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Training Needs Assessment Report

Public Library Institutions and Communal Cultural Post Offices


in Thai Nguyen, Nghe An, and Tra Vinh Provinces

Building Capacity for Public Library Institutions in Support of Public Access to the Internet in Vietnam Project
FUNDED BY THE BILL & MELINDA GATES FOUNDATION
Training Needs Assessment Report:
Public Library Institutions and Communal Cultural Post
Offices in Thai Nguyen, Nghe An, and Tra Vinh Provinces

Building Capacity for Public Library Institutions in Support of


Public Access to the Internet in Vietnam Project

FUNDED BY THE BILL & MELINDA GATES FOUNDATION

National Library of Viet Nam

Hanoi, April 2009


ABBREVIATIONS

AACR2 Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules


ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
CDS/ISIS Computerised Documentation Service/Integrated Set
of Information Systems
CONSAL Conference on Southeast Asian Library Staff
CPC Commune People’s Committee
CPO Cultural Post Office
DDC Dewey Decimal Classification
ICT Information Communication Technology
IFLA The International Federation of Library Associations
and Institutions
ILIB Integrated Library System
IT Information Technology
DL Department of Library
LAN Local Area Network
MARC21 Machine-Readable Cataloguing
NLV National Library of Vietnam
OPAC Online Public Access Cataloguing
PC Personal Computer
PL Public Library
PLI Public Library Institution
TAF The Asia Foundation
MIC Ministry of Information and Communication
MCST Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism
TOT Training-of-Trainers
UNDP United Nations Development Program
VNPT Vietnam National Post and Telecommunications

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The Training Needs Assessment


From February 23rd to March 22nd 2009, The Asia Foundation (TAF), in coordination
with the National Library of Vietnam (NLV) and other local partners, conducted a field
survey at all 90 pilot sites, primarily located in public libraries and cultural post offices
(CPOs) in the three provinces of Thai Nguyen, Nghe An and Tra Vinh to assess the
training needs at provincial, district and commune levels. The training needs assessment
(TNA): (i) analyzed the effectiveness of services provided at public library institutions
and CPOs and defined training needs; (ii) analyzed responsibilities of library staff in
terms of necessary knowledge, skills, behavior and capacity to provide services in a
public library; and (iii) completed face-to-face interviews of library staff and readers at
public libraries in order to define the training needs and targets.

Survey Methodology and Participation


In addition to collecting and researching available data, TAF research team developed
questionnaires to send to the libraries, CPOs and their staff, and interview sheets for in-
depth interviews with public library institutions’ leaders in terms of capacity of the
libraries/CPOs, librarians, users and potential users. The research team was comprised of
a core group from Hanoi (two from TAF, one from the NLV, and an expert on training
needs assessment), and six library staff chosen by each provincial library for their strong
library science and information technology skills, and for their good relations with the
local districts and communes.

The team spent the first day working at the provincial library, where the core group
conducted the interviews with individuals and trained the provincial library staff on
interviewing skills. On the second day, the team was divided into three separate teams to
fan out to different parts of the province for interviews. A member of the core group was
the team’s leader, with two provincial library staff as team members. One of the two staff
from TAF also accompanied one team in order to monitor the training needs assessment
process. The competence, experience and thorough understanding of the locality of the
provincial team members were critical, allowing for dynamic and effective interactions
between the team and the people interviewed. Responsibilities were clearly divided
among team members, with the team leader interviewing leaders and staff at public
libraries and CPOs. Some provincial library staff were in charge of interviewing current
users, while other provincial library staff interviewed potential users. This ensured a
consistent and high quality approach in the interviews.

On the last day, the three small teams met together to share experiences and agreed on the
common findings of the survey results, as well as suggestions to further refine the
questionnaires and interview sheets. In total, in-depth interviews were completed with 89
public library institutional leaders and CPO staff, 43 librarians from three provincial
libraries and 15 district libraries, and 532 individuals (both users and potential users) in
three provinces. Users and potential users were categorized in terms of class, gender, and
age, such as government officers, retired officers, farmers, veterans, university students,
secondary pupils, owners of small and medium enterprises, and small traders. Multi-
dimensional information, as a result, was collected.

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Findings
Some results of the training needs assessment were not unexpected, while others provided
new and useful insights for the next project activity, which will focus on developing
appropriate training materials and conducting training programs to strengthen the capacity
of public library institutions. Below are the key findings of the TNA:

Information and Internet service infrastructure:


 While there are no computers available at district libraries, provincial libraries are
generally equipped with an average of ten computers each. However, although the
three provincial libraries in the TNA were connected to the Internet, only library staff
have access for their own work. As such, there was no Internet service available to
the public. Additionally, some computers provided in 2003-2004 are now outdated or
are out of service.
 On the other hand, the surveyed CPOs have received great attention, support and
investment from the Ministry of Information and Communication: 46% (32 out of
72) of the total CPOs were equipped with 155 Internet-ready computers, but only 57%
(19 out of 33) of the total surveyed locations provide Internet services to the public.
Although 62% (96 out of 155) of the computers were operating with Internet
connectivity, even this was ineffective due to the poor quality of the dial-up
connections. Only 9 CPOs had ADSL connections and were operating efficiently. The
rest were not functioning.

Staff capacity and training needs:


 70.6% of provincial library staff rated the level of their information technology
knowledge as weak or average; the rates for staff at the district and commune CPOs
were 87.9% and 90.7%, respectively. Basic knowledge of information technology,
such as how to use the mouse, how to print and use office software, have not been
provided or applied.
 46% of staff at CPOs which had Internet connectivity revealed their weaknesses in
using basic Internet functions such as reading the news, sending emails, chatting, etc.
Most staff at libraries with no Internet connectivity do not even know how to operate
a computer.
 Most library staff are still unfamiliar with their new roles in the information
technology age in terms of collecting, storing, and transferring information.
 The training priorities related to information technology for library staff is different
from those of the CPO staff. Specifically, the priorities of provincial and district
library staff are to improve: knowledge of using library software (80.5%); Internet
searching skills (77.9%); basic IT knowlege (74.9%); knowledge of using online
databases (70.7%); and knowledge of network administration (54.3%). By
comparison, the priorities of CPO staff are to improve: Internet searching skills
(91.6%); basic IT skills (90.2%); knowlege of operating systems (74.7%); knowledge
of computer hardware (73.2%); and knowledge of network administration (57.8%).
 72% of provincial library staff assessed their client-serving skills as weak and
average; the rates for district and commune CPOs were 48.4% and 68.7%,
respectively.
 In terms of training related to patron service, an average of more than 66% of library
and CPO staff expressed a desire to attend courses on communication skills and
promoting and advertising library/Internet services.
 Through the TNA, library and CPO staff also expressed the need for separate training
courses for those who have very limited skills or have never had access to computers
and the Internet so that they can acquire basic IT skills before receiving more in-depth
training.

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 Training and educational materials should be nicely presented, simple, and
understandable, with illustrations to facilitate training and future applications for staff.
 In order to encourage the participation of library and CPO staff in training courses
without detracting from daily service provision to patrons, library staff requested
training in their respective provinces on Saturdays and Sundays, while CPO staff
requested training in their respective districts in the evenings.

User assessment and information needs:


 78% of library and CPO users said they know of the libraries or CPOs because they
pass by these places often or because they live nearby. Of all those interviewed who
have never used any library or CPO services, 67% said they had no idea of their
existence; the rest (33%) revealed they knew about the library or CPO because they
pass by or live nearby. Of all the interviewed users and potential users, less than 4%
said they knew about the library or CPO through library or CPO outreach activities,
and less than 10% knew through the mass media.
 When asked “How would you describe the image of libraries/CPOs?,” 49% of the
interviewees said libraries and CPOs were where they could read/borrow/receive
information from books and newspapers and librarians. 80% of CPO users thought of
CPOs only as places to make phone calls and send mail, while only 17% knew that
these places also provided Internet access. Most people had limited ideas as to the
range of Internet features. The majority of Internet users were school pupils who
mainly used the Internet to play games or chat with friends.

Library and CPO activities:


 For outreach purposes, provincial libraries mainly use the “story-telling competition”
model. Other communication and outreach activities such as thematic discussion
groups or book festivals have rarely been used in Thai Nguyen and Tra Vinh
provincial libraries due to limited financial capacity, experience and organizing
capacity of the library staff. Communication and outreach activities have rarely been
conducted by district libraries and CPOs.
 Often, the physical layout of space in libraries and CPOs is not rational and is not
user-friendly. Many CPOs are not attractive places. The facilities of most CPOs in
Thai Nguyen and Nghe An provinces, for example, are cramped with some being
partitioned to provide living quarters for CPO staff and their families. Furniture is
limited and old-fashioned.

Recommendations
Based on the TNA results, the research team proposes recommendations to improve the
performance of public libraries and CPOs in general, and the Internet services they
provide, in particular:

 Public library institutions and CPOs should provide more rational and well-organized
space for Internet services to attract more users. At the same time, the CPOs should
pay more attention to the acquisition of books and newspapers.
 As the information needs of users become more and more diversified, public library
institutions and CPOs should: i) provide new services to users beyond traditional
ones; ii) coordinate with local governments and other relevant agencies to develop
communication and promotion plans to introduce Internet services and uses; iii)
design and publish leaflets with simple guides on how to use the Internet with a
supporting list of links to useful websites; iv) develop and enrich local content to
satisfy people’s needs, such as how to run a good business, how to find employment
opportunities, or how to understand market needs for specific products, etc.

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 Comprehensive training for staff of public library institutions and CPOs is required.
Training should include: basic through advanced IT skills, and simple Internet access
skills through more advanced skills in assessing and analyzing information needs to
identify the most effective information strategies. Specifically, training needs to be
more in-depth for those staff without any computer skills at all in the pilot locations.
 Provide supplementary training on service and communication skills, as well as
training on appropriate professional guidance skills in order to strengthen staff
capabilities in assisting patrons on the use of library services, which will satisfy and
attract potential users.
 Increase library and CPO staff knowledge on the impact of Internet Communication
Technology (ICT) on: i) libraries and information centers; ii) end users; iii) library
staff and library education; and iv), on computer and Internet usage. Also, educate
staff on the role of information and library staff in an information society more
generally.
 Staff knowledge and skills need to be refreshed and updated frequently. As such, the
management of public library institutions and CPOs should have certain annual
budgets for continuous training programs, comprehensive training programs for
existing staff, and a training plan for new staff when necessary.
 In order to help users familiar with library services, the management of public library
institutions should have a plan for providing periodic training courses for patrons on
utilizing library services and the Internet, especially for first-time and disadvantaged
users.
 Local authorities, leadership at all levels, schools, and mass organizations also need to
be trained and familiarized with the important role of public libraries and CPOs in
providing public Internet and computer access, in coordinating and promoting
services, and in managing Internet usage in the localities for sustainability and social
security.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................. ii

1. INTRODUCTION..............................................................................................................................................9

2. BACKGROUND ..............................................................................................................................................11

3. OBJECTIVES, ASSESSMENTS, AND SURVEYS ................................................................................13


3.1 Objectives ...................................................................................................................................13
3.2 Assessment and surveys: ..........................................................................................................13

4. ASSESSMENT METHODS AND SURVEY TOOLS ..............................................................................14


4.1. Assessment and survey sites....................................................................................................14
4.2. Survey tools ..............................................................................................................................14
4.2.1. Literature review:..............................................................................................................14
4.2.2. Questionnaire: ...................................................................................................................15
4.2.3. Interviews: .........................................................................................................................15
4.2.4. Survey preparations ..........................................................................................................16

5. RESULTS OF THE ASSESSMENT AND SURVEY ..............................................................................18


5.1. General information and assessment of public library services and cultural post offices
in Vietnam........................................................................................................................................18
5.2. Infrastructure and IT of public libraries and CPOs in the survey areas...........................20
5.2.1. Public libraries ..................................................................................................................20
5.2.2. District libraries ................................................................................................................20
5.2.3. Cultural Post Offices in communes .................................................................................21
5.3. Human resources of public libraries and CPOs...................................................................23
5.3.1. Provincial libraries:...........................................................................................................23
5.3.2. District libraries ................................................................................................................24
5.3.3. Cultural Post Offices (CPOs) ...........................................................................................25
5.4. IT capacity in public libraries and CPOs ..............................................................................25
5.4.1. Provincial libraries ............................................................................................................27
5.4.2. District libraries: ...............................................................................................................27
5.4.3. CPOs ..................................................................................................................................27
5.5. Provision of services and support to users of public libraries and CPOs ..........................27
5.5.1. Provincial libraries ............................................................................................................29
5.5.2. District libraries ................................................................................................................29
5.5.3. CPOs ..................................................................................................................................29
5.6. Training needs of public library and CPO staff ...................................................................29
5.6.1. Library staff qualifications ...............................................................................................29
5.6.2. IT knowledge ....................................................................................................................31
5.6.3. Skills to serve and support patrons/users ........................................................................32
5.6.4. Training organization .......................................................................................................32
Together with the training topics recommended above, library and CPO staff have suggested
the following ideas on the organization and implementation of training: ...............................32
5.7 Patrons and their information needs......................................................................................33
5.7.1. Patrons and users of public libraries and CPOs ..............................................................33
5.7.2. Potential patrons and users:..............................................................................................35

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6. OVERALL ASSESSMENT OF THE SURVEY SITES..........................................................................37
6.1 Infrastructure and facilities ....................................................................................................37
6.2 Services......................................................................................................................................38
6.3 IT capacity and service provision abilities of library and CPO staff................................39
6.4 Training organization..............................................................................................................40

7. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INTERNET SERVICES IN PUBLIC LIBRARIES/CPOs ...............42


7.1 Physical and IT infrastructure ................................................................................................42
7.2 Services ......................................................................................................................................42
7.3 Improvement of IT and service provision staff capacity in public libraries and CPOs ....43
7.4 Knowledge and skill improvement training for better library services ...............................44
7.5 Coordination at the local level.................................................................................................44

8. CONCLUSIONS..............................................................................................................................................46

9. REFERENCES ..............................................................................................................................................49

ANNEX 1: LIST OF SURVEY WORKERS ...................................................................................................52

ANNEX 2: SURVEY SITES .............................................................................................................................54

ANNEX 2b: MAP OF 90 SURVEY SITES ....................................................................................................56

ANNEX 2c: SOME PHOTOS ON FACILITIES OF SURVEYED SITES...............................................59

ANNEX 3: QUANTITY AND PC STATUS AT 72 SURVEYED CPOS ...................................................64

ANNEX 4: LIST OF INTERVIEWEES .........................................................................................................68

ANNEX 5: RATE OF PATRONS CLASSIFIED BY TARGETS, GENDER AND AGE ......................70

ANNEX 6: LEADING ECONOMIC SECTORS IN THE PROVINCES ...................................................71

ANNEX 7: QUESTIONNAIRES ......................................................................................................................76

ANNEX 8: INTERVIEW GUIDELINES ........................................................................................................93

List of figures

Figure 1: Number of computers according to purpose in 3 provincial libraries .....................20


Figure 2: IT training needs of public library and CPO staff .....................................................31
Figure 3: Staff training needs to serve and support patrons of public libraries and CPOs ...32
Figure 4: Patron use of and needs for services provided by public libraries and CPOs .........34

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List of tables

Table 1: IT infrastructure in CPOs ..............................................................................................21


Table 2: Number and qualifications of provincial library staff ..............................................23
Table 3: Number, sex, age group, and qualifications of librarians at the provincial level 23
Table 4: Number, qualifications, and age groups of district library staff..............................24
Table 5: Number, qualifications, and age groups in CPOs surveyed .....................................25
Table 6: IT knowledge and skills of public librarians , and CPOs’ staff...............................26
Table 7: Provision of services and support to users of public libraries and CPOs ...............28

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1. INTRODUCTION
Vietnam’s citizens have a great passion for reading, and public libraries in Vietnam are free
for users, open for long hours, and have relatively well-qualified personnel to support
patrons. Some public libraries also provide training to interested readers (e.g., how to use the
library facilities, how to operate computers, and how to access the Internet). However,
public library services tend to focus only on those who specifically request such services,
rather than proactively serving the larger public. Public libraries are not active in upgrading
services to meet the increasing demands of the user community and this leads to limited
access to the public library system, especially among the poor, people living with disabilities
and other disadvantaged groups. Trainings for librarians have not yet included essential
skills, such as how to communicate with patrons and how to work effectively with different
patron groups.

Many library staff are simply book keepers, rather than a source of guidance for library users
to help them find the information and resources they need. The government has spent funds
to upgrade equipments and library networks across the country and to provide training in
library sciences and information management to librarians. However, the public library
system still does not operate efficiently. At the grassroots level, public libraries, if properly
maintained, can play an important role in complementing the formal education system:
providing critical information for people to improve their well-being, disseminating leads on
job opportunities for youth, and teaching children about themselves and the world around
them. The involvement of universities, museums and other cultural organizations (such as
cinemas, theaters and exhibitions, etc.) in the public library system serves to diversify library
services through activities such as events and the introduction of resources and enhanced
library services, but currently these are not widely offered it at all.

In this context, The Asia Foundation (TAF) in cooperation with the National Library of
Vietnam (NLV) and other public library institutions are implementing an 18-month project
designed to strengthen public library institutions’ capacity to develop a more user-friendly
library environment in selected pilot sites. The project, funded by The Bill and Melinda
Gates Foundation, covers two main objectives: i) To strengthen Internet capabilities in public
library institutions (PLIs) and in cultural post offices (CPOs) in Vietnam and to create a more
welcoming and accessible library environment in selected pilot sites; and ii), To promote
public Internet access and the availability of Internet usage in Vietnam’s public libraries.
Favorable access to useful information sources for the lives of local people is expected to
contribute to improved knowledge and skills and in the long term, to improve their well-
being.

The project, implemented by TAF and the NLV and other institutions in Vietnam, will
complement the pilot project activities implemented by Vietnam’s Ministry of Information
and Communication (MIC) also funded by The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. While
the MIC project focuses on pilot implementation of public Internet access models, TAF aims
to strengthen the capabilities of public library institutions to create more welcoming and
accessible library environments, and to promote public access to computers and the Internet
in selected Public Libraries (PLs) and CPOs.

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In order to achieve these objectives, TAF is supporting following activities:

 A comprehensive training needs assessment (TNA) conducted at 90 sites in three selected


provinces identified by the MIC. The TNA reviews the capacity of and services provided
by PLs and CPOs in communes, which will serve as the basis for the design and content
of the training program to enhance the capacity of PLIs.
 Training and educational materials will be developed based on the results from the TNA
and a review of existing training materials. The newly developed training materials will
focus on service provision to users and will help librarians to provide support and
guidance for users including: i) information resources and Internet search skills; ii) how
to use the Internet as a tool for obtaining information for further learning; iii) how to
research information related to daily life; and iv), cultural and socio-economic related
issues through the Internet. The training materials will include guides for staff as well as
associated materials to be distributed directly to library users.
 Based on the assessment, TAF will design a training program to enhance the capacity of
PLs and CPOs to better provide services. The training program will employ Training-of-
Trainers (TOT) and participatory approaches. The project expects to build capacity for
well-trained trainers within the library system, who then can continue to provide
subsequent trainings for other library staff with the skills and knowledge gained through
project implementation and the training materials.
 TAF will support the PLs and CPOs to develop tools to assess the level of use and
satisfaction with regard to public Internet access services at PLs and CPOs to see if they
meet users’ demands.
 TAF will support commune level PLs and CPOs in organizing events for promoting
library services and Internet access at project sites.
 Upon completion of the above mentioned activities, TAF will assist the NLV, in
collaboration with the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (MCST), to organize a
national workshop to discuss project results, experiences, and lessons learned from the
project’s pilot activities. The workshop will be a good opportunity to share information
and experiences with other project partners and organizations working on issues related
to PLs and CPOs in the communes. Recommendations on post-project replication for
creating a welcoming library environments to maximize public Internet access at libraries
and CPOs will be presented.

This report presents the results of the first activity which will inform the design of training
programs to be implemented by TAF and its partners, as well as the MIC. The report
includes assessments of service provision of the PLIs, capacity of library staff, level of
information technology (IT) application and Internet access, and the information needs of
patrons. In particular, TAF surveyed and interviewed potential library patrons who have
never used library services to better understand their information and Internet access needs.
Survey results are presented in Section 5, including: i) general assessment on services
provided by PLIs (based on literature review and discussions with the NLV and other local
organizations); ii) the current state of facilities, IT infrastructure, and PLI and CPO
personnel; iii) library staff’s IT skills; iv) library staff’s capacity to provide services to
patrons; and iv), the training needs of library staff and patrons, as well as the information
needs of users. Section 6 presents an assessment and further analysis of the survey and
interview results. The assessment focuses on facilities and equipment, service provision, staff
capacity-related IT skills and service provision, and the training needs and roles of local
authorities. Recommendations are presented in Section 7. Based on these general
recommendations, TAF and MIC can develop a training plan to provide knowledge and skills
relevant to the capacities of the project’s beneficiaries, which are in line with overall
project’s objectives.
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2. BACKGROUND
The rapid development of Internet technology and communications brought about significant
changes in the world at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century. Its
development was the first step in the establishment of a new social model: an IT society with
a knowledge economy where the information demands of individuals and society vary and
require time-sensitive responses. Its development also makes information and data
management tasks more difficult and challenging for global library systems in general, and
Vietnamese library systems in particular. Thanks to the speedy advancement of technology
and the Internet, the traditional library model is being transformed into a modern library
model – one that provides new products and services. Today, library activities are linked
through the use of computers, access the Internet, online databases, e-journal. The Internet
has become an indispensable tool in the work of libraries.

Implemented by the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (MCST), Vietnam has
developed an electronic library model through a series of projects designed to promote IT
applications in PLIs. The aim was to “Build an electronic/digital library system in the NLV
and throughout the provincial PLs in the country”. At the same time, academic libraries and
other library systems in big cities like Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City have received funding
from the central and local governments for several projects to modernize their library
systems to keep up with the social development and the demand for information technology
from patrons.

Following the trends of e-library development in the region and around the world, projects
implemented by the MCST from 2001-2006 focused on developing electronic/digital
libraries for the NLV and 26 provincial libraries in Thai Binh, Phu Yen, Nghe An, Vung Tau,
Can Tho, Thua Thien Hue, Thanh Hoa, Thai Nguyen, Quang Ninh, Hai Duong, Ben Tre,
Dak Lak, Lao Cai, Phu Tho, Vinh Phuc, Ha Tay, Nam Dinh, Da Nang, Gia Lai, An Giang,
Tien Giang, Vinh Long, Ca Mau, Ha Tinh, and Soc Trang. Another 12 libraries from the
provinces of Lam Dong, Binh Dinh, Dong Nai, Ha Giang, Lang Son, Binh Duong, Bac
Giang, Khanh Hoa, Binh Thuan, Tay Ninh, Ha Noi and Ho Chi Minh City were invested
with local funding.1 New integrated library system and modern equipment were invested in
38 of 64 provincial libraries to replace the Computerised Documentation Services/
Intergrated Set of Information System (CDS/ISIS), which has been used by most of the
libraries in Vietnam. The other provincial libraries were provided similar, but smaller scale,
equipment.

