Continuous Data
• measured – weigh, timed,
• can be measured and broken down into smaller parts and still
have
meaning. Money, temperature and
time are continuous. Volume (like volume of water or air) and size
are continuous data.
Control Charts
• indicate stability over time
Chart Rules – Control Charts
• Pchart or NPchart  count number of items in error or defec
tives
• Uchart or Cchart  count number of errors or defects in ite
ms
Common causes  see variation
control limits
• Provide boundaries for a process running in control
• based upon process data
CTQ  Critical to Quality
• key measurable characteristics of a product or process whose
performance standards or specification
limits must be met in order to satisfy the customer
• product or service characteristics that are defined by the cu
stomer
(internal or
external). They may include the upper and lower specification limits
or any other factors related to the
product or service.
• the product or service characteristics that are defined by th
e
customer as critical to their needs
• what the customer expects of a product
DATA
Attribute Data Control Charts
• Attribute data  qualitative data that can be counted for rec
ording
and analysis good/bad, yes/no
• the average and dispersion are closely related; therefore, on
ly one
chart needed
• PChart – proportions percent defective with variable o
r constant
sample size
• NPchart– number of defectives with constant sample siz
e
• CChart – count of defects with constant sample size
• UChart – defects per unit with variable or constant sa
mple size
Variable Data Control Charts
• Variable data – measured  two types (Discrete) count d
ata and
(Continuous) data
• X and MR – for financial, mtce costs, efficiency rating
s,
productivity – (usually 2 charts)
• Xbar and Range
• Xbar and S (standard deviation) – Xbar for sample ave
rage and ¡°S¡±
to monitor process dispersion
Defect
• nonconformities – a single characteristic not meeting
defined
requirements
Defective
• nonconformance – contains one or more defects
DET  see FMEA
Discrete Data
• counted (usually in whole numbers)
DMAIC
• Define – project charter, problem statement, scope, goa
ls,
resources, financial, process maps
• Measure – collect data, process maps, fishbone, Pareto,
QFD, need
accuracy & precision
• Analyze  root cause is verified, hypothesis testing (verifyin
g
assumptions and predictions regarding the
relationship between process inputs and the CTQ values)
• Improve – brainstorming for ideas & solutions to proble
ms
identified in Analyze phase
• Control  project responsibilities transition from process
improvement team to operations team
• Six Sigma Methodology used for process improvement
DPMO (defects per million opportunities)
• defect level for a process
• number of defects divided by number of opportunities multipli
ed by
one million
DOE  Design of Experiments
• math & statistics used in the design & analysis phase of an
experiment to find best settings
• optimize a process, reduce common cause variation, and maximiz
e ROI
• organized method for determining the relationship between fac
tors
(Xs) affecting a process and the
output of that process (Y)
• experimental methods used to quantify indeterminate measureme
nts of
factors and interactions between
factors statistically through observance of forced changes made
methodically as directed by
mathematically systematic tables
Fish Bone see Cause and Effect Diagram
FMEA Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
• tool to identify where in the process if the source of failur
e
• RPN  Risk Priority Number relative risk of a particular fail
ure
mode = SEV x OCC x DET
• OCC or Likelihood of Occurrence rating  likelihood of the fa
ilure
occurring
• DET – detection rating measures likelihood current cont
rol system
will detect cause or failure
• SEV – severity rating how significant the impact of the
effect is
to the customer
• vital x¡‾s (root causes from lowlevel fishbones) go into potenti
al
cause column and can occur in more
than one process step
Gauge R&R
• Repeatability & Reproducibility
Gauge Repeatability
• how consistently same operator or measurement system measures
same
even over time
Gauge Reproducibility
• how consistently several operators or measurement systems mea
sure
same even over time
Histogram
• tool used in the Measure phase to illustrate shape, central
tendency, and dispersion of data
Leverage
• applying proven methods to other projects via lessons learned

share ideas & best practices
• reduces costs, increase efficiency, improve customer service
• identifying ¡°spinoff¡± projects that can benefit
Master Attribute
• standard or correct answer in an Attribute Gauge R & R study
MR = Moving Range
Mean
• arithmetic average
• the statistic most often used as the measure of central tende
ncy or
center of data
• represented by Greek symbol ¡°¥ì¡± (pronounced mu)
• center line (process average) in a control chart between UCL
and
LCL
Measurement systems
• see Gauge Reproducibility and Gauge Reproducibility
• Accuracy – how close the average are equal to the targe
t
• Precision – variation in repeated measurement of the sa
me event
• Linearity – performance over a range of events
• Stability – performance over time
Measurement system analysis
• used to validate the measurement system
Natural tolerance
• Natural tolerance is also called ¡°6 sigma¡± because it is defined as
6 times the population standard
deviation of the individual observations.
