Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

HISTOLOGY: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Part 2

A. ESOPHAGUS
 Epithelium: Stratified Squamous
 Lamina propia: Esophageal cardiac glands
 Muscularis mucosae: Longitudinal
 Submucosa: Collagenous CT, Esophageal gland proper
 Muscularis Externa: Inner circular, outer longitudinal (ICOL)

The lumen (L) is lined by a stratified


squamous non-keratinized epithelium (EP) lying
on a thin lamina propia (LP) that is surrounded
by the muscularis mucosae (MM). The
submucosa (Sm) contains glands and is
surrounded by the muscularis externa (ME),
composed of an inner circular (IC) and outer
longitudinal (OL) layer. The outermost tunic of
the esophagus is the fibroelastic adventitia (Ad).

The Mucosa (M) of the esophagus consitst of


a stratified squamous nonkeratinized
epithelium; a loose collagenous CT layer, the LP
and a longitudinally oriented smooth muscle
layer, the muscularis mucosae (MM). The Sm is
composed of a coarser collagenous CT, housing
blood vessels and various CT cells whose nuclei
(N) are evident.
The Lamina Propia (LP) and the stomach compared with that of the esophagus. The outermost tunic of
submuscosa (Sm) of the esophagus are the esophagus inferior to the diapragm is a serosa (Se) rather an advetitia.
separated from each other by the
longitudinally oriented Smooth muscle
bundles, the muscularis mucosae (MM). The
lamina propia is a very vascular CT, housing
numerous blood vessels (BV) and lymphatic
vessels (LV), whose valves (arrow) indicate
the direction of lymph flow. The submucosa
also displays numerous BV as well as the
presence of the esophageal glands proper
(EG).

The stratified squamous


epithelium (SE)of the esophagus is
replaced by the simple columnar
epithelium (CE) of the stomach in a
very abrubt fashion (arrow). The
lamina propia displays gastric pits
(GP), lined by the typical mucus-
secreting surface lining cells (SC),
The junction of the esophagus (Es) and Cardiac stomach (CS) is very
characteristic of the stomach. The
abrupt, as evidence by the sudden change of the stratified squamous
structure labeled with an asterisk is
epithelium (SE) to the simpler columnar epithelium (CE) of the stomach.
not a lymphatic nodule but is a more
Note that the esophageal glands proper (EG) continue for a short distace into
or less tangential section through the
the submucosa (Sm)of the stomach. Observe also the presence of the gastric
esophageal epithelium.
pits (arrows) and teh increased thickness of the muscularis externa (ME) of
B. STOMACH stomach. The muscularis externa (ME) is composed of 3 poorly defined
layers of smooth muscle: innermost oblique (IO) , middle layer (MC) and
 Epithelium: Simple columnar, no goblet cells outer longitudinal (OL). The Serosa (arrow) forms the outermost tunic of the
 Lamina propia: gastric glands stomach.
 Muscularis mucosae: Inner circular, outer longitudinal (ICOL)
STOMACH-FUNDUS
 Submucosa: Collagenous CT, no glands
 Muscularis Externa: Inner oblique, middle circular, outer The mumosa of the fundic stomach
longitudinal displays numerous gastric pits (GP) that are
lined by a simple columnar epithelium,
 4 Major regions : consisting mostly of mucus-producing surface
lining (surface mucous) cells (SC). The base of
1. Cardia – narrow transitional zone between esophagus & stomach each pit accepts the isthmus of two to four
2. Pylorus – funnel shaped region that opens into small intestine fundic glands (FG). Although fundic glands are
composed of several cell types, only 2,
> both these regions are primarily involved with mucus production parietal cells (PC) and chief cells (CC), are
& are histologically similar; tubular glands with long pits, readily distinguishable. The lamina propia
branching into coiled secretory portions called cardiac glands & (LP) is richly vascularized (BV). Note the
pyloric glands. muscularis mucosae (MM) beneath the lamina propia.
3. Fundus & Body – these regions are identical in microscopic
structure & are the sites of gastric glands releasing acidic gastric
juice; tubular glands with short pits , branching into several
fundic glands that fill most of the mucosa.

4. Mucosa & submucosa of empty stomach form longitudinal folds


called rugae.

