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seqtemberi-oqtomberi 2004

emaosi

EMMAUS

2
September-October 2004
2 3

saredaqcio kolegia:
levan abaSiZe (pasuxismgebeli redaqtori)
leila bezaraSvili, zurab kiknaZe,
Tamar mesxi, arnold hoxi

EDITING COUNCIL:
Levan Abashidze (Editor ),Leila Bezarashvili,
Arnold Hoch, Zurab Kiknadze, Tamar Meskhi

emaosi

#2
misamarTi: Address:
abesaZis q. 4 v. Abesadze 4
0175 Tbilisi 0175 Tbilisi EMMAUS
e-mail: theology_ge@yahoo.com

Jurnali ibeWdeba eklesiaTa The Journal is published with the


msoflio sabWos mxardaWeriT support of the World Council of
Churches

wmida irineos lionelis saxelobis


bibliur-Teologiuri instituti

St. Ireneaus Biblical Theological Institute

Tbilisi - TBILISI
ISSN 1512-2158 2004
4 5

Foreword winaTqma

Two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, imave dRes, roca es ambavi moxda, orni midiodnen
which was about sixty stadia from Jerusalem. And they were con- ierusalimidan erT sofelSi, romelsac emaosi erqva.
versing with each other about all these things which had taken place. midiodnen gzaze da daRonebulni erTmaneTSi
saubrobdnen imaze, rac im dReebSi ierusalimSi moxda.
And while they were conversing and discussing, Jesus Himself ap-
proached, and began traveling with them. But their eyes were pre- da am saubarSi TviT ieso aemgzavra maT, magram maTi
vented from recognizing Him. Tvalebi Sepyrobili iyo da maT ver icnes igi.

And He said to them, “What are these words what are you exchang- da hkiTxa maT: ra moxda, rom ase daRonebulni
ing with one another as you are walking?” And they stood still, laparakobT?
looking sad. da erTma maTganma, kleopam, upasuxa: ucxoTagan Sen,
And one of them, named Cleopas, answered and said to Him:”Are erTaderTma, ar ici, ra moxda iq am dReebSi?
you the only stranger in Jerusalem unaware of the things which
have happened here in these days?”
Cven gzaSi varT da sxvadasxva ambebze vsaubrobT
erTmaneTSi.
We are on our way conversing and discussing different things. Tu gamovicnobT iesos im ucxoSi, romelic
Shall we recognize Him as Jesus when He approaches and begins traveling dagvemgzavreba?
with us?
Tu movusmenT mas, roca wminda werilis ganmartebas
Shall we listen when He explains to us the scriptures? daiwyebs?
Shall our hearts be burning?
Tu ainTeba Cveni gulebi, roca is sityvas gvetyvis?
In this journal you can find discussions between Christians of different
generations, denominations and cultures. These are the discussions and
the dialogue we all need.
winamdebare JurnalSi warmodgenili arian sxvadasxva
On our way we are conversing with one another and discussing things epoqis, kulturis, aRmsareblobis adamianebi.
which have happened...
Cven gzas vadgavarT da vsaubrobT imaze, rac moxda...
6 7

Summary Sinaarsi

CHURCH CALENDAR - THE ELEVATION OF THE PRECIOUS CROSS eklesiis kalendari: jvarTamaRleba

Rev. Alexander Schmemann. protopresviteri aleqsandre Smemani.


Conversion of Constantine ........................................................... 8 konstantines moqcevis Sesaxeb ................................. 8

Conversion of Constantine: konstantines moqceva:


Historical Sourses ...................................................................... 14 istoriuli wyaroebi ............................................... 14

WITNESS OFTHE EARLY, UNDIVIDED CHURCH ganuyofeli eklesiis mowmoba

Athenagoras of Athens: aTenagora aTeneli.


The Resurrection of the Dead ..................................................... 22 mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb ..................................... 22

PASTORAL THEOLOGY samoZRvro RvTismetyveleba

Rev. Cyprian Kern. arqimandriti kvipriane kerni.


Preparation of Pastors ............................................................... 77 moZRvris momzadebis Sesaxeb ................................. 77

INTERCONFESSIONALRELATIONSAND ECUMENICALMOVEMENT konfesiaTSorisi urTierToba

Interview with Bishop Stephen Platten interviu episkopos stiven platenTan


(Church of England) ................................................................ 86 (inglisis eklesia) .................................................... 86

OPINION Tvalsazrisi

Rev. Kakhaber Kurtanidze. mRvdeli kaxaber kurtaniZe.


Overcoming Fundamentalism ..................................................... 97 fundamentalizmis gadalaxva ................................ 97
8 konstantines moqcevis Sesaxeb 9

tianobis simaRleebidan. aucilebelia mokled mainc


ganvmartoT am kamaTis arsi.
Cven liturgiul teqstebSi konstantines moqceva Sedare-
bulia pavles moqcevasTan: "ara kacTagan miiRo mociquleba,
viTarca pavle"... magram istorikosma Zireuli gansxvavebac
unda aRniSnos. is, rac pavles gadaxda Tavs damaskos gzaze
protopresviteri aleqsandre Smemani. (saqme mociqulTa 9:1-9) iyo namdvili da Rrma krizisi,
"Rirebulebebis sruli gadafaseba", didi zRvari Zvelsa da
axals Soris, romelmac yvelaferi Secvala mociqulis
konstantines moqcevis Sesaxeb* cxovrebasa da fsiqologiaSi. xolo konstantines moqceva
sxvagvaria da SemTxveviTi araa, rom is emTxveva misi
gadauWarbeblad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom imperator politikuri karieris gadamwyvet moments. marTalia, es ar
konstantines moqceva yvelaze didi gardatexa iyo eklesiis aris wminda politikuri gaTvla an "makiavelizmi", rogorc
mTel ganvlil gzaze. misi mniSvneloba ar amoiwureba amas zogierTi istorikosi amtkicebs, magram es arc pirovnebis
cvlilebebiT eklesiasa da saxelmwifos Soris urTierTo- sruli gardasaxvaa, rogorc pavles SemTxvevaSi moxda. amas
bebSi, an saerTod eklesiis cxovrebis gareSe pirobebiT. axsna unda movuZebnoT konstantines religiur-politikur
bevrad mniSvnelovania is Rrma cvlilebebi, romlebic TviT ideologiaSi da fsiqologiaSi, rac gvaZlevs gasaRebs
qristianul cnobierebaSi moxda, es iyo Sinagani gadatria- qristianul istoriaSi konstantines adgilis gasagebad.
leba, rac nelnela mimdinareobda saeklesio wiaRSi. es konstantines xanaSi Tavdeba romis imperiis evolucia,
procesi imdenad rTuli da mravalmxrivia, rom didi si- romelic daiwyo elinur samyarosTan misi pirveli Sexebidan.
frTxiliT unda mivudgeT "konstantines" periodis Sefase- es aris romauli principatis TandaTanobiTi cvlileba
bebs: rogorc mis erTi xelis mosmiT gakicxvas, iseve Teokratiuli monarqiisken, sadac imperatori RmerTsa da
ulaparakod mis gamarTlebas. adamians Soris SemakavSirebel rgolad warmoCndeba,
pirvel adgilze TviT konstantines sakiTxi dgas. Tu saxelmwifo ki zeciuri wesrigis amqveyniur xatad. jer kidev
imperiis brZola qristianobasTan [rogorc Cven vnaxeT] gar- mesame saukuneSi imperatorma avrelianem saxelmwifo
dauvali iyo, - mSvidoba, romelic Semdgom damyarda, moxda im religiad gamoacxada mzis kulti, rac imperiis axal
gadawyvetilebis Sedegad, romelic erT adamians, erT nebas, religiur gancdasTan iyo dakavSirebuli: imperatori
erT pirovnebas ukavSirdeba. aravin uaryofs konstantines amqveynad igivea, rac mze zecaSi, imperatori misi warmo-
am gadamwyvet rols, magram mas diametralurad sapiris- madgenelia dedamiwaze, mis bunebasTan wilnayari. mefis
pirod afaseben. aRmosavleT saqristianosTvis konstantine buneba sakraluria da is ganasaxierebs saxelmwifos RvTiur
dRemde rCeba qristianuli msoflios safuZvlis Camyrelad, bunebas, rogorc zeciuri wesrigis asaxvas amqveynad. berZnul-
borotze keTilis gamarjvebis iaraRad, romelmac daagvir- romauli samyaro monoTeizmisken, erTi RmerTis rwmenisken
gvina mowameTa wminda saqme. xolo dasavleTi "konstantines midioda. plotinis neoplatonizmi da am epoqis sxva sulieri
qveyanaSi" xedavs saxelmwifosagan eklesiis damonebis da- mimdinareobebi erT sawyiss, erT umaRles RmerTs aRiareben.
sawyiss, an sulac eklesiis pirvel "dacemas" adreuli qris- konstantine swored am axali religiuri Segnebis tipi-
uri warmomadgeneli iyo. misi pirveli qristiani biografis,
* wignidan "Èñòîðè÷åñêèé Ïóòü Ïðàâîñëàâèÿ" Ymca-Press, 1985. Tavi 3. evsebi kesarielis mowmobiT, jer kidev misma mamam "erT
qristianobis gamarjveba. RmerTs miuZRvna Tavisi Svilebi, coli, msaxurebi da mTeli
10 aleqsandre Smemani konstantines moqcevis Sesaxeb 11

