
before the examination. 14. Do you know the student who is to make a report at our next meeting? 15.
You should influence your friend. He is not studying the way he should.
2. Complete these sentences. Use can or can’t + one of these verbs:
come find hear see speak
1. I’m sorry, but we can’t come to your party next Saturday. 2. She got the job because she
__________________ five languages. 3. You are speaking very quietly. I ___________________ you.
4. Have you seen my bag? I______________________ it. 5. I like this hotel room. You
___________________ the mountains from the window.
3. Write sentences with may or might.
1. (perhaps I will go to the cinema) I may go to the cinema. 2. (perhaps I will see Tom tomorrow) 3.
(perhaps Kay will be late) 4. (perhaps it will snow today) 5. (perhaps they will not come) 6. (perhaps I
will not go out tonight)
3. Put in must or had to.
1. I had to go to the bank yesterday to get some money. 2. The windows are very dirty. I
_____________ clean them. 3. The windows were very dirty yesterday. I ______________ clean them.
4. I ______________ get up early tomorrow. I‘ve got a lot to do. 5. Come on! We ________________
hurry. We haven’t got much time. 6. We arrived home very late last night. We ______________ wait
half an hour for a taxi. 7. These cakes are very nice. You ______________ have one. 8. Ann came to
the party but she didn’t stay very long. She _________________ leave early. 9. He didn’t know how to
use the machine. I _______________ show him. 10. I was nearly late for my appointment this morning.
I _______________ run to get there on time.
4. Complete the sentences. Use mustn’t or needn’t + one of these verbs:
be buy clean hurry lose stick take tell wait
1. The windows aren’t dirty. You needn’t clean them. 2. I must hurry. I_________________ late. 3.
This letter is very important. You ____________________ it. 4. We have lots of time.
We__________________________. 5. We __________________ an umbrella. It’s not going to rain. 6.
This is a secret. You ____________________ anybody. 7. You _________________ a newspaper.
You can have mine.
5. Complete the sentences. Use should + one of these verbs:
clean go read visit watch wear
1. When you play teens, you should watch the ball. 2. You look tired. You ______________________
to bed. 3. You ____________________ your teeth after every meal. 4. The city museum is very
interesting. You _____________________ it. 5. When you are driving, you __________________ a
seat-belt. 6. It’s a good book. You _____________________ it.
6. Fill in the gaps with an appropriate modal verb.
1. Children ___________ help their parents. 2. He is ill. He _________ consult a doctor. 3. They
_________ finish writing the report yesterday. 4. You _________ revise for your test. 5. How
_________ I contact you? 6. Our lecture ________ begin at 9 a.m. 7. He _________ get a taxi. I’ll give
him a lift. 8. Kim is five years old. He _________ read and write. 9. When she was young, she
___________ ski very well. 10. I _____________ get a job when I graduate from the university. 11.
__________ I open the window, please? – Yes, of course.
7. Complete the sentences using could, couldn’t or was/were able to.
1. My grandfather was a very clever man. He could speak five languages. 2. I looked everywhere for
the book but I ____________ find it. 3. They didn’t want to come with us at first but we ____________

25
persuade them. 4. Laura had hurt her leg and _____________ walk very well. 5. Sue wasn’t at home
when I phoned but I ____________ contact her at her office. 6. I looked very carefully and I
___________ see a figure in the distance. 7. I wanted to buy some tomatoes. The first shop I went to
didn’t have any but I ____________ get some in the next shop. 8. My grandmother loved music. She
___________ play the piano very well.
8. Complete these sentences with don’t/doesn’t/didn’t have to + one of these verbs:
do get up go x 2 pay shave wait work
1. I’m not working tomorrow, so I don’t have to get up early. 2. The car park is free – you
__________________ to park your car there. 3. I went to the bank this morning. There was no queue,
so I _____________________. 4. Sally is extremely rich. She _____________________. 5. We’ve got
plenty of time. We __________________ yet. 6. Jack has got a beard, so he
________________________. 7. I’m not particularly busy. I’ve got a few things to do but I
____________________ them now. 8. A man was slightly injured in the accident but he
_____________________.
9. Translate from Russian into English. Use the correct modal verb.
1. Я должен пойти на работу рано утром. 2. Вы должны делать домашнее задание. 3. Она,
должно быть, на каникулах. 4. Ты можешь мне помочь? 5. Аня не умеет играть на гитаре. 6. Мой
друг, возможно, поедет в Англию. 7. Мы должны встретиться в 2 часа дня. 8. Том не умел
плавать, когда ему было 5 лет. 9. Стасу девятнадцать лет. Он умеет водить машину. 10. Джек
смог открыть (unlock) дверь. 11. Тебе нет необходимости уезжать сейчас. 12. Ему не следует
звонить мне. 13. Я смогу сводить тебя поужинать (take you out) на следующей неделе. 14.
Можно взять твой карандаш? – Извини, он мне нужен. 15. Это был очень сложный тест, но
Мерил смогла ответить на все вопросы. 16. Алан должен позвонить мне. 17. Тебе нельзя
пользоваться этим компьютером. 18. Он должен сейчас быть в офисе.