FUNDUS & BODY

The fundic region presents all of the


characeristics of the stomach. The lumen (L) is
lined by a simpple columnar epithelium, deep
to which is the lamina propia (LP), housing
numerous gastric glands (GG). Each gland
The gastric pits (GP) of the fundic stomach are lined ostly by mucus-
opens into the base of a gastric pit (GP). The
producing surfac lining cells (SC). Each gastric pit receives two to four fundic
muscularis mucosae (MM) separates the
glands, simple tubular structures that are subdvided into 3 regions: isthmus,
lamina propia from the submucosa (Sm), a
neck and base. The isthmus opens directly into the gastric pit and is composed
richly vascularized (BV) connective tissue ,
thrown into folds (rugae) in the empty
of immature cells (Ic), which are responsible for the renewal of the lining of STOMACH-PYLORUS
the gastric mucosa, surface lining cells (SC), and parietal cells (PC).
The mucosa of the pyloric region of
the stomach presents gastric pits (GP) that
are deeper than those of the cardiac or fundic
reigions. The deep aspects of these pits are
coiled (arrows). As in other regions of the
stomach, the epithelium (EP) is simple
columnar, consisting mainly of surface lining
cells (SC). Note that the lamina propia (LP) is
loosely packed with pyloric glands (PGs) and
that considerable CT is present. The pyloric
glands are composed mainly of mucous cells
(mc).
The neck (n) and base (b) of the
fundic gland both contain the large, The simple columnar epithelium (EP) of the
plate-shaped parietal cells (PC). The neck gastric pit is composed mostly of surface
also possess a few immature cells as well lining cells. These pits are not only much
as mucous neck cells (Mn), which deeper than those of the fundic or cardiac
manufacture a mucous substance. The regions but are also somewhat coiled
base of the fundic glands contains (arrow) , as are the pyloric glands (PG),
numerous acid manufacturing parietal which empty into the base of the pits. These
cells (PC) and chief cells (CC), which glands are populated by mucus-secreting
produce digestive enzymes. Note that cells (mc) similar to mucous neck cells,
the LP is tightky packed with glands and whose nuclei are flattened against the basal
that the intervening CT is flimsy. cell membrane. Note that the glands are not
closely packed and that the lamina propia is
very cellular and possesses a rich vascular
supply (BV).
The lumina (L) of several glands can be
recognized. Note that chief cells (CC) are C. SMALL INTESTINE
granular in appearance and are much smaller  Epithelium: Simple columnar, with goblet cells
than the round, plate-like parietal cells (PC). The  Lamina propia: Villi (mucosa), Crypts of Lieberkuhn, Peyer’s patches
Parietal cells, as their name implies, are locate in ileum (extend into submucosa), Lymphoid nodules
at the periphery of the gland. Slender CT  Muscularis mucosae: Inner circular, outer longitudinal (ICOL)
elements, housing BV, occupy the narrow  Submucosa: Fibroelastic CT, Brunner glands in duodenum
spaces between the closely packed glands.  Muscularis Externa: Inner circular, outer longitudinal (ICOL)
 Mucosa of small intestine presents folds, known as villi that change Note that the surface absorptive cells
their morphology and decrease in height from the duodenum to the (SA) display a brush border (BB), terminal
ileum. bars (arrow) and goblet cells (GC). Although
 The mucosa & submucosa displays spiral folds, plicae circulares APUD cells are also present they constitute
[valves of Kerckring]. only a small percentage of the cell
population. The LP core of the villus is highly