sasaxle". konstantine izrdeboda am axali, amaRlebuli, "ze- siisTvis erTaderTi gzaa adamianis WeSmarit qristianad
ciuri" religiis atmosferoSi, romelic Tavisufali iyo gaxdomisa da axal cxovrebaSi Sesvlisa, konstantinem mxolod
uxeSi warmarTobisagan. konstantines yovelTvis hqonda sikvdilis win miiRo, malviis xidTan brZolidan 25 wlis
mistiuri interesi sizmrebis, xilvebisa da gansxivosnebis Semdeg! vin iyo is am dromde? am kiTxvaze pasuxis gacemisas,
mimarT. mas swamda sakuTari gamorCeuloba, da mis cxovreba- Cven vexebiT bizantinizmis dasabamier paradoqss, rac pirveli
Si araerTgzis vxvdebiT zecasTan pirad "kontaqtebs". amgva- qristiani imperatoris moqcevis TaviseburebaSi mdgoma-
ri ganwyoba, rasakvirvelia, srulad ar axsnis mis moqcevas reobs. mTavari isaa, rom TviT konstantines azriT, qristia-
qristianobisken, magram dagvexmareba ukeT gavigoT, Tu nuli rwmena, an ufro sworad rwmena qristesi, man miiRo ara
rogor aRiqva qristianoba konstantinem, rac nimuSia ekle- eklesiisagan, aramed is mieniWa mas piradad, uSualod da
siisadmi axleburi, aqamde ucnobi midgomisa. mterze gamarjvebisaTvis, anu samefo saqmis aRsrulebisaTvis.
konstantines varskvlavi maSin gamoCnda imperiis amgvarad, qristianTa RmerTis wyalobiT mopovebuli
politikur horizontze, rodesac diokletianes gadadgomis gamarjveba amieridan imperators da imperias jvris
Semdeg ramdenime imperators Soris Sidaomebi iyo gaCa- mfarvelobis qveS, qristesTan uSualo damokidebulebaSi
Rebuli. konstantines, rogorc dasavleTis imperators, ayenebda. es ki imas niSnavs, rom konstantine moeqca ara
imisaTvis, rom mTlianad dapatroneboda imperiis dasavleT rogorc adamiani, romelic WeSmaritebas da mxolod mas
nawils, maqsentiusi unda gaenadgurebina, romelic romSi iyo eZebda, aramed, rogorc imperatori: TviT qristem moaxdina
gamagrebuli. 312 wels konstantinem galiidan gailaSqra da imperatoris Zalauflebis sanqcionireba, gaxada is Tavis
alpebze Tamami gadasvlis Semdeg oqtomberSi roms miadga. rCeulad da imperatoris pirovnebaSi imperiac daukavSira
momaval brZolas unda gadaewyvita konstantines sikvdil- Tavis Tavs gansakuTrebuli kavSiriT. swored amiT aixsneba is
sicocxlis sakiTxi, misi "misiis" saboloo gamarjveba an gansacvifrebeli faqti, rom konstantines moqcevas sruliad
saboloo marcxi. konstantinem maradiuli qalaqis winaaRmdeg ar mohyolia imperiis Teokratiuli TviTSegnebis gadaxedva,
galaSqreba gabeda, da albaT mas eWvebi eZaleboda: "gadafaseba". piriqiT, konstantines moqcevam daarwmuna TviT
maqsenciusTan erTad qalaqs xom icaven misi Zveli RmerTebi, qristianebi, TviT eklesia imperatoris rCeulobaSi da
tradiciis Zala da gardasul dReTa dideba? xom ar niSnavs aiZula TviT imperia ganexilaT, rogorc RvTisagan rCeuli da
romis winaaRmdeg galaSqreba warsulis mkrexelur mokveTas? sakraluri samefo. "konstantines periodis" saeklesio
SesaZloa, konstantine axal Zalas eZebda, romelic daexma- istoriis orazrovneba da simwvave swored am dasabamieri
reboda romis ganaxlebis miseuli gegmis ganxorcielebaSi. paradoqsidan momdinareobs: pirveli qristiani imperatori
swored am saSineli daZabulobisa da eWvebis dros xdeba eklesiis gareT iyo da es garemoeba eklesiam usityvod, Tumca
misi moqceva. am moqcevis yvelaze adreuli gadmocemebi ar gulwrfelad miiRo. imperia imperatoris wyalobiT gaxda
axseneben arc jvris xilvas, arc sityvebs "amiT Zlev". isini qristianuli, magram naTlobis samsjavros gauvlelad.
mogviTxroben, rom konstantinem ZilSi miiRo Segoneba, moqcevas mohyva "milanis ediqti" (313), ramac ganapiroba
gaekeTebina axali niSani iaraRze. konstantinem es aRasrula, konstantines religiuri politikis principebi. am ediqtiT
daamarcxa maqsenciusi da Sevida romSi. Semdgom es Txroba sazeimod cxaddeboda Tavisufleba "qristianTaTvis da
damatebiTi legendebiT ganivrco (maT Soris TviT konstan- yvelasaTvis, yofiliyvnen im religiis mimdevarni, romelsac
tines daxmarebiTac), magram erTi ram udavoa: konstanti- moisurvebdnen". garda amisa, qristianul eklesiebs
nesTvis es qristianuli niSani iyo, da am momentidan is Tavs ubrundebodaT CamorTmeuli qoneba. istorikosebi dRemde
qristianad aRiqvamda. kamaToben milanis gadawyvetilebis Sesaxeb. ras niSnavda es
gaxda ki is qristiani sinamdvileSi? naTloba, rac ekle- religiuri Tavisufleba? Tu konstantine Tavisuflebis
12 aleqsandre Smemani konstantines moqcevis Sesaxeb 13

qristianuli ideiT xelmZRvanelobda, maSin ratom ar RmerTs ukavSirdeboda da saboloo jamSi fardobiTi iyo. am
damkvidrda rwmenis damoukidebloba saxelmwifosgan da TvalsazrisiT milanis ediqti dasawyisi ki ar aris, aramed
ratom iyo es Tavisufleba ase xanmokle? ratom Secvala ase boloa. masSi Tavis saboloo gamomxatvelobas aRwevs is
swrafad es Tavisufleba qristianobis erTpirovnulma da religiuri sinkretizmi2, romelSic kvdeba da ixrwneba Zveli
Zaladobrivma monopoliam, romelmac saukuneebis ganmav- warmarToba. magram saxelmwifos Teokratiuli buneba
lobaSi daTrguna yovelgvari religiuri Tavisufleba? Seuvali rCeba; religia saxelmwifos umTavres saqmed rCeba,
pasuxi mxolod erTi SeiZleba iyos: konstantines Tavisuf- radgan TviT saxelmwifo aris RvTisagan dadgenili da
leba ar iyo qristianuli Tavisufleba. saukuneebi dasWirda adamianTa sazogadoebis "RvTiuri" formaa. da TviT
imas, rom pirovnebis axali gageba, romelic Tavisi fesvebiT Tavisuflebac imisaTvis cxaddeboda, "rom zecaSi myofi
saxarebidan amodis, gazrdiliyo saxelmwifos axlebul RvTaeba mowyale da keTilganwyobili iyos Cven da Cven
gagebamdec, romelSic saxelmwifo swored pirovnebis qveSevrdomTa mimarT"...
uflebebiT iqneboda SemozRuduli. Cven viciT, ramdenad Tu es Tavisufleba imperiuli sinkretizmis bolo
mtkivneuli iyo es procesi. viciT isic, rom samwuxarod TviT gamovlinebaa, milanis ediqtis Semdgom striqonebSi ukve
qristianebi ar iyvnen am procesSi qristianuli, saxarebi- axali droebis dadgoma moCans.imperatori ar malavs Tavis
seuli WeSmaritebis matareblebi. axali istoriis tragedia simpaTiebs qristianobis mimarT da pirdapir acxadebs, rom
swored is unda iyos, rom Cveni dRevandeli msoflios araqristianebs is uboZebs Tavisuflebas, "raTa mSvidobam
yvelaze qristianuli idea adamianis pirovnebis absolu- daisadguros Cven droSi"; imperatoris guli mTlianad
turi Rirebulebis idea istoriulad eklesiuri sazogado- ekuTvnis axal rwmenas. milanis ediqtis Tavisufleba garda-
ebis sawinaaRmdegod aitaces da eklesiis winaaRmdeg mavali drois Tavisuflebaa, romelmac unda Seamzados
brZolis simbolod aqcies. es imitom moxda, rom dasaba- qristianobis umtkivneulo triumfi. warmarToba ukve ganwi-
miTganve qristianuli goneba monusxuli iyo konstantines rulia daRupvisa da devnisaTvis. is ganwirulia imperiis
moqceviT; am garemoebam SeuSala xeli eklesias, saxarebis imave Teokratiuli bunebis gamo, TviT saxelmwifoebriobis
Suqze gadaexeda antikuri saxelmwifos Teokratiuli warmarTuli gancdisgan gamomdinare. rogorc imperatori,
absolutizmisTvis. piriqiT, TviT es Teokratiuli absolu- konstantine Tavis Tavs imperiis religiur kanonmdeblad,
tizmi xangrZlivi drois manZilze rCeboda samyaros qristi- imperiis religiur centrad miiCnevs, da rogorc qristiani
anuli aRqmis ganuyofel nawilad. mxolod konstantines am is ver dauSvebs qristianobis aRrevas warmarTul
Teokratiuli TviTSegnebis Suqze SeiZleba sworad gavigoT sicruesTan. rac ufro metad aRiqvams is Tavis Tavs qristi-
milanis ediqtiT moniWebuli Tavisufleba. am TviTSegnebis anad, miT ufro aSkara xdeba misi mtroba warmarTobasTan.
mixedviT saxelmwifo moiazreba, rogorc religiis "matare- ori "logika" da ori rwmena Teokratiuli da qristianuli
beli", vinaidan swored saxelmwifo asaxavs da axorcielebs gadaxlarTulia orazrovan erTobaSi, rac ganapirobebs
adamianTa sazogadoebaSi RvTis nebas. milanis ediqti aris eklesiis da axladdabadebuli bizantiis beds.
kultis, anu RvTis Tayvaniscemis garegnuli formebis
Tavisufleba; amieridan saxelmwifo aRar ukavSirebs Tavis
Tavs arcerT am formas, magram ara imitom, rom religiurad Targmna levan abaSiZem
"neitraluri" gaxda, aramed imitom, rom im axal religiur-
filosofiur monoTeizmSi, romlis warmomadgenelic iyo
konstantine Tavis moqcevamde, religiis nebismieri gareg- 2
sinkretizmi berZnuli sityvidan s nkretismos - SeerTeba. aq:
nuli forma da nebismieri RmerTis kulti erT umaRles aRreva, araorganuli SeerTeba sxvadasxva mimdinareobebisa. (l.a.)
14 konstantines moqceva 15

laktanciusi: "mdevnelTa sikvdilis Sesaxeb"