Since 2007, 80% (52/65) of provincial libraries have had access to the Internet. However,
only 34% (22/65) of those provided Internet access service for patrons, and only 15.4%
(10/65) had online database services.2 Some libraries built up digital databases for core data,
such as databases on PhD thesis, Indochina publications, Han-Nom publications at the NLV,
and the full texts of indigenous content of cities and provinces (such as that found at the
General Scientific Library of Ho Chi Minh City, and the libraries of Binh Duong and Ba Ria,
Vung Tau, ...). Equipment to support people with vision disabilities was also provided at 64
provincial libraries under funding from the FORCE Foundation. (only 32 of 64 libraries

1
Vietnam: Social/cultural/ICT4D/public libraries/other service models. Prepared for Global Libraries, Bill &
Melinda Gates Foundation. 2006-2007.
2
Vietnam: Social/cultural/ICT4D/public libraries/other service models. Prepared for Global Libraries, Bill &
Melinda Gates Foundation. 2006-2007.
11
provide services for the visually impaired.3) The Hanoi Library and the General Scientific
Library of Ho Chi Minh City are equipped with the most modern facilities.

Since June 2008, 99 of 623 district level libraries have applied IT.4 These applications
include creating publication databases, making cataloguing fiche, and retrieving information.
Few district libraries have even established multimedia rooms with Internet access services
available to patrons. The ways of providing services have changed very little and the
application of IT has only been slowly implemented. Activities to-date focus mainly on
creating publication databases, printing cataloguing fiche and word processor.

In recent years, to meet the increasing demands of patrons, the NLV and PLIs have focused
their efforts on upgrading infrastructure and improving services, especially Internet access
for library staff and users. Such efforts demonstrate strong government commitment and
awareness in supporting and encouraging the contributions of PLIs to the country’s
educational, social, and economic development.

However, at the grassroots level, libraries still face many difficulties and do not meet the
information demands of their patrons. Together with facility improvements, accessing useful
information for local people is a decisive factor for the sustainability of IT applications. To
maximize the potential impact of the Internet and its uses, local people in communes and
districts have to be able to access information related to job opportunities, further study,
learning new skills, enhancing business and production, and responding to disasters and
epidemics. In reality, many people still do not have access to critical and useful information
available to them that could impact their daily lives due to the lack of Internet access or
ineffective use of the Internet. The limited capacity of library staff in supporting local people
in accessing such information is another contributing factor.

3
Towards dynamics of libraries and information centers in South East Asian countries: Workshop proceedings
of CONSAL 14 (CONSAL 14), organized in Hanoi, 20-23-2009.
4
IT application to district libraries: A long road ahead! 27/6/2008.
(http://203.162.71.77:100/vn/doisongict/4223/index.aspx)

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3. OBJECTIVES, ASSESSMENTS, AND SURVEYS
3.1 Objectives
Overall objective: To conduct a training need assessment through surveys at provincial,
district and commune levels to identify training needs and to inform training program design.
Such a program will improve PLI and CPO staff capacity to enable them to provide more
useful and friendly services for users and will create a more welcoming environment at
libraries and improve the skills of library staff in managing public Internet access services.

Specific objectives: i) Assess the capacity of the PLI system from the provincial to district
levels and of communal CPOs at the pilot sites; ii) Assess the capacity of staff at PLs and
communal CPOs in serving patrons as well as using and managing public Internet access
services; iii) identify the training needs of staff at PLs and CPOs in service provision in
general and public Internet access services in particular; iv) identify patron and user needs
and expectations; and v), make recommendations for training design to improve the capacity
and skills of PL and CPO staff at the pilot sites.

3.2 Assessment and surveys:


The aim of the assessment and survey was to identify the training needs of library staff at
different levels as well as to gather baseline information and data for project monitoring and
evaluation purposes. Towards that end, TAF conducted surveys and gathered information
related to service provision of PLIs and CPOs. More specifically, the assessment and survey
looked at following characteristics:
 Status of facilities and IT infrastructure of PLIs/communal CPOs: Quick assessment on
library premise and the location of PLIs/communal CPOs, focusing on IT infrastructure:
quantity of computers and computer functions, types of Internet services and Internet
connectivity.
 Status of PL/communal CPO personnel: Assessment of quantity and qualifications of
library staff; quantity, qualifications, gender and age of librarians at PLIs/communal
CPOs.
 IT capacity of staff at PLs/communal CPOs: Assessment of staff IT capacity by
evaluating skill levels as to basic IT knowledge, website administration and Internet
usage.
 Staff servicing provision skills in PLIs/communal CPOs: Assessment of staff service
provision skills at PLs/communal CPOs. Use of staff self-evaluations to assess service
provision skills, ability to guide patrons on using services, knowledge of patron
psychology, and skills to promote library services to attract patrons.
 Training needs of PL/communal CPO staff: Assessment of specific training needs in the
fields of IT knowledge and patron servicing capacity.
 Patrons and their demand for information: Survey of habits, reasons for using
library/Internet, and comments of patrons on library services, attitudes of librarians in
supporting patrons, and patron demand for information.

13
4. ASSESSMENT METHODS AND SURVEY TOOLS
4.1. Assessment and survey sites
The project sites were selected by the MIC project for the pilot activities in the following 3
provinces: Thai Nguyen, representing the northern region, Nghe An, representing the Central
region, and Tra Vinh, representing the Southern region. The pilot sites in each province
included one provincial library, 5 district libraries and 24 CPOs at the communal level. The
survey was conducted at 90 sites (a list of these sites is in Annex 2a).

Nghe An is a province in North Central Vietnam with an area of over 16,000 km2 - the
largest province in the country. The population is 3 million, ranking fourth among provinces
in the country. There are several ethnic groups in the province: Kinh, Thai, Mong, Kho Mu…
Nghe An has 1 city, 2 city towns and 17 districts divided to 472 communes, of which 244
communes are located in mountainous areas. The provincial economy is based on
agriculture, and industry is still underdeveloped. The PL system has reached 17 districts, 2
towns, and Vinh city (100%). 78 out of 473 communes (16%) have public libraries. 398 out
of 473 communes have CPOs (84%). 30 sites were selected for the survey in Nghe An,
including 1 provincial library, 5 district libraries (Quy Chau, Yen Thanh, Quynh Luu, Hung
Nguyen and Nam Dan) and 24 CPOs located across 17 districts.

Thai Nguyen is a mountainous province in the North. It is considered the cultural, economic,
and political center of Vietnam’s East-West mountainous region. The provincial area is 3.500
km2. The population is 1.3 million, and includes 8 ethnic groups of Kinh, Tay, Nung, Cao
Lan, San Chi, Dao, Mong and Chinese, of which 27% are ethnic minorities. Thai Nguyen has
one city, 1 city town and 7 districts divided to 180 communes, 125 of which are located in
mountainous areas. The PL system has reached the district level with 8 district libraries out
of 9 districts and the city town. The city of Thai Nguyen does not yet have a library and the
communal library system has not been established. There are 139 communal CPOs in 180
communes (77%). 30 sites were selected for the survey in Thai Nguyen, including 1
provincial library, 5 district libraries (Dong Hy, Dinh Hoa, Vo Nhai, Phu Luong and Song
Cong town) and 24 CPOs located in 9 districts, the town and the city.

Tra Vinh is a coastal province in the Mekong Delta. The area is 2.200 km2. The population is
1 million including 3 ethnic groups: Kinh (68%), Khmer (30%) and Chinese (2%). The
province focuses mainly on an agricultural economy and aquaculture. The city includes one
town and 7 districts with 102 communes. Tra Vinh province has 141 Khmer pagodas. Like
Thai Nguyen province, the PL system in has reached the district level with only 8 district
libraries (100%) and the communal library system has not yet been established. Tra Vinh
province has 102 communal CPOs in 102 current communes (100%). Like the two above-
mentioned provinces, 30 sites in the province were selected for the survey including: 1
provincial library, 5 district libraries (Cang Long, Duyen Hai, Cau Ke, Tra Cu and Tieu Can)
and 24 communal CPOs located in 7 districts.

4.2. Survey tools


4.2.1. Literature review:
To define specific issues for the assessment and survey and to develop the questionnaires, the
survey team studied reports and documents on PLIs in Vietnam, including existing reports of
the NLV and the library system, documents of projects funded by The Bill and Melinda
Gates Foundation, related documents from other countries, and related information from the
Internet.
14
4.2.2. Questionnaire:
To develop the questionnaire, the survey team reviewed the study, “Lithuania: Survey of
Librarians’ Questionnaire, Public Access Computing,” 5 and an IT applied questionnaire for
the PLI system6, to extract relevant questions for Vietnam.

The set of questionnaires were designed to assess 3 target subjects: i) Institutional capacity:
Questionnaire Sample 1 assesses institutional capacity of provincial and district libraries; ii)
Individual capacity: Questionnaire Sample 2 assesses the capacity of library staff at the
provincial and district levels; and iii), Institutional and staff capacity of CPOs: Questionnaire
Sample 3 assesses the capacity of the CPOs and staff at communal CPOs. (The
questionnaires can be found in Annex 7.)

The questionnaires were sent to selected target groups in 30 survey sites in each selected
province one week before the survey team came to the province. One week was sufficient
time to collect and sum up all information completed in the questionnaires and to continue
further interviews. (Interview guidelines are attached in the Annex 8.)

129 questionnaires for the three target groups were sent out and 128 completed
questionnaires were received (one was missing because no staff was at the Kim Son
commune CPO in Tra Cu district, Tra Vinh province). Questionnaire 1 was sent to 18 leaders
of 3 provincial libraries; Questionnaire 2 was sent to 24 librarians of provincial libraries and
14 librarians at the district level; and Questionnaire 3 was sent to 72 communal CPO staff.

4.2.3. Interviews:
Interviews were carried out with 2 groups: i) library staff at different levels and ii) patrons,
including library patrons and potential users. (The list of interviewees can found in Annex 4.)

Group of library staff at different levels:


First level - 18 directors and vice-directors of provincial libraries/district cultural and
information centers: The information collected focused on questions related to institutional
capacity for service provision in libraries in the districts and provinces, and ability to carry
out public internet access services in the near future.

Second level - 43 librarians in 3 provincial libraries and 15 libraries at the district level:
Through meetings and discussions, the survey team gathered opinions on difficulties the
librarians face in their daily work, as well as challenges that may arise in the future when
implementing Internet services. IT application training needs for staff focusing on servicing
patrons were collected via interviews using the questionnaire .

Third level - 71 staff in communal CPOs: The information collected included an assessment
of CPO and staff capacity in service provision, including free-of-charge newspapers and
publications and providing public internet access services. In 33 communal CPOs with
computers and internet connectivity, the staff was interviewed to assess the effectiveness of
the services and explain why public internet access was not effective.

5
Lithuania_survey_of_librarians_questionnaire. Public Access Computing. August, 2008.
(https://gltoolkit.centraldesktop.com/home/search?q=Lithuania_survey_of_librarians_questionnaire&q_at=0&st
=s34327)
6
Vietnam: Social/cultural/ICT4D/public libraries/other service models. Prepared for Global Libraries, Bill &
Melinda Gates Foundation. 2006-2007.
15
Groups of patrons:
The survey group adapted these questions from “The national ePlus survey used in the
United Kingdom as part of the public library standards process and administered by the
Institute of Public Finance (IPF)” and “Latvia Libraries survey 2007: Library managers
survey” (Attitude Towards Libraries – Survey of Library Users) for questionnaires used for
patrons.7

523 interviewees, including library users and potential patrons, were selected for interviews
in the sites where surveyed libraries and CPOs were located. At the provincial level, the
target groups were: i) college and university students; and ii), local people: retirees,
housewives, the unemployed and the underemployed. At the district level, the target groups
were: i) school students; ii) graduates from schools who were still unemployed; iii) local
people: retirees, housewives; etc.; and iv), state workers. At the commune level, target
groups were: i) school students; ii) graduates from schools who were still unemployed; and
iii), local people: farmers, retirees, etc. Information collected from the above mentioned
target group focused on patron habits of using libraries and accessing the Internet, comments
on services provision, attitudes of PLI and communal CPO staff and patron needs for using
services in the future.

For library patrons, the survey team approached those who were in the libraries at the time of
the survey. If there were not enough representatives for a particular group, the team then
approached them at home with library staff assistance. In provincial libraries, it was difficult
to contact and interview business owners at the libraries. Because of this, the team
interviewed household businesses instead. This approach was not as objective as respondents
who were randomly selected, but they were based on referals from library staff. Regarding
potential patrons, the survey team directly contacted local people for the interviews.

In addition, after the survey in Thai Nguyen, the survey team recognized that there should be
interviews with commune leaders as well. However, the Commune People’s Committees
(CPCs) did not know about CPO operations (the CPCs do not manage the operations of
CPOs, but they do play a very important role in the coordination of CPO activities in the
areas). This led to additional interviews with the CPCs to obtain complete information
regarding the operations of the PLIs and CPOs and to understand the relationship between
local authorities and PLIs. In addition, it served to improve awareness on the role of the PLIs
and CPOs in the community. The survey team interviewed 48 chairmen/vice-chairmen of the
Nghe An and Tra Vinh project communes where CPOs were located.

4.2.4. Survey preparations


 Personnel:
The survey team included 4 workers from Hanoi, including 2 from TAF, 1 from the NLV
and 1 expert on training needs assessment. The team also included 6 local workers from
selected provincial and district libraries who had knowledge of library, IT and
communication skills. The team was divided into 3 groups to survey the 3 project areas in the
selected provinces. Each group included one staff from Hanoi (to lead the group) and 2 local
workers to provide interview and administrative support. The groups had several discussions
and exchanges on survey content, lessons learned and primary outputs to ensure a high
quality survey. Responsibilities were clearly assigned: the group leaders interviewed leaders
and staff of PLIs and CPOs at the commune level, one local worker interviewed patrons of

7
Latvia Libraries survey 2007: Library managers survey.
(https://gltoolkit.centraldesktop.com/community/av&ac=vr&recid=2207413)
16
the libraries and users of Internet services, and the other local worker interviewed potential
patrons. The List of survey workers is in Annex 1.

 Survey schedule:
The survey was carried out in the three provinces from 23 February to 22 March 2009: from
23 to 28 February in Thai Nguyen province, from 04 to 12 March in Nghe An province, and
from 15 to 22 March in Tra Vinh province. The schedule in each province included: First
day - spent at the provincial library: 3 team leaders interviewed the 3 target groups in the
provincial libraries, including: i) leaders and librarians of the library; ii) library patrons; and
iii) potential patrons. Observation of these interviews by team leaders served as hands-on
training for the 6 local workers. Next, 3 of the local workers interviewed library patrons and
the other 3 local workers interviewed potential patrons. The following days - the 3 groups
went to 3 different areas of the province to investigate the district libraries and commune
CPOs, armed with clear task divisions to ensure each group completed their interviews in the
same day. The last day - the 3 groups met to review and develop a general assessment on the
capacities of the institutions and staff of PLIs and commune CPOs, as well as the needs and
comments of patrons. The questionnaires and interview content were revised accordingly.

17
5. RESULTS OF THE ASSESSMENT AND SURVEY

5.1. General information and assessment of public library services and cultural post
offices in Vietnam8
The national library network in Vietnam consists of many library systems, including: public
libraries; a network of sectoral and interdisciplinary information centers and libraries related
to science and technology; library systems under the Ministry of Education and Training
(library and information centers, university and college libraries); and systems of military
libraries. The Public libraries in Vietnam have been organized nation-wide and managed
according to the following administrative management levels: i) the National Library; ii) 64
provincial/city libraries; iii) 623 district libraries;9 and iv), 8,677 libraries and reading rooms
at the commune and village level. To supplement the public library system, there are also
10,000 legal and law book collections (tu sach phap luat) and 8,000 cultural post offices at
the commune/ward level.10 The responsibilities of each public library is to serve its
community in its designated area at the provincial, district, commune/ward levels and under
the administration of the people’s councils.

Vietnam is moving towards a modern library model with computers connected to LAN or
intranet, and the Internet. In that system, all activities, functions, and operations of public
libraries will be automated and utilize the same database for acquisition, cataloguing,
circulation, management of serial publications, management of patrons, storage management,
building of bibliographic databases and specific databases, information retrieval at the same
time within the library as outside via the gateway Z39.50, web integrated Internet. Locating
documents and books will be transferred from traditional cataloguing to online public access
cataloguing (OPAC) - alternatively, this can be done anywhere, anytime with an Internet
connected PC. Libraries will also provide a series of new services such as e-resources in
house, provision of compact discs, digitalized materials, online newspapers and magazines,
e-books, Internet access, book distributions and inter-library loan, Q&A service, and package
information services (collect, process, analysis, information/data and pack the information).

Besides the fast development of digital contents, online information and access to rich online
information resources, a strong reading culture still exists and there are great demands for
books and printed documents. For this reason, many public libraries have extended their
services to provide books and documents through open stacks to enable users to find and
have organized mobile book collections – a traditional service within the public library
system. These efforts are intended to bring information to people in remote areas, have been
implemented at provincial and district levels and have been widely applied in the South.

The NLV plays a central role in the public library system, responsible for providing
professional training and guidance for public libraries throughout the country.11 To fulfill
these tasks, the NLV organizes workshops, seminars, and training courses and they compile
documents and guidelines related to library services for staff of public libraries. Although the

8
This part is synthesized from documents and reports from the NLV and other organizations.
9
Applied IT in district libraries: a long road! 27/6/2008.
(http://203.162.71.77:100/vn/doisongict/4223/index.aspx)
10
60 years of library development. E-newspaper of NL. 03/06 2008.
(http://www.nlv.gov.vn/nlv/index.php/2008060358/Nghiep-vu-chung/60-nam-su-nghiep-thu-vien-Viet-
Nam.html)
11
According to the ordinance on libraries, 2000
18
NLV has tried hard to fulfill its tasks, the implementation of library automation programs for
provicial/city libraries has not been effective.12

The NLV has a total of 186 staff,13,of which 5% hold doctoral degrees (1 doctor), 8.6% hold
masters degrees, 66.7% hold university degrees, 6.6% have college or high school education,
and 16.6% have finished upper-secondary school. While the average number of staff in
public libraries at the provincial/city level is 21, there is a high of 42 staff in Ba Ria Vung
Tau public library and a low of 5 staff in Dak Nong province. Among provincial/city library
staff, 71.3% hold univeristy degrees, 24% have college or high school degrees, and 7%
finished an upper-secondary education. 77% of staff are permanent and receive government
salaries, while the rest, (23%) are contractual staff. For the time being, these staff are capable
of providing traditional library services. However, most public libraries are facing challenges
in management, staff capacity, and service provision during the transition from traditional
libraries to modern libraries to meet international standards.

The rise of the telecommunication sector has prompted the development of service models
such as the cultural post office. CPOs provide combined services on post,
telecommunications, and social and cultural information to rural populations, especially
farmers. It is clear that CPOs, with the aim of bringing the Internet and public library
services and information to communities, if managed and run effectively, could bridge the
gap that public libraries have not been able to address. CPOs were initiated in 1998 in rural
and remote areas that had no post offices to provide post and telecommunication services as
well as newspapers and books for local reading (free of charge).

Before 1998, when CPOs did not exist, there were 3,000 post offices14 located mainly in
cities and towns. On average, for every 25,500 people per 110 square kilometer, there was
one post office. Post and telecommunication services were new to rural farmers, especially
those who live in remote areas. The establishment of 8,021 CPOs during the last few years
has created a countrywide network that delivers services to the local people. Now on
average, one CPO serves 4,500 people per 17.5 square kilometer. This meets Regional
standards.

In 2003, with a total investment cost of 35 billion Vietnamese Dong, Vietnam National Post
and Telecommunications (VNPT) implemented a new program to bring the Internet to rural
areas, starting with Phase I - the development of a network of CPOs. Through that program,
a computer with (dial-up) Internet connection was provided to each of 2,865 CPOs, and two
computers with Internet ADSL connectivity for each of 200 CPOs. Although, these CPOs
have provided useful post and telecommunication services for communities, the actual
condition of the CPOs has not met the basic standards of a public place for reading,
information research, and learning through available books, magazines, documents, and the
Internet.

12
Vietnam: Social/cultural/ICT4D/public libraries/other service models. Prepared for Global Libraries, Bill &
Melinda Gates Foundation. 2006-2007
13
Synthesized from “NLV’s staff portrait: 90 years of development 1917-2007. Hà Nội, 2007”.
14
CPOs on the way to connect farmers to the world. Rural Economics - 11/12/2008
(http://www.vietnamgateway.org/vanhoaxa/dbdvhx.php?action=thongtin&chuyenmuc=0901&id=08121112501
9)

19
5.2. Infrastructure and IT of public libraries and CPOs in the survey areas
5.2.1. Public libraries
All three public libraries are located in the central area of the city and have good external
apprearance. However, inside the buildings the working space for the staff, the reading
rooms, and storage rooms are quite small. The rooms and facilities were not arranged in a
way that were convenient or appropriate for the functions of a public library. This is
explained by the fact that Thai Nguyen provincial public library acquired the premises from a
local organization, which was not designed for a public library. Tra Vinh province was
planning to allocate 3.4 billion Vietnamese Dong to upgrade the provincial library’s
premises, but plans were ceased due to the economic downturn in 2008. Nghe An provincial
public library is waiting for a new building to be constructed.

Thai Nguyen and Nghe An are among 26 provinces that have invested in IT infrastructure
with local area networks (LAN) and ILIB software (developed by CMC Corporation) from
the 2003-2004 E-library project financed by the MCST and implemented by the NLV. Tra
Vinh still uses SMILIB for the small size library that MCST provided to all libraries in 2002.

Figure 1: Number of computers according to purpose in 3 provincial libraries

35
32
30

25
Total PCs
20 Tech. service
16 OPAC
15
15
12 Server
10
10 9 Internet service
7
5
5 4 4 4
3 3
2
1 1
0 0 0 0
0
Thái Nguyên Nghệ An Trà Vinh Total

Figure 1 shows that: There are 10 PCs in Thai Nguyen library, 15 PCs in Nghệ An and 7 PCs
in Trà Vinh. PCs in the three provincial libraries have LAN and internet connectivity
(ADSL), but only for the work of library staff. With the limited number of PCs, priorities are
given to technical units and OPAC. On average, 5 PCs and 4 PCs were allocated,
respectively, for these two purposes. There are no PCs for public internet access. According
to library staff, the current allocation of PCs according to library use and purpose are
appropriate for each provincial library.

None of the three libraries have websites due to lack of financial and human resources for
development and maintenance.

5.2.2. District libraries


Through the survey we found that 2/3 of district libraries surveyed were located within the
district’s cultural centers. This location is difficult for library patrons as they need quiet

20
places to read and research. In addition, many people do not know that there are services for
the public in these locations.

District libraries received modest investment and funding, and less than other activities of the
district cultural centers. Some district libraries had not received any funding to supplement
their book collections or support other library activities. For example, Cang Long district
library in Tra Vinh province has not received funding for any library activities in the past
years, and they have not had a librarian during that time. However, some district libraries,
such as Nam Dan, Yen Thanh, and Quynh Luu in Nghe An, were operating very effectively.
In these districts many commune libraries had been established and book collections
circulated among commune libraries. These district libraries also had funding to supplement
their book collections.