cellular, housing the lymphoid cells (LC),
The lamina propia of the
smooth muscles cells(SM), mast cells, macrophages (Ma), and fibroblasts.
duodenum possesses finger-like
evaginations known as villi, which GASTRO-DUODENAL JUNCTION
project into the lumen (L). The villi are
covered by surface absorptive cells
(SA), a simple columnar type of
epithelium with a brush border.
Interspersed among these surface
absorptive cells are goblet cells as well
as occasional APUD cells. The CT core
(lamina propia) of the villus is
composed of lymphoid and other
cellular elements whose nuclei stain
very intensely. BV also bound in the
Note that the submucosa (Sm), occupied
lamina propia, as do large, blindly ending lymphatic channels known as
by glands of Brunner (GB), is a vascular structure
lacteals (l), recognizable by their large size and lack of RBC. Frequently, these
and also houses Meissner’s submucosal plexus.
lacteals are collapsed. The deeper aspect of the LP houses glands, the crypts
The submucosa extends to the muscularis externa,
of Lieberkuhn (CL). These simple tubular glands deliver their secretions into
composed of an inner circular (IC) and outer
the intervillar spaces.
longitudinal (OL) smooth muscle layer. Note the
The bases of these crypts reach the presence of Auerbach’s myenteric plexus (AP)
muscularis mucosae (MM), composed of inner between these two layers. The duodenum, in part,
circular and outer longitudinal layers of is covered by a serosa (Se), whose mesothelium
smooth muscle. Deep to this muscle layer is provides this organ with a smooth muscle, moist
the submucosa, which, in the duodenum, is surface.
occupied by compound tubular glands of
The base of the crypt of Lieberkuhn displays the several types of cells
Brunner (GB). These glands deliver their
that compose this gland. Paneth’s cells (Pc) are readily recognizable due to
mucous secretion via ducts (D), which pierce
the large granules in their apical cytoplasm. DNES cells (APD) are clear cells
the muscularis mucosae, into the crypts of
with fine granules usually located basally. Goblet cells (GC), Columnar cells,
Lieberkuhn.
and Stem cells (Sc) constitute the remaining cell population.
1. Enterocytes = surface absorptive The crypts of Lieberkuhn are composed of
cells w/ brush border several cell types. Goblet cells that manufacture
mucus may be noted in various degrees of mucus
2. Goblet cells
production. Narrow stem cells (Sc) undergo mitotic
3. Paneth cells -immunity activity (arrowhead), and newly formed cells
reconstitute the cell population of the crypt and
4. DNES Enteroendocrine cells villus. Paneth’s cells (PC) are located at the base of
The submucosa of the intestinal tract displays small crypts and may be recognized by their large
parasympathetic ganglia, Meissner’s submucoal granules. DNES cells (APD) appear as clear cells with
plexus. Note the large postganglionic cell bodies fine granules usually basally located. The LP displays numerous plasma cells.
(PB) surrounded by elements of CT. The entire wall of the ileum is presented,
displaying spiral folds of the submucosa that
partially encircle the lumen. These folds, known as
plicae circularis (Pci), increase the surface area of
the small intestines. Note that the LP is clearly
delineated from the submucosa (Sm) by the
muscularis mucosae. The LP forms numerous villi
(V) that protrude into the Lumen (L) glands into the
intervillar spaces. The submucosa abuts the inner
circular (IC) layer of smooth muscle that in turn, is surrounded by the outer
longitudinal (OL) smooth muscle layer of the muscularis externa.