• 3 sigma on each side of the process mean
Cp = Process capability potential = spec width/natural
tolerance = (U  L) / 6 sigma
CpU = Upper capability index = (U  Mean) / 3 sigma
CpL = Lower capability index = (Mean  L) / 3 sigma
Cpk = Process capability index = Minimum of CpU and CpL
If the process capability potential, Cp, is greater than 1.0, the specification
limits are wider than the natural
tolerance, and the process has the potential for meeting specifications if held
in control at a mean of (U  L)/2.
Net profit
• selling price minus costs
NPBar
• centerline or process average of all subgroups in NPChart
NP  Chart see Attribute Data Control Charts
• a specialized version of the Pchart used when your sample si
ze is
constant
• used to monitor the number rather than the proportion of item
s with
a defined characteristic
• subgroups MUST be equal size
• used to track the actual number of defective items or the act
ual
number of good items
• average and dispersion are closely related; therefore, only o
ne
chart is required
OCCSee FMEA
Pareto Chart
• simple bar chart where the height of each bar represents the
frequency of a given category
• can be used to rank problems by their dollar costs rather than frequenc
y
• prioritize problems from those that happen most often to thos
e that
happen least often
• cumulative percentage curve added to show ¢²% of occurrences up t
o
and including a given category
• stratification  systematic subdivision of a problem into it
s
subcomponents
• identifies which opportunity or problem the team should focus
on
• categories are listed in order of frequency – higher on left
• height of each bar represents the frequency of a given catego
ry
• 8020 rule  80% of occurrences of problems are accounted for by
20% of
the categories of problems
• developed by Italian economist named Vilfredo Pareto
PChart see Attribute Data Control Charts
• monitor proportion or percentage
• values plotted will always be a proportion and result in a nu
mber
from zero to one
• Pchart is required to monitor the process average and disper
sion.
With attribute data, the average and
dispersion are closely related. Therefore, only one chart is
needed.
• subgroup sample sizes may vary. The control limits will vary
but
the centerline stays constant.
• larger subgroup size has narrower limits because larger sam
ple
size reduces sampling error
• With unequal subgroup sizes, pbar is a weighted average of t
he
individual subgroup proportions. A weighted average just means
the individual p¡‾s don¡‾t all carry the same weight in the calculation
of p bar.
Problem statement
• datadriven statement that does not include opinions on root
causes
or possible solutions
Process capability
• the extent to which a stable process is able to meet specific
ations
• assessed using either continuous data or discrete data
• when using attribute data should be expressed as percent, PPM
, PPB
defective, DPMO, etc.