T. 44,1-9

1. ukve maT Soris atyda samoqalaqo omi da Tumca


maqsentiusi romSi darCa, radgan [orakulisgan] pasuxi miiRo,
rom daiRupeboda, Tu qalaqis karibWeTa gareT gavidoda,
konstantines moqceva - mainc Sesabamisi mxedarTmTavrebi oms awarmoebdnen.
keisris xilva mulviusis xidTan brZolis win. 2. maqsentiuss ufro didi Zala hqonda, radgan mamiseuli
istoriuli wyaroebi jaric miiRo man severusisgan da Tavisi sakuTaric myis
Sekriba mavrelTa da geturelTagan.
Sesavali 3. Tavdapirvelad maqsentiusis jariskacebi imarjvebd-
nen, sanam bolos ar ganmtkicda suliT konstantine, romel-
mac yvelafrisaTvis mzadyofma, yvela Tavisi razmi qalaqis
mulviusis xidTan brZolis Sesaxeb Cven sami moTxroba
axlos miiyvana da mulviusis xidis pirdapir dabanakda.
mogvepoveba. erTi laqtanciusis da ori evsebi kesarielis
4. dadga manqsentiusis imperatorad gaxdomis dRe, rac
(ufro adreuli "saeklesio istoriaSi" da ufro gviandeli
aris noembris meeqvse kalenda (=27 oqtomberi); damTavrda
"konstantines cxovrebaSi"). arc erTi moTxroba srulad ar
xuTwliani ganmgeblobis aRmniSvneli dResaswauli.
faravs meores. samive maTgani mogviTxrobs keisris
5. CaeTvlima ra konstantines, STagoneba miiRo, rom RvTis
saswaulebriv moqcevas RvTisaken da RvTis daxmarebas omSi.
zeciuri niSi farebze unda aRebeWda da ase ewarmoebina
dReisaTvis mkvlevarebs Soris gavrcelebulia mosazreba,
brZola. manac qmna ise, rogorc ebrZana da gadajvarebuli X
rom aq saqme gvaqvs umniSvnelovanes movlenasTan, ramac
asoTi, romelsac zeda Tavi irgvliv hqonda gadakecili,
gadamwyveti roli iTamaSa konstantine keisris religiuri
farebze qriste gamosaxa.
Sexedulebebis cvlilebaze da am gziT mTeli romis imperiis
6. am niSniT SeiaraRebulma laSqarma xelT ipyra maxvili.
bedze. qristianuli niSnis farebze gamoxatvis istoriu-
mowinaaRmdege, imperatoris gareSe, dawinaurda da
loba, rogorc es laqtanciuss aqvs aRwerili, mecnierTa
gadalaxa xidi. meomrebi erTiani frontiT ekveTnen
Soris eWvs ar iwvevs (ix. H. Kraft. Kaiser Konstantin, Wege der
urTierTs. orive mxridan mTeli ZaliT ibrZodnen. aravin
Forschung, Darmstadt, 1974). aq moyvanili teqstebi umTavresi
garboda, arc amaTgan, arc imaTgan.
istoriuli wyaroa konstantines moqcevis Sesaxeb da erT-
7. qalaqSi daiwyo amboxeba. mxedarTmTavars (maqsentiuss)
erT yvelaze metad diskutirebad teqstebs ganekuTvneba
lanZRavdnen, rogorc sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis
mecnierebis istoriaSi.
moRalates; da roca igi uyurebda sacirko warmodgnebs, rac
Targmani laTinuridan da berZnulidan Sesrulebulia
swored misi dabadebis dRis gamo gaemarTaT, uecrad yvelam
krebulidan: Quellensammlungzur Religionspolitik Konstantins der erTi xmiT daiZaxa, rom konsantines damarcxeba SeuZlebeli
Grossen. Darmstadt, 1989. iyo.
8. am xmiT SeSinebuli maqsentiusi [cirkidan] gamoiqca da,
mouxmo ra zogierT senators, sibilaTa wignebis dakvirve-
biT wakiTxva ubrZana maT; am wignebSi gancxadebuli iyo, rom
swored im dRes unda ganadgurebuliyo romaelTa mteri.
16 istoriuli wyaroebi konstantines moqceva 17

9. miiRo ra amgvari pasuxi, gamarjvebis imediT aRvsilma RvTis TanamebrZoleobas dandobili keisari zed Semoadga
maqsentiusma iswrafa da brZolis velze mivida. mis zurgs tiranis pirvel, meore da mesame mwyobrs da advilad dasZ-
ukan daiwva xidi. rodesac maqsentiusi gamoCnda, brZola lia yvela maTgani, ris Sedegadac rac SeiZleboda metad
kidev ufro gamwvavda. RvTis xeli mZleobda brZolis velze. dalaSqra man italia da ukve TviT romsac miuaxlovda.
maqsentiusis jari air-dairia, TviTonac gaqceviT uSvela 4. Semdeg, iZulebuli rom ar gamxdariyo igi, tiranis gamo
Tavs da xidisken gaeSura, romelic ukve ganadgurebuli iyo. romaelebs SebrZoleboda, Tavad ufalma TiTqosda borki-
gaqceulTa simravlisagan gaTelili maqsentiusi mdinare lebiT, es tirani karibWeTagan Zalian Sors gaiyvana da
tibrSi CainTqa. amgvari qmedebiT Zveli uwyebani uRmrToTa winaaRmdeg
brZolisa, rac umravlesobis mier aqamde arasarwmunod
miiCneoda, rogorc TiTqosda zRaprad Tqmulni (Tumca ki
sarwmuno iyo isini morwmuneTaTvis, rogorc wminda wignebSi
evsebi kesarielis adreuli teqsti:
gancxadebulni), ukve yvelasaTvis dasajerebeli gaxda,
"saeklesio istoria" IX.9. morwmuneTaTvisac da urwmunoTaTvisac, radgan sakuTari
TvaliT ixiles maT sakvirveleba.
1. rodesac konstantine, keisari ($"F48,bH) Ze keisrisa, 5. amrigad, iseve, rogorc TviT moses da maSindeli
keTilmorwmune da Ze ukeTilmorwmunesi da yovelmxriv RvTismsaxuri eris, ebraelTa dros ufalma "zRvaSi Cayara"
keTilgonieri mamisa, rogorc es adre vTqviT, moixmo yovel- faraonis etlebi da misi laSqari, raJams mewamul zRvaSi
Ta meufem (B":$"F48,bH), yovelTa RmerTma ukeTur tiranTa CainTqnen rCeuli mewinamZRvre mxedrebi da zRvam dafara
winaaRmdeg, wesisamebr daiwyo omi. RmerTi sakvirveli gziT isini, msgavsadve maqsentiusic Tavis Tanmxleb hoplitebTan
TanaibrZoda, ise, rom romSi daeca maqsentiusi konstantines da SubosnebTan erTad dainTqa zRvaSi, rogorc qva. da ai,
qveS, meore mxriv ki aRmosavleTis tirani aseve samarcxvino maqsentiusma zurgi uCvena (gaeqca) RvTis Zalas, romelic
sikvdiliT mokvda likiniosis mier, romelic maSin jer kidev konstantinesTan iyo da gadalaxa mis win myofi mdinare,
ar iyo sigiJiT Sepyrobili. romelic man winaswar kargad gadaxida mcuravi xidebiT,
2. amgvarad, konstantinem, keisris pativiTa da xarisxiT Tumca rogorc aRmoCnda, mas sakuTari daRupvis iaraRi
pirvelma, Tavdapirvelad romSi tiraniis qveS myofTa augia.
mimarT gamoavlina mowyaleba da locviT uxmo ra Tana-
mebrZolad zeciur RmerTs da mis sityvas, ese igi TviT
yovelTa macxovar ieso qristes, mTeli jariT dawinaurda,
evsebi kesarielis gviandeli teqsti:
raTa romaelebisTvis winaparTagan momdinare Tavisufleba
aRedgina. konstantines cxovreba
3. rac Seexeba maqsentiuss, igi ufro magiur manqanebs Tavi I
miendo, vidre qveSevrdomTa keTilganwyobas, da verc ki
gabeda gascdenoda qalaqis karibWes. misi hoplitebis1 27.
auracxeli simravlisa da fexosani jaris uamravi razmis 1. xolo [konstantinem] sworad gansaja, rom mas ufro
mier iyo gadaRobili yvela adgili, mxare da qalaqi, rac ki aRmatebul Semweoba sWirdeboda, vidre samxedro Zala,
romisa da mTeli italiis garSemo mas emoneboda. xolo romelic mas hqonda, radgan tirani gulmodgined iyenebda
borotxelovnur da grZneul jadoqrobebs. is uwinares
1
hopliti - mZimed SeiaraRebuli qveiTi jariskaci yovlisa RmerTs eZiebda Semwed da mxolod amis Semdeg
18 istoriuli wyaroebi konstantines moqceva 19

