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is generated, transmitted, distributed and retail supplied by two
vertically integrated public sector utilities: Water and Power Development Authority
(WAPDA) for all of Pakistan (except Karachi), and the Karachi Electric Supply
Corporation (KESC) for the City of Karachi and its surrounding areas. There are around
16 independent power producers that contributes significantly in electricity generation in
Pakistan.[1]

For years, the matter of balancing Pakistan's supply against the demand for electricity has
remained a largely unresolved matter. Pakistan faces a significant challenge in revamping
its network responsible for the supply of electricity.

While the government claims credit for overseeing a turnaround in the economy through
a comprehensive recovery, it has just failed to oversee a similar improvement in the
quality of the network for electricity supply.

Some officials even go as far as claiming that the frequent power cuts across Pakistan
today are indicative of an emerging prosperity as there is fast rising demand for
electricity. And yet, the failure to meet the demand is indeed indicative of a challenge to
that very prosperity. Pakistan's electricity producers are now seeking a parity in returns
for both domestic and foreign investors which indicates it to be one of the key unresolved
issues in overseeing a surge in electricity generation when the country faces growing
shortages.

Contrary to Pakistani government and expatriate claims, Pakistan suffers from a massive
electricity shortage.[2] Electricity generation in Pakistan has shrunk by 50% in recent
years due to an overreliance on hydroelectric power.[3] In 2008, availability of power in
Pakistan falls short of the population's needs by 15%[4] Pakistan was hit by its worst
power crisis in 2007, after the assassination of Benazir Bhutto and the following riots.
Production fell by 6000 Megawatts and massive blackouts followed suit. The blame was
laid on the then president, Pervez Musharraf, and was instrumental in his defeat.[4] Load
Shedding (deliberate blackouts) and power blackouts have become severe in Pakistan in
recent years.[5] The main problem with Pakistan's poor power generation is rising political
instability, together with rising demands for power and lack of efficiency.[6]

With power shortages in Pakistan, Iran has been offering to export electricity to Pakistan
at subsidized rates but the government of Pakistan has not yet responded to the offers for
unknown reasons.
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p? Electricity - total installed capacity: ï  (2007)[12]


p? Electricity - Sources (2007)
m? fossil fuel - 12,580 MW - 65% of total
m? hydro - 6,463 MW - 33% of total
m? nuclear - 462 MW - 2% of total

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p? Electricity - production: 88.42 TWh (2005)


p? Electricity - production by source (2003)
m? fossil fuel: 63.7% of total
m? hydro: 33.9% of total
m? nuclear: 2.4% of total

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In the short run addressing difficult challenges such as the demand for a parity of
treatment to both domestic and foreign investors must make some difference by way of
attracting investors across the board. Given the growing demand for electricity, foreign
investors must have a role in helping Pakistan meet this challenge.

But the challenges faced by Pakistan are by no means easy. It is indeed the case that the
business of reforming the electricity supply network is just not about short term and often
incomplete measures of the kind that Pakistanis have been accustomed to.
Even if Pakistan successfully set aside the vast funds which are necessary to finance such
a turn-around, the time taken to ensure the supply of all the technical ingredients must in
itself make the task formidably challenging.

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In the environment which prevails across the world today, there is already a considerable
line-up of both individuals and countries which have placed orders to buy new
equipment. Indeed, Pakistani officials are all too aware of international market conditions
which only add to the difficulty surrounding their task.

Though sorting out global market conditions are just not in reach of one country alone,
other matters are indeed within Pakistan's grasp. These include the need to turn around
popular habits which hardly help to curtail the usage of electricity, with wastages and
deliberate inefficiencies being the principal factors. But the lead for such an endeavour
must come in part from Pakistani leaders.

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p? Electricity - consumption: 74.62 TWh (2004)


p? Electricity - exports: 0%
p? Electricity - imports: 0%
p? Electricity Consumption per Capita = 430.183 kWh/capita (2006)[14]

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During 2010 Pakistan floods and 2005 Kashmir earthquake power stations, power
distribution and transmission and other energy infrastructures were damaged. During the
floods the recently constructed Jinnah hydroelectric power plant was flooded in addition
to severe damages to transmission and distribution network and installations while
several power plants and refineries were threatened by rising waters and had to be shut
down. Natural gas field output had to be reduced as the flood waters approached the
wells. There has also been some concern by Pakistani nuclear activists over the effect of
natural disasters on nuclear plants specially over the Chashma Nuclear Power Complex,
since the plant lies over a geological fault.[15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28] Due to
over reliance of Pakistan on dams for electricity generation,[29] some environmental
impacts of dams such as submergence of usable/ecological land and their negative impact
on Pakistan's mangrove forests due to loss of river silt load, as well as increased risk of
severe floods have become evident