None of the 15 district libraries surveyed had PCs. Through meetings with leaders of the
three provincial libraries, it was explained that not only the 15 district libraries surveyed, but
the rest of the 21 district libraries in the three provinces had poor infrastructure as well. With
the poor state of existing IT infrastructure in the district libraries, IT applications for library
activities and services, as well as IT literacy for local people, especially those in remote
areas, still have a long way to go.

5.2.3. Cultural Post Offices in communes


The CPO system in the three provinces recieved support from the telecommunications sector
to provide internet access services for commercial purposes, so they had a basic IT
infrastructure. Most of the 72 CPOs surveyed were located in the center of the communes.
However, the administrative boundaries of a commune are quite large, especially in remote
communes (for example, in some communes in Nghe An it took half of a day to get to the
CPOs). Many CPOs were deteriorated, the equipment was old and outdated, the operations
were not dynamic, and available information was poor and not essential to the local
communities. Remuneration and benefits for CPO managers were very low. Most of the
CPOs in Nghe An and Thai Nguyen had very limited space. With an average of 30m2, it was
just enough for two telephone cabinets, a counter for services, and a small set of chairs and a
table for clients (including readers). Some CPOs had no road access. Most of the CPO staff
and their families lived within CPO premises. CPOs in Tra Vinh were in better condition,
were more spacious (an average of 50m2 with two stories), and had sufficient equipment and
infrastructure, including public places for clients and users.

Table 1: IT infrastructure in CPOs

CPOs with
CPOs with PCs # PCs in CPOs
the Internet
Internet
TT CPOs Surveyed
# % # % Total access %
services
1 24 in Thai Nguyen 8 33 4 17 18 5 28
2 24 in Nghe An 8 33 4 17 29 21 72
3 24 in Tra Vinh 17 71 11 46 108 70 60
Total: 72 communes 33 46 19 26 155 96 62

Table 1 shows that, of 72 CPOs surveyed only 33 (46%) had PCs with internet connection
(total 155 PCs), but only 19 of those (57%), for a total of 96 PCs (62%), have currently been
providing internet access services for patrons at a price of 3,000 Vietnamese Dong per hour.
However, through interviews and observations, it became clear that only 9 of the 19 CPOs
were currently operating effectively with ADSL internet connectivity. The rest were planning
21
to stop internet services due to slow internet connectivity (dial-up) and old PCs that could not
compete with private internet cafés (same costs and faster internet access). Among 14 CPOs
with dial-up internet connection, only one CPO was running effectively (the CPO in Van
Tho commune, Dai Tu district, Thai Nguyen province). The CPO manager is a 40 year old
man with only one PC, but he took the initiave to cooperate with the Youth Union in the
commune to organize computer training for children during summer holidays.

All the CPOs (those with no internet connection) confirmed that internet access services
were necessary for users. According to CPO staff, internet access in public libraries
contributes to the local communities in three respects: i) it improves one’s computer and
internet skills (55%, or 16/29, CPOs responded); ii) it provides information for local
economic development (51%, or 15/29, CPOs responded); and iii), it provides information
for entrance exams for students applying to universities, colleges, and high schools (51%, or
15/29 CPOs responded).

CPOs with PCs and internet connection (14 out of 33) stopped providing service due to
broken units or slow internet accessibility (dial-up). There were two main reasons that the
PCs were broken and could not be used: first, some of these CPOs received second-hand PCs
at the beginning. Second, maintenance and repair cannot be done by CPO staff. Maintenance
and repairs were often not timely as CPOs had to rely on district and/or provincial staff.
More specifically, when asked how to obtain technical support in the event of PC problems,
33 CPOs responded as follows: 7 out of 33 (21%) CPOs asked for commercial services,
another 7 CPOs (21%) sought services from within the CPO, but 19 out of 33 (58%) CPOs
waited for district post offices to respond, which was not timely.

Since 2005, Thai Nguyen equipped 33%, or 8 out of 24 CPOs, with a total of 18 PCs. Of
those, 6 CPOs received one PC each, one CPO received 9 PCs, and one CPO received 3 PCs.
There are currently 4 CPOs (with 5 PCs each) that are providing internet access services, but
they are very slow (dial-up), so there are almost no users. The rest of the PCs, (72% or
13/18) are currently broken and do not provide any services. For example, all 9 PCs in the
Binh Son commune CPO were broken when surveyed.

In Nghe An, 33% (8/24) CPOs were equipped with 29 PCs. 4 of those in 8 CPOs were
providing internet access services. For example, the Dong Van commune CPO, equipped
with 10 PCs, and the Nam Anh commune CPO, with 6 PCs with ADSL internet connections
newly acquired at the end of 2008 and early 2009 were operating relatively efficiently with
about 1,000 log-ons per month. The other 4 CPOs stopped providing services because their
PCs were broken or were too slow in their dial-up internet connectivity. For example, the
Muong Noc CPO received three old PCs at the end of 2008 from the district post office, but
they were never used by any clients because they were too old. The computers in Trung
Thanh commune CPO in Yen Thanh district were also unused because CPO staff had set the
cost of 12,000 Vietnamese Dong per hour to cover the internet connection fees.

In Tra Vinh, the situation was a bit better than in Nghe An and Thanh Hoa. 71% (17/24) of
CPOs were equipped with a total of 108 PCs. At the moment, 11 CPOs are providing internet
access services through 70 PCs. Among these CPOs, 8 were not very effective due to slow
dial-up internet connection, so most PCs were used by children for games. 7 CPOs had
ADSL internet connection but only three of them have provided more effective services;
these included the Thanh My commune CPO in Chau Thanh district with about 2,100 log-
ons per month; the Ngu Lac commune CPO in Duyen Hai district with 1,100 log-ons per
month; and the Hoa Minh commune CPO in Chau Thanh district with about 600 log-ons per

22
month. The other 6 CPOs with 38 PCs stopped providing services due to broken PCs and
slow internet connection.

5.3. Human resources of public libraries and CPOs


5.3.1. Provincial libraries:

Table 2: Number and qualifications of provincial library staff

Qualifications (%)
Provincial % %
Total Master University College/Vocational
Library Female Male
School
Thai Nguyen 18 39 61 0 72 28
Nghe An 22 68 32 5 59 36
Tra Vinh 21 71 29 0 62 38
Total 61 61 39 2 64 34

Table 2 shows that, on average, each provincial library has about 20 permanent staff, and
female staff account for 61%. Current staff numbers have not been able to cover all duties
and functions of provincial libraries. All three provincial libraries are lacking staff, especially
staff for library activities at the grassroots level. Through the survey, it can be said that
activities such as book circulation among libraries at different levels and other library
activities at the local level are very limited. Nghe An provincial library is very active in these
activities, but the current low staff level has prevented its effort to reach all 20 district
libraries and 78 commune libraries, not to mention the 395 commune book shelves.15

Looking at the gender perspective, 61% of staff are female. In addition, 60% of females are
in director positions (3/5), (the Director of Tra Vinh provincial library is female). This is an
advantage in that the voices of female staff are easily heard and benefits for female staff are
duly considered.

There is only one staff among 61 in the provincial libraries who holds a masters degree (2%).
By comparison, 34% hold college/high school degrees, and 64% hold university degrees. Of
the three provincial libraries surveyed, Thai Nguyen has the highest percentage of staff with
university degrees, accounting for 72%, Nghe An has the lowest with 59%, and Tra Vinh in
the middle with 62%.

The characteristics of librarians in the three provincial libraries are as follows:

Table 3: Number, sex, age group, and qualifications of librarians at the provincial level

Qualifications (%) Age Group (%)


Provincial % %
Total University College/Voca-
Library Female Male <30 30-40 41-50 >50
tional School
Thai 5 60 40 100 0 20 40 40 0
Nguyen
Nghe An 9 100 0 55 45 0 44 33 23
Tra Vinh 6 100 0 33 67 0 100 0 0
Total 20 90 10 60 40 5 60 20 15

15
Figures provided by the provincial library.

23
Table 3 shows that librarians account for 1/3 of the total staff (20/61), and female librarians
account for 90% (18/20). 60% of the librarians hold university degrees in accounting (12/20),
and 40% hold college/high school degrees (8/20). Librarians within the age group of 30-40
years account for 60% (12/20), while 4% are under 30 (1/20), and 35% are over 40 (7/20).

The above data shows that provincial libraries have paid due attention to service provision,
and so adequate numbers of staff have been assigned to serve patrons. That most of the
librarians are female is also an advantage as they are friendly with users and patrons and so
may be more successful than male peers in providing library services. However, female
librarians may face difficulties when they need to take time off to raise their children and
then cannot work outside normal business hours or overtime, as sometimes required by the
job. Moreover, because the job requires that they are always present in the library, they have
limited chance to participate in any training to improve their skills and knowledge. To better
serve patrons, the librarians need basic IT training and education, especially in providing
advice and assistance to library users. When there are appropriate training and education
opportunities available, the librarians should receive the necessary support to attend.

In public libraries, the quality and level of friendly services provided are very dependent on
the attitudes and qualifications of the librarians. Such qualifications vary from province to
province. In Thai Nguyen, 100% (5/5) of the librarians hold university degrees, while in Tra
Vinh only 33% (2/6) staff hold university degrees, and in Nghe An 55% (5/9) staff hold
university degrees. Among the 9 librarians in Nghe An provincial library, five are over 40
years old and only four of those have a high school education.

5.3.2. District libraries

Table 4: Number, qualifications, and age groups of district library staff

Qualifications (%) Age group (%)


District Total University College/voca- Upper
Libraries tional school secondary <30 30-40 41-50 >50
(5 in each school
district)
Thai Nguyen 6 50 50 0 33 17 33 17
Nghe An 7 86 14 0 43 43 14 0
Tra Vinh 6 0 83 17 33 67 0 0
Total 19 47 47 6 37 42 16 5

Among 15 district libraries surveyed, 5 libraries have two librarians each, and 9 others have
one librarian each. Cang Lon district library has no librarian, so the district cultural center
has assigned two staff (one is an accountant and another is a cashier) to be in charge of the
library’s activities. These staff are busy with their own job functions and have no library
profesional experience, so the district library has not had users for a long time. Two-thirds of
the district libraries have only one librarian, so the libraries have to close when s/he is sick,
busy with meetings, goes on leave, etc. Due to the lack of staff and librarians in the district
libraries, professional support and book circulation among district and commune libraries
and book shelves have been on an ad-hoc basis. A lot of book shelves in the communes are
empty and the outreach activities of the libraries to disseminate information within the
community are very limited..

24
Table 4 shows that there is a great difference in the qualifications among district libraries. In
Nghe An, those district staff who held university degrees accounted for 86%, while 50% do
in Thai Nguyen, and in Tra Vinh none held university degrees. Rather, 83% (5/6) of the Tra
Vinh staff held high school degrees, and one finished an upper-secondary education (17%).
Therefore, district library staff in Tra Vinh need intensive training to enable them to provide
quality services for library users.

5.3.3. Cultural Post Offices (CPOs)

Table 5: Number, qualifications, and age groups in CPOs surveyed

Gender (%) Qualifications (%) Age Group (%)


CPOs
Total Female Male University College Secondary <30 30-40 41-50

24 in Thai Nguyen 24 83 17 4 17 79 58 42 0
24 in Nghe An 24 100 0 4 38 58 67 21 12

23 in Tra Vinh 23 100 0 4 9 87 78 22 0

Total 71 94 6 4 21 75 68 28 4
Note: The CPO in Kim Son commune, Tra Cu district, Tra Vinh province is vacant and has not yet recruited
staff.

Staff in the CPOs have not received training in librarian skills and knowledge. CPOs have so
far provided books and newspapers for reading free-of-charge. 75% of CPO staff have
primary and secondary education. The rest (25%) hold university degrees and/or college/high
school degrees. Females account for 94% of staff, and 68% are under 30 years old.
Compared to the provincial and district levels, CPO staff are younger and thus may have
easier access to IT and the Internet.

The educational levels of CPO staff in Nghe An are higher than that of Thai Nguyen and Tra
Vinh. In Nghe An, 9 out of 24 staff (38%) have college or upper secondary level education,
while in Thai Nguyen only 4 out of 24 staff (17%) and in Tra Vinh 2 out of 23 (9%) have the
same level of education.

In each CPO, there is one contractual staff and 95% of all staff are female. In addition, each
CPO has one messenger (most of them are men) to deliver the post and and parcels. CPO
staff have very low income - 400,000 Vietnamese Dong per month, which is equivalent to
$25 USD. Their income is also unstable because they are dependent on CPO revenues.
Therefore, some CPO staff provide photocopy services, or sell books and other goods to
generate extra income.

5.4. IT capacity in public libraries and CPOs

25
Table 6: IT knowledge and skills of public librarians and CPOs’ staff
(Responded by: 24 provincial library staff; 15 district library staff; 70 CPO staff

No. Weak (%) Average (%) Good (%) Very good (%)
IT Knowledge and Skills
Province District CPO Province District CPO Province District CPO Province District CPO
1. Basic IT knowledge (use of
4,4
mouse, printing, word
16.7 21,4 38,6 41.7 42,8 44,2 29.0 28,6 12,8 12.6 7,2
processing: Word, Excel,
PowerPoint)
2. Handling simple problems
25.0 60,0 69,0 54.2 33,3 22,0 20.8 6,7 7,4 0 0 1,6
(PC frozen, paper jam, etc.)
3. Online news, emails, chatting 8.3 37.5 45.8 8.4
46,2 45,6 30,8 23,5 23,0 25,0 0 5,9
4. Using search engines
20.0 50,0 54,4 25.0 28,6 23,5 45.0 21,4 16,2 10.0 0 5,9
(Google, Yahoo, etc.)
5. Using online databases 16.7 45.8 37.5 0
71,4 87,0 21,4 8,0 7,2 5,0 0 0
6. Web design, administration,
89.5 84,6 96,8 10.5 15,4 1,6 0 0 1,6 0 0 0
and maintenance
7. Using internet phone 20.0 70.0 10.0 0
69,2 81,8 23,0 10,5 7,8 6,5 0 1,2
8. Creating blogs, forums,
0
online social networks,
63.2 92,9 92,3 26.3 7,1 6,2 10.5 0 1,5 0 0
Facebook, MySpace, Yahoo,
etc.
9. Using programs to share
0
files, movies, photos, 25.0 84,6 89,2 45.0 7,7 6,2 30.0 7,7 4,6 0 0
albums, etc.
10. Skills to manage network
0
and support users in reading
rooms with internet access
(in cases where software was 70.0 92,9 83,0 25.0 0 17,0 5.0 7,1 0 0 0
destroyed, PCs out of
memory, anti-virus software
installation)
11. Skills to define key words
0
and information search 12.5 66,7 81,3 41.6 16,7 18,7 37.5 16,7 0 8,4 0
strategies
Total 31.5 67,1 73,8 39.1 20,8 16,9 25.6 11,4 7,5 3.8 0,7 1,8

26
5.4.1. Provincial libraries
Table 6 indicates that 3.8% of provincial librarians have “very good” IT knowledge/skills,
that 25.6% are considered “good”, but 70.6% are either “average” or “weak.” These results
suggest that most provincial library staff are still weak in IT knowledge/skills. For example,
in basic knowledge and skills such as using a mouse, printing, and Microsoft Office (Word,
Excel, PowerPoint), 58.4% (14/24) of the staff are weak or average.

In today’s information world, librarians are obligated to have basic IT knowledge and skills
such as PC usage and skills for using the library’s software in order to serve and support
library patrons. Due to the current weak skill capacity of its librarians, the application of IT
within the library system faces great challenges. Budget allocation for IT training and
education programs to improve IT knowlege and skills is one of the top priorities in
provincial public libraries.

5.4.2. District libraries:


Table 6 indicates that 0,7% of district library staff have “very good” IT skills/knowledge,
11.4% are “good,” and 87.9% are “weak” or “average”. The survey also indicated that only
some district staff used computers for word processing and some of them knew how to
access the Internet. Some of them have never used a PC. Although district libraries have no
PCs and have not applied IT applications to library activities, staff should become familiar
with PCs and the Internet.

5.4.3. CPOs
Table 6 indicates that 9.3% of CPO staff had “good” and “very good” IT knowledge/skills,
16.9% were “average,” and 73.8% were “weak.” Although 33 CPOs have had PCs and
internet connectivity since 2005, more than 70% of their staff still had “weak” IT skills and
knowledge. Thus, staff were not able to maintain or provide adequate services and provide
guidance to internet users.

5.5. Provision of services and support to users of public libraries and CPOs

27
Table 7: Provision of services and support to users of public libraries and CPOs
(Responded by: 19 provincial library staff; 9 district library staff; 36 CPO staff)

No. Staff capacity to serve Weak (%) Average (%) Good (%) Very good (%)
users Province District CPO Province District CPO Province District CPO Province District CPO
1. Counselling and
guidance skills to users 15,8 25,0 16,7 31,6 0 33,3 52,6 62,5 50,0 0 12,5 0
when required
2. Skills to understand
users’ needs and 26,7 12,5 22,2 40,0 25,0 38,9 33,3 62,5 36,1 0 0 2,8
demands
3. Improving services
provided by 66,6 25,0 42,0 16,7 25,0 29,0 16,7 50,0 29,0 0 0 0
librarries/CPOs
4. Communication skills 0 11,1 21,6 31,3 11,1 19,0 43,7 44,5 54,0 25,0 33,3 5,4
5. Skills to design and
complie leaflets/fliers
on library activities and 57,1 33,3 69,5 28,6 33,3 13,9 14,3 33,3 16,6 0 0 0
services
6. Skills to organize
seminars and events to
disseminate and 63,6 50,0 69,5 36,4 25,0 8,3 0 12,5 22,2 0 12,5 0
advocate for library
services
7. Skills for providing
training for users on 50,0 25,0 52,8 30,0 25,0 25,0 20,0 50,0 22,2 0 0 0
Internet access
8. Skills to compile
newsletter on provision 58,3 25,0 69,5 25,0 37,5 19,4 16,7 37,5 11,1 0 0 0
of services of library
Total 38,5 26,0 45,5 30,3 22,4 23,2 27,5 43,0 30,3 3,7 8,6 1

28
5.5.1. Provincial libraries
Data and information collected through surveys from Nghe An and Tra Vinh are synthesized
in Table 7. There was no responses from Thai Nguyen due to the fact that the intitial
questionnaires emphasized Internet services and Thai Nguyen public library does not have
this service, so librarians did not complete it. The questionnaries were adjusted for use in
Nghe An and Tra Vinh

Table 7 indicates that among staff capacity to serve patrons, many skill levels were
considered “weak,” including skills: to improve services offered by libraries (66.6%), to
organize seminars and events to disseminate and advocate for library services (63.6%), to
design and compile leaflets/fliers on library activities and services (58.3%).

5.5.2. District libraries


Table 7 indicates that staff skills that were considered “weak” or “average” in district
libraries were: i) organizing events to disseminate and advocate for library activities (75%);
ii) compiling and designing leaflets/fliers on library activities and services (66%); and iii),
improving services provided by libraries (50%).

5.5.3. CPOs
Table 7 indicates that staff capacity considered “weak” in CPOs included: i) skills to
organize events to disseminate and advocate for public library services (69.5%); ii) skills to
design and compile leaflets/fliers (69.5%); iii) skills to compile news through internet
services provided by libraries (69.5%); iv) knowledge on how to understand patron
information needs; and v) internet search skills to assist and support users going online
(52.8%).

5.6. Training needs of public library and CPO staff


5.6.1. Library staff qualifications
Throughout the survey locations, staff working at public libraries had the following
qualifications:
- University, college, vocational schools (department of information and library)
- University, college, vocational schools (department of informatics, history, literature,
agriculture, etc.)
- University, college of foreign languages (English and French)
- Secondary education
At the moment, during the recruitment process priorities are given to those who hold
university degrees in library science, with additional knowledge and skills on IT and foreign
languages. Priorities are also given to those who hold university degrees in IT, but it is
difficult to recruit applicants with this background. University degrees in foreign language
are also given priority. Some libraries provide support for additional training in IT and
foreign languages (mainly English) for training program enrollments after business or even
during business hours. Pursuing additional training and education are encouraged among
library staff. Most staff who do not have library education backgrounds often have on-the-job
training or are mentored by other experienced staff. District and commune staff usually have
basic librarian skill training such as storage arrangements, labeling, catalogizing, etc., but
skills training in these areas is not organized regularly.

The Department of Library (DL) and the NLV rarely organize or provide refresher training
on knowledge and skills on library and information similar to those provided by formal

29
library and information science education programs for library staff. The MCST and the
NLV often organize training on new standards or programs to be applied in libraries. In
recent years, Vietnamese libraries have applied new standards such as: the Anglo-American
Cataloguing Rules (AACR2); the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) System; and
Machine-Readable Cataloguing (MARC21). Within the framework of the IT projects funded
by the MCST, training programs on how to use new software, network administration, and
MARC21 have been provided together with equipment, PCs, and software.

One of the difficulties facing libraries at the moment is the lack of IT staff for network
administration (LAN, server, library networks), and for handling any problems related to IT
management. These functions require not only IT knowledge and skills, but also a
knowledge and understanding of library activities and services. For this reason, IT
applications in public libraries in recent years have been dependent on software providers
and so have not been effective to some extent.

Moreover, staff with lower education levels are often assigned as librarians because
traditional views of a librarian’s main responsibilities are to lend and keep books/documents.
Such views suggest that libraries do not need to have qualified staff with higher education.
Because of this, librarians are not able to support and offer advice to patrons and users, even
in a traditional library. It will be even more difficult for undereducated staff in a modern
library with IT applications.

30
5.6.2. IT knowledge
Figure 2: IT training needs of public library and CPO staff

1- Basic IT 90.1%
knowledge and 68.4%
skills 81.5%

2- Knowledge on 74.6%
the Operating 47.4%
System 51.9%

3- Skills for how to 0.0%


use library 68.4%
softwares 92.6%

4- Understanding 0.0%
online database 52.6% CPO’s staff (%)
usage 88.9%
District library staff
(%)
5- Understanding 73.2% Provincial library staff
of the PC’s 57.9% (%)
hardware 44.4%

6- Skills for 57.7%


administering 52.6%
networks 55.6%

7- Skills for design 40.8%


and administration 52.6%
of a website 33.3%

8- Skills for
91.5%
serching
63.2%
information on the
92.6%
Internet

0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0%

31
Figure 2 suggests the training need priorities of public library and CPO staff:
- District and provincial library staff suggested training content and topics as follows:
1. Knowledge on integrated library system (80.5%)
2. Skills to search information on the Internet (77.9%)
3. General IT knowledge (74.9%)
4. Knowledge on how to use online databases (70.7%)
5. Network administration (54.3%)

- CPO staff suggested the following training topic priorities:


1. Skills to search information on the Internet (91.6)
2. General knowledge on IT (90.2%)
3. Knowledge on Windows (74.7%)
4. Knowledge on hardware (73.2%)
5. Network administration (57.8%)

5.6.3. Skills to serve and support patrons/users

Figure 3: Staff training needs to serve and support patrons of public libraries and CPOs

81.7%
1-
Communication 68.4%
skills with users
66.7%
CPO’s staff (%)
District library staff (%)
Provincial library staff (%)
2- Skills for 77.5%
marketing and
disseminating 68.4%
library and
Internet services 88.9%

0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0%

On average, over 60% of staff require training in two main subjects: i) communication skills,
and ii) skills to disseminate and advocate for library/CPO activities and internet services.