hoplitebisa da jariskacebis simravles, radgan RvTis sTxovda da evedreboda, rom gamocxadeboda, vin iyo igi, da
Semweobis gareSe, arafris SemZled ar miaCnda isini, xolo Tavisi marjvena gamoewodebina misTvis im saqmeSi, win rom
RvTisagan gamovlenili Tanamoqmedeba daumarcxeblad da eloda. rodesac amas loculobda keisari da daucxromlad
dauZlevelad. aRavlenda savedrebels, gamouCnda usakvirvelesi niSani
2. swored amitom, konstantine ukve imis gansjaSi iyo, Tu RvTisa, rac sxvas rom eTqva, albaT advilad ar daijerebda.
romeli RmerTi moexmo Semwed mas gaaxsenda, rom umravle- magram radgan es Tavad Zlevamosilma keisarma gagvicxada
soba adre myof mbrZanebelTagan, rodesac isini xelisufle- Cven didi xsnis Semdeg (rodesac Rirsi gavxdiT misi
baSi modiodnen, mTel Tavis imedebs mraval RmerTze amya- gacnobisa da masTan saubrisa, vapirebdiT ra werilobiTi
rebdnen da maT wminda sasmeliT da msxverpliT emsaxure- uwyebis mocemas) da radgan Tavisi naTqvami ficiT dagvi-
bodnen. sasiamovno misnobiT da damaimedebeli winaswar- dastura, vinRa iorWofebda da ar erwmuneboda misgan
metyvelebiT motyuebulni, sabolood karg dasasruls ver Txrobils, gansakuTrebiT maSin, rodesac Semdgomma drom
naxulobdnen. arcerTi RmerTi ar daudga maT gverdiT, rom WeSmaritad daamowma sityva keisrisa.
zecidan movlenili ubedurebisagan exsna isini. gamonaklisi 2. daaxloebiT mzis SuadRis saaTebSi, roca dRe gadaxri-
mxolod [konstantines] mama iyo, romelmac es cdomileba li iyo, sakuTari TvalebiT ixila man, rogorc Tqva, swored
dagmo da, Tavis mxriv, mTeli Tavisi cxovrebis manZilze caze, mzis zemdebared, sinaTlisagan Semdgari mZleveli
yovelTa miRmier RmerTs eTayvana da hpova igi mxsnelad da niSani jvrisa, rasac erTvoda Semdegi naweri: "amiT sZlie"
mefobis damcvelad, agreTve yovelgvari sikeTis momni- ( ). amgvarma saxilvelma SiSiT aRavso isic da
Weblad. mTeli jaric, romelic mwyobri msvlelobiT sadRac
3. gansaja ra konstantinem es yovelive TavisTvis da keTi- mihyveboda mas da romelic mxilveli gaxda am saswaulisa.
lad ganbWo, rom RmerTTa simravles mindobilni ufro
mraval ubedurebaSi vardebodnen, ise, rom maTTvis arc
29.
STamomavloba, arc aRmonaceni, arc Ziri, arc saxeli da
ase rom, gaognebuli ambobda, Tu ra unda yofiliyo es
xseneba ar rCeboda adamianTa Soris, maSin roca mamiseuli
Cveneba? da rodesac ase bWobda da fiqrebs eZaleboda, Ramem
RmerTi sakuTari Zalis aSkara da mravalricxovan gamo-
moicva yovelive da imave adgilas mas, mZinares, gamouCnda
vlinebaTa momniWebeli Canda. imaT, romlebmac adre
RvTis cxebuli (qriste)2 caze Cvenebul niSTan erTad, da
gailaSqres tiranis winaaRmdeg da maT mraval RmerTTa
ubrZana, rom caze gamoCenili niSis msgavseba gaekeTebina da
SewevniT daimedebulni brZola warmarTes, samarcxvino
Tavdasacavad gamoeyenebina igi saomar SetakebebSi.
aRsasruli miiRes, radgan erTi maTgani Sercxvenili,
warumateblad ganerida brZolas, xolo meore TviT
brZolaSi iqna mokluli da ase uazro sikvdiliT mokvda. 30.
rodesac es yovelive Semoikriba konstantinem gonebaSi, dRis dadgomisTanave wamodga konstantine da Tavis
gadawyvita, rom sisulelea adido RmerTebi, romlebic megobrebs gaucxada dafaruli, Semdeg ki oqrosa da Zvir-
saerTod ar arseboben da aseTi aSkara samxilis Semdeg mainc fasi qvebis ostatebs uxmo, SuaSi Tavad dajda, niSis gamo-
Tavi moityuo. is darwmunda, rom mxolod mamis RmerTisadmi xatuleba uCvena da ubrZana maT, rom oqroTi da Zvirfasi
unda miego pativi. qvebiT SeeqmnaT am gamoxatulebis msgavseba. RvTis wyalobiT
is Cven Cveni TvaliT vnaxeT, Tavad keisarma gagvxada ra amis
28. Rirsi.
1. swored amitom, locvebSi mouwodebda igi ufals, 2
- cxebuli RvTisa (qriste RvTisa)
20 istoriuli wyaroebi konstantines moqceva 21

31. ufalma. xolo maT misi qveynad mosvlis mizezebic aswavles


1. xolo is, [rac vnaxeT] aseTi gamosaxulebiT iyo Seqmni- keisars, ganumartes ra uflis kacobrivi gangebulebis3
li: maRali Subi, oqroTi movlebuli, rasac hqonda gandre- WeSmariti azri.
kili buniki, jvris saxiT qmnili. zeviT, yvelaferze maRla, 3. keisaric daemowafa am swavlebas. amasTan, Tvalwin
damagrebuli iyo Zvirfasi qvebisa da oqrosagan Txzuli hqonda mas misdami boZebuli sakvirveleba RvTis gamoCine-
gvirgvini, razec qristes gamacxadebeli saxelis ori aso, bisa da udarebda ra zeciur Cvenebas zemoTqmul ganmarte-
romlebic qristes saxelis dasawyis asoebs gamoxatavdnen, bebs, gonebiT ganmtkicdeboda da rwmundeboda, rom TviT
romelTagan C(ro) SuaSi O(xi) asoTi iyo gadaxazuli. am RvTisagan miiRo man Tavdapirvelad es codna. amitomac
asoebs momdevno wlebSi, Cveulebisamebr, keisari Tavis iTxovda ukve saRvTo sakiTxavTa smenas. man RvTis mRvdelni
muzaradzec atarebda. daisva Tavis mrCevelebad da ase gansaja, rom marTebuli
2. gverdiTa gamonaSverze, rac laxvarSi iyo CaWedili, iqneboda yovelgvari msaxurebiT pativi miego misdami
ekida wminda tilos samoseli, rac iyo samefo qsovili, Cvenebuli RvTisTvis. amis Semdeg is imedianad iyo mindobili
sinaTlis brwyinvalebisagan aelvarebul da nairgvar Zvir- RvTis Sewevnas, romelic mas daicavda tiranuli cecxlis
fas TvalTagan dafaruli da friadi oqroTi TanaSerTuli, jer kidev arsebuli muqarisagan.
rac did mSvenierebas ganacdevinebda mxilvelT. gamonaSver-
ze dakidebuli es samoseli kvadratuli iyo. xolo
aRmarTuli Subi, qveda saTavidan zeviTken friad wagrZele- Targmna ediSer WeliZem
buli da amaRlebuli, jvris ZlevaSemosili niSis qvemoT,
Sesavali daurTo levan abaSiZem
moxatuli qsovilis Tavze, atarebda RvTismoyvare keisris
oqros naxats, iseve, rogorc Svilebisas.
3. swored am macxovnebel niSs iyenebda keisari yvela
mowinaaRmdege da mtruli Zalisagan Tavdasacavad, iseve
rogorc, misi brZanebiT, am niSis msgavsebani win uZRoda
yovel laSqars.

32.
1. magram amaT Sesaxeb mogvianebiT, xolo rac Seexeba im
Jams, rodesac keisari ucxo sanaxaobiT iyo Tavzardacemuli,
saTnoiCina man, rom TayvaniT Sevrdomoda swored misdami
Cvenebul RmerTs da ara romelime sxvas. amitomac mouwoda
man am RmerTis sityvaTa mesaidumleebs da gamoikiTxa maTgan,
Tu vin unda yofiliyo es RmerTi da ras gulisxmobda is
niSani, romelic mas eCvena?
2. xolo maT uTxres, rom es iyo RmerTi, mxolodSobili
Svili (B" H) erTi da erTaderTi RvTisa, gamoCinebuli niSani
ki ukvdavebis simbolo iyo. es niSani aris Zegli (JD`B"4@<)
sikvdilze gamarjvebisa, rac moipova am qveynad mosulma
3
"kacobrivi gangebulebis" e.i. gankacebis.
22 mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 23