EXTRA: Modal verbs


1. Read the letter from Ronnie to Henry. Underline the correct modal verb.
Dear Henry,
I’m writing to you because I need some advice. 1) Can/ Shall you help me, please? My boss offered
me a job in Italy and I 2) could/must make a decision about it soon. I’ve been thinking about it since
last week but I 3) haven’t been able to/wasn’t able to decide! I’m a bit worried that I 4) shall/may not
enjoy living in another country. I 5) might/ought to find it difficult to learn Italian. However, I 6)
won’t have to/mustn’t stay there if I don’t like it/ what do you think? 7) Should/Will I move to Italy
or 8) could/should I stay here? 9) Could/May you write to me and tell me what you think?
I hope to hear from you soon.
Best wishes,
Ronnie
2. Read the letter from Charles to Victoria. Underline the correct modal verb.
Dear Victoria,
I’m writing to tell you about the play I’m going to be in. It’s called ‘Only for You’, and I’ve got the
leading role. I have a lot of lines and I 1) must/might learn them all before opening night.
We’re performing the play for the first time on Friday night. We’ve been told that a TV company 2)
must/may come to film it, so I 3) could/must be on television. I 4) needn’t/might even become
famous! ;)
We 5) might/have to rehearse the play every night until Friday, because everything 6) must/shall be
perfect for the performance. We 7) couldn’t/mustn’t make any mistakes. 8) Can/Must you come to

26
see the play, or will you be at work? I hope you’ll be able to come. If not, I’ll write and tell you how it
went.
I 9) could/must go and learn my lines now. See you soon.
Yours,
Charles

UNIT 11. Passive Voice


Present simple Past Simple Future Simple
I am asked. I, he, she, it was asked. I, he, she, it, we, you, they will be asked.
He, she, it is asked. We, you, they were paid. I, he, she, it, we, you, they will be paid.
We, you, they are paid.
Перевод глаголов в Passive Voice на русский язык
Примеры Перевод Способы перевода
1. The lecture was read Лекция была прочитана Сочетанием глагола быть с краткой
yesterday. вчера. формой страдательного причастия.
2. The lecture was Лекцию читали в нашем Неопределенно-личным оборотом.
delivered at our институте.
Institute.
3. The lecture was Лекция читалась через Глагол с окончанием -ся, -сь.
delivered in two days два дня после его
after his arrival. приезда.
4. This lecture was Об этой лекции много Глагол в Passive Voice c предлогом,
much spoken about. говорили. переводятся на русский язык
неопределенно- личными предложениями,
причем перевод обычно начинается с
предлога.
Если мы хотим указать лицо, совершающий действие, мы используем предлог by:
This house was built by my grandfather. Two hundred people are employed by the company.