• assessed with a histogram with specification limits
• capable process has a high Cp value and Cpk=Cp
Process Capability Index:
distance of mean to near spec
Cpk=¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª
half the natural tolerance)
Process Capability Index (if centered):
voice of customer (spec width)
Cp=¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª
voice of process (natural tolerance or 6 sigma)
Process outofcontrol see process shift
Process shift
• a cluster of eight consecutive data points either all above o
r
below the median
• a point outside of control limits is indication that process
may be
shifting
• process shift makes it inappropriate to calculate the overall
average (or standard deviation) of the data
Process maps
• shows the interrelationships of the steps in a process
• used to discipline teams to produce solutions that are defina
ble,
repeatable, predictable and measurable
• walk the process
• ¡°as is"
• include rework loops
• oval – starting or stopping point
• rectangle – process step or action
• diamond  decision
Projects
• selecting potential projects consider  resource availability
,
reward, complexity, risk
Project Charter
• set expectations and obtain buyin on scope, goal, and resour
ces
• accelerate the acquisition of resources
• avoid scope creep
• documentation
• easy and effective means to document a Six Sigma project
Project selection
• considerations = Complexity, Risk, Reward, Resource availabil
ity
Quality Function Deployment  QFD
• tool used to analyze customer requirements
R = Range
Root Causes
• often found in lowlevel fishbones during analyze phase
• easier to find the root cause of a problem
that
is detected as it is happening
• see Cause and Effect Diagram
average (mean)¥ì
• 99.73% of normal population lies within +/ three sigma¡‾s from i
ts
average (mean)¥ì
Sigma, (Standard Deviation), Formula
¥ì =
n or (n  1)
Statistics
• Uses Qualitative and Quantitative data types
• Systematic Sampling  uses a rule or pattern to select elemen
ts
from the population to form the sample
• Qualitative = discrete data – counted , Not measured
• Quantitative data  continuous data  different depending on
types
of questions
Xbar Chart  see Variable Data Control Charts
• used to monitor central tendency
Xbar and S Chart  see Variable Data Control Charts
__
Xbar = X
• mean or average of sample
• typically charted on a line control chart with the center li
ne
being X Double Bar, (an average of the
averages), and upper control limits and lower control limits
• We use averages because they are more susceptible to change
than
single values.
XmR Charts see Variable Data Control Charts
• control chart which uses a moving range. Typically two but c
an
have a larger range
• usually used when one measurement is available for each subgroup
Upper Control Limit  UCL
• control limit for points above the central line in a control
chart
COSTS COSTS
COSTS
Appraisal costs
• inspection costs incurred to identify defective products befo
re the
products are shipped to customers
• Test and inspection of incoming materials
• Test and inspection of inprocess goods
• Final product testing and inspection
• Supplies used in testing and inspection
• Supervision of testing and inspection activities
• Depreciation & maintenance of test equipment
• field testing and appraisal at customer site
COPQ(Cost Of Poor Quality)
• rework loop cost = (Defect rate) x (Volume) x (Cost of rework
per
unit)
• penalty from not performing work correctly the first time or
not
meeting customer¡‾s expectation
• cost categories = appraisal, internal failure, prevention, ex
ternal
• most often calculated in the design stage of the Six Sigma
Methodology
Entitlement cost
• cost of doing the right thing right the first time
Internal failure Costs
• Internal failure costs result from identification of defects
before
shipping to customers
• Costs include scrap, rejected products, reworking of defectiv
e
units, and downtime
External Failure Costs
• defective product is delivered to customer
• costs include warranty, repairs and replacements, product rec
alls,
liability arising from legal actions
against a company, and lost sales arising from a reputation for
poor quality
Prevention Costs
• Prevention costs support activities whose purpose is to reduc
e the
number of defects.
• Examples  statistical process control, quality engineering,
training, and tools
Sigma to DPMO to Yield to Cpk Table
SigmaDPMOYieldCPK
1.50500,00050%0.50
3.0066,50093.320%1.00
3.5022,70097.730%1.17
4.006,21099.3790%1.33
4.501,35099.8650%1.50
5.0023099.9770%1.67
6.003.499.99966%2.00
Assumptions
No analysis would be complete without properly noting the assumptions made. In
the above table, we have
assumed that the standard sigma shift of 1.5 is appropriate, the data is
normally distributed, and the process is
stable.