aTenagoram es, ra Tqma unda, icoda, da misi damsaxureba


albaT isaa, rom amis miuxedavad igi mainc cdilobda,
mWermetyvelebisa da paTosis gareSe, mSvidi safuZvliani
msjelobiT (aTenagoras ena da stili lakonuria, xatovani
da lamazi) mkiTxveli gonebisaTvis misawvdom rwmenis
aTenagora aTeneli, qristiani filosofosi sazRvrebamde mieyvana. msjelobisas aTenagora Tavisi drois
samedicino codnasac iyenebda. momxiblavia aTenagoras
mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb mSvidi, safuZvliani toni oponentebis mimarT. misi
"Suamdgomloba" markus avreliusisa da, Sesabamisad,
Targmna, Sesavali da SeniSvnebi daurTo warmarTi moazrovneebisadmia miZRvnili. misi naSromi
lela aleqsiZem "aRdgomis Sesaxeb" sajaro moxsenebas hgavs, imaTTvis
dawerils, visac sxeulis aRdgomisa ara swams an
"qristiani filosofosi", ase uwoda II saukunis apolo- arasakmarisad Zlierad (Tu sworad) swams. orive naSromSi
getma, aTenagoram Tavis Tavs. misi ori naSromia cnobili: aTenagora mowinaaRmdegeTa Sexedulebebs xelaRebiT ki ar
“Suamdgomloba qristianTa gamo”1 da "mkvdarTa aRdgomis uaryofs, aramed TiTqos adresatSive cdilobs
Sesaxeb".2 aTenagora ucnobi iyo Tavisi droisa da momdevno (qristianuli) WeSmaritebis danaxvis unaris gamoRviZebas.5
saukunis qristiani mwerlebisTvis. mkvlevarTa azriT, misi toni oponentis mimarT zrdilobiania da mimarTvis
aTenagoras naSromebi rom scodnodaT, misi Semoqmedeba stili "jentlmenuria".6 igi oponents Wkuas ki ar aswavlis,
Tanamedroveebze Rrma kvals datovebda.3 "qristiani aramed TiTqos masTan (da mkiTxvelTan) erTad cdilobs im
filosofosi" - es saxeli aTenagoras marTlac Seefereba: SesaZlo winaaRmdegobebisa da sirTuleebis gadalaxvas,
igi qristianobis apologeti iyo da imave dros filoso- romlebic WeSmaritebis miaxloebis gzaze gveRobeba. aTena-
fosi. igi kargad icnobda berZnul filosofias da mas goras rogorc apologetis "jentlmenoba", misi Rrma rwmena
qristianobis Sesavlad aRiqvamda.4 garda amisa - da es ufro da Tan gulrwfeli tolerantoba7 dResac momxiblavia.8
mniSvnelovania - igi qristianuli moZRvrebis (es gansakuT-
rebiT aRdgomis rwmenas exeba) WeSmaritebis apologias
mecnieruli da racionaluri msjelobiT cdilobda. 5
platonis tipis "gaxseneba" Taviseburad mniSvnelovania
umaRlesi WeSmaritebis naTelyofa da miTumetes misi dasabu- aTenagorasTvis, ix. qvemoT, De Res. 14, 2.
Teba logikuri gamomdinareobis gziT SeuZlebelia.
6
"aTenagora albaT gamoirCeva apologetebSi Tavisi
jentelmenuri toniT da imiT, rom sxva qristianebze metad
1
z dakavSirebulia berZnul religiasa da filosofiasTan ". - Joseph Hugh
. am saTaurs mosdevs: "imperator markus avrelius Crehan in: Athenagoras. Embassy for the Christians. The Resurrection of the Dead.
antoninusisa da lukius avrelius komodusisami, romlebic somexTa Translated and annotated by J. H. Crehan, S. J. Westminster, Maryland, London. 1956,
da sarmatTa [dampyrobni] da, rac mTavaria, filosofosni arian". p. 4.
7
laTinuri mokle saxelwodebaa Legatio, igi am naSromis damowmebisas Bernard Pouderon in: Athenagore. Supplique au sujet des Chrétiens et sur la
gamoiyeneba. Résurrections des morts. Introduction, texte et traduction par B. Pouderon. Sources
2
. laT. De Resurrectione. Chrétiennes, N.379. Les édition du Cerf, Paris 1992, p. 9-17. (SemdgomSi ase
3
Leslie W. Barnard. Athenagoras. A study in second century christian apologetic. davimowmeb: Pouderon, teqsti, gv...).
- Théologie historique 18. Beauchesne, Paris 1972, p. 51.
8
l. barnardis azriT, aTenagoras Semoqmedeba, misi stilisa da
4
iqve, gv. 51. tonis TaviseburebaTa gamo, sanimuSo unda iyos im dialogisTvis,
24 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 25

cnobebi aTenagoras cxovrebisa da moRvaweobis Sesaxeb unda yofiliyo, iustinesa da tatianes msgavsad, romlebic,
Zalian mwiria. danamdvilebiT TiTqmis araferi viciT, garda Tavis mxriv, romSi warmarTavdnen skolas.10 amitomac
imisa, rom is meore saukuneSi cxovrobda da filosofosi gasakviria misi mouxsenebloba II-III saukuneebSi, miTumetes,
(SesaZloa, filosofiuri skolis winamZRvaric) iyo. ucna- rom misi ori naSromi Semoinaxa. Cvenamde maT kesariis
uria, rom Tanamedroveni aTenagoras, rogorc Cans, ar ic- arqiepiskoposis, aretasis (X s.) mier Sesrulebuli kodeqsis
nobdnen. mas ar axseneben is avtorebi, romlebic, Cveulebriv, wyalobiT moaRwies. mas Semdeg xelnawerTa aslebma imata da
sxva qristian mwerlebs imowmeben. pirveli da faqtiurad pirveli nabeWdi gamocema naSromisa "mkvdarTa aRdgomis
erTaderTi eklesiis mama meTode olimpoeli iyo (wamebuli Sesaxeb" XVI saukuneSi gamoqveynda. renesansis bolo
311 wels), romelmac aTenagora axsena da ”Suamdgomlobidan" periodidan aTenagoras saxeli sakmaod cnobili gaxda. misi
citata moitana Tavis naSromSi "aRdgomis Sesaxeb" (aRsaniS- martvilobis Sesaxeb (saerTod, iyo Tu ara martvili)
navia, rom aTenagoras imave saxelwodebis naSromi meTodes araferi viciT.11
ar uxsenebia). meTodes teqsti epifanes "panarionma" (LXIV, 29, 1-
3) Semoinaxa. aTenagoras Sromebi
uZveles cnobas aTenagoras cxovrebis Sesaxeb gvawvdis
filipe sideeli (V s). teqsti mogviano xanis anonimi berZeni
1. "Suamdgomloba qristianTa gamo"
istorikosis mieraa Semonaxuli. igi bevr uzustobasa da
istoriul realiebTan Seusabamobas amJRavnebs. filipes
es apologeturi Sroma, rogorc vTqviT, markus
Tanaxmad, aTenagora aleqsandriuli skolis pirveli wina-
avreliusisadmia miZRvnili. misi mizania qristianuli
mZRvari iyo. igi iyo adrianesa da antoninusis Tanamedrove
rwmenisa da qristianuli zneobis dacva warmarTuli reli-
da "Suamdgomlobis" adresatebi swored isini arian.9 aTena-
giisa da moralis winaSe. aTenagora CamoTvlis warmarTTa
gora qristianobis moZRvari iyo filosofosis samosSi da
braldebebs qristianTa mimarT: (a) aTeizmi, (b) kanibalizmi,
erT dros akademiur skolasac winamZRvrobda. kelsosze
(g) incesti. igi cdilobs cxadyos maTi da, Sesabamisad,
adre mas undoda qristianTa winaaRmdeg naSromis dawera.
warmarTTa mier qristianTa devnis usafuZvloba.
amitom CauRrmavda igi saRvTo werils. mas suliwmida
(a) aTeizmis braldebas aTenagora ase uaryofs:
daeufla da igi qristianobaze moeqca. wm. pavles msgavsad,
qristianebi monoTeistebi arian, monoTeizmi ki aTeizms ar
igi qristianobis mdevnelidan am rwmenis moZRvrad iqca.
niSnavs. berZeni filosofosebi (mag. platoni da
klimenti, “stromatebis” avtori, aTenagoras mowafe iyo. -
aristotele, piTagorelebi da stoelebi) erT RmerTs miiCn-
aseTia mokled filipe sideelis informacia aTenagoras
evdnen samyaros Semoqmedad da warmmarTvelad, magram maT
Sesaxeb.
amisTvis ar devnidnen. qristianTa rwmenas goneba ganamt-
aTenagoras "Suamdgomlobis" saTauris Tanaxmad ki misi
kicebs da winaswarmetyvelTa piriT metyveli saRvTo suli
avtori, filipes monacemebisgan gansxvavebiT, ara aleqsand-
(Tavi 1-7). aTenagora racionalurad, gamoricxvis meTodiT
rieli, aramed aTeneli filosofosi unda yofiliyo.
cdilobs daasabuTos, rom RmerTi dasabamidan aris mxolod
gamoricxuli araa, rom cxovrebis raRac etapze igi aleqsand-
riaSi imyofeboda. b. puderonis azriT, aTenagora, moqcevamde 10
Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 14.
filosofiuri skolis mesveuri, cnobili da gavleniani piri 11
aTenagoras Sesaxeb biografiuli cnobebisTvis ix. Semdegi
9
sinamdvileSi "Suamdgomloba" markus avreliusisa da komodusis gamokvlevebi: Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 9-17. Pouderon. Athénagore d’Athénes.
mimarT aris dawerili, romlebic aTenagoras Tanamedroveni iyvnen. Philosophe chrétiene. /Théologie historique 82/. Beauchesne. Paris 1989, p. 19-35.
(Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 11). (qvemoT, damowmebisas: Pouderon, gamokvleva, gv...). L. Barnard, p.9-18.
26 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 27