Exercises
1. Put the verb into the correct form, the present or past simple, active or passive voice.
1. It’s a big factory. Five hundred people are employed (employed) there. 2. Water _______________
(cover) most of the Earth’s surface. 3. Most of the Earth’s surface _____________ (cover) by water. 4.
The park gates _______________ (lock) at 6.30 p.m. every evening. 5. The letter ________________
(post) a week ago and it __________________ (arrive) yesterday. 6. The boat _______________(sink)
quickly but fortunately everybody _________________ (rescue). 7. Ron’s parents _______________
(die) when he was very young. He and his sister _____________ (bring) up by their grandparents. 8. I
was born in London but I ______________ (grow) up in the north of England. 9. While I was on
holiday, my camera ________________ (steal) from my hotel room. 10. While I was on holiday, my
camera ________________ (disappear) from my hotel room. 11. Why ___________________
(Sue/resign) from her job? 12. The company is not independent. It ________________ (own) by a
much larger company. 13. I saw an accident last night. Somebody ________________ (call) an
ambulance but nobody ________________ (injure) so the ambulance _______________ (not/need).
2. Rewrite these sentences. Instead of using ‘somebody/ they/people’ etc. write a passive sentence.
1. Somebody cleans the room every day. The room is cleaned every day. 2. They cancelled all flights
because of volcano ashes. 3. People don’t use this road very often. 4. They will build a new house here.
5. Somebody accused me of stealing money. 6. She will allow me to use the dictionary.

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Infinitive
Active: (to) do/clean/see, etc. Somebody will clean the room later.
Passive: (to) be done/cleaned/seen, etc. The room will be cleaned later.
The situation is serious. Something must be done before it’s too late. A mystery is something that
can’t be explained. The music was very loud and could be heard from a long way away. A new
supermarket is going to be built next year. Please go away. I want to be left alone.

Perfect infinitive
Active: have done/cleaned/ seen etc. Somebody should have cleaned the room.
Passive: have been done/cleaned/ seen etc. The room should have been cleaned.
I haven’t received the letter yet. It might have been sent to the wrong address. If you hadn’t left the
car unlocked? It wouldn’t have been stolen. There were some problems at first but they seem to have
been solved.

Present continuous
Active: am/is/are (do)ing Somebody is cleaning the room at the moment.
Passive: am/is/are being (done) The room is being cleaned at the moment.
There’s somebody walking behind us. I think we are being followed.
(in a shop)
Can I help you, madam? - No, thank you. I’m being served.’

Past continuous
Active: was/were (do)ing Somebody was cleaning the room when I arrived.
Passive: was/were being (done) The room was being cleaned when I arrived.
There was somebody walking behind us. We were being followed.

Exercises
1. Rewrite these sentences. Instead of using ’somebody’ or ‘they’, write a passive sentence.
Example: Somebody has cleaned the room. The room has been cleaned.
1. They have postponed the concert. The concert_______________________________2. Somebody is
using the computer at the moment. The computer ________________________________ 3. I didn’t
realize that somebody was recording our conversation. I didn’t realize that ______________________
4. When we got to the stadium we found that they had cancelled the game. When we got to the
stadium, we found that _____________________________5. They are building a new ring road round
the city. __________________________6. They have built a new hospital near the airport.
_____________________________________
2. Read the text about how wine is made. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct active or
passive tense.
Wine 1) ______________ (make) all over the world, but no two wines ever taste the same. Wine
has three main ingredients: water, sugar and alcohol, and 2) ____________ (come) in three colours:
red, rose and white.
To make wine, grapes 3) _________________ (grow) in vineyards. When they 4)
________________ (be) ripe, they 5) __________________ (harvest) and 6) ________________
(crush). Then, sulphur dioxide 7) _________________ (add) to the crushed grapes, and they 8)
_________________ (leave) in large barrels to ferment.
During fermentation, the temperature must 9) ______________ (control) and air must 10)
______________ (keep out) of the barrels. When the fermentation process is finished, the wine 11)

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____________(extract). Then, after it 12) ____________ (purify), it 13) ___________ (put) into
bottles.
Bottled wine should always 14) _____________ (store) at the right temperature and protected from
light. It should also not be moved. The reason for looking after wines so carefully is that some wines
not only taste better as they 15) ___________ (become) older, but they also 16) _____________
(increase) in value.

Revision: ALL ACTIVE & PASSIVE TENSES, MODAL VERBS


1. Which tense and voice is it? Translate into Russian. Mind the modal verbs!
1. I will help you. 2. They will be swimming from five to six. 3. The exams will begin on (the) 17 (of)
December. 4. She is not a student. She is a veterinary doctor. 5. Jim went to the university after he had
had lunch. 6. I haven’t seen him since he went to Moscow. 7. I was invited to my friend’s birthday
party. 8. This time last year I was skiing in the Alps. 9. Max hasn’t seen his friends since last
September. 10. This time tomorrow we will be flying to London.

