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Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature

This chapter discusses pertinent information about the study. This

consists of foreign and local literature by foreign and local authors.

Foreign Literature

Eurasia (2016) stated that appropriate curricula and materials should be

planned to match with multimedia teaching design in order to reduce students’

learning frustration and obstacle caused by insufficient experiences and basic

competence. Multimedia dynamic, a curriculum oriented teaching instrument

combined with cognitive psychology, cognitive load theory, and multimedia

teaching theory, could easily attract students 'attention in the performing process

so as to guide the learning, reduce the load of working memory, and further

reduce the cognitive load. With multimedia dynamic presentation, teachers could

design materials matching with class teaching for the attention guidance to help

students actively search, select, and organize information, reduce the load of

working memory and cognitive load, and enhance the learning effect.

Appropriate materials should be used in teaching and to be matched with

multimedia. By doing so it can help relieve the stress of the students and

frustration due to the activities and insufficient experience in heavy workload. A

teaching that is combined cognition which means that involving conscious

intellectual activity can help students understand the topic easier. It can also help

to attract students to have less Curricular activities is needed and more Extra

Curricular activities will be needed. With these kinds of activities and teaching

less stress, workload, and frustration will be put on the student.

Manzano (2003) well-oriented school environment plus positive academic

expectation equals effective classroom. He stated further that classroom

management consists of practices and procedures that a teacher used to

maintain an environment in which instruction and learning can occur. For this to

happen, he teacher must well-ordered environment.

Classroom environment is one of the most important factors affecting

student learning. The learning environment will dictate how well or poorly a child

will learn. Students work more productively, and share more openly, when there

is a positive classroom environment. Through behavior management, teachers

can create an atmosphere that can produce positive outcomes.  Multimedia has

been one of the most well-known and effective training tools. It attracts the

attention of the learners and it addresses more than one sense simultaneously

that improves the students’ comprehension.

Mayer (2001) multimedia provides a complex multi-sensory experience in

exploring our world through the presentation of information through text,

graphics, images, audio and video, and there is evidence to suggest that a

mixture of words and pictures increases the likelihood that people can integrate a

large amount of information.

The information presented through multimedia has a big role into the

student’s learning. If the students are not interested in the material presented,

they will not learn it. Students prefer one, two, or three learning styles because it

boost their creativity and interest to learn. The learners can get lots of information

when the teachers presented the lesson with multimedia.

Andrew (2011) that using video and multimedia in the classroom is one

way to engage students, but there are some methods that are more educationally

effective than others. Students can easily relate themselves to the situation and

express their ideas relatively. When compared to traditional teaching methods,

teachers who used interactive video with their instruction had students with more

positive attitudes towards learning.

Students nowadays are considered as digital natives so they are more

engage to the modern instructional materials. Multimedia empowers students to

create and design rather than absorb representations created by others. Effective

instruction builds bridges between students' knowledge and the learning

objectives of the course.

Denial et. al (2014) stated that the school environment and peer influence

has been found to have strong relationship with student’s academic performance.

School environment has a big impact on the performance of the student

so does the peer. Multimedia is a useful tool in teaching but a classroom must

have a good environment for the students to study comfortably. They must foster

positive peer groups early in order to become well-adjusted students. Having

friends in school allows the child to learn a host of skills: group interaction,

conflict resolution, and trust building, among others.

Local Literature

Bilbao (2006) stated that technologies as link to new knowledge resources

and high order thinking skills have entered classrooms and schools worldwide.

With the diversity of learners, breakthroughs in technology and multiple teachers’

perspectives, an innovative teaching is one of the answers to the global demands

for quality education.

Teacher should familiarize themselves with the main element of

technology taking into consideration the people, process learning and teaching,

learning materials that are new and modern. Teachers are the one who nurture

student’s ability and personality. The students, look at their teacher as their role

model so as to speak, how teachers present lesson with multimedia and behave

around their students can affect the academic performance.

Dike (2006) states that educational technology is concerned with the

provision of alternative instructional materials which can help to extend the range

of various experiences of learners in any teaching-learning situation.

Furthermore, instructional materials can then be described as a systematic

arrangement of instructions in such a way that, learning is facilitated.

Multimedia enables the learners to be more resourceful and flexible to any

kind of situations. It introduce new teaching methods, give an opportunity to

maximize learning, conceptualize the e-learning community, maximize the

learners’ output and enhance innovative skills in learning. The good academic

performance of the students is based on how effective the learning materials are.

School and teachers must collide to give the students quality education that can

help them succeed into day’s rapidly changing world.

Rodriguez (2007) stated that it also important to remember that

technology requires administrative in community support and involvement that

are critical to its successful integration in education.

Schools, teachers and parents must provide a place for development,

discovery and potential for the 21st century learners. Social relationship has a

powerful influence on the child, academic performance and achievements.

Amao (2011) stated that univariate studies have confirmed the positive

influence of multimedia instructions and study habit on students’ academic

achievement in general.

The extent to which instructional materials could predict students’

achievement has not being a focus of much research attention. Hence, this

attempted to investigate the extent to which classroom participation, study habits

and the use of multimedia as instructional materials can predicted students’

academic achievement in secondary schools.

Leonardo (2012) stated that on educators and the learning styles of

students have, for many years, noticed that some students prefer some methods

of learning more than others through using the multimedia instructional materials.

It revealed that these trials, referred to as learning styles, from a student’s

unique learning preference and aid teachers in the planning of using instructional

materials in teaching. If the student learning is dependent on learning styles,

then, teachers should be aware of these skills and alter their preparation and

instructional methods accordingly.