erTi, erTiani da ara Sedgenili (T. 8). igi mokled gadmo- Semoqmedis, Secnoba iqneboda (T. 13). sxvadasxva qveyanaSi,
scems qristianuli rwmenis safuZvlebs: samebis arss, sxvadasxva qalaqSi sxvadasxva RvTaebas eTayvanebian. Tu
angelozTa daniSnulebas (T. 10).12 igi mimarTavs "imperator qristianebi araRvTismosavni mxolod imitom arian, rom sxva
filosofosebs" (aTenagoras sityvebia) da maT winaSe icavs RmerTs scemen Tayvans, maSin sxva xalxic araRvTismosavi
Tavisi rwmenis zneobriv mxares, romelic mtris siyvaruls yofila, radgan TiToeuli Tavis RvTaebas eTayvaneba (T. 14).
efuZneba. aTenagora ambobs, rom ubralo adamianebi kerpTa Tayvaniscemis mizezi aris ganurCevloba materiasa
(qristianebi), romlebic, SesaZloa, didi moazrovneebi ar da RmerTs, Seqmnilsa da uqmnels, arssa da ararss,
arian, Tavisi zneobrivi saqcieliT qristianuli rwmenis goniseulsa da grZnobads Soris (T. 15). aTenagora dawvri-
principebs gamoxataven. mdevnelebs isini ZaladobiT ar lebiT gadmoscems orfikul kosmologias, raTa cxadyos,
pasuxoben (T. 11).13 rom amgvar kosmologiaTa RmerTebi dabadebulni arian (T.
Semdgom aTenagora im braldebaTa moxsnas cdilobs, 18-20).14 berZen poetTa RmerTebi, mokvdavTa msgavsad, vnebebs
romlebic qristianTa aTeizmis praqtikul mxares exeba: ganicdian (T. 21). aTenagora akritikebs berZen fizikosebs
msxverplSewirvasa da kerpTayvaniscemaze uaris Tqma (T. 13- (empedokle, stoelebi), romlebic RmerTebs bunebis
20). aTenagora asabuTebs, rom samyaros Semoqmed RmerTs elementTa saxiT warmoadgendnen (T. 22). igi ganixilavs
sisxli da msxverpli ara sWirdeba, igi TviTkmaria. misTvis demonTa da angelozTa funqciebs Zvel filosofosebTan da
yvelaze didi msxverplSewirva misi, rogorc yvelafris qristianobaSi gangebasTan dakavSirebiT (T. 22-25).
aTenagora uaryofs qristianTa mimarT gamoTqmul bralde-
12
es Tavi gamoirCeva msjelobis antikur-filosofiuri stiliT. bas kanibalizmsa da incestSi da cxadyofs maT usafuZv-
igi formiT platonis "parmenides", prokles komentarebsa da sxva
lobas, ganixilavs qristianTa zneobriv principebs (T. 31-36).
msgavs teqstebs mogvagonebs.
13
mWermetyveluri TvalsazrisiT es marTlac lamazi Tavia. bolos aTenagora xorciT aRdgomis qristianul rwmenasac
saerTod, STambeWdavia aTenagoras - filosofosis mimarTva exeba, romelic, misi azriT, racionaluradac SeiZleba
imperatorebisadmi, rogorc filosofosebisadmi (aqedan msgavseba dasabuTdes (T. 37).15
msjelobis stilSi: filosofiuroba, racionalizmi, logikuroba), stiliT “Suamdgomloba" gansxvavdeba "aRdgomis Sesaxeb"
magram imave dros esaa mimarTva qristianisa warmarTTa mimarT, rac traqtatisagan: igi Seicavs bevr citatas, paralels, maga-
ganapirobebs rwmenaTa Soris gansxvavebis Cvenebas, sakuTari rwmenis liTs antikuri literaturidan, filosofiidan, bibliidan,
upiratesobis dasabuTebis mcdelobas. aTenagoras msjelobas "aRdgomis Sesaxeb" traqtatSi ki avtori ufro sxvaTa
damajereblobas swored es arasworxazovneba aniWebs: es ar aris daumowmeblad, met-naklebad ilustraciebis gareSe,
mowinaaRmdegis poziciebis xelaRebiT uaryofa, aramed sakuTari
racionaluri gziT cdilobs sakuTari Sexedulebis dasa-
rwmenis ganmtkicebaa mowinaaRmdegis poziciidan, imave filosofiuri
meTodis gamoyenebiT. aTenagoras Tanaxmad (am sityvebiT igi buTebas. am formaluri gansxvavebis gamo zogierTi
imperatorebs mimarTavda), “Cemi mizani kerpTa mxileba ki ar aris, mkvlevari fiqrobs, rom "aRdgomis Sesaxeb" naSromi sxva
aramed ciliswamebaTa mogeriebiT Cveni arCevanis arsis warmodgenaa” avtorma, da ara aTenagoram dawera.16 magram es xom SeiZleba
(@ (•D BD@6,\:,<@< :@4 ¦8X(P,4< J• , *T8"s •88• •B@8L`:,<@H J•H
*4"$@8•H 8@(4F: < J-H BD@”4DXF,TH : < B”DXPT - Leg. 18, 2). avtoris 14
ix. B. Pouderon. Orphée chez les Apologistes. - in: Pouderon, teqsti,
mier es Segnebuli aRiareba da SeumCneveli xazgasma msgavsebisa massa gv.325-328.
da oponents Soris (orive filosofosia!) aTenagoras imTaviTve 15
"Suamdgomlobis" ukanasknel, 38-e TavSi aTenagora ambobs:
momgebian mdgomareobaSi ayenebs. misi toni mowinaaRmdegis mimarT, "xolo aRdgomis Sesaxeb msjeloba gverdze gadavdoT", da amiT
sakuTari poziciis dauTmoblad, ara Tu ara Seuracmyofelia, aramed TiTqos mianiSnebs, rom sakuTriv aRdgomis Sesaxeb mas sxva naSromi
pativiscemiTacaa gamsWvaluli. aseTi teqsti adresats albaT ar aqvs dawerili (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 209).
gaaRizianebda, aramed Caafiqrebda. 16
mag. Grant, Gallicet. ix. Pouderon, gamokvleva, gv. 65-67.
28 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 29

iseTive bunebrivi gansxvaveba iyos erTi avtoris sxvadasxva aRdgoma aravisTvis (arc goniseuli arsebebisTvis, arc
nawarmoebs Soris, rogoricaa, magaliTad, gansxvaveba pirutyvTaTvis, arc Tavad aRdgomili adamianisaTvis)
prokles "Teologiis safuZvlebsa" da platonis dialo- saziano ver iqneba (T. 10).
gebze mis komentarebs Soris: pirvel naSromSi arcerTi ci- "fizikuri" TvalsazrisiT aRdgoma adamianis (individis)
tata ar aris, komentarebSi ki uamravia. amJamad mkvlevarebi agebulebis aRdgenaa: "[adamianis sxeulis elementebi], erTma-
(puderoni, barnardi) ufro metad ixrebian im azrisken, rom neTTan kvlav SeerTebulni, ikaveben maTTvis Cveul adgils,
aTenagoras avtorobiT cnobili orive naSromi mas ekuTvnis. rom warmoqmnan imave sxeulis harmonia da agebuleba
(FbFJ"F4H)" (De Res. 8,4). es procesi b. puderons ase aqvs ganmar-
2. "mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb" tebuli: "adamianuri sxeulis sawyisebi, maT "bunebriv
garemos" (J4 FL((,<XH - De Res. 2, 5; 20, 3) mowyvetilni, individis
"SuamdgomlobaSi" ZiriTadad kosmologiuri sakiTxebi fizikurad warmoqmnis Semdeg, sikvdilisas daiSlebian
ganixileba, "mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb" traqtatSi ki (gaifantebian) da xelaxla uerTdebian Tavdapirvel
anTropologia. aTenagoras Tanaxmad, WeSmaritebis Sesaxeb garemos. am mdgomareobaSi arian isini aRdgomis dRemde,
msjeloba orgvaria. erTi WeSmaritebis dasacavad aris roca xdeba maTi xelaxali SeerTeba da imave individis
gankuTvnili. es erTgvarad negatiuri msjelobaa: misi mizani sxeulis (amjerad ukve uxrwnelis) xelaxali Seqmna."18 aTena-
aris mowinaaRmdegeTa debulebebis uaryofa da is mosam- goras Tanaxmad, "aRdgoma cvlilebaa ukeTesobisken" (De Res.
zadebel safexurs warmoadgens meore - sakuTriv WeSma- 12, 9), e.i. sxeuli xdeba uxrwneli, maradmyofi, (b. puderonma
ritebis Sesaxeb pozitiuri msjelobisaTvis. naSromis pir- SeniSna, rom termins "ukvdavi" aTenagora sxeulis mimarT ar
vel nawilSi aRdgoma ganxilulia fizikuri TvalsazrisiT, xmarobs, aramed mxolod sulisa da goniseul arsTa mimarT) -
meoreSi - esqatologiuri da metafizikuri TvalsazrisiT.17 igi Tvisobrivad ukeTesia, magram substanciurad igivea.19
traqtatis pirvel nawilSi aTenagora ganixilavs sxeulis "aRdgomis Sesaxeb" naSromis SuaSi (T. 11) aTenagora
aRdgomis rwmenis mowinaaRmdegeTa pozicias da cdilobs mis xelaxla, iseve rogorc amave naSromis pirvel TavSi,
uaryofas. oponentebis debulebebi aseTia: (1) RmerTs ar msjelobs WeSmaritebis Sesaxeb moZRvrebis ori aspeqtis
ZaluZs mkvdari sxeulebis aRdgena, roca sxeulTa nawilebi Sesaxeb: WeSmaritebis dasacavi msjeloba, romlis mizania
gaxrwnilia, an roca adamianis sxeuli romelime mxecma SecdomaTa gasworeba, Tavisi arsiT qvemdgomia WeSmaritebis
SeWama, xolo am mxecis xorci ki, Tavis mxriv, sxva adamianTa Sesaxeb msjelobasTan SedarebiT. miuxedavad amisa,
sakvebad iqca. amis sapasuxod aTenagora, galenosis kvebis WeSmaritebis dasacav msjelobas zogjer WeSmaritebis
Teoriaze dayrdnobiT, asabuTebs, rom kvebisas mxolod Sesaxeb msjelobis win vayenebT, arsebuli dabrkolebebis
organizmisTvis bunebrivi sakvebis SeTviseba xdeba; raRac gadalaxvisa da SecdomaTa gasworebis mizniT. WeSmaritebis
SemTxvevis gamo SeWmuli adamianis xorci mis mWamels dasacavi msjeloba ufro sxvebTan SekamaTebis mizniT
(adamians) verasdros ver Seewyoba. RmerTs sruliad gamoiyeneba, WeSmaritebis Sesaxeb msjelobis msmenelni ki
daSlili sxeulebis aRdgenac SeuZlia (T. 1-9). oponentebis
meore argumenti: RmerTs ar surs gardacvlilTa aRdgoma. 18
iqve, gv. 181.
arndoma SeiZleba imiT iyos gamowveuli, rom aRdgoma an
19
iqve, gv. 184-185. aTenagorasTan ar dgas aRdgomis Semdeg
Tavad aRdgomilis an sxva vinmes mimarT sazianoa (–*46@< - substanciurad axali, "pnevmaturi" sxeulis arsebobis sakiTxi,
origenes mier dasmuli, romelic SemdgomSi amave Temaze daweril
usamarTlobaa). aTenagora asabuTebs, rom mkvdar sxeulTa
yvela naSromSi aisaxa. amitom, b. puderonis azriT, aTenagoras
"aRdgomis Sesaxeb" II saukunis bolos unda iyos dawerili. (Pouderon,
17
Pouderon, gamokvleva, gv. 180. gamokvleva, gv. 89).
30 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 31