Note that the villi (V) are covered by a


simple columnar epithelium, whose cellular
constituents include numerous goblet cells
(GC). The core of the villus displays BV as well
as a large lymphatic vessel known as lacteal (l).
the crypts of Lieberkuhn (CL) open into the
The villi (V) of this region possess more intervillar spaces (arrow). The group of
Goblet cells (GC) than those of the duodenum. lymphatic nodules of the ileum are known as
Observe that the crypts of Lieberkuhn open into the Peyer’s patches (PP). (a) the CL also possess
intervillar spaces (arrow) and that the LP displays DNES cells (ADP), recognizable by their clear
numerous dense nuclei, evidence of lymphatic appearance and usually basally oriented fine granules. (b) the base of the
infiltration. The flimsy muscularis mucosae (MM) crypt of Lieberkuhn displays cells with large granules. These are Paneth’s cells
separates the lamina propia from the submucosa. (PC), which produce the bacteriological agent lysozyme and other substances.
Large BV occupy the submucosa, which is composed
of loose type of collagenous CT.
D. LARGE INTESTINES cells (GC). The straight tubular glands are crypt of
 Epithelium: Simple columnar, with goblet cells Lieberkuhn (CL), which extend down to the
 Lamina propia: Crypts of Lieberkuhn (lack of Paneth cells), muscularis mucosae (MM). The inner circular (IC)
Lymphoid nodules and outer longitudinal (OL) layers of smooth
 Muscularis mucosae: Inner circular, outer longitudinal (ICOL) muscle comprising this region of the mucosa are
 Submucosa: Fibroelastic CT, no glands evident. The submucosa (Sm) is very vascular and
 Muscularis Externa: Inner circular, outer longitudinal (ICOL) houses numerous fat cells.
(modified to form teniae coli) The cell population of the crypts of
Mucosa: Lieberkuhn (CL) is composed of numerous
goblet cells (GC), which deliver their mucus
 has no specialized folds ; thicker than the small intestine ; has into the lumen (L) of the crypt. The Surface
more goblet cells than small intestine ; crypts of Lieberkuhn are epithelial cells (SEC) as well as
longer than in small intestine undifferentiated stem cells are also present.
 CL : composed of same cells as small intestine ,but lack Paneth The latter undergo mitosis (arrow) to
cells repopulate the epithelial lining. DNES cells
(ADP) constitute a small percentage of the cell
Muscularis externa: population. Note that Paneth’s cells are not present in the colon. The LP is
very cellular, housing many lymphoid cells (LC). The inner circular (IC) and
 Teniae coli – 3 longitudinally arranged smooth muscles of OL
outer longitudinal (OL) smooth muscle layers of the muscularis mucosae
…….responsible for haustra coli [ sacculations ]
(MM) are evident.
Serosa :
F. APPENDIX
 Fat filled pouches – appendices epiploicae  Epithelium: Simple columnar, with goblet cells
 Lamina propia: Crypts of
E. RECTUM
Lieberkuhn (shallow),
Lymphoid nodules (large
 Epithelium: Simple columnar, with goblet cells
numerous & may extend into
 Lamina propia: Crypts of Lieberkuhn (fewer but deeper than in
submucosa)
colon), Lymphoid nodules
 Muscularis mucosae: Inner
 Muscularis mucosae: Inner circular, outer longitudinal (ICOL)
circular, outer longitudinal
 Submucosa: Fibroelastic CT, no glands
(ICOL)
 Muscularis Externa: Inner circular, outer longitudinal (ICOL)
 Submucosa: Fibroelastic CT,
COLON confluent lymphoid nodues, no
glands, fat sometimes
Note the absence of surface modifications such as pits and villi, which  Muscularis Externa: Inner circular, outer longitudinal (ICOL)
indicate that this section is not of the stomach or small intestines. The
epithelium (EP) lining the lumen (L) is simple columnar with numerous goblet
The cross section of the appendix than those of the colon. The lamina propia (LP) is infiltrated by lymphoid cells
displays a lumen (L) that frequently (LC).
contains debris (arrow). The lumen is
lined by a simple columnar
epithelium (EP), consisting of many
goblet cells (GC). Crypts of
Lieberkuhn (CL) are relatively
shallow in comparison with those of
the colon. The Lamina propia is
highly infiltrated with lymphoid cells (LC), derived from lymphatic
nodules (LN) of the submucosa (Sm) and lamina propia. The muscularis
mucosae (MM) delineates the border between the lamina propia and the
submucosa.

G. ANAL CANAL
 Epithelium:
 Simple columnar cuboidal (proximal)
 Stratified squamous nonkeratinized (distal to anal valves)
 Stratified squamous keratinized (anus)
 Lamina propia:
 Sebaceous glands
 Circumanal glands
 Lymphoid nodules
 Rectal columns or Morgagni (involve entire mucosa)
 Hair follicles (anus)
 Muscularis mucosae: Inner circular, outer longitudinal (ICOL)
 Submucosa: Fibroelastic CT, no glands
 Muscularis Externa: Inner circular, outer longitudinal (ICOL)
Body/ Fundus: Cell Components (Stomach)
The anorectal junction presents a
• Mucous surface cells cover surface mucosa and line pits. secrete
superficial similarity to the esophagastric
basic mucus and traps bicarbonate fluid beneath. replaced ~3 days
junction because of the abrupt epithelial
transition. The simple columnar • Mucous Neck Cells line entire gland in cardia and pylorus; found in
epithelium (CE) of the rectum is replaced neck (upper portion) of gastric glands. produces acidic mucus which
by the stratified squamous epithelium of mixes with and lubricates chyme
the anal canal (AC). The crypts of
Lieberkuhn (CL) of the anal are shorter
• Parietal cells large, eosinophilic cells found usually upper half of
gastric glands in body and fundus. secrete HCL & gastric intrinsic
factor (binds B12 vitamin)

• Chief (zymogenic, peptic) cells located in base of gastric glands,


numerous eosinophilic secretory granules. produce pepsinogen (and
other proteolytic enzymes) & lipase & leptin.

• Enteroendocrine cells located in epithelium throughout stomach and


GI tract. diffuse neuroendocrine system (DNES). secrete products
basally into lamina propria, not into lumen. Secrete Gastrin,
glucagon, histamine, somatostatin, serotonin, ghrelin

• Stem cells found in neck (isthmus) of gland, important due to high


turnover of stomach cells; can migrate up as mucous surface cell or
down into glands and become mucous neck, parietal, chief, and
enterendocrine cells.

Оценить