5.6.4. Training organization


Together with the training topics recommended above, library and CPO staff have suggested
the following ideas on the organization and implementation of training:
Training beneficiaries: These should be divided to two main groups: the provincial and
district libraries should be in one group and the other should be for CPO staff. Regarding IT
32
training, there should be separate courses for beginners and then for the intermediate level to
ensure training quality.
Training time: The most appropriate timing for provincial and district library staff would be
on Saturdays and Sundays. For CPO staff, it is more appropriate to organize training in the
evenings.
Training venue: CPO staff can join trainings in the districts, while provincial and district
public library staff can attend training in the provinces.
Training materials: Training materials should be developed for each group of beneficiaries
(e.g. one set for public library staff and a separate one for CPO staff). Training materials
should be simple, easy to understand and attractive. Materials on IT should be in color so it is
easier to follow instructions.

5.7 Patrons and their information needs


5.7.1. Patrons and users of public libraries and CPOs
268 patrons were interviewed in 90 selected sites and below is a summary of answers to the
questions posed:

When asked, “How do you know about public libraries and CPOs?” 78% responded that
they knew from “passing by”; 9% said “through friends”; 10% claimed “through the mass
media”; and 3% said, “through the dissemination activities of the library”. When asked,
“How do you see/view public libraries and CPOs?” 49% responded that library was “Where
one borrows and reads books,” and 7% responded, “Where one receives necessary
information from books and librarians.” With similar questions related to CPOs and internet
connectivity, 80% of users responded that the CPO was “Where one makes phone calls and
sends posts,” and 17% responded that the CPO was “Where one accesses the Internet”.
With the question, “What is your general assessment of your public library and CPO?” 12%
responded that they were “very pleased”; 45% responded “satisfactory”; 31% responded
“normal”; 9% responded “not satisfactory”; and 3% had no answer. Regarding the attitudes
of librarians, 95% said they were “very pleased” or “satisfied.”

When patrons of CPOs were asked, “How do you evaluate staff when you need assistance
while reading and using PCs?” 22% responded “good” and “very good,” but 78% assessed
“so-so” and “weak.” When asked about staff skills to support and advise users, 62% thought
they were “good” and “very good,” while 38% said they were “so-so” and “weak.” When
asked about staff attitudes, patrons were divided with 50% responding “good” and “very
good,” and 50% responding “so-so” and ”weak.” When asked about PC quality, PC software
and internet speed, 80% were “not satisfied” or thought it was only “so-so.”

The habits of patrons regarding internet use were assessed through the question, “Besides
public libraries and CPOs, where else do you access the Internet?” 38% responded that they
use internet cafés, 19% said at home, 14% said at work, and 5% did at communal centers.
Patrons felt the purpose of internet access was to find socio-economic, cultural, and health
information (41%), 23% used it to contact friends, 21% gathered information related to their
jobs or studies, 9% accessed information about their local communities, 6% used it to
complete job searches, and 44% played games on it (the majority of these were pupils,
students, and youth in rural areas). The results on the actual use and needs of users/patrons
are presented in Figure 4 (268 patrons/users surveyed).

33
Figure 4: Patron use of and needs for services provided by public libraries and CPOs

1- Borrowing books,
79%
newspapers, magazines to read
90%
at home

2- Use of reading rooms for


77%
reading newspapers and
83%
magazines

3- Use of multi-media equipment 93%


(DVD, cassette player, etc.) 20%

4- Finding information on e- 97%


directories 15%

100%
5- Using online-database
23%

6- Participate in IT and PC training 99% Want to use continuously


(FOC) 9% Using up to now

94%
7- Playing games
44%

8- PC operating (Word 93%


processing) 19%

100%
9- Printing, scanning
12%

10- Saving on files, CDs, DVD and 100%


memory stick 14%

96%
11- Finding information on internet
28%

0% 20 40 60 80 100 120
% % % % % %

The above results show that most users come to libraries to read or borrow books. Other
services are either not available or have not attracted users. Most users expect to use many
more services at libraries in the future.

In Thai Nguyen provincial library there are about 5,000 users per month, while Nghe An has
15,000 users per month, and Tra Vinh has 5,500 users per month. Most of these users/patrons
are university and college students, pupils from specialized and upper secondary schools,
public servants, and retired officials/staff.
34
In district libraries, on average, there are about 360 users per month. Out of 15 of the
surveyed district libraries, two had many patrons (Quynh Luu in Nghe An – about 1,000
users/month, and Phu Luong in Thai Nguyen – about 800 users /month). Most users of
district libraries were pupils, district staff and public servants.

In CPOs, 4 in Thai Nguyen (with 5 PCs in each CPO) were serving an average of 150 users
per month in each CPO. 11 CPOs in Tra Vinh (with 70 PCs total) were serving an average of
580 users per month per CPO, about 8 users per PC/month. 4 CPOs in Nghe An, with 21
PCs, were serving an average 497 users per month per CPO (about 33 users per month/PC).
Most of users were primary or secondary pupils and they use PCs for playing games or
chatting with friends. Very few use PCs and the Internet for information or learning.

From the surveys of users, the survey team notes the following:
- Activities and events to disseminate information on library and CPO services and for out-
reach have been ignored and are still very weak. Because of this, most users have only
learned about library services by “passing by” rather than through library and CPO
events and promotions as they should.
- A large number of users have not been satisfied with library and CPO services provided,
especially in CPOs with poor quality PCs and slow internet connection. These were the
main reasons why users did not come to use the services provided.
- Most of users come to libraries to use the Internet to look for information on socio-
economic and cultural issues for work or further learning. This suggests that CPOs and
public libraries must be able to refer users to the available resources, and that they must
develop new local content on issues that users in each locale are interested in.

5.7.2. Potential patrons and users:


Information gathered from 264 potential users in 90 selected sites who had never used library
and CPO services offered the following information:

When asked, “Do you know about public libraries and CPOs in this commune and if yes,
how do you know about them?” 67% of respondents said they did “not yet know,” while 33%
responded, “yes they know.” Of those who did know, 62% knew from “passing by,” 26%
from “friends,” 8% ”via the mass media,” and 4% knew “through library events.”

There were many reasons that potential users did not come to the libraries and CPOs, but the
two main reasons that management should consider were that “services that they needed
were not available,” which accounted for 51% of the responses, and 22% said that “books
and magazines were out of date and did not meet their needs.” In addition, 10% said that
“CPOs did not lend books or magazines/newspapers,” 7% said that “the working hours were
not appropriate to their needs,” and 10% said that “internet connectivity was very slow so it
wasted their time.”

Regarding internet use habits of potential users, 55% accessed the Internet at cafes, 20% did
at home, 16% at work, and 9% at commune learning centers. Their main purpose for using
the Internet was to contact friends, which accounted for 35% of the responses, 29% were
looking for information for their work or further study, 22% wanted reading information on
socioeconomic, cultural, and health issues, 7% wanted information from the local
community, and 7% were looking for jobs.

35
From the potential user survey, it can be said that:
- Existing and available services in public libraries and CPOs have not met the demands
and needs of users and local people. Local people do not need the services currently
offered, while the services they do need are not available.
- Opening hours are not relevant to some users, especially pupils, students, government
staff and public servants.
- Poor infrastructure and lack of quality PCs, combined with slow internet speeds, have
limited users in CPOs.

Users and potential users also wanted to improve their skills in using a PC and the Internet:
42% wanted training in general PC knowledge, 48% in how to look for information on the
Internet, and 10% in how to use online databases. 43% of the respondents wanted practice on
PCs, 37% wanted guidance from librarians and CPO staff, and 20% said they could learn
from printed guidelines.

36
6. OVERALL ASSESSMENT OF THE SURVEY SITES

6.1 Infrastructure and facilities


Physical and informational infrastructure facilities were insufficient at the provincial/district
libraries and CPOs. Even rooms in provincial or district level libraries were not up to the
standards for specialized models of modern libraries. Organization of library space was not
logical or suitable. Particularly in Thai Nguyen and Nghe An, many CPOs are dilapidated
structures, making the experiences of patrons unpleasant and inconvenient. The working
spaces were small in the CPOs, and staff and their family members lived directly inside the
service areas (in partitioned areas in the corner).

For many years, district level libraries and CPOs have had limited funding or haven’t been
allocated funding at all to supplement books and organize professional activities.
Additionally, book circulation has not been regular in the survey sites, such as Thai Nguyen
and Tra Vinh. There are no operational plans for supplementing reference materials for up to
date local economic development in provinces/districts/communes. Poor IT networks in
district level libraries are attributable to inadequate investment and improper planning.

In several provincial/city libraries, initial investment by the MCST and the local
governments have provided additional facilities to expand new services. In three libraries
surveyed, IT expansion has not been brought into full use. Despite the availability of LAN
and internet access, there was no separate computer room nor any designated computers
specifically for readers to access the Internet. Thus, readers do not have the opportunity to
access the Internet, or to use tools to search for information and retrieve data and content in
the libraries.

While 99 of the 623 district level libraries in the country are using IT in their operations, a
total of 15 libraries in the three sites surveyed didn’t have computers at all. A key deciding
factor was not economic difficulty but lack of commitment by the provincial library and the
local government in bringing IT application into practice in those locations. It would only
take one computer in each district level library to help staff familiarize themselves with IT
and manage library work using IT technical support, which would greatly enhance their
capacity. In a workshop, “Develop and improve the quality of organizing and operating
district level libraries in the process of industrialization and modernization” held in May
2008 in Dong Nai, the majority of provincial leaderships and library directors admitted that
bringing IT application into library work faced challenges, both subjective and objective.

The post and communication sector identified a suitable direction to expand networks, based
on local socioeconomic development, to bring new technologies and services to the general
population. Investment in and exploitation of the CPO model has received great attention in
rural areas. Since 2003 a number of CPOs have been equipped with computers and internet
access: 33 CPOs out of 72 surveyed had this service, in which one CPO (Phuong Thach CPO
in Cang Long district, Tra Vinh) had the highest quantity of 12 computers, while the others
had at least one computer with internet access (please refer to Annex 3). The total number of
computers in 33 CPOs was 156, however, the survey showed 38% of the total computers
were not functioning or used, and 14 CPOs stopped providing Internet services. Among 19 of
72 CPOs providing services, only nine were functioning well as they were well-equipped and
connected to high-speed ADSL Internet. These CPOs included those in Dong Van commune
(Thanh Chuong, Nghe An), Nam Anh commune (Nam Dan, Nghe An), Phuong Thanh
commune (Cang Long, Vinh), Luong Hoa A commune, Hoa Minh commune, Thanh My

37
commune, Hoa Loi commune (Chau Thanh, Tra Vinh), Ngu Lac commune (Duyen Hai, Tra
Vinh), and Long Son commune (Cau Ngang, Tra Vinh).

6.2 Services
Available services are simple in libraries and CPOs and readers don’t have many choices.
Currently, the vast majority of readers come to the library mainly to read or borrow books
and newspapers. Survey findings showed that there was diversity in terms of the types of
needs for services with future readers. The percentage of readers borrowing or reading books
has dropped, but the need for other services is increasing. Such needs include: use of online
databases and computers, information searches on the Internet, and data storage on USB,
CD, etc. The need for support, guidance and consultation so readers can obtain information
in libraries is still limited, and identification and assessment of reading and information
needs of specific target groups, from a reader’s perspective, has not yet been carried out.
Provincial libraries in Thai Nguyen and Tra Vinh have not provided interactive information
services (Q&A services).

Although three provincial libraries developed a computer bassed search system and an
bibliographic database available on OPAC, almost half the readers in Thai Nguyen and Tra
Vinh utilizing the libraries continued using the traditional cataloguing. This is partly because
computers for OPAC are not located into a separate room for readers, but in the same spaces
that librarians sit. Therefore, readers are reluctant to complete self-searches and such
information research largely depends on librarians.

Dissemination activities by provincial libraries primarily take the form of “book story
telling” competitions. Of three surveyed provincial libraries, Nghe An held thematic talks,
meetings for readers (once every several years), and organized the launching of new local
books on provincial television. These events, which depend on funding and experience to
organize, are rarely used by Thai Nguyen and Tra Vinh provincial libraries. District level
libraries have very few communication and outreach activities. Dissemination and
introduction of existing and new services in public libraries and CPOs have received little
attention. The survey indicated that almost all readers did not know about public libraries and
CPOs from “dissemination activities of public libraries and CPOs.” Readers said their image
of provincial/district libraries was a place where they could read or borrow books and
newspapers, or the image of commune-level CPOs as a place to make telephone calls and
send postal packages.

Provincial libraries are open during working hours from Monday through Friday.
Additionally the Tra Vinh library is open in the evening and the Nghe An library opens on
Saturdays. Readers come from varied population groups and have different free time when
their work/study is done, thus the operational hours that fall into only normal working hours
cannot satisfy and accomodate readers. Staff of Thai Nguyen and Tra Vinh’s districtl
libraries are part time and are concurrently doing assignments demanded by the district
cultural office. There are no consistent regulations on opening hours, and readers don’t know
when the library is open and are therefore unable to use its services. Very few readers come
to the libraries surveyed in Thai Nguyen and Tra Vinh. The district libraries in Nghe An do
have regulations on opening hours. They also have a regularly scheduled time set aside one
day per week to provide technical support for school libraries, commune level libraries and
the CPOs. For these reasons, and combined with a passion for learning found in Nghe An’s
youth, these libraries have drawn a massive number of readers.

38
CPOs have regular opening hours from early morning to late evening, which is convenient
for users. Additionally, to encourage public use of services, and to bridge the gap in
knowledge with Vietnamese young people by universalizing IT, between the period of 2007–
2010 the VNPT partnered with the Vietnam Youth Federation to organize a program called
“One million hours together.” This program provided free internet access in more than 2,000
CPOs16 nationwide from September 2007 through September 2008. Despite clearly defined
objectives and encouragement, unfortunately the program’s services, at the time of this
survey, proved ineffective and didn’t interest the public. Many CPOs stopped providing the
services after one year or several months of operation, and a couple CPOs did not implement
the services even for a day nor did they have a single client (CPO in Trung Thanh commune
(Yen Thanh, Nghe An) and CPO in Muong Noc commune (Que Phong, Nghe An). The key
reasons were due to: i) slow connection (dial-up); ii) outdated equipment; iii) neglect of
communication and outreach work; iv) poor IT capacity of staff in charge given delays in
technical support from the district level post office; and v), lack of training for local people
on computer/internet use due to limited space and inadequate facilities (except the CPOs in
Tra Vinh).

6.3 IT capacity and service provision abilities of library and CPO staff
Conventional library science in Vietnam, in terms of traditional organization and operations,
has a well-established history. However, organization and operations based on modern
library models with technology applications are still too new. While the Web 2.0 technology
has been well-developed, the majority of library staff have substantial gaps in their
technology knowledge, even in basic computer skills. Although the LD and the NLV held
some IT training courses, library staff haven’t been exposed to organizational resources or
computer network operations, and have not taken advantage of IT to meet the information
needs of their patrons. The survey and self-assessment of library staff and patrons revealed
that the IT capacity of most of librarians and CPO staff is poor or at a medium level. The
majority of staff working in places without internet access are computer illiterate and a lot of
staff in CPOs where internet services are available do not know how to explore and make full
use of the basic utility of the Internet.

Librarian communication skills when providing services for readers was allocated the least
amount of attention in library operations. The survey showed that communication style,
language, wardrobe, the way of responding to readers, and the professional ethics of CPO
librarians/staff when providing free public services were not in line with any regulations.
Moreover, regulations on communication style applicable to librarians were also not
discussed nor formulated in the general library system; the NLV and DL have not elaborated
or provided guidance on these issues. Some related regulations were available in the
surveyed libraries in Tra Vinh and Nghe An but were insufficient and inconsistent. However,
readers in the survey sites said the work attitudes of librarians were good (95% were satisfied
or very satisfied). This may be attributed to the long-held conception that the library is a
place to borrow and return books and librarians are just book custodians and lenders. Public
library institutions do not draw diverse groups of readers in the community in addition to
traditional target groups (pupils, students, researchers). This implies that serving readers is
not yet considered a relevant focus or critical task of a library, as well as an important
indicator to assess all library activities and quality of its services. More recently, this has
been brought to the attention of some libraries. In November 2008, for example, the
Information and Library Center under Hanoi National University conducted a workshop
entitled, “Culture in communication and behavior of librarians” with a view to improving
16
One million hours together with youth, 25 September 2007
(http://www.baobinhduong.org.vn/detail.aspx?Item=30814)
39
the cultural aspects of librarians modeled on the concept of service provision. So far, these
concepts have not been included in any training curricula by the NLV and DL.

6.4 Training organization


The libraries surveyed have not paid proper attention to staff training and human resource
development. None of the three provincial libraries had budgets specifically for annual staff
training. Training during the last few years has been dependent on national level training
programs held by the DL or the NLV. Trainings attended by provincial library staff primarily
focused on the professional standards, such as: DDC Abridged Edition 14, MARC21 held by
the NLV, Web design held in the North and the South by the DL, and the worshop on “IT
application for visually-impaired people held by The General Science Library of Ho Chi
Minh City with funding from the Force Foundation. In terms of training for district library
staff, the survey demonstrated that there were some refresher trainings held by the DL and
provincial libraries on library knowledge and professional, library activities, application IT
in libraries, DDC Abridged Edition 14, etc.

Trainings at the national or local levels focused attention on improving IT and professional
capacity for library staff, but training to improve service skills were few. Other activities to
enhance service provision were also rare. In 2003, the public library sector held the first
conference on service provision work since 1954 in Lang Son. The conference examined the
direction and tasks of service provision work in the public library institution system from
2003-2010. In papers presented during the conference, however, concepts regarding how to
attract readers, the organization of training related to marketing and the Internet, reader
psychology, communication skills, and the behavior and working attitude of librarians were
not included.

The majority of CPO staff were trained in post and telecommunication cost calculation
methodologies. For those CPOs with PCs/internet connection, the staff are often provided up
to three days of training on computer and internet use by provincial or district post offices
while the technical support from district post offices were delayed.. Almost all CPOs had
posters introducing and disseminating internet service provision, but there has been no
training for post office staff to enhance their knowledge and service skills to draw in clients.
This is one of the reasons for the ineffectiveness of internet services in the CPOs.

6.5 Coordination within departments at the local level


During the survey of libraries and commune level CPOs, the assessment team worked closely
with the leadership of provincial libraries, district level cultural centers and the commune
level People’s Committee (Chair or Vice-Chair in charge of Cultural and Social Affairs) to
develop an understanding of public library/CPO operations, and to explore the relationships
between the local authorities and the project sites. Below are the team’s observations:

Provincial/district level libraries and provincial/district post offices have a good


understanding of pilot project sites and are prepared to receive facility and internet services.
They also showed a strong commitment to the project activities (at the time when the
assessment was carried out, almost 24 CPOs received 5 computer desks/site in Tra Vinh).
The leadership at the provincial/district libraries facilitated, coordinated with and supported
the assessment team throughout the field survey. As a result, progress and a high quality
assessment were ensured.

40
Because the commune level CPOs operate within the Post and Telecommunication sector,
the commune level People’s Committees did not know about the management of CPO
activities and hardly coordinated with them in service provision, even though CPOs are
geographically situated in the commune to serve the community. At the time of the survey,
the commune level People’s Committee leadership had limited information on the upcoming
pilot projects in terms of where funding came from, project objectives, how many computers
were equipped, and the status of internet access regulations in CPOs in their respective
communes.

When informed of the project activities, the local authorities and people in the project sites
were uniformly welcoming and supportive of the idea to bring the Internet to the community
and they hoped to access the new technology and necessary information on local
socioeconomic development. General recommendations in most project sites were that
internet access should be provided free, particularly in remote areas and areas with ethnic
minorities, that the provision of internet services should be relocated to the commune level
Cultural House where the local people are able to take part in other cultural and sporting
events and where management of the services is more convenient (e.g. to manage students
who spend too much time playing games and drop classes, etc.), and that there should be
regulations and monitoring mechanisms put in place.

41
7. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INTERNET SERVICES
IN PUBLIC LIBRARIES/CPOs
7.1 Physical and IT infrastructure
To receive equipment and services, public libraries/CPOs should allocate a suitable space or
rearrange or expand existing spaces for a public internet access room. These should be eye
catching to attract more users. In particular, the CPOs of Nghe An and Thai Nguyen should
ensure that the rooms are repainted, signboards made, more tables and chairs, and that space
should be properly arranged and more user-friendly. CPOs need to pay much more attention
to supplementing books and newspapers as users need not only computer and internet
connectivity, but also updated and relevant books, material sources and information services.

The pilot project, with funding of US$2.1 million from the Bill and Melinda Gates
Foundation, is being implemented by the MIC in project sites to expand information access
of locals in remote areas with a view towards improving the lives of the Vietnamese people.
Selected sites will be equipped with computers and specialized devices required to serve the
need for Internet access and information. An important objective of the project is to draw
upon the lessons learned to develop a national level project. (Note: Some CPOs received 5-
12 computers and were connected to high-speed ADSL as mentioned in section 6.1 above.)

7.2 Services
In addition to the traditional and upcoming Internet services, provincial/district level libraries
should increase new services for users by: i) supplementing electronic documents with online
databases or CD-ROM-based databases, ii) developing digital collections of critical local
documents (such as local content), iii) equipping PCs with audio devices and documents, iv)
diversifying services, v) providing information and Q&A services, and vi) sharing resources
through the Web, etc. For libraries using an integrated library management system should be
expanded to serve as information ports helping online readers search for information through
chatting, writing, and instant messaging. They could also insert new keywords into catalog
records and share with others. To increase the effectiveness of a new modern library,
Vietnam’s library sector needs to develop a strategy to partner with other regional and
national libraries. Once a library network is established, professional activities will be
consistent, such as cataloging on a common web system and library membership contributing
catalog records (e.g. location and call number). Libraries in such a system could collaborate
with each other to develop a proper document development plan (acquisition and exchange),
interlibrary loan; and connection with the global library should also be completed.

Library marketing and outreach activities are essential and of significant importance. They
are critical to services that a library provides, to the values of a library, to awareness of these
values among stakeholders from high-ranking government officials to the youngest readers,
and they serve to inform a library how to provide and locate necessary information in a
timely and accurate way for the public. Libraries need to communicate their roles to readers
who do not always recognize their importance. Not only should public libraries and CPOs
carry out assessments to develop marketing and dissemination plans to ensure that the library
and its Internet services are widely known, but Vietnam’s library sector in general, through
the DL, the Library Association and the NLV, needs to formulate a national level marketing
strategy. Marketing plan helps a library reach out to Southeast Asia and the world. As
Professor Patricia Oyler pointed out at the 14th Conference on Southeast Asian Library Staff
(CONSAL) held in Hanoi in April 2009, “The American Library Association began the
@library marketing program and is partnering with IFLA so that libraries around the world
42
can adapt and use it. More than 31 library organizations have signed an agreement to join
this world campaign. Japan, Korea and Singapore are participating in the campaign and other
Southeast Asian libraries should consider joining.”