morwmuneebi arian, romlebic WeSmaritebisa da sakuTari TavisTavad is faqti, rom adamianis bunebas sulisa da
xsnisaTvis iRwvian. mizani orive msjelobisa erTia: sxeulis erTianoba warmoadgens, aTenagorasTvis aqsiomaa,
RvTismosaoba (,8F,$,\"). mis axsnasa da dasabuTebas igi ara cdilobs. b. puderonis
"aRdgomis Sesaxeb" traqtatis me-12 TavSi iwyeba naSromis ganmartebiT, aTenagoras SemoqmedebaSi Tavi moiyara da
meore nawili: aRdgomis dasabuTeba pozitiuri gziT. aTena- erTmaneTs daupirispirda ori tradicia: iudeuri, romelic
goras argumentebi Semdeg sakiTxebs ukavSirdeba: (1) miznob- adamians mTlianobad aRiqvamda, da elinuri, romelic
rivi mizezi: RmerTs adamiani Tavisi an sxvisi saWiroebisTvis adamians ori - ukvdavi da mokvdavi - sawyisisagan Sedgenilad
ar Seuqmnia. man adamiani Seqmna Tavis xatad da msgavsad, miiCnevda. platonuri tradiciisgan gansxvavebiT, aTenago-
mianiWa mas goneba da gansja da maradiuli arseboba Semo- rasTan adamiani ar Sedgeba xorcis, sulisa da gonisagan,
qmedis Zalisa da sibrZnis Sesacnobad. is, rac sxvisi saWiroe- aramed sxeulisa da sulisgan. is adamianuri Tvisebebi,
bisTvis ki ar Seqmnila, aramed TavisTvis, arsebobas ar romlebsac antikuri tradicia suls miakuTvnebda (goni-
Sewyvets. maradiuli sicocxle sawindaria aRdgomisa (T. 12- ereba, cnobiereba), aTenagoras azriT, adamianis rogorc
13). miznobrivi mizezis argumentidan gamomdinareobs (2) mTelis (e.i. sulisa da sxeulis erTianobis) kuTvnilebaa.21
adamianis bunebasTan dakavSirebuli sabuTi. adamianis buneba amiTi gansxvavdeba aTenagora platonikosebis, origenes
sulisa da sxeulis erTianobaa. sxeuli mokvdavia; aRdgomis mimdevrebisa da gnostikosebisgan, da amiTi hgavs misi
gareSe adamianis buneba (romlis arss, rogorc iTqva, sulisa Sexeduleba iustinesa da meTodes pozocias.22
da sxeulis erTianoba qmnis) ver SenarCundeboda. adamianis meoTxe argumenti aRdgomis WeSmaritebis sasargeblod
arsebobaSi wyvetili (sikvdili) araa aRdgomisaTvis damabr- adamianis bolos -dasasruls - mizans (JX8@H) exeba: yvelafers
kolebeli, iseve, rogorc Zili ver Sewyvets sicocxles (T. Tavisi bunebis Sesabamisi bolo (daniSnuleba, mizani) aqvs.
15-17). adamianis, rogorc goniseuli da gansjis unaris mqone
Semdgomi (3) argumenti gangebas (BD`<@4") da gankiTxvas arsebis bolo, sxva qmnilebaTa bolosgan unda
ukavSirdeba. RvTis gangeba (zrunva) samyarosa da adamianze gansxvavdebodes. es bolo erTdroulad sulsac da sxeulsac
vrceldeba, ramdenadac igi maTi Semoqmedia; xolo adamiani, exeba. igi, rogorc zemoT vTqviT, verc adamianis sicocxleSi
rogorc gonieri arseba, samarTals (gankiTxvas - *46Z) aRsruldeba, verc sxeulis sikvdilis Semdeg. amdenad,
saWiroebs. adamianis Sesaxeb laparaki mis mTlianobas - sikvdilis Semdgom, sxeulis sruli daSlisa da xrwnis
sulisa da sxeulis erTianobas gulisxmobs. sicocxleSi SemTxvevaSic unda moxdes imave pirovnebis sulisa da
Cadenili saqmeebisTvis pasuxs ara calke suli an sxeuli sxeulis axali erTianobis warmoqmna. amitom aris auci-
agebs, aramed maTi erTianoba - adamiani rogorc mTeli. lebeli mkvdari sxeulebis aRdgoma. imave pirovnebis
gankiTxva ar aRsruldeba arc amqveynad (keTilni ar aRsadgenad igive suli imave sxeuls ukavSirdeba. mxolod
dajildovdebian Tavisi keTili saqmeebisTvis am cxovrebaSi, amis Sedegad aRwevs adamiani Tavisi bunebis Sesabamis mizans
arc borotni Rebuloben sakadris sasjels) da arc (JX8@H). gonieri cxovrebis mizani Semoqmedis sibrZnis
sikvdilis Semdeg (mravali borotebis Camdeni adamiani erTi Wvretaa, Tumca mravalni amas ver axerxeben (T. 24-25).
sikvdiliT ver ganiwmindeba yvela danaSaulisagan) (T. 18-23).
sulisa da sxeulis erTianoba aris aTenagoras mTavari aTenagoras traqtati "aRdgomis Sesaxeb" erTerTi pirve-
argumenti sxeulTa aRdgomis dasasabuTeblad.20 magram lia qristianobis istoriaSi am Temaze daweril TxzulebaTa
20
aTenagora pirveli qristiani moazrovne iyo, romelmac
adamianis, rogorc sulisa da sxeulis erTianobis aRsaniSnad 21
Pouderon, gamokvleva, gv. 201.
gamoiyena termini J4 FL<":N`J,D@<, ix. qvemoT, De Res. 18, 4. 22
iqve, gv. 214.
32 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 33

Soris. masze cota adre iustinem (avtoroba SeiZleba masa da qristes inkarnacias Soris. b. puderons mohyavs
avTenturi ar iyos) dawera imave saxelwodebis Sroma. citatebi pavles, egnates, polikarpes, irineosis
irineosis "eresTa winaaRmdeg" V wigni aRdgomis sakiTxsa da sityvebidan, sadac aRdgomis realobis cxadyofisaTvis
gnostikosTa kritikas exeba. amave Temaze aqvT Sromebi qristes aRdgomaa damowmebuli. egnate, magaliTad,
tertulianesa da origenes.23 b. puderonma yuradReba miaqcia xazgasmiT ambobda, rom RmerTi imaT aRadgens, visac misi
aRdgomasTan dakavSirebul terminologiur (ufro swored, swams, xolo polikarpe - rom RmerTi Cven aRgvadgens,
jer araterminulobis) sakiTxs aTenagoras naSromSi. rogorc ieso aRadgina, Tu mis nebas SevasrulebT.27
aTenagora ubralod ambobs: "mkvdarTa aRdgoma". igi ganur- aTenagora, samociqulo tradiciisgan gansxvavebiT, ufro
Cevlad xmarobs sityvebs „aRdgoma" (•<VFJ"F4H), „mkvdarTa axal Tvalsazriss iziarebs - yvelas aRdgomis Sesaxeb. es
aRdgoma", (•<VFJ"F4H <,6D^<), „sxeulTa aRdgoma" (•<VFJ"F4H SeiniSneba iustinesa (1 Apol. LII, 3) da tatianesTanac (Ad Graec.
FT:VJT<), „adamianTa aRdgoma" (•<VFJ"F4H •<2DfBT<). igi ar XIII), oRond am ukanasknelTan - naklebad mkafiod.28
axsenebs „xorcis aRdgomas" (•<VFJ"F4H J-H F"D6`H), miuxedavad l. barnardi, romelic aTenagoras apologetebs Soris
imisa, rom sxeulze msjelobs. III saukunis dasawyisSi yvelaze logikur moazrovned miiCnevs,29 aRniSnavs, rom igi
SeiniSneba xazgasma sityvisa "xorci" - FVD> (mas erTgvarad iesos qristianobis damfuZneblad ar asaxelebda. igi RmerTs
ufro zogadi da abstraqtuli mniSvneloba aqvs, vidre "iesos" ar uwodebda, aramed "RvTis Zes" an "mamis sityvas" (Leg.
"sxeuls" - F^:"). amasTan dakavSirebiT b. puderons mohyavs 10). amiT gansxvavdeba aTenagora iustinesagan, romelsac
meTode olimpoelis teqsti misi "aRdgomis Sesaxeb" naSro- bevri detali mohyavs iesos cxovrebidan. l. barnardis azriT,
midan: "Tu suli ukvdavia, xolo sikvdili mis sxeuls exeba, amaSi vlindeba msgavseba galenosisa da aTenagoras
maSin gamodis, rom vinc aRdgomas aRiarebs, magram ara msoflmxedvelobas Soris (maTi urTierTSedarebis safuZ-
xorcis aRdgomas, igi sinamdvileSi aRdgomas uaryofs." vels xom aTenagoras mier saWmlis monelebis galenosiseuli
(Meth. Olymp. De Res. I, 56,6).24 vinaidan aTenagoras naSromSi es moZRvrebis gaziareba da gadmocema iZleva "aRdgomis Sesaxeb"
terminologiuri xazgasma araa, amitom mis avtorsi, b. traqtatSi, agreTve isic, rom es ori moazrovne erTmaneTis
puderonis azriT, meTodes dros an uSualod mis Semdgom ar Tanamedrove iyo). galenosis pretenzia qristianTa mimarT is
unda ecxovra da naSromi, Sesabamisad, III saukunis dasaw- iyo, rom maT sakuTari tradicia filosofiurad unda
yisamde unda yofiliyo Seqmnili. meore mniSvnelovani gaeazrebinaT, "arafilosofiuri miTebisa da daujerebeli
argumenti, romelic b. puderons uflebas aZlevs aTenagoras zRaprebis damowmebis gareSe". l. barnardis azriT,
saxeliT cnobili es naSromi II saukunis bolosTvis aTenagoras Sromebi TiTqos qristianobis mxridan pasuxia am
Seqmnilad miiCnios, masSi aRdgomili sxeulis "xarisxis" braldebaze.30 aTenagoras apologeturi meTodi gansxvavdeba
Sesaxeb origenes mier dasmuli sakiTxis ausaxvelobaa.25 sxva adreuli xanis apologetebis, magaliTad, iustines
sainteresoa, rom aRdgomis Sesaxeb msjelobisas meTodisgan, romelic, l. barnardis TqmiT, upirveles
aTenagora qristes aRdgomas ar imowmebs. igi rogorc yovlisa bibliuri moazrovne iyo. aTenagorasTan saerTod
filosofosi msjelobs da ara rogorc mociquli.26 aTena- cotaa citatebi bibliidan, da arc is rwmenaa gamoxatuli,
goras Tanaxmad, ara marto qristianni aRdgebian, aramed rom platonis Semoqmedeba mosem gansazRvra.31 Zveli aRTqma
yvela aRdgeba (De Res. 14,6). igi ar avlebs paralels aRdgo-
27
iqve, gv. 194.
23
iqve, gv. 86. 28
iqve, gv. 195.
29
24
iqve, gv. 87. Barnard, p. 56.
25
ix. zemoT, SeniSvna 19. 30
iqve, gv. 56.
26
Pouderon, gamokvleva, gv. 191. 31
iqve, gv. 69-71.
34 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 35