EXTRA: ALL ACTIVE & PASSIVE TENSES, MODAL VERBS


1. Read the letter from Rachel to her aunt called Joan. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct
tense.

Dear Aunt Joan,


How 1) ______________ (be) you? My new address, which I 2) ___________________ (suppose) to
give you a long time ago, is at the top of this page. Sorry!
The village where I 3) _________________ (live) now is very quiet and peaceful. In fact, that is the
reason why I 4) ________________ (decide) to rent a house here. The people who 5)
_______________ (live) next door to me 6) __________________ (be) very friendly. The day when I
7) __________________ (move) in, I 8) ________________ (invite) by them for tea. The woman
whose house I 9) __________________ (rent) lives in the same street as you. Her name is Mrs.
Fitzgerald. 10) _______ you __________ (know) her? I 11) ______________ (must) go now, the
telephone 12) ___________________ (ring).
Write to me soon.
Love,
Rachel
2. Read the letter from Sandra to Emma. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

Dear Emma,
I 1) _________________ (write) to invite you to my birthday party next Saturday.
As you know, I 2) ________________ (be) sixteen, so this is going to be a very special occasion for
me!!! ☺
I 3) _____________ (invite) almost all o f my friends and I really hope they 4) ___________________
(can) to come. 5) ______________ (can) I ask you to help me with the preparation, though? I would
like my house to 6) _________________ (decorate) with white and pink flowers, but I’m afraid I 7)
__________________ (not/have) time to do everything by myself. Also I 8) ________________
(decide) to make my own cake and I 9) ______________________ (certainly/need) your help with
that!
Please write back soon and let me know if you 10) ________________ (can) make it.
Best wishes,
Sandra

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3. Read the letter from Chloe to her parents. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.
Dear Mum and Dad,
You 1) ________________ (never/guess) what 2) _________________ (happen). James 3)
_________________ (ask) me to marry him!!!
We 4) __________________ (go out) for dinner last night, and just as we 5) ________________
(have) our coffee, he 6 ) ___________________ (bring out) a beautiful diamond ring. We 7)
____________________ (talk) about getting married for a long time, but it was still a surprise! Of
course, I agreed!
We 8) __________________ (plan) to get married in the spring. I 9) __________________ (wear) a
beautiful, long white dress and we will have three bridesmaids who will wear pink. James 10)
__________________ (think) of taking me to Prague for our honeymoon.
I’m sure you 11) _________________ (be) happy for me, and I 12) _______________ (not/can) wait
to see you and discuss the wedding with you. We 13) ____________________ (not/can) to come and
visit you until next month, though. Sorry. Meanwhile, I 14) _______________ (write) and tell the rest
of the family my wonderful news!!! ☺
Love,
Chloe

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Список литературы

1. Dooley J., Evans V. "Grammarway 2" - Express Publishing, 2002, 192 с.


2. Dooley J., Evans V. "Grammarway 3" - Express Publishing, 2003, 269с.
3. Dooley J., Evans V. "Grammarway 4" - Express Publishing, 2004, 276с.
4. John Eastwood. Oxford Practice Grammar. - Oxford University Press, 2001, 432p.
5. Michael Swan & Catherine Walter. The Good Grammar Book. – Oxford University Press, 2001,
324p.
6. Raymond Murphy. Essential Grammar in Use. - Cambridge University Press, 2007, 319p.
7. Thomson A. J., Martinet A. V. A Practical English Grammar. - Oxford University Press, 1986, 353p.

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Составители: Алишова Зайнаб Магомедтагировна, Сементовская Елена Юрьевна

Методические указания по английскому языку

ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES


Для практических занятий студентов первого курса всех направлений подготовки и уровней
квалификации ФГБОУ ВПО «НГАУ»

Редактор: Сементовская Е.Ю.


Компьютерная верстка: Алишова З.М., Сементовская Е.Ю.

ООО Печатный центр «Копир»


Тираж 100 экз. План изданий 2014г.
Формат 60*84

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