Library services have been modernized with the trend of having more open stacks to help
readers promptly access relevant documents. IT is applied in library work and is used to
convey information in a modern way through e-news, CD-ROMs, access to document
databases through OPAC, online databases, the Internet, Web 2.0 technology, etc. To help
readers familiarize themselves with new services and options, a library’s leadership needs to
have a plan to train readers about the library/Internet on a regular basis, particularly for first-
time readers and the disadvantaged.

Findings in the survey revealed that all three project sites focus on agricultural production,
primarily raising pigs, chickens, bulls and cows, and cash crop production. Each province
also has its own particulars. Thai Nguyen is characterized by farm economics, tea plantation
and processing, and the mining industry. Nghe An is characterized by fisheries and fish
processing (fish sauce making, salt making); forestry (coffee, rubber, pine and acacia), paper
processing, and rattan and weaving handicrafts. Tra Vinh, located in Mekong River delta has
shrimp and catfish farms, fisheries, and handicrafts. As home to the Khmer ethnic minority,
which accounts for more than 30% of its total population, Tra Vinh has 141 Khmer-style
pagodas and there is a great need for exploration and understanding of this culture. However,
interviews with the leadership of the provincial/district level libraries and the commune level
People’s Committee showed that no public libraries/CPOs have adequately responded to the
need for cutting-edge information on local economic sectors. Almost 71 CPOs have different
kinds of books and journals on traditional trees and animals such as pigs, chickens, ducks,
rice and cash crops. The local people need access to information relevant to the local
economic priorities and conditions such as: dissemination of knowledge, best practices for
doing business and reducing poverty, and forecasts for export of agricultural products.
Training and guidance is needed for staff at the commune level CPOs on accessing relevant
information sources and they must be able to consult and support patrons more effectively.

7.3 Improvement of IT and service provision staff capacity in public libraries and CPOs
The IT skills of librarians in public library institutions are still poor. To maximize the
effectiveness of the upcoming Gates Foundation-funded project, IT training programs should
be comprehensive, from basic to advanced levels, from accessing the Internet for news and
information to building analytical skills to develop the most effective information search
strategies. More in-depth training should be provided for those working in public library
institutions that have not yet been equipped with computers.

In today’s fast-paced technological world, library staff need new knowledge to enhance
services and to assess the library system. They will need to identify the impact of ICT on
their working environment, to be aware of the full impact of ICT on information formats,
access and services, and to recognize the necessity of using ICT as a tool to respond to the
information needs of patrons. As a result, a library can fulfill its role within the system by
complementing education and providing information to communities. It can serve as an
intermediary in the development process, as a place where the local people can set up their
businesses and even find outlets to market their products through IT and other
communication utilities in public library institutions. To best fulfill such tasks, library
personnel need to understand the roles and mission of the library and of staff in today’s
information age.

43
The library is not just a place where documents are stored, but also where access to
information resources and guidance are provided to users. Therefore, the concept of the
librarian’s role has been changing. Staff who serve patron needs must possess solid
knowledge and skills, and a professional style and attitude that can shape the new image of
the library. Attracting users to library and Internet services, and improving effectiveness and
patron satisfaction depends tremendously on the provision of user-friendly services. Thus,
staff who serve readers should acquire knowledge and skills in services, (communication
skills, for example), reader psychology, and on information research to enhance their abilities
in assisting users.

7.4 Knowledge and skill improvement training for better library services
The leadership of libraries should formulate annual training plans (continuing and
comprehensive) and training for future replacement staff. Within the scope of the survey, the
assessment team did not assess the public library institution’s library-related professional
ability, but focused on IT and the service provision-related abilities of staff working in public
libraries and CPOs in the survey sites. Based on survey results, the training needs of library
and CPO staff are listed below:

IT Training
For provincial/district level library staff:
1. Basic IT knowledge and skills (including how to use PCs, printers and Microsoft
Office, such as Word, Excel, PowerPoint)
2. Understanding hardware and common trouble shooting
3. Internet use
4. Skills for searching information on the Internet
5. Skills for administering networks and managing equipment and readers in Internet
rooms
6. Skills for the design and administration of a website
7. Skills for how to use library software
8. Understanding online database usage
For staff in charge of CPOs:
1. Knowledge and basic skills on IT (including how to use PCs, printers and Microsoft
Office, such as Word, Excel, PowerPoint)
2. Understanding hardware and common trouble shooting
3. Skills for searching information on the Internet
4. Skills for administering networks and managing equipment and readers in Internet
rooms

Training in serving readers (for libraries and CPOs)


1. Awareness on the roles and tasks of the library and its staff in the information age
2. Communication skills with readers (including behaviors and attitudes)
3. Skills for analyzing the Internet-based information needs of readers
4. Organization, design and administration of assessments on PC/Internet use and
impact
5. Skills for marketing and disseminating Internet services
6. Skills for guiding and training readers in PC use and Internet access

7.5 Coordination at the local level


To fully support services in the localities, the leadership of the local government, relevant
departments, schools and mass organizations should also have training on the roles and tasks
of libraries and CPOs in providing PC/internet services. They need to know what public
44
libraries/CPOs can do to improve the lives and work of the local people, and how their work
would be better supported by libraries/CPOs. Close coordination between the local
government, relevant departments, schools and mass organizations on Internet services is not
only essential to marketing services, but also for managing Internet use and IT exploitation.
Such coordination will help maintain long-term operations, help secure IT equipments, and
prevent social problems that may arise such as children becoming obsessive about playing
games online or girls being abused through chat rooms. This coordination can be done
through organizing meetings in residential groups where the local leaders and CPO staff
introduce and market Internet services, and explain the uses and advantages of the library
and the Internet. CPO staff should work with the Youth Union to mobilize the public to join
training on PC/Internet use. Training should first target local leaders, relevant departments,
pupils/students and young people, and then reach out to the disadvantaged, the elderly and
women. Leaflets on internet use should be developed and distributed in a simple and easy-to-
use manner with a list of links to relevant web pages.

45
8. CONCLUSION

Vietnam has adult literacy rate nearing 90.3%.17 This is convenient for maintaining a
reading culture, and serves as a good precondition for raising people’s awareness and
bringing the Internet to communities around the country. However, the surveys in selected
sites revealed that existing information resources in the library system and from the Internet
have served only a traditional clientele (such as researchers, students, officials and
government staff) thus far. Disadvantaged groups, as well as people living in remote areas
have not been able to access these information resources. To ensure a broader impact from
internet access, these groups should be given the necessary support to access the Internet to
look for information for educational and learning opportunities as well as to obtain necessary
information for learning new skills, expanding businesses, improving health and being
prepared for natural disasters and epidemics. Critical information does not reach rural
communities because they have not been aware of library and Internet services available to
them and do not understand the Internet’s use.

According to an assessment by the International Telecommunication Alliance, in recent years


Vietnam has been one of the nations to have the highest growth rate in telecommunications
in the world. Up to May 2008, there were about 6 million subscribers in the country,
enabling about 19.5 million citizens access to the Internet, which accounts for 23% of the
total population.18 However, it is easy to recognize that internet use has not been distributed
evenly in Vietnam. Most users are concentrated in urban areas like Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City,
Da Nang, and Can Tho. The surveys conducted in the three provinces showed that although
internet services have been brought to rural and remote areas, the quality of these services
has not been satisfactory and the poor have not been able to access the Internet for critical
information to improve their lives.

Library services are not diverse or attractive to users in local communities. Vietnam has a
wide network of public libraries in the country that are vertically managed for filing and
storing books and documents for public lending. Some libraries have provided internet
access services for patrons (22 out of 65 public libraries in Vietnam have this services; NLV
and 64 provincial/city libraries). 99 out of 623 district libraries in the country have applied IT
in their library activities.19 However, most users have used the Internet to send/receive
emails, to chat, or for reading e-newspapers, and have not explored the research functions of
the Internet for useful information to apply to their daily lives and work. District and town
libraries usually have one or two staff (except some district libraries in Ho Chi Minh City).
The library staff in wards/communes and in book corners at the district cultural centers have
almost no common qualifications. Their skills and knowledge of the library and access to
information are very limited and their ways of working are also very different. Thus, they are
not capable of generating or advocating for support to organize events and activities to
expand the library’s activities or to attract potential patrons.

17
UNDP, report on human index 2007-2008
18
23% Vietnamese population use internet. IT website. 13/06/2008.
(http://www.thongtincongnghe.com/article/5932)
19
Vietnam: Social/cultural/ICT4D/public libraries/other service models. Prepared for Global Libraries, Bill &
Melinda Gates Foundation. 2006-2007.
46
Vietnamese librarians have been trained in library science, but their skills in PC use and
Internet Explorer are still weak. Therefore, they are unable to provide support to and
guidance for patrons/users. Communication and service skills have received little attention
within the library system. To make dramatic changes in service provision and to create a
more friendly environment in public libraries, there should be stipulations on the attitudes
and communication skills of librarians with a core principal to “Serve patrons.”
Communication and information guidance skills should be integrated in skill training
programs for librarians.

Library patrons have also changed recently. The NLV has expanded its reach by simplifying
the process of granting membership cards. Formerly, memberships cards were granted only
to senior university and college students. Now, all those who have identity cards can register
for membership with the NLV.20 In the NLV, students account for 70% of the total
registered patrons. One of the important potential groups for provincial libraries are
government officers and public servants. The percentage of this group who use library
services is very low although they are responsible for advice, guidance, and implementation
of national programs and objectives at local levels. At local libraries, there are many retired
officials and officers who are still very active in social and community activities. They could
also be an active group for advocating for library activities as they have applied information
and knowledge that they have learned about the local community and its economic
development thanks to library services.

Provincial/city libraries have paid more attention to offering services for children. In the past
this responsibility was assigned to local cultural houses and/or children’s clubs.21 Libraries
also attracted more students and pupils to make their environment more vibrant. Children and
youth account for 70-80% of the total patrons/users of libraries. The handicapped and blind
have also increasingly come to public libraries. For example, Hanoi’s Library and the
Scientific and Technology Library in Ho Chi Minh City every year attract thousands of users
from this group.22 Business managers and staff, farm managers and producers, and
small/household business have also increasingly been accessing information resources in
provincial public libraries and the NLV. This group accounts for about 30% of the total
patrons annually. Farmer patrons have increased in grassroots libraries. Thus, public libraries
have to find ways to balance their services to ensure that disadvantaged groups also have
equal access to information resources in the library system.

The information needs of library patrons have been changing towards a demand for e-
information. Rapid IT development has changed people’s habits and the ways of living and
working, including reading. Increasingly, patrons read e-books and documents online instead
of reading printed books. The NLV should review the effectiveness and impact of IT
applications in the public library system to create a basis for further implementation as it is
necessary to apply IT to library management and operations, and to be connected to the
global library network.

The pilot projects funded by the Bill & Melinda Gate Foundation in Nghe An, Thai Nguyen,
and Tra Vinh is essential for the development of infrastructure and IT equipment in order to
expand library services, including internet access, and the creation of a more welcoming

20
Serving patrons of the public library system: Workshop proceedings, Lang Son, 2003.P.23
21
NLV report at the workshop: Serving patrons of the pubic library system, Lang Son 2003
22
Serving patrons of the public library system: Workshop proceedings, Lang Son, 2003. P23
47
environment for public internet access. With these improvements local people can access
information more easily and effectively. Through this assessment it is evident that the
implementation of project activities will have certain advantages, but they will also face
many challenges. The situation requires a flexible approach appropriate to the local context
and the beneficiary groups. In training and education programs to improve the skill capacity
of local staff, intensive programs for CPO staff should also be included. To ensure that
training materials are practical and relevant to the local staff of public libraries and CPOs
accordingly, the newly developed materials should be tested before publication and
distribution. Project activities should be closely monitored, and experiences and lessons
learned should be documented in order to instill best practices for further replication and
adaptation in other locales.

48
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(http://vietnamese.vietnam.usembassy.gov/doc_ej0306_iv.html)

One million hours with youth. 25/09/2007.


(http://www.baobinhduong.org.vn/detail.aspx?Item=30814)

Nguyen Phuc Chi. Successful application of CMC alternatives in educational materials


centers in Can Tho University. 2007
(http://vst.vista.gov.vn/home/database/an_pham_dien_tu/MagazineName.2004-06-
09.1932/2007/2007_00001/MItem.2007-02-12.0118/MArticle.2007-02-
12.0144/marticle_view)

Nguyen Thi Hanh. Library in digital environment. 2004.


(http://vst.vista.gov.vn/home/database/an_pham_dien_tu/MagazineName.2004-06-
09.1932/2004/2004_00001/MItem.2004-06-09.2257/MArticle.2004-06-
09.3902/marticle_view)

Patricia Oyler. The Global Library scene: Developing and sustaining Southeast Asian
Libraries: Keynote Speaker at The CONSAL 14 in Hanoi, 21-22 Apr. 2009

Public libraries – opinion, use, needs: Rural population and library users survey: Key
findings. MillwardBrown Market Research Agency. August 2008.
(https://gltoolkit.centraldesktop.com/community/av&ac=vr&recid=2899093)

Cao Minh Kiem. Some thoughts on organization and activities related to library and
information in Vietnamese libraries in coming periods. 2008
(http://vst.vista.gov.vn/home/database/an_pham_dien_tu/MagazineName.2004-06-
09.1932/2008/2008_00001/MItem.2008-02-25.0121/MArticle.2008-02-
26.5443/marticle_view)

UNDP 2008. Human Development Report 2008.

50
IT application to district libraries: A long road ahead! 27/6/2008.
(http://203.162.71.77:100/vn/doisongict/4223/index.aspx)

Roles of librarians in internet era. Community book corners forums. 30/3/2009.


(http://tusachcongdong.com/forums/yaf_postst21_VAI-TR210-CA-TH-TH-TRONG-K-
NGUY202N-INTERNET.aspx)

Vietnam: Social/cultural/ICT4D/public libraries/other service models. Prepared for


Global Libraries, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 2006-2007.

51
ANNEXES

ANNEX 1: LIST OF SURVEY WORKERS

No, Name Survey Sites (District/Commune)


Thai Nguyen Province
Group leader: Nguyễn Thị Thu 1. District library of of Võ Nhai
1 Phạm Bá Khoa 2. Lâu Thượng Communal CPO (district Võ Nhai)
3. Cúc Đường Communal CPO (district Võ Nhai)
4. Tràng Xá Communal CPO (district Võ Nhai)
5. Dân Tiến Communal CPO (district Võ Nhai)
2 Mã Hoàng Hưng 6. District library of Đồng Hỷ
7. Hoá Thượng Communal CPO (district Đồng Hỷ)
8. Hoà Bình Communal CPO (district Đồng Hỷ)
9. Hợp Tiến Communal CPO (district Đồng Hỷ)
10. Khe Mo Communal CPO (district Đồng Hỷ)
Group leader: Đặng Thị Mai 1. Town district Sông Công
3 Phạm Mai Hoa 2. Bình Sơn Communal CPO ( Commune Sông Công)
3. Tân Cương Communal CPO (Thái Nguyên city)
4. Phúc Thuận Communal CPO (district Phổ Yên)
5. Kha Sơn Communal CPO (district Phú Bình)
4 Nguyễn Trọng Nghĩa 6. Dương Thành Communal CPO (district Phú Bình)
7. Tân Khánh Communal CPO (district Phú Bình)
8. Hà Thượng Communal CPO (district Đại Từ)
9. Lục Ba Communal CPO (district Đại Từ)
10. Vạn Thọ Communal CPO (district Đại Từ)
Group leader: Doãn Anh Đức 1. District library of Định Hoá
TAF: Đinh Kiều Nhung 2. Tân Dương Communal CPO (district Định Hoá)
5 Nông Văn Hùng 3. Bình Thành Communal CPO (district Định Hoá)
4. Điềm Mạc Communal CPO (district Định Hoá)
5. Trung Lương Communal CPO (district Định Hoá)
6. District library of Phi Lương
6 Phạm Minh Tuấn 7. Yên Ninh Communal CPO (district Phú Lương)
8. Tức Tranh Communal CPO (district Phú Lương)
9. Ôn Lương Communal CPO (district Phú Lương)
Nghệ An
Group leader: Đặng Thị Mai 1. District library of Quỳnh Lưư
7 Nguyễn Quỳnh Vân 2. Diễn Thịnh Communal CPO (Diễn Châu)
3. Diễn Vạn Communal CPO (Diễn Châu)
4. Nghi Hoa Communal CPO (Nghi Lộc)
5. District library of Hưng Nguyên
8 Nguyễn Trọng Lực 6. District library of Nam Đàn
7. Nam Anh Communal CPO (Nam Đàn)
8. Thanh Dương Communal CPO (Thanh Chương)
9. ĐôngVăn Communal CPO (Thanh Chương)
Group leader: Nguyễn Thị Thu 1. District library of Quỳ Châu
9 Hoàng Thị Mai 2. Châu Tiến Communal CPO (Quỳ Châu)
3. Tiền Phong Communal CPO (Quế Phong)
4. Mường Nọc Communal CPO (Quế Phong)
5. Tây Hiếu Communal CPO (Nghĩa Đàn)
10 Dương Duy Tiến 6. Đông Hiếu Communal CPO (Nghĩa Đàn)
7. Châu Quang Communal CPO (Quỳ Hợp)
8. Châu Lộc Communal CPO (Quỳ Hợp)
52
9. Tân Phú Communal CPO (Tân Kỳ)
10. Kỳ Tân Communal CPO (Tân Kỳ)
Group leader: Doãn Anh Đức 1. Vắn Sơn Communal CPO (Đô Lương)
TAF: Đinh Kiều Nhung 2. Giang Sơn Communal CPO (Đô Lương)
11 Nguyễn Thị Tú Anh 3. Phúc Sơn Communal CPO (Anh Sơn)
4. Thạch Sơn Communal CPO (Anh Sơn)
5. Môn Sơn Communal CPO (Con Cuông)
6. Mậu Đức Communal CPO (Con Cuông)
12 Hồ Thị Thuỷ 7. Lưu Kiền Communal CPO (Tương Dương)
8. Tà Cạ Communal CPO (Kỳ Sơn)
9. Trung Thành Communal CPO (Yên Thành)
10. District library of Yên Thành

Trà Vinh
Group leader: Nguyễn Thị Thu 1. District library of Tiểu Cần
13 Trương Thanh Phong 2. Hiếu Tử Communal CPO (Tiểu Cần)
3. Phú Cần Communal CPO (Tiểu Cần)
4. District library of Càng Long
14 Lâm Văn Tuyên 5. Phương Thạnh Communal CPO (Càng Long)
6. Huyền Hội Communal CPO (Càng Long)
7. District library of Cầu Kè.
8. Hoà Ân Communal CPO (Cầu Kè)
9. Hoà Tân Communal CPO (Cầu Kè).
10. Lương Hoà A Communal CPO (Châu Thành)
Group leader: Doãn Anh Đức 1. District library of Duyên Hải.
15 Trần Thị Ngoài 2. Hiệp Thạnh Communal CPO (Duyên Hải)
3. Ngũ Lạc Communal CPO (Duyên Hải)
4. Trường Long Hoà Communal CPO (Duyên Hải).
16 Trương Thị Thuý 5. Nhị Trường Communal CPO (Cầu ngang)
6. Kim Hoà Communal CPO (Cầu ngang)
7. Long Sơn Communal CPO (Cầu ngang)
8. Thuận Hoà Communal CPO (Cầu ngang)
9. Mỹ Long Bắc Communal CPO (Cầu ngang)
10. Thạnh Hoà Sơn Communal CPO (Cầu ngang).
11. Hoà Minh Communal CPO (Châu Thành)
12. Hoà Lợi Communal CPO (Châu Thành)
13. Thanh Mỹ Communal CPO (Châu Thành)
Group leader: Đặng Thị Mai 1. District library of Trà Cú.
TAF: Nguyễn Thu Hằng 2. An Quang Hữu Communal CPO (Trà Cú)
17 Nguyễn Mai Lan 3. Đôn Xuân Communal CPO (Trà Cú)
4. Ngọc Biên Communal CPO (Trà Cú)
5. Long Hiệp Communal CPO (Trà Cú)
18 Trần Thị Thanh Tâm 6. Kim Sơn Communal CPO (Trà Cú).

53
ANNEX 2: SURVEY SITES

I Nghệ An province II Thai Nguyen province


1 Library of Nghệ An 1 Thái Nguyên library
2 District library of Quỳnh Lưu 2 District library of Võ Nhai
District of Diễn Châu 3 CPO Dân Tiến,
3 CPO Dien Thinh 4 CPO Tràng Xá
4 CPO Dien Van 5 CPO Cúc Đường
District of Nghi Lộc 6 CPO Lâu Thượng
5 CPO Nghi hoa 7 District library of Phú Lương
6 District library of Yên Thành 8 CPO Yên Ninh
7 CPO Trung Thành 9 CPO Ôn Lương
8 District library of Hưng Nguyên 10 CPO Tức Tranh
9 District library of Nam Đàn 11 District library of Đồng Hỷ
10 CPO Nam Anh 12 CPO Hoá Thượng
District of Thanh Chương 13 CPO Hợp Tiến
11 CPO Thanh Dương 14 CPO Khe Mo
12 CPO Đông Văn 15 CPO Hoà Bình
District of Đô Lương 16 District library of Định Hoá
13 CPO Van Son 17 CPO Trung Lương
14 CPO Giang Sơn 18 CPO Tân Dương
District of Anh Sơn 19 CPO Bình Thành
15 CPO Phúc Sơn 20 CPO Điềm Mạc
16 CPO Thạch Sơn 21 Town district Sông Công
District of Con Cuông 22 CPO Bình Sơn
17 CPO Môn Sơn Thái Nguyên city
18 CPO Mậu Đức 23 CPO Tân Cương
District of Tân Kỳ District of Phú Bình
19 CPO Tan Phó 24 CPO Kha Sơn
20 CPO Kỳ Tân 25 CPO Dương Thành
District of Tương Dương 26 CPO Tân Khánh
21 CPO Lưu Kiền District of Phổ Yên
District of Kỳ Sơn 27 CPO Phúc Thuận
22 CPO Tà Cạ District of Đại Từ
District of Nghĩa Đàn 28 CPO Vạn Thọ
23 CPO Tây Hiếu 29 CPO Hà Thượng
24 CPO Đông Hiếu 30 CPO Lục Ba
District of Quỳ Hợp
25 CPO Châu Quang
26 CPO Châu Lộc
27 District library of Quỳ Châu
28 CPO Châu Tiến
29 CPO Commune Tiền Phong
30 CPO Commune Mường Nọc

54
III Tra Vinh province
1 Provincial library of Trà Vinh
2 District library of Càng Long
3 CPO Phuong Thach
4 CPO Huyền Hội
5 District library of Duyên Hải
6 CPO Hiệp Thạnh
7 CPO Ngũ Lạc
8 CPO Trường Long Hòa
9 District library of Cầu Kè
10 CPO Hòa Ân
11 CPO Hòa Tân
12 District library of Trà Cú
13 CPO An Quãng Hữu
14 CPO Đôn Xuân
15 CPO Ngọc Biên
16 CPO Long Hiệp
17 CPO Kim Sơn
18 District library of Tiểu Cần
19 CPO Hiếu Tử
20 CPO Phú Cần
District of Cầu Ngang
21 CPO Thạnh Hòa Sơn
22 CPO Nhị Trường
23 CPO Kim Hòa
24 CPO Long Sơn
25 CPO Thuận Hòa
26 CPO Mỹ Long Bắc
District of Châu Thành
27 CPO Lương Hòa A
28 CPO Hòa Minh
29 CPO Hòa Lợi
30 CPO Thanh

55
ANNEX 2b: MAP OF 90 SURVEY SITES

30 survey sites in Nghệ An

hospital

Library

school

Library of Nghe An
Provincial Library

CPC of

Library of

Library of

CPC

Hospital
Communal CPO

District library

School 56
30 survey sites in Trà Vinh

 Tra Vinh Hospital 1 km

 Phương Thạnh  Phú Cần 7 km


5 km  Hiếu Tử  Tập Ngãi Primary School 8 km
 Càng Long town  Huyền Hội 5 km
0.5 km 5 km  Tiểu Cần Center 0,5 km Note:
CPO 
Tra Vinh town 0 km Hospital 
Library 
Càng Long CPC 
20Km Tiểu Cần School 
25 km Military unit 

 Hiệp Thạch 1km


 Ngũ Lạc 9km  An Quảng Hữu 9 km
 Long Hoà school 46km Duyên Hải  Đôn Xuân 19 km
 Duyên Hải center 0,5km 51km  Trà Cú  Ngọc Biên 4 km
 Long Toan 0,5km TRAVINH 36 km  Long Hiệp 1 km
LIBRARY  Kim Sơn 9 km
 TT Trà Cú 0,5 km

Châu Thành
7km
Cầu Ngang  Mỹ Long 9 km
Cầu Kè 26 km  Thạch Hoà Sơn24km
45 km  Nhị Trường 24km
 Lương Hoà A 3km  Kim Hòa 9km
 Hoà Minh 23km  Hoà Ân 5km  Long Sơn 9km
 Hoà Lợi 3km  Hoà Tân 10km  Thuận Hoà 9km
 Thanh Mỹ 8km  Cầu Kè center 0,5km  Mỹ Long Bắc 4km

57
30 survey sites in Thai Nguyen
Communal
B§VHCPO
x· T©n
Communal CPO
D-¬ng 5km
Trµng X¸ 15km
Communal CPO
TVHHoa
Dinh §Þnh Ho¸ library
district Communal CPO
Cóc §-êng 15km
50km
50 km Yªn Ninh 15km
Communal CPO
Communal CPO
§iÒm M¹c 15km
Communal CPO D©n TiÕn 10km
Trung L-¬ng 7km

Communal CPO Communal CPO Communal CPO


B×nh Thµnh ¤n L-¬ng 10km TVH
PhuPhó L-¬ng
Luong district Hoµ B×nh 12km
15km 20km library
20 km Communal CPO
Communal CPO Vo Nhai
TVHdistrict
Vâ Nhailibrary
Hîp TiÕn 10km
Tøc Tranh 8km 40 40km
km
Phæ Yªn
district 25km CPC S¬n CÈm Communal CPO
Communal CPO
§¹i Tõ district 10km Ho¸ Th-îng 9km
Communal CPO L©u Th-îng 5km
Lôc Ba 8km hospital 0,5km
Communal Hoµng V¨n Thô TVH
Dong§ång Hû
Hy district library
CPO Hµ school 8km 5km5 km
Th-îng
Communal 10km
CPO
T©n C-¬ng 10km Thai Nguyen
Communal CPO Provincial Library Communal CPO
V¹n Thä 12km 29, BÕn T-îng, Thai Khe Mo 10km
Nguyen city Communal CPO
Kha S¬n 7km
Communal CPO
B×nh S¬n 8km
Library of Phó B×nh Communal CPO
S«ng C«ng district 25km D-¬ng Thµnh
town 20km 5km
Phæ Yªn
Communal CPO district 26km
Phóc ThuËn
15km Communal CPO
T©n Kh¸nh 12km

Hµ Néi 80km

58
ANNEX 2c: SOME PHOTOS ON FACILITIES OF SURVEYED SITES

Reading Room at Thai Nguyen Public Library Phu Luong District Library, Thai Nguyen Province

Binh Thanh CPO, Thai Nguyen Province Tuc Tranh CPO, Phu Luong district, Thai Nguyen Province

59
Reading Room at Nghe An Public Library Cang Long District Library, Nghe An Province

Ta Ca CPO, Ky Son district, Nghe An Province The road to Ta Ca CPO, Ky Son district, Nghe An Province

60
Tay Hieu CPO, Nghia Dan district, Nghe An Province Ky Tan CPO, Tan Ky district, Nghe An Province

Chau Tien CPO, Quy Chau district, Nghe An Province Bookshelf of Tien Phong CPO, Que Phong district, Nghe An Province

61
Tra Vinh Public Library Duyen Hai District Library, Tra Vinh Province

Long Hiep CPO, Tra Cu district, Tra Vinh Province Signboard of Ngoc Bien CPO, Tra Cu district, Tra Vinh Province

62
Don Xuan CPO, Tra Cu district, Tra Vinh Province Kim Son CPO, Tra Cu district, Tra Vinh Province

Long Hiep CPO, Tra Cu district, Tra Vinh Province An Quang Huu CPO, Tra Cu district, Tra Vinh Province

63
ANNEX 3: QUANTITY AND PC STATUS AT 72 SURVEYED CPOS
No Province/District Communal CPO Number of PCs
I Nghe An province
1 Diễn Châu district BĐVH Diễn Thịnh 2
2 YênThành district CPO Trung Thành 1
3 Nam Đàn district CPO Nam Anh 6
4 Thanh Chương CPO Thanh Dương 1
5 district CPO Đông Văn 10
6 Tương Dương district CPO Lưu Kiền 3
7 Kỳ Sơn district CPO Tà Cạ 3
8 Quế Phong district CPO Mường Nọc 3
Sub-Total 29
II Thai Nguyen province
1 Võ Nhai district CPO Cúc Đường 1
2 CPO Lâu Thượng 1
3 Định Hoá district CPO Trung Lương 1
4 CPO Tân Dương 3
5 Sông Công town CPO Bình Sơn 9
6 Phú Bình district CPO Kha Sơn 1
7 Phổ Yên district CPO Phúc Thuận 1
8 Đại Từ district CPO Vạn Thọ 1
Sub-Total 18
III Tra Vinh province
1 Càng Long district CPO Phương Thạch 12
2 CPO Huyền Hội 6
3 Duyên Hải district CPO Hiệp Thạnh 6
4 CPO Ngũ Lạc 6
5 CPO Trường Long Hòa 8
6 Cầu Kè district CPO Hòa Ân 6
7 Trà Cú district CPO An Quãng Hữu 6
8 CPO Ngọc Biên 4
9 CPO Long Hiệp 6
10 Tiểu Cần district CPO Hiếu Tử 6
11 CPO Phú Cần 6
12 Cầu Ngang district CPO Thạnh Hòa Sơn 1
13 CPO Long Sơn 4
14 Châu Thành district CPO Lương Hòa A 7
15 CPO Hòa Minh 11
16 CPO Hòa Lợi 6
17 CPO Thanh Mỹ 7
Sub-total 108
33 TOTAL 155

64
ANNEX 3a: Nghe An
(Note: Only 9/33 CPOs in the three provinces of Thai Nguyen, Nghe An and Tra Vinh
had ADSL connection; the rest used dial-up connections)

Having Internet Used for Total Connection


No CPO District internet Server services professional type
work
1. Diễn Thịnh Diễn Châu 1 0 2 2
2. Diễn Vạn Diễn Châu 0 0 0 0
3. Nghi Hoa Nghi Lộc 0 0 0 0
4. Trung Thành Yên Thành 1 0 1 1
5. Nam Anh Nam Đàn 1 0 6 6 ADSL
6. Thanh Dương Thanh 1 0 1 1
Chương
7. Đông Văn Thanh 1 0 10 10 ADSL
Chương
8. Văn Sơn Đô Lương 0 0 0 0
9. Giang Sơn Đô Lương 0 0 0 0
10. Commune Anh Sơn 0 0 0 0
Phúc Sơn
11. Thạch Sơn Anh Sơn 0 0 0 0
12. Môn Sơn Con Cuông 0 0 0 0
13. Mậu Đức Con Cuông 0 0 0 0
14. Tân Phú Tân Kỳ 0 0 0 0
15. Kỳ Tân Tân Kỳ 0 0 0 0
16. Lưu Kiều Tương 1 0 3 3
Dương
17. Tà Cạ Kỳ Sơn 1 0 3 3
18. Tây Hiếu TX Thái hoà 0 0 0 0
19. Đông Hiếu TX Thái hoà 0 0 0 0
20. Châu Quang Quỳ Hợp 0 0 0 0
21. Châu Lộc Quỳ Hợp 0 0 0 0
22. Châu Tiến Quỳ Châu 0 0 0 0
23. Tiền Phong Quế Phong 0 0 0 0
24. Mường Nọc Quế Phong 0 0 0 3 3
TOTAL 7 0 26 3 29

65
ANNEX 3b. Thai Nguyen

Server Internet Used for Total Connection


No CPO District Havin
services profession type
g
al work
interne
t
1. Dân Tiến Võ Nhai 0 0 0 0
2. Tràng Xá Võ Nhai 0 0 0 0
3. Cúc đường Võ Nhai 1 0 1 1
4. Lâu Thượng Võ Nhai 1 0 1 1
5. Yên Ninh Phú Lương 0 0 0 0
6. Ôn Lương Phú Lương 0 0 0 0
7. Tức Tranh Phú Lương 0 0 0 0
8. Hoá Thượng Đồng Hỷ 0 0 0 0
9. Hợp Tiến Đồng Hỷ 0 0 0 0
10. Khe Mo Đồng Hỷ 0 0 0 0
11. Hoà Bình Đồng Hỷ 0 0 0 0
12. Trung Lương Định Hoá 1 0 1 1
13. Tân Dương Định Hoá 1 0 2 1 3
14. Bình Thành Định Hoá 0 0 0 0
15. Điềm Mạc Định Hoá 0 0 0 0
16. Bình Sơn Sông Công 1 0 9 9
17. Tân cương Thai Nguyen 0 0 0 0
City
18. Kha Sơn Phú Bình 1 0 1 1
19. Dương Thành Phú Bình 0 0 0 0
20. Tân Khánh Phú Bình 0 0 0 0
21. Phúc Thuận Phổ Yên 1 0 1 1
22. Vạn Thọ Đại Từ 1 0 1 1
23. Hà Thượng Đại Từ 0 0 0 0
24. Lục Ba Đại Từ 0 0 0 0
TOTAL 8 0 17 1 18

66
ANNEX 3c. Tra Vinh

Server Internet Used for Total Connection


No Communal CPO District Having
services profession type
internet
al work
1. Phương Thạnh Càng Long 1 1 10 1 12 ADSL
2. Huyền Hội Càng Long 1 1 5 6
3. Hiệp Thạnh Duyên Hải 1 1 5 6
4. Ngũ Lạc Duyên Hải 1 1 5 6 ADSL
5. Trường Long Duyên Hải 1 1 7 8
6. Hoà Ân Cầu Kè 1 1 5 6
7. Hoà Tân Cầu Kè 0 0 0 0
8. An Quảng Trà Cú 1 1 5 6
Hữu
9. Đôn Xuân Trà Cú 0 0 0 0
10.Ngọc Biên Trà Cú 1 1 3 4
11.Long Hiệp Trà Cú 1 1 5 6
12.Kim Sơn Trà Cú 0 0 0 0
13.Hiếu Tử Tiểu Cần 1 1 5 6
14.Phú Cần Tiểu Cần 1 1 5 6
15.Thạnh Hòa Cầu Ngang 0 0 0 1 1
Sơn
16.Nhị Trường Cầu Ngang 0 0 0 0
17.Kim Hòa Cầu Ngang 0 0 0 0
18.Long Sơn Cầu Ngang 1 1 3 4 ADSL
19.Thuận Hòa Cầu Ngang 0 0 0 0
20. Mỹ Long Bắc Cầu Ngang 0 0 0 0
21.Lương Hòa A Châu Thành 1 1 6 7 ADSL
22.Hòa Minh Châu Thành 1 1 10 11 ADSL
23.Hòa Lợi Châu Thành 1 1 5 6 ADSL
24.Thanh Mỹ Châu Thành 1 1 6 7 ADSL
TOTAL 16 16 90 2 108

67
ANNEX 4: LIST OF INTERVIEWEES

Nghe An province
I Leaders of provincial/district 37 Lê Thị Huỷ
library 38 Nguyễn Thị Xoa
1 Đào Tam Tỉnh - Director of 39 Thái Thi Lan
provincial library 40 Kha Thị Ỏn
2 Nguyễn Phi Công - Director of 41 Vi Văn Chính
district library of Hưng Nguyên 42 Trần Thị Hoài
3 Lê Quang Chung - Director of 43 Trần Thị Ngọc
district library of Quỳ Châu 44 Trương Thị Yến
4 Nguyễn Văn Mai -Director of 45 Lê Thị Thanh Huyền
district library of Nam Đàn 46 Vi Thị Hồng
5 Nguyễn Ngọc Châu - Director of 47 Trần Thị Nhỏ
district library of Quỳnh Lưu 48 Lô Thị Hương
6 Nguyễn Văn Lạc - Director of
district library of Yên Thành Thái Nguyên province
II Provincial library staff I Leaders of Provincial/District
7 Hoàng Thị Hương library
8 Hồ Thị Thuỷ 1 Dương Công Nhuận –Director of
9 Phan Thị Hường provincial library
10 Nguyễn Thị Thu Nga 2 Lục Văn Long- Director of
11 Trần Thi Kim Liên district library of Đồng Hỷ
12 Hoàng Thị Thu Hoài 3 Đăng Thị Phương –in charge of
13 Nguyễn Thị Hoà town library of Sông Công
14 Nguyễn Thị Lân 4 Đào Thị Liễu- in charge of
15 Lâm Thu Nga district library of Định Hoá
16 Nguyễn Thị Tú Anh 5 Trần Đức Tịch, Director of Culture
17 Nguyễn Thị Hài Session of Võ Nhai district
18 Lê Thị Kim Hoa II Provincial library staff
19 NguyễnThị Bích ngọc 6 Nguyễn Thị Dung
20 Nguyễn Thị Hà Phương 7 Phạm Bá Khoa
III District library staff 8 Nông Văn Hùng
21 Hoàng Thị Mai 9 Lý Thị Mười
22 Mai Thị Hằng 10 Nguyễn Thị Nội
23 Hồ Thị Thuỷ 11 Triệu Thị Tâm
24 Hồ Thị Hương III District library staff
25 Phạm Thị Bình 12 Lê Kim Lan
IV Communal CPOs 13 Mai Thị Ngọc Huờng
26 Nguyễn Thị Linh 14 Đặng Thị Thương
27 Hoàng Thị Nhân 15 Nguyễn Thị Mùi
28 Cao Thị Thuỷ Ngân 16 Đào Thị Liễu
29 Nguyễn Thị Châu 17 Đặng Thị Thương
30 Nguyễn Thị Thắng 18 Trịnh Thị Hằng
31 Trần Thị Nhung IV Communal CPOs
32 Nguyễn Thị Hạ 19 Hoàng Thị Thêm
33 Lương Thị Cần 20 Bế Thị Lượng
34 Nguyễn Thị Hoài 21 Ma VănTùng
35 Lương Thi Xoan 22 Luân Mạnh Thìn
36 Võ Thị Huyền 23 TrươngThị Ánh
68
24 Phan Thị Hằng 19 Lê Văn Hà Bắc
25 Bế Thị Nga 20 Nguyễn Thành Trung
26 Phó Thị Thơm 21 Trương Văn Yên
27 Đoàn Thị Mai III District library staff
28 Bùi Thị Kim Anh 22 Đỗ Thị Hồng Nhặn
29 Nguyễn Thị Chính 23 Lê Thị Bé Năm
30 Nguyễn Đinh Đức 24 TrươngThị Thuý
31 Nguyễn Văn Hải 25 Lữ Thị Thanh Loan
32 Nông Thị Thắm 26 Trần Thị ThanhTâm
33 Nông Đính Hùng 27 Thạch Tranh
34 Đào Thị Mai IV Communal CPOs
35 Vương Tuệ Minh 28 Nguyễn Phương Hoà
36 Nguyễn Thị Oanh 29 Nguyễn Thị Lẫm
37 Nguyễn Thị Yến 30 Nguyễn Thị Mỹ Duyên
38 Vũ Thị Ly 31 Nguyễn Thị Trúc Linh
39 Vũ Thị Lan Phương 32 Hứa Thị Cẩm Nhung
40 Lê Văn Sử 33 Tiên Mỹ Hạnh
41 Nguyễn Th Nguyên 34 Trần Thị Thuý Kiều
42 Trần Thị Hằng 35 Trần PhanThuy
36 Lâm Thị Đào
37 L ê Thị Hồng Cẩm
Tra Vinh province 38 Không Thấy Khai
I Leaders of Provincial/District 39 Huynh T. Diem Phương
library 40 Tần Thị Mỹ Tiên
1 Nguyễn Mai Lan – Vice Director 41 Châu Thị Cẩm Trân
of provincial library 42 Phan Thị Hiền
2 Thạch Sang , Vice Head of 43 Phạm Thị Đặng
Culture Session of Trà Cú district 44 Cao Thị Kim Cương
3 Nguyễn VănThượng, Head of 45 Lê Thị Mỹ Tiến
Culture Session of Càng Long 46 Phạm Thị Bích Thuỷ
district 47 Nguyễn Thị Ngọc Ngoan
4 Trương Thị Thuý, in charge of 48 Nguyễn Thị Bích Dung
district library of Duyên Hải 49 Bùi Thị Nhử
5 Huỳnh Hữu Nghĩa, Vice Head of
Culture Session of Cầu Kè
district
6 Nguyễn Hoàng Sơn, Vice Head
of Culture Session of Tiểu Cần
district
II Provincial library staff
7 Nguyễn Thị Phương
8 Trang Thị Mỹ Dung
9 Nguyễn Thị Thu
10 Lê Hoàng Yến
11 Thạc Thị Ngọc Lan
12 Trần Thị Mãi
13 Trầm Thị Ngoài
14 Lâm Văn Thân
15 Nguyễn Ngọc Sương
16 Nguyễn Thanh Phong
17 Lê Thị Nam Phương
18 Lâm Văn Tuyên
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ANNEX 5: RATE OF PATRONS CLASSIFIED BY TARGETS, GENDER
AND AGE

Target Total Male Female Age


<30 31-40 41-50 >50
I. Patrons 268 136 132 170 40 20 38
(63,4%) (14,9%) (7,5%) (14,2%)
(100%) (51%) (49%)
1. Local people 104 (39%)
2. School students 86 (30%)
3.Colledge students 13 (5%)
4.Government officer 57 (21%)
5. Enterprise 8 (5%)
owners
II. Potential patrons 264 (100%) 144 120 141 35 33 55
( 54,5%) (45,5%) (53,4%) (13,3) (12,5%) (20,8%)
1. Local people 145 (55%)
2. School students 61 (23%)
3.Colledge students 14 (5%)
4.Government officer 21 (8%)
5. Enterprise 23 (9%)
owners

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ANNEX 6: LEADING ECONOMIC SECTORS IN THE PROVINCES

No Province/district/commune Leading sectors


I. Nghe An Province - Agriculture: rice, peanut, chicken, buffalo raising
- Aquaculture: Fish, crab, shrimp raising
- Afforestation: for paper production
- Handicraft: rattan, ship building, paper production
- Industry: cement, fertilizer, processing industry
I.1 District Quỳnh Lưu - Agriculture: rice, salt production
- Aquaculture: fish raising
- Handicraft: fish sauce production
- Construction materials production: cement, brick
II.2 Diễn Châu district
1 Diễn thịnh commune - Agriculture
- Agriculture and fish processing for export
- Handicraft: export furniture
2 Diễn Vạn commune - Agriculture: rice, salt production
- Aquaculture raising
I.3 Nghi Lộc district
3 Nghi Hoa commune - Agriculture
I.4 Yên Thành district - Agriculture: rice, farming plants
- Industry: small mechanics, civil construction
- Trade
4 Trung Thành commune - Mainly agriculture
I.5 Hưng Nguyên district - Agriculture: 90%.
- Handicraft: rattan, candy production
- Trade
I.6 Nam Đàn district - Agriculture
- Tourist service
- Handicraft
5 Nam Anh commune - Mainly agriculture
- Handicraft: furniture, civil construction
I.7 Thanh Chương district
6 Thanh Dương commune - Agro forestry
7 Đông Văn commune - Agriculture
- Handicraft: knitting from agriculture
I.8 Đô Lương district
8 Văn Sơn commune - Agriculture
- Small trader
9 Giang Sơn commune - Agriculture
I.9 Anh Sơn district
10 Phúc Sơn commune - Agriculture
- Small trader
11 Thạch Sơn commune - Agriculture: rice cultivation, husbandry
I.10 Con Cuông district
12 Môn Sơn commune - Mainly agriculture
13 Mậu Đức commune - Agro forestry
I.11 Tân Kỳ district
14 Tân Phú commune - Agriculture: sugarcane, rubber, orange, rice, peanut,

71
husbandry of pig, chicken, buffalo
- Handicraft: brick production, manioc processing
- Small trade along roads
15 Kỳ Tân commune - Agriculture: rice, sugarcane, maize, husbandry of
cow, pig and chicken, fishing
- Forestry: gum and keo plants.
- Handicraft: knitting, brick production
I.12 Tương Dương district
16 Lưu Kiền commune - Agro forestry
I.13 Kỳ Sơn district
17 Tà Cạ commune - Agro forestry
I.14 Nghĩa Đàn district -
18 Tây Hiếu commune - Agriculture: rice, coffee, manioc, husbandry of cow,
pig and chicken, fishing
19 Đông Hiếu commune - Agriculture: coffee, rubber, rice, husbandry of cow,
pig and chicken, fishing
I.15 Quỳ Hợp district
20 Châu Quang commune - Agriculture: rice, maize, husbandry of cow, pig and
chicken
- Handicraft: rattan
- Industry: stone exploitation and production.
21 Châu Lộc commune - Agriculture: rice, maize, husbandry of cow, pig and
chicken
- Forestry: plantation
- Industry: stone exploitation and production.
I.16 Quỳ Châu district - Agriculture: rice, husbandry of cow, chicken and pig
- Forestry: keo plantation (forestry holds 70% of the
area)
- Handicraft : local embroidery, production of
frankincense
- Tourism
22 Châu Tiến commune - Agriculture: Rice, maize, manioc, husbandry of cow,
pig and chicken
- Forestry: keo plantation
- Handicraft: local embroidery
I.17 Quế Phong district
23 Tiền Phong commune - Agriculture: rice, husbandry of cow, pig and chicken
- Forestry: keo plantation
24 Mường Nọc commune - Agriculture: rice, husbandry of cow, pig and chicken
- Forestry: keo plantation
- Handicraft: local embroidery, small trade
II Thai Nguyen Province - Industry : mineral exploitation
- Agriculture: tea and fruit plantation, local
embroidery, husbandry of cow, pig and chicken
- Forestry: keo plantation for paper production
- Tourism
II.1 Võ Nhai district - Agriculture: tea, cigarette production, husbandry.
1 Dân Tiến commune - Agriculture: rice, husbandry of pigs, chickens and
cows
2 Tràng Xá commune - Agriculture: tea, rice, maize, husbandry of pig and
chicken

72
3 Cúc Đường commune - Agriculture: rice, maize, husbandry of cow, pig and
chicken
- Forestry: keo plantation
4 Lâu Thượng commune - Agriculture: cigarette, rice, husbandry of cow, pig
and chicken
II.2 Phú Lương district - Agriculture
- Industry: coal miner
- Handicraft: rattan
5 Yên Ninh - Agriculture
6 Commune On Lương - Agriculture
- Handicraft
7 Commune Tức Tranh - Agriculture: tea, rice
- Trade: selling tea
II.3 District Đồng Hỷ - Agriculture: tea, farming economy
- Forestry: keo plantation for paper production
- Industry: mineral exploitation
8 Commune Hoá Thượng - Agriculture: tea, rice, husbandry of pig and chicken
- Handicraft :vermicelli production
9 Commune Hợp Tiến - Agriculture: rice, maize, pigs, cows
10 Commune Khe Mo - Agriculture: tea, rice, manioc
- Forestry: keo plantation
11 Commune Hoà Bình - Agriculture: tea, rice, maize, fruit tree plantation,
husbandry of pigs, chickens and cows
II.4 District Định Hoá - Agriculture
12 Commune Trung Lương - Agriculture: tea
- Handicraft
13 Commune Tân Dương - Agriculture: rice, husbandry of pigs, chickens, cows
14 Commune Bình Thành - Agriculture: tea
15 Commune Điềm Mạc - Agriculture: tea
II.5 Sông Công town - Industry: production of motorcycle and car engines
16 Commune Bình Sơn - Agriculture: rice, tea
II.6 Thái Nguyên city
17 Commune Tân Cương - Agriculture: tea, rice, husbandry of pigs, chickens
and cows
- Tea manufacture
II.7 District Phú Bình
18 Commune Kha Sơn - Agriculture: rice, husbandry of pigs, chickens, cows
19 Commune Dương Thành - Agriculture: tea, rice, husbandry of pigs, chickens
and cows
20 Commune Tân Khánh - Agriculture: rice, husbandry of pigs, chickens, cows
II.8 District Phổ Yên -
21 Commune Phúc Thuận - Agriculture: tea tree, rice, husbandry of pigs,
chickens and cows
- Tea manufacture
District Đại Từ -
22 Commune Vạn Thọ - Agriculture; rice, husbandry of pigs, chickens, cows
23 Commune Hà Thượng - Agriculture
- Industry: coal and ore exploitation
24 Commune Lục Ba - Agriculture: rice, husbandry of pigs, chickens, cows
III. Tra Vinh Province - Agriculture: rice, soya-bean, sugarcane, watermelon,
husbandry of pigs, chickens and cows

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- Aquaculture: shrimps, tra fish, crabs
- Handicraft: rattan
- Industry: footwear production, color chemical....
III.1 District Càng Long - Agriculture: rice, husbandry of cow
- Aquaculture: tra fish
- Handicraft: coconut cover knitting
- Industry: merchandise
1 Ph-¬ng Th¹ch - Agriculture: rice, fruit tree plantation, pig, cows
- small traders
2 Huyền Hội - Agriculture: rice, fruit tree plantation, pigs, cows
III.2 District Duyên Hải - Agriculture: rice
- Aquaculture: fish raising
3 Hiệp Thạnh - Aquaculture raising (80%)
- Farming plantation: (20%)
4 Ngũ Lạc - Aquaculture raising
- Agriculture: rice, farming plants
- Farming plantation: (20%)
5 Trường Long Hòa - Aquaculture raising, fishing
- Agriculture: rice
III.3 District Cầu Kè - Agriculture: rice, fruit tree plantation: fruit plantation
- Knitting handicraft
6 Hòa Ân - Agriculture: rice, fruit tree plantation, pigs, chickens
and cows
7 Hòa Tân - Agriculture: rice, pigs, chickens and cows
III.4 District Trà Cú - Agriculture: rice, sugarcane, husbandry of pigs,
chickens and cows
- Aquaculture: shrimp and tra fishes
- Handicraft: Footwear production, sugarcane
production
8 An Quãng Hữu - Agriculture; sugarcane, rice
9 Đôn Xuân - Aquaculture: shrimps, crabs raising
- Agriculture: rice, farming plants
10 Ngọc Biên - Agriculture: rice, farming plants, husbandry
11 Long Hiệp - Agriculture: cultivation, husbandry
12 Kim Sơn - Agriculture: sugarcane, rice
III.5 District Tiểu Cần - Agriculture: rice, fruit tree plantation, sugarcane,
coconut
- Aquaculture: Tra fish
13 Hiếu Tử - No information
14 Phú Cần - Agriculture: rice, fruit tree plantation, husbandry of
pigs, chickens and cows
III.6 District Cầu Ngang
15 Thạnh Hòa Sơn - Agriculture: rice, farming plants
- Aquaculture: shrimp raising
16 Nhị Trường - Agriculture: rice, farming plants, chicken, cows
17 Kim Hòa - Agriculture: rice, farming plants, husbandry of pigs,
chickens and cows
18 Long Sơn - Agriculture: rice, farming plants, husbandry of pigs,
chickens and cows
- Aquaculture raising
19 Thuận Hòa - Agriculture: rice, farming plants

74
- Aquaculture raising
20 Mỹ Long Bắc - Agriculture: rice, farming plants, husbandry
III.7 District Châu Thành
21 Xa Lương Hòa A - Agriculture: rice, pigs, chickens and cows
22 Xa Hòa Minh - Agriculture: rice
- Aquaculture raising, fishing
23 Xa Hòa Lợi - Agriculture: rice, farming plants, pigs, chickens and
cows
- Small trades
24 Xa Thanh Mỹ - Agriculture: rice, farming plants, pigs, chickens and
cows

75
ANNEX 7: QUESTIONNAIRES

National Library of Viet Nam

PROJECT ON “BUILDING CAPACITY FOR PUBLIC LIBRARY INSTITUTIONS FOR


SUPPORTING THE PUBLIC TO ACCESS INTERNET IN VIET NAM"
Funded by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

SAMPLE 1:
QUESTIONAIRE ON ORGANIZATION’S CAPACITY
(For provincial and district libraries)

1. Provincial/District library of :…………………………………………………………….………


2. Address: …………………………………………………………………………………….
Tel :.............................Fax:......................................Email:………………………………

Total Female Male


3. Number of staff in the library
4. Qualification?
PhD
Master
Graduate (college)
High/vocational school
Others (please list out)…………………..………….
5. Number of librarians
6. Age of staff:? <30
31-40
41 -50
>50
7. Qualification of librarians
Master
Graduate (college)
High/vocational school
Others (please list out)…………………..………….

8. Open time for patrons at the library:


- Days per week: …………days, from…………to.…….………….……..
- Open time: morning from …………………………………… …..am
Afternoon from…………………………….………...pm
Evening from……………………………………….. pm
9. Monthly average number of patrons in the library: ………………… turn/month

76
10. How many computers are there in the library?

Quantity
1.Total :
In that :
2. Number of technical computers
3. Number of computers for searching publications
4. Number of servers
5. Number of computers for internet services

11. Does the library has an website?


Yes
Web address :......................................................................
Not yes
What is the reason?
Limited budget
Lack of technical staff
No demand
Others: (please list out)
………………………………………………..
12. Has your library provided public internet services?

Yes
If yes : what are the services?:
- ADSL
- Leased line
- Dial up

No
If no: what are reasons?
- Limited budget
- Lack of technical staff
- No users’ demand
Others (please list out)…….…………………

• If the CPO has not had internet services yet, please answer question 13 to 14
• If the CPO has provided internet services, please answer question 15 to 24

77
13. What do you think if your CPO is equipped with internet services?
Necessary
Not yet necessary
Not necessary
14. What does the library need to equip to set up internet services in the commune?
14.1. Needs on IT infrastructure?
- Number of computers for internet services:……………………..unit
- Connection type
ADSL
Leased line
Dial up
- Area of internet room:…………………m2
14.2. Requirements for training on IT for staff to manage the internet room?
- Number of staff to be trained:........................... staff
- What need to be trained? Please circle appropriate figures:
Basic IT knowledge (using mouse, printing, using Microsoft Office: Word, Excel,
1
Powerpoint)
Solve basic mistakes (hangging, paper jam) 2
Surf news, send emails, chat 3
Use search engines (such as Google, Yahoo, ...) 4
Use online database 5
Search games 6
Design website (include setting up database and programming applied
7
programmes)
Use internet telephone 8
Use sharing websites (movies, Music, Photo albums) 9
Counseling and support skills 10
Network administration (for cases of software is uninstalled, full memory of hard
11
disk, virus attack…)
Communication skill 12
Design and compile leaflets on the library’s internet services 13
Organize workshop to promote the library’s internet services 14
Provide trainings on exploring and using internet for users 15
Write news/articles on the library’s internet services 16

15. Is number of computer in the library sufficient to service patrons?

Not sufficient (patrons have to wait/queue) 1


Sufficient 2
Fully satisfied patrons 3

78
16. Who is the back up IT person for the CPO?
IT staff of the library
Outsiders
Librarians
Others (list out)…………………………..
17. Monthly average internet users: ………………… turn/month
18. Internet service in the library is free of charge or not?
Not free of charge
Free of charge
19. Does the library have any activity to improve knowledge of following users’ group in
recent 3 years? Please circle the appropriate figures.

19.1.Guidance on using the 19.2. Training for


Users’ groups library’s facilities and internet users on IT
1. People with disabilities 1 1
2. Children 2 2
3. Women 3 3
4. General users 4 4
5. “New-comer” users 5 5

20. Which approach from the followings has been used to encourage patrons in using the
library’s internet service?

1. Leaflet 1
2. Poster 2
3. Advertisement 3
4. Opened bazar 4
5. Workshop 5
6. Competition 6
7. Training 7
8. Pilot model 8
9. Others (please list out here) ………… 9

21. Please indicate 3 issues which show the contribution of internet service to the local
area.

Issues Please mark (x) in 3 most


contributive issues
1. Provide information to local economy development
2. Provide information on the government/country and commercial
opportunities for the local area
3. Provide guidance on internet skills and how to use internet
4. Provide information for the public on development of household
economy (agriculture, aquaculture, forestry and handicraft…)
5. Provide e-documents such as: schoolbooks, manuals, reference
publications supporting demand for information on education,
vocational and remote training

79
6. Provide information on local markets
7. Provide services for job seekers
8. Provide information on enroll programs of high schools or
vocational schools
9. Provide information and documents on social situation in the
area and local sectors/departments
10. Provide information and documents on institutions at central
level
11. Provide internet access and other useful services (Internet
telephone/calls, online transaction and sending emails…)
12. Others (please list out here) …………………………………..

22. Are there any training for the library staff in recent 3 years? Please list out the
trainings

TT Trainings When Duration Organizer


(Number of days)
1

23. Which skills/knowledge need to be equipped for library staff to attract users in using
internet services and improve quality of the service?

1. General knowledge on IT 1
2. Knowledge on operating systems 2
3. Knowledge on library software’s 3
4. Knowledge on online database 4
5. Knowledge on computer hardware 5
6. Knowledge on website administration 6
7. Knowledge to design and administrate website 7
8. Skill to search information on internet 8
9. Skill to promote internet services 9
10. Skill to communicate with patrons 10
11. Other skills and knowledge
Please list out here: ...................................

24. Has the library received publications provided by the Asia Foundation?
Yes No

80
24.1. How many publication has the library received from the Asia Foundation?....
24.2. Who are patrons of the publications provided by the Asia Foundation?
24.3 Please share the effectiveness in having publication provided by the Asia
Foundation in supporting work/jobs/ education / study / and daily life of
patrons?.......................................................................................................................
24.4. What is expectation from the library and patrons to strengthen the
“Publications for the Asia” Programme?..................................................................

Date (dd/mm/yyyy)………………………..
On behalf of the library

81
SAMPLE 2
QUESTIONAIRE ON INDIVIDUAL CAPACITY
(for librarians of libraries at provincial and district levels)

1. Full name : ................................................................Female


Male
2. Age: ......................

3. Library: ...........................................................................................................

4. Number of years working as librarian: From 1-2 years


From 3-5 years
More than 5 years

5. Highest qualification: Master


Graduate (college)
High/vocational school
Others:…………………….
Specify the major………………....

6. Please list out your main tasks and self evaluate the competent level you have gained in
your work by circling appropriate figures

No List out main tasks Competent Note


level
1. 1 2 3 4 5
1. Very weak
2. Weak
1. 1 2 3 4 5 3. Average
4. Good
5. Very good
1. 1 2 3 4 5

82
7. Please self evaluate your IT knowledge and skills following 4 levels mentioned in the
below table?

Very
Weak Average Good
good
1 Basic IT knowledge (using mouse, printing, using
1 2 3 4
Microsoft Office: Word, Excel, Powerpoint)
2 Solve basic mistakes (hangging, paper jam) 1 2 3 4
3 Surf news, send emails, chat 1 2 3 4
4 Use search engines (such as Google, Yahoo, ...) 1 2 3 4
5 Use online database 1 2 3 4
6 Design and administrate webste 1 2 3 4
7 Use internet calls/telephone 1 2 3 4
8 Create blog and join forum and social nets like Face
1 2 3 4
Book, MySpace, Yahoo, “Tam tay” ...
9 Use sharing websites (movies, Music, Photo albums) 1 2 3 4
10 Network administration (for cases of software is
1 2 3 4
uninstalled, full memory of hard disk, virus attack…)
11 Skill to define keyworkds and search for information 1 2 3 4

8. Please self evaluate on your knowledge, skills and attitude to support, guide and attract
patrons in using internet in your library?

Very
Weak Average Good
good
1 Counseling and support skills 1 2 3 4
2 Skills to understand users’ needs and
1 2 3 4
demands
3 Improve internet services provided
1 2 3 4
by the library
4 Communication skill 1 2 3 4
5 Design and compile leaflets on the
1 2 3 4
library’s internet services
6 Organize workshop to promote the
1 2 3 4
library’s internet services
7 Provide trainings on exploring and
1 2 3 4
using internet for users
8 Write news/articles on the library’s
1 2 3 4
internet services

83
9. What do you think about the library’s internet services?

Not Very
Satisfied
satisfied satisfied
1 Diversify library activities (exhibit, display,
1 2 3
workshop, training)
2 Quality of activities organized by the
1 2 3
library
3 Quantity of IT facilities 1 2 3
4 Quality of IT facilities 1 2 3
5 Quantity of software 1 2 3
6 Quality of software 1 2 3
7 Capacity of library staff in supporting
1 2 3
patrons in internet room
8 Attitude of librarians toward patrons 1 2 3

11. Do you think that the internet has changed lives of local people?

Yes
Please list out the changes?....................................................................................................
No
Why?.......................................................................................................................................

11. Please list out training on librarian’s skills which you have joined in recent 3 years?

No Training When Duration Organizer

84
12. What should librarian equip to improve service quality and attract patrons using
internet?

No Knowledge and skills to be equipped

1. General knowledge on IT 1
2. Knowledge on operating systems 2
3. Knowledge on library software 3
4. Knowledge on online database 4
5. Knowledge on computer hardware 5
6. Knowledge on website administration 6
7. Knowledge to design and administrate website 7
8. Skill to search information on internet 8
9. Skill to promote internet services 9
10. Skill to communicate with patrons 10
11. Other skills and knowledge
Please list out here: ...................................

Date (dd/mm/yyyy)……………..

85
SAMPLE 3:
QUESTIONAIRE ON CULTURAL POST OFFICE’S CAPACITY
(For both Organization and Individual)

I. General information on the Communal Cultural Post Office (COMMUNAL CPO ):

1. Commune………………..……District………………..…Province……………..…
2. Address: ………………………………………………………………………….
Telephone :............................. Fax:............................... Email:…………….

Total Female Male


3. Number of staff of the COMMUNAL CPO
4. Age of staff:? <30

31- 40 31-40

41 -50

>50
5. Qualification?
Graduate (college)
High/vocational school
Others (please list out)…………………..………….

6. How many computers are there in the COMMUNAL CPO ?

Quantity
1.Total :
In that :
2. Number of technical computers
3. Number of computers for searching publications
4. Number of servers
5. Number of computers for internet services

7. Open time for patrons at the library of COMMUNAL CPO


- Days per week: …………days, from…………to.…….………….……..
- Open time: morning from …………………………………… …..am
Afternoon from…………………………….………...pm
Evening from……………………………………….. pm
8. Monthly average number of patrons in COMMUNAL CPO : …………………
turn/month

86
9. Has your COMMUNAL CPO provided public internet services?

Yes
If yes : what are the services?:
- ADSL
- Leased line
- Dial up

No
If no: what are reasons?
- Limited budget
- Lack of technical staff
- No users’ demand
Others (please list out)…….…………………

• If the CPO has not had internet services yet, please answer question 10 to 12
• If the CPO has provided internet services, please answer question 13 to 20

10. How many private internet points are there in the commune? …………………..points
11. What do you think if your CPO is equipped with internet services?
Necessary
Not yet necessary
Not necessary
12. What does the CPO need to equip to set up internet services in the commune?
12.1. Needs on IT infrastructure?
- Number of computers for internet services :……………………..unit
- Connection type
ADSL
Leased line
Dial up
- Area of internet room:…………………m2

87
12.2. Requirements for training on IT for staff to manage the internet room?
- Number of staff to be trained:........................... staff
- What need to be trained? Please circle appropriate figures:
Basic IT knowledge (using mouse, printing, using Microsoft Office: Word, Excel,
1
Powerpoint)
Solve basic mistakes (hangging, paper jam) 2
Surf news, send emails, chat 3
Use search engines (such as Google, Yahoo, ...) 4
Use online database 5
Search games 6
Design website (include setting up database and programming applied
7
programmes)
Use internet telephone 8
Use sharing websites (movies, Music, Photo albums) 9
Counseling and support skills 10
Network administration (for cases of software is uninstalled, full memory of hard
11
disk, virus attack…)
Communication skill 12
Design and compile leaflets on the library’s internet services 13
Organize workshop to promote the library’s internet services 14
Provide trainings on exploring and using internet for users 15
Write news/articles on the library’s internet services 16

13. Is number of computer in the CPO sufficient to service patrons?

Not sufficient (patrons have to wait/queue) 1


Sufficient 2
Fully satisfied patrons 3

14. Who is the back up IT person for the CPO?


Staff of the CPO
Outsiders
Others (list out)…………………………..
15. Monthly average internet users : ………………… turn/month
16. Are internet services free of charge or not?
Not free of charge
Free of charge

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17. Does the library have any activity to improve knowledge of following users’ groups in
recent 3 years? Please circle the appropriate figures.

17.1.Guidance on using the 17.2. Training for


Users’ groups library’s facilities and internet users on IT
1. People with disabilities 1 1
2. Children 2 2
3. Women 3 3
4. General users 4 4
5. “New-comer” users 5 5

18. Which approach from the followings has been used to encourage patrons in using the
library’s internet services?

1. Leaflet 1
2. Poster 2
3. Advertisement 3
4. Opened bazar 4
5. Workshop 5
6. Competition 6
7. Training 7
8. Pilot model 8
9. Others (please list out here) ………… 9

21. Please indicate 3 issues which show the contribution of internet service to the local
area.

Issues Please mark (x) in 3 most


contributive issues
1. Provide information to local economy development
2. Provide information on the government/country and commercial
opportunities for the local area
3. Provide guidance on internet skills and how to use internet
4. Provide information for the public on development of household
economy (agriculture, aquaculture, forestry and handicraft…)
5. Provide e-documents such as: schoolbooks, manuals, reference
publications supporting demand for information on education,
vocational and remote training
6. Provide information on local markets
7. Provide services for job seekers
8. Provide information on enroll programs of high schools or
vocational schools
9. Provide information and documents on social situation in the
area and local sectors/departments
10. Provide information and documents on institutions at central
level
11. Provide internet access and other useful services (Internet
telephone/calls, online transaction and sending emails…)
12. Others (please list out here) …………………………………..

89
II. Individual information:

20. Full name : ................................................................ Female


Male
21. Ethnic group: ………………………………………………..

22. Age: ......................

23. Number of years working in the From 1-2


COMMUNAL CPO :
years
From 3-5 years
More than 5 years

24. Highest qualification: Graduate (college)


High/vocational school
Others:…………………….
Specify the major………………....

25. Please list out your main tasks and self evaluate the competent level you have gained
in your work by circling appropriate figures

No List out main tasks Competent Note


level
1 1. Very weak
1 2 3 4 5
2. Weak
2 3. Average
1 2 3 4 5
4. Good
3 5. Very good
1 2 3 4 5

26. Please self evaluate your IT knowledge and skills following 4 levels mentioned in the
below table?

Very
Weak Average Good
good
1 Basic IT knowledge (using mouse, printing, using
1 2 3 4
Microsoft Office: Word, Excel, Powerpoint)
2 Solve basic mistakes (hangging, paper jam) 1 2 3 4
3 Surf news, send emails, chat 1 2 3 4
4 Use search engines (such as Google, Yahoo, ...) 1 2 3 4
5 Use online database 1 2 3 4
6 Design and administrate website 1 2 3 4
7 Use internet calls/telephone 1 2 3 4
8 Create blog and join forum and social nets like Face 1 2 3 4

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Book, MySpace, Yahoo, “Tam tay” ...
9 Use sharing websites (movies, Music, Photo albums) 1 2 3 4
10 Network administration (for cases of software is
1 2 3 4
uninstalled, full memory of hard disk, virus attack…)
11 Skill to define keyworkds and search for information 1 2 3 4

27. Please self evaluate on your knowledge, skills and attitude to support, guide and
attract patrons in using internet in the COMMUNAL CPO?

Very
Weak Average Good
good
1 Counseling and support skills 1 2 3 4
2 Skills to understand users’ needs and
1 2 3 4
demands
3 Improve internet services provided
1 2 3 4
by the library
4 Communication skill 1 2 3 4
5 Design and compile leaflets on the
1 2 3 4
library’s internet services
6 Organize workshop to promote the
1 2 3 4
library’s internet services
7 Provide trainings on exploring and
1 2 3 4
using internet for users
8 Write news/articles on the library’s
1 2 3 4
internet services

28. What do you think about the COMMUNAL CPO ’s internet services?

Not Very
Satisfied
satisfied satisfied
1 Diversify library activities (exhibit, display,
1 2 3
workshop, training)
2 Quality of activities organized by the
1 2 3
library
3 Quantity of IT facilities 1 2 3
4 Quality of IT facilities 1 2 3
5 Quantity of software 1 2 3
6 Quality of software 1 2 3
7 Capacity of library staff in supporting
1 2 3
patrons in internet room
8 Attitude of librarians toward patrons 1 2 3

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29. Do you think that the internet has changed lives of local people?

Yes
Please list out the changes?....................................................................................................
No
Why?.......................................................................................................................................

30. Please list out training on librarian’s skills which you have joined in recent 3 years?

No Training When Duration Organizer

31. What should you like to equip to improve service quality and attract patrons using
internet?

No Knowledge and skills to be equipped

1. General knowledge on IT 1
2. Knowledge on operating systems 2
3. Knowledge on library softwares 3
4. Knowledge on online database 4
5. Knowledge on computer hardware 5
6. Knowledge on website administration 6
7. Knowledge to design and administrate website 7
8. Skill to search information on internet 8
9. Skill to promote internet services 9
10. Skill to communicate with patrons 10
6. Other skills and knowledge
Please list out here: ...................................

Date (dd/mm/yyyy)…………..
Signature

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ANNEX 8: INTERVIEW GUIDELINES

The project to "Enhance library capacity to promote public internet access at


public library institutions in Vietnam"
Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Sample 4.1
Interview Sheet for Users
(For the Library/CPO without Internet services)

Date
Location:
province/district/commune:…………………………………………………………
Name of interviewers:………………………………………………………

1. Interviewee’s name: male Female Age................ Ethnic


groups……………….
2. What’s your job?
Government officers/staff 1
citizens (retired, housewife/ 2
farmers/unemployed)
University/college students 3
Pupils 4
Business owners 5

3. Do you often read and borrow books and magazines in this library or CPO?

First time 1
Everyday 2
Several times a week 3
Once a week 4
Twice a week 5
Once a month 6
Rarely 7

4. How do you know about public library services at this library or CPO?

Via mass media 1


Through advertisement, marketing service of libraries 2
or CPO
Via Friends and colleagues 3
Passing by 4
Other (please specify)......................................... 5

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5. How do you see the public library or CPO in your view?
Place to study or do homework 1
Reading and borrowing books 2
Place to make phone calls and sending/receiving posts 3
Place to get necessary information from books/documents and librarians 4
Places to get support and assistance from librarians 5

6. Do you borrow the books/documents from other places other then libraries?

Only at libraries 1
Other libraries/CPO 2
Friends 3
Community learning centers 4
Others (please specify) ………………………

7. The main reason that bring you to this library/CPO while you can go to the above
places? (for reading, borrowing books, or using multimedia)

Because there is no other place that have services like libraries 1


Because the service are free of charge here 2
Because there are many books and documents that I need 3
Because I can use multimedia facilities (e.g. DVD players) 4
Because librarians are enthusiastic and introduce new books, 5
magazines and documents
Because accessible roads to library 6
Because it is quite here 7
Others (please specify………………………………….…………………… 8

8. How do you assess this library or CPO?

Very Satisfactory So so Not Difficult


pleased satisfactory to judge
1 Service provision in general 1 2 3 4 5
2 Rooms and arrangement 1 2 3 4 5
3 Working time 1 2 3 4 5
4 Attitudes of librarians and 1 2 3 4 5
CPO staff
5 Capacity of library and 1 2 3 4 5
CPO staff in general

9. How do you assess librarians in supporting you to look for or borrowing books and
documents magazines?

Very Good Average bad Very bad


good
1 Librarian knowledge and skills 1 2 3 4 5
2 Skills to provide guidance and support 1 2 3 4 5
your information needs
3 Attitude of librarians when serving 1 2 3 4 5
(friendly, polite, )

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10. Have you been used any of following services of libraries and CPOs?
Borrow books and magazines to read at home 1
Use reading rooms 2
Use multimedia equipment (DVD, video players) 3

11. Apart from the services that you have been used, when the library and CPO have
public internet services, what are services (listed below) that you want to use in this
library/CPO?
Borrowing books 1
Use reading rooms 2
Use multimedia equipment 3
Other available documents for reference from the libraries such as 4
new books, magazines, directories, update news and information …
Looking for document at e-directories 5
Using online database 6
Use PCs, Internet, and database of the libraries 7
Participating free of charge training on PC and internet use 8
Play games online 9
Using PCs for ward processing … 10
Printing, scanning and photocopying documents 11
Save information on file, CD, DVD, memory cards 12
Looking for documents via Internet 13
Difficult to say 14

12. Have you ever used PC and internet?


Not yet yes (if not skip 13,14 go to 15)
13. Where have you been used Internet?

Library and CPO 1


At home 2
At work 3
At friend’s house 4
Community learning centers 5
Internet cafe 6
Others: (please specify) ………………………

14. Can you say your main purposes of using internet during past years?

Necessary for work and study/learning 1


Contacting friends and families 2
Looking for necessary information related to socio-economic, cultural, and daily life . 3
To access information from the central and local levels 4
Look for information on employment and recruitment 5
Download PC software 6
Business online 7
Other (please specify) ………………………………………………………………………………… 8

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15. Do you think that internet have brought changes for you, your families and social
changes in your locale? Can you assess level of impacts according to list provided below?

Strongly Improved No Negative Very Difficult


improved a little bit change impacts negative to
impacts assess
1 Create a social information 1 2 3 4 5 6
network among localities
and nearby regions
2 Create opportunities for 1 2 3 4 5 6
employment

3 Channel to access online 1 2 3 4 5 6


services of the government,
online public services and
banking services
4 Access training and research 1 2 3 4 5 6
opportunities
5 Access information on 1 2 3 4 5 6
health related issues
6 Access information on 1 2 3 4 5 6
science, technology for
agricultural production and
animal husbandry for
household economic
development
7 Creating social and friend 1 2 3 4 5 6
networks
8 Creating information 1 2 3 4 5 6
channels to improve
knowledge and updated
news.
9 Saving time and money 1 2 3 4 5 6
(Opportunities to compare
prices, online payment, and
transactions
10 Create business 1 2 3 4 5 6
opportunities (looking for
business partners, promote
competitiveness)
11 (game online) 1 2 3 4 5 6

Please give some example:


…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

96
16. Do you want to improve your skills to sue PCs and internets at this library or CPO? If
yes, what are following skills that you want to improve?

General IT knowledge 1
Searching online information 2
Look up –directory of libraries 3
Using online database 4
Others (please specify) 5
No needs 6
Difficult to say 7
(If the answer is no needs, skip the question 17)
17. What forms of training below you would select for yourselves?

Instruction from librarians 1


Training courses (theory and practices) 2
Printed materials 3
E-documents available at libraries (CD) 4
Guidance from Website of the libraries 5
All above forms 6
Difficult to say 7

18. Can you suggest some of alternatives to improve service provision of the library or
CPO? (in case respondents have capacity to use internet ask question 18.4)

18.1. On infrastructure: area, rooms, arrangements. Equipments, books, documents,


magazines (quantity and types)

18.2. Ways to organize library services and activities (diverse, opening hours, etc…)

18.3. Librarians: quantity and quality (attitude, support and guidance capacity, Advocacy
skills for library activities….)

18.4. IT infrastructure : quantity and quality for PCs with internet connection for users,
speed, IT knowledge and skills of library and CPO staff

97
Sample 4.2

Interview Sheet for Users


(For the Library/CPO having Internet service already)

Date
Location:
province/district/commune:…………………………………………………………
Interviewer name :………………………………………………………

Interviewer state the purposes of the interview.

1. Interviewee name: male Female age...............Ethnic…………


2.What is your job?
Government officer/ staff 1
Citizens (retired, housewife, farmer, 2
unemployed)
University/ college students 3
Pupils 4
Business owners 5

3. Do you often read and borrow books and magazines in this library or CPO?

First time 1
Everyday 2
Several times a week 3
Once a week 4
Twice a week 5
Once a month 6
Rarely 7

4. How do you know about public library services at this library or CPO?

Via mass media 1


Through advertisement, marketing service of libraries 2
or CPO
Via Friends and colleagues 3
Passing by 4
Other (please specify)......................................... 5

5. How do you see the public library or CPO in your view?


Place to study or do homework 1
Reading and borrowing books 2
Place to make phone calls and sending/receiving posts 3
Place to get necessary information from books/documents and 4
librarians
Places to get support and assistance from librarians 5

98
6. Do you use internet in other places other libraries?

Only here 1
Other libraries/CPO 2
At home 3
At work 4
Friends’ house 5
Community learning centers 6
Internet cafe 7
Others (please specify) ………………………… 8

7. The main reason that bring you to this library/CPO for internet access while you can go
to the above places? (for reading, borrowing books, or using multimedia)

Because there is no other place that have services like libraries 1


Because the service are free of charge here 2
Because there are many books and documents that I need 3
Because I can use multimedia facilities (e.g. DVD players) 4
Because librarians are enthusiastic and introduce new books, 5
magazines and documents
Because accessible roads to library 6
Because it is quite here 7
Others (please specify………………………………….…………… 8

8. How do you assess this library or CPO?

Very Satisfactory So so Not Difficult


pleased satisfactory to judge
1 Service provision in general 1 2 3 4 5
2 Rooms and arrangement 1 2 3 4 5
3 Working time 1 2 3 4 5
4 PC
5 Software
6 Internet access speed
7 Attitudes of librarians and 1 2 3 4 5
CPO staff
8 Capacity of library and 1 2 3 4 5
CPO staff in general

9. Have you ever need support and guidance for librarians or CPO staff on PC use and
internet use?
No
yes
(If no, skips question 10)

99
10. How do you assess staff in providing support and guidance for PC and internet use?

Very Good So so Weak Very weak


good
1 Library knowledge on PC 1 2 3 4 5
2 Skills to support users 1 2 3 4 5
3 Attitude of librarians 1 2 3 4 5

11. Have you used any of following services below?


12. A part from service that you already used what are following services that you’d like
to use in the future?
Q. 11. Q. 12.
Have used Want to use
Borrowing books and documents 1 1
Use reading rooms 2 2
Use multimedia equipment (DVD players) 3 3
Reference documents on updated information, new 4 4
documents, information related to localities…
Search information on directory 5 5
Use online database 6 6
Consultation with librarians on (PC and internet use and 7 7
online database)
Participate in training on PC and internet use for free 8 8
Play game online 9 9
Use PC for word processing … 10 10
Printing, scanning and photocopying documents 11 11
Save information on files, CD, DVD, and memory cards 12 12
Search information from Internet 13 13
Difficult to say 14 14

13. Have you been used internet for what purpose in the past years?
(both at libraries and other places)

For work and study 1


Contacting friends and families 2
Searching information on economics, social, health, culture, banking and related to 3
your locales...
Access information from the central and local level 4
Searching information on employment 5
Download computer software 6
Online business 7
Other (please specify ………………………………………………………………………………… 8

100
14. Do you think that internet have brought changes for you, your families and social
changes in your locale? Can you assess level of impacts according to list provided below?

Strongly Improved No Negative Very Difficult


improved a little bit change impacts negative to
impacts assess
1 Create a social information 1 2 3 4 5 6
network among localities
and nearby regions
2 Create opportunities for 1 2 3 4 5 6
employment

3 Channel to access online 1 2 3 4 5 6


services of the government,
online public services and
banking services
4 Access training and research 1 2 3 4 5 6
opportunities
5 Access information on 1 2 3 4 5 6
health related issues
6 Access information on 1 2 3 4 5 6
science, technology for
agricultural production and
animal husbandry for
household economic
development
7 Creating social and friend 1 2 3 4 5 6
networks
8 Creating information 1 2 3 4 5 6
channels to improve
knowledge and updated
news.
9 Saving time and money 1 2 3 4 5 6
(Opportunities to compare
prices, online payment, and
transactions
10 Create business 1 2 3 4 5 6
opportunities (looking for
business partners, promote
competitiveness)
11 (game online) 1 2 3 4 5 6

Please give some example:


…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

101
15. Do you want to improve your skills to use PCs and internets at this library or CPO? If
yes, what are following skills that you want to improve?

General IT knowledge 1
Searching online information 2
Look up –directory of libraries 3
Using online database 4
Others (please specify) 5
No needs 6
Difficult to say 7
(If the answer is no needs, skip the question 16)

16. What forms of training below you would select for yourselves?

Instruction from librarians 1


Training courses (theory and practices) 2
Printed materials 3
E-documents available at libraries (CD) 4
Guidance from Website of the libraries 5
All above forms 6
Difficult to say 7

17. Can you suggest some of alternatives to improve service provision of the library or
CPO? (in case respondents have capacity to use internet ask question 18.4)

17.1. On infrastructure: area, rooms, arrangements. Equipments, books, documents,


magazines (quantity and types)
17.2. Ways to organize library services and activities (diverse, opening hours, etc…)
17.3. Librarians: quantity and quality (attitude, support and guidance capacity, Advocacy
skills for library activities….)
17.4. IT infrastructure : quantity and quality for PCs with internet connection for users,
speed, IT knowledge and skills of library and CPO staff

102
Sample 5:

Interview Sheet for Potential Users


(For the Library/CPO with and without Internet service)

Date
Location:
province/district/commune:…………………………………………………………
Interviewer name :………………………………………………………

Interviewer state the purposes of the interview.

1. Interviewee name: male Female age................ Ethnic……


2.What is your job?
Government officer/ staff 1
Citizens (retired, housewife, farmer, 2
unemployed)
University/ college students 3
Pupils 4
Business owners 5

3. Have you heard about this library or CPO?

Not yet 1
Yes 2
From
Mass media 3
Information for libraries and CPOs
Friends and colleagues 4
Passing by and see 5
Difficult to say 6

4. How do you view the library and CPOs?


Place to study or do homework 1
Place to borrow books and use multimedia equipment 2
Place to make phone calls and sending/receiving 3
posts
Public Internet access places 4
Place to get information from books and documents 5
and from librarians
Place to get support and guidance from librarians 6
Difficult to say 7

103
5. Where have you been borrowed books/ magazines and used multimedia and use
internet access services?
Reading and Internet
borrowing books…
Never 1 1
At home 2 2
Other library and CPO 3 3
At work (office or schools) 4 4
Friends’ 5 5
Community learning centers 6 6
Internet cafe 7
Others (specify)…………………

Note for interviewers:


a. In case interviewees have been used one of above services at any places, Interviewers
will continue with Q.6 to Q.11.
b. In case interviewee has never been used any of above services, interviewer
has to explain and introduce that services will be available soon at that library or CPO
(emphasize the use of internet). In that case you will continue to ask Q.10 and
Q.11

6. Can you give the reasons why you have not use library services including internet at
library or CPO? (Do not mention Internet if it’s not available)

Library Services:
Because book and documents and equipment are out of date and do 1
not meet my needs
Because the library does not lend the books 2
Internet services
Not available 3
Do not know library and CPO have this service 4
Internet connection speed is slower than in other places 5
Lack of CPs so I have to wait for long time…. 6
Skills of staff are weak and so can not provide guidance and support 7
For both library and internet services
Noisy and scrambled 8
Not convenient or easy to get there 9
Because of librarians attitudes 10
Working hours are not suitable 11
Other (please specify)………………………………….……………………

104
7. Have you been used internet for what purposes in the past years?
(only used for user who used internet services in other places)

For work and study 1


Contacting friends and families 2
Searching information on economics, social, health, culture, banking and related to 3
your locales...
Access information from the central and local level 4
Searching information on employment 5
Download computer software 6
Online business 7
Other (please specify ……………………………………………………………………………… 8

8. When you know that this library and CPO have internet services, do you want to use?
Yes No
Why not?
........................................................................................................................................................................

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Note to the interviewers in three cases:
a. Yes but they have never used services in any places, only ask Q10 and 11.
b. Yes, but they have been used services in one of places, continue with Q 9 to Q11
c. No to all above, stop the interview here

9. In the coming times, library and CPOs will improve services provided including
internet services (or improved existing internet services) can you suggest some solutions
to attract users?
9.1. Infrastructures: areas, arrangements of reading rooms, PCs, chairs and tables,
equipment, books and documents (quantity and types……)
9.2. IT infrastructure : quantity/ quality of internet services
9.3. How service should be organized, opening hours, etc……
9.4. Librarians: quantity and quality (knowledge and IT skills, service attitude when
provide supports to users, …)

10. Library and CPOs will provide training for PC and internet use skills, do you want to
participate?

General IT knowledge 1
Search information online 2
Use directory of the library 3 These two are only suggested
for library patrons
Use online database 4
Other (please specify)………………………………… 5
No need 6
Difficult to say 7

(If “No need” skip Q. 11)

105
11. How do you want to improve your internet and PC skills?

From librarians 1
Via training courses 2
Printed materials 3
Via e-documents at libraries and CPOs (CD) 4 Only for library patrons

Online documents for library/CPO Website 5


All above forms 6
Difficult to say 7

106
Sample 6:
Interview Sheet for the Public Libraries/Cultural Post Offices (CPOs)
(For those without Internet connection yet)
Date
Location: province/ district/commune………………………………………
Name of interviewers:

I/ Organizational information:

Interviewee: ………………………………………….Title………………………….
1. Could you please name some key economic drives of the
province/district/commune?
2. As a provincial/district/commune library, have you got any plan to support the
local government successfully implement the mentioned key economic drives?
3. Please name the advantages and disadvantages in developing the library in recent
years (financial resources, material facilities including the information
infrastructure, human resources both in quality and quantity, and staff
encouragement system including salary, benefits, and further educational
opportunities, etc.)
4. As the leader of the library, please kindly provide comments on the following:
4.1. Whether quantity and categories of books, newspapers, magazines, and
audiovisual equipments meet library users’ demand?
4.2. Rooms, tables, chairs, and other facilities?
4.3. Professional capacity and behavior of librarians?
4.4. Capacity building for staff of library/cultural post office (self-education, self
training through internal experience sharing, sending staff to training courses, and
annual budget for professional training)?
4.5. Training, guiding, and consulting activities for users?
4.6. Propaganda and advertisement methods to attract users to the library/cultural post
office
(leaflets, posters, advertisements, open festivals, workshops, competitions, training courses,
etc.)?
5. In the upcoming time, the library/cultural post office will be equipped with desktops
and internet services. Please name some advantages and disadvantages in providing
services to local citizens.

107
II. Personal information (library/cultural post office staff)
1. List of librarians interviewed:
Order Name Note
1
2
3
4
5

2. Are you satisfied with your current job/assignments?


2.1. Appropriate or not, and
why?……………………………………….……………………………
2.2. Salary, benefits, and bonus?
2.3. Capacity building opportunities? (Cultural post office already answered in
previous part)
3. Do you have any difficulties in fulfilling your assignments?
3.1. Individual capacity in serving users – library professions, communication
skills (Cultural post office already answered in previous part)
3.2. Material facilities (quantity and categories of books, newspapers, magazines,
audiovisual equipment, rooms, tables, and chairs for users, etc.)? (Cultural post
office already answered in previous part)
3.3. Users? (demand, feeling, manners and customs, etc.)
4. Could you please share some personal experiences as a librarian?
5. Besides current services, in the upcoming time the library/post office will provide
internet services for local people. Do you have any suggestions on:
5.1. Rooms, tables and chairs, other facilities
5.2. Training computer/Internet skills for users?
5.3. Internet services usage and management system?
5.4. Salary, compensation, contract for librarian/post office staff when Internet
services are provided?
6. How would you like your computer and user-serving skills be built (as suggested in
the questionnaire)? Please choose from the following:
Consultation with IT persons from training centers 1
Participation in training courses (theory and practice on desktops 2
incorporated)
Printed manuals 3
Electronic manuals available in the library (CD) 4

108
Workshops for experience sharing 5
A combination of all the above 6

7. In the upcoming time, if participated in the training courses on computer/Internet


skills and user-serving skills (library and Internet services inclusive), do you have any
suggestions for those training courses?

7.1. Time and venue (days/times of full-time training)? What time in week, month,
year is most suitable?
7.2. What place is most suitable for training?(at district? Or province?.........?)
7.3. Trainer? Training center?
7.4. Others?

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SAMPLE 7:

Interview Sheet for the Public Libraries/Cultural Post Offices (CPOs)


(For those with Internet connection already)

Date
Location: province/ district/commune………………………………………
Name of interviewers:
I/ Organizational information:

Interviewee: ………………………………………….Title………………………….
1. Could you please name some key economic drives of the province/district/commune?
2. As a provincial/district/commune library, have you got any plan to support the local
government successfully implement the mentioned key economic drives?
3. Please name the advantages and disadvantages in developing the library in recent years
(financial resources, material facilities including the information infrastructure,
human resources both in quality and quantity, and staff encouragement system
including salary, benefits, and further educational opportunities, etc.)
4. As the leader of the library, please kindly provide comments on the following:
4.1. Whether quantity and categories of books, newspapers, magazines, and
audiovisual equipments meet library users’ demand?
4.2 Quantity/Quality of computers at computer/Internet services room?
4.3 Rooms, tables, chairs, and other facilities?
4.4 Whether quantity and professional capacity of staff at the multi-facility room meet
the users’ demand? In case this staff is on leave, is there anybody to replace or the
room is closed? Why? Is there a lack of staff with IT skills?............
4.5 Serving behavior of staff in charge of the computer-Internet services room?
4.6 Capacity building in general for staff of library/cultural post office and IT training
for librarians (self-education, self training through internal experience sharing,
sending staff to training courses, and annual budget for professional training)?
4.7 Training, guiding, and consulting activities for users generally and Internet users
particularly?
4.8 Whether there are IT manuals for library staff and users? If yes, what are they?
Are they enough and suitable? Do they need to be edited?
4.9 Propaganda and advertisement methods to attract users to the library/cultural post
office in general and computer/Internet services in particular
(leaflets, posters, advertisements, open festivals, workshops, competitions, training
courses, etc.)?
5. In the upcoming time, the library/cultural post office will be equipped with more
desktops with Internet connection. Please name some advantages and disadvantages in
providing services to local people.

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II. Personal information (library/cultural post office staff)
1. List of librarians interviewed:
Order Name Note
1
2
3
4
5

2. Are you satisfied with your current job/assignments?


2.1. Appropriate or not, and
why?……………………………………….……………………………
2.2. Salary, benefits, and bonus? (Cultural post office already answered in
previous part)
2.3. Capacity building opportunities? (Cultural post office already answered in
previous part)
3. Do you have any difficulties in fulfilling your assignments?
3.1. Individual capacity in serving users in general and Internet users in particular
– library professions, communication skills (Cultural post office already answered
in previous part)
3.2. Material facilities? (Cultural post office already answered in previous part)
3.3. Users? (demand, feeling, manners and customs, etc.)
4. Could you please share some personal experiences as a staff in charge of the
computer/Internet room?
5. As a staff in charge of the computer/Internet room, have you received any professional
assistance? From where, if yes? (from consultation with IT person of the Center?
Manual? User guidelines? from ….. ? or no assistance at all?)
6. The library/CPO currently has Internet services, in the upcoming time the library/CPO
will be equipped with more desktops with Internet connection. Do you have any
suggestions on:
6.1. Rooms, tables and chairs, other facilities
6.2. Training computer/Internet skills for users?
6.3. Internet services usage and management system?
6.4. Salary, compensation, contract for staff in charge of the computer/Internet room?

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7. You have participated in training courses on IT. Could you please explain how useful
are those training courses for your current job/assignment?
8. You have said you would like to enhance your computer and user-serving skills (as
suggested in the questionnaire)? Please choose training methods from the following:
Consultation with IT persons from training centers 1
Participation in training courses (theory and practice on desktops 2
incorporated)
Printed manuals 3
Electronic manuals available in the library (CD) 4
Workshops for experience sharing 5
A combination of all the above 6

9. In the upcoming time, if participated in the training courses on computer/Internet


skills and user-serving skills, do you have any suggestions for those training courses?

9.1. Time and venue (days/times of full-time training)? What time in week, month,
year is most suitable?
9.2. What place is most suitable for training?(at district? Or province?.........?)
9.3. Trainer? Training center?
9.4. Others?

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