aTenagorasTan araa warmodgenili qristianobis winasa- ufro maRali sferoebis ganmgeblebi arian.37
fexurad. amiT igi TiTqos Tavs izRvevda im braldebisagan, aTenagoras damokidebuleba antikuri filosofiisadmi
romelsac warmarTi moazrovneebi, magaliTad, misi calke gansaxilveli sakiTxia, romelsac aq ver SevexebiT.38
Tanamedroveni kelsosi da galeni iudaizmisa da berZnuli filosofia aTenagorasTvis garkveulwilad
qristianobis (da maT Soris kavSiris) mimarT gamoTqvamdnen. SezRuduli, magram imave dros saWiro da aucilebeli
galenosi akritikebda RvTisa da saRvTo yovlisSemZleobis etapia qristianobasTan miaxloebis gzaze.39 sainteresoa,
Sesaxeb iudeur warmodgenas. igi ambobda, rom mosesa da rom aTenagora pirveli qristiani avtori iyo, romelic
winaswarmetyvelTa drom ganvlo da adamianebi logikurad, orfikul kosmologias Seexo.40 "SuamdgomlobaSi", rogorc
racionalurad unda msjelobdnen, rogorc amas vTqviT, bevria paralelebi, magaliTebi, citatebi, sxvaTa da
filosofosebi aswavlidnen V saukunis win. brma rwmenis sxvaTa Soris, antikuri samyarodanac. "aRdgomis Sesaxeb"
adgili gonivrulma WeSmaritebam unda daikavos.32 kelsosi naSromSi uSualo damowmebebi TiTqmis ar aris, magram
iudaizmsa da qristianobas Soris did gansxvavebas ver avtoris interesi antikurobisadmi aSkaraa, berZnuli
xedavda.33 SesaZloa, aseTi argumentebis arsebobis gamo filosofiis gavlena masze udavoa.
aTenagoram qristianobisTvis saxifaTod miiCnia iudaizmsa da
qristianobas Soris mimarTebis Cveneba. aTenagoras "aRdgomis Sesaxeb" naSromis Targmanisas,
aTenagoras mniSvneloba TeologiisaTvis, mkvlevarTa garda Patrologia Graeca-si, gamoviyene b. puderonis gamocema
azriT, samebis Sesaxeb moZRvrebis daxvewaSi mdgomareobs, misive franguli TargmaniT, visargeble J. H. Crehan-is, Schoedel-
romelic misi drois apologetebis SemoqmedebaSi jer isa41 da B.P. Pratten-is42 inglisuri TargmanebiT, germanuli
sakmaod damuSavebuli ar iyo. aTenagoram samebasTan TargmaniT seriidan „Bibliothek der Kirchenväter", 1. Band, Kempten und
dakavSirebiT34 pirvelma ixmara is sityvebi, romlebic München, Lösel 1913, da p. preobraJenskis rusuli TargmaniT
SemdgomSi cnebebad iqca: ©<`J0Hs §<TF4Hs *4"\D,F4Hs 6@4<T<\"s (1895, xelaxali gamocema sanqt-peterburgi 1999). SeniSv-
•B`DD@4".35 borot, dacemul angelozs aTenagora "eSmaks" ar nebisTvisac, ZiriTadad, es gamocemebi gamoviyene, maTSi
uwodebda. aseTi angelozi misTvis "materiis sulia", romel- damowmebuli teqstebi xelaxla gadavamowme.43
mac materia ise warmarTa, rom is RvTis sikeTes daupiris-
pira. sainteresoa, rom am angelozs aTenagora RvTis sikeTes lela aleqsiZe
da ara TviTon RmerTs upirispirebda, rac TiTqos
dualizmisTvis Tavis aridebaa.36 aTenagora pirveli qristi- 37
Barnard, p. 114.
ani filosofosi iyo, romelmac dacemuli angelozebi im 38
es sakiTxi dawvrilebiT aris ganxiluli b. puderonis
qveda sferoTa mcvelebad miiCnia, romlebic miwasa da cas gamokvlevaSi.
gars akraven, xolo keTili angelozebi, misi ganmartebiT, 39
Pouderon, gamokvleva, 204.
40
Leg. 18-Si aTenagora orfikul kosmologias gadmoscems,
32
iqve, gv. 54-55. qristianuli moZRvrebis masTan upiratesobis saCveneblad.
33
iqve, gv. 67. 41
Athenagoras. Legatio and De Resurrectione. Ed. and translated by William R.
34
aq ZiriTadad igulisxmeba mamisa da Zis urTierTmimarTeba; Schoedel. Oxford. At the Clarendon Press. 1972.
suliwmidis sakiTxi jer mkafiod ar idga. 42
Writings of Athenagoras. Translated by the Rev. B. P. Pratten. On the
35
Barnard, p.108-111. ediSer WeliZis Tanaxmad, am cnebebis qarTuli Resurrection of the Dead. – In: The ante-Nicean Fathers. V. II, NY, 1893, p. 149-162.
Sesatyvisebi iyo: "erToba", SeerTeba", "ganwvaleba", "ziareba", "ganfena". 43
madlobeli var ediSer WeliZis, romlis iniciativiT am teqstis
36
aseTi dualizmi ara marto gnosticizms axasiaTebs, aramed Targmna daviwye, da bernar puderonisa, romelic Targmnis procesSi
zogierT adreqristianul teqstsac. - Barnard, p. 114. damexmara, aseve zurab kiknaZis, araerTi safuZvliani SeniSvnisTvis.
36 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 37

aTenagora aTeneli, qristiani filosofosi qiT, [WeSmaritebis] dasacavi [msjeloba] win uswrebs [WeSmari-
tebis] Sesaxeb msjelobas. marTlac da, vercerTi
mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb
miwaTmoqmedi ver SeZlebs daTesos ise, rogorc saWiroa,47 Tu
windawin velur niadags ar [daamuSavebs] da saTesle
1 kulturisaTvis sazianos ar amoZirkavs. verc eqimi Seiyvans
(1) yvela Sexedulebasa da moZRvrebasTan erTad, romlebic wamals dasneulebul sxeulSi, Tu windawin ar ganwmeds [orga-
sinamdvileSi WeSmariti arian, raRac tyuilic aRmocendeba; nizmSi] dabudebul avadmyofobas, an mis gavrcelebas ar SeaCe-
aRmocendeba ara bunebrivad, [maTi] qvemdebare safuZvlidan an rebs. verc WeSmaritebis swavlebis msurveli daarwmunebs
im mizezidan, romelic calkeul [sakiTxs gansazRvravs], ara- vinmes WeSmaritebis Sesaxeb moxsenebiT, Tu msmenelTa gonebas
med rogorc imaTi moRvaweobis nayofi, visac WeSmaritebis Secdomaa dauflebuli, romelic mis sabuTebs win eRobeba.48
mosaSTobad boroti Teslis Tesva eamayeba. (2) es, upirveles (5) amitom Cvenc, meti sargeblianobisTvis, WeSmaritebis
yovlisa, SesamCnevia imaTTan, vinc warsulSi fiqri am dasacavi msjeloba zogjer WeSmaritebis Sesaxeb
[sakiTxebs] miuZRvna, agreTve im uTanxmoebaSi, romelic maTsa [msjelobas] win warvumZRvarebT. am gziT svla arc am
da maT winamorbedebsa Tu TanamedroveTa Soris gaCenila, da SemTxvevaSi - aRdgomis ganxilvisas aris urigo, Tu saWiroe-
aranakleb sakiTxis im gaurkvevlobaSi, romlis mowmeni Cvenc bas gaviTvaliswinebT. radgan aqac SevxvdebiT iseTebs, vinc
varT.44 WeSmaritebidan [am xalxs] ciliswamebis gareSe sruliad urwmunoa an eWvobs, an kidev, Tumca am sakiTxebSi
araferi dautovebia, arc RvTis arseba, arc [misi] codna da amosaval debulebebs eTanxmeba, mainc daeWvebulTa msgavsad
moqmedeba, an sxva aqedan gamomdinare ram, rac Cveni RvTismo- sirTuleebis winaSe dgas. yvelaze didi uazroba maTi es
saobis safuZvelia. zogs am [sakiTxebSi] WeSmaritebis [miR- gancdaa, roca saqmis viTareba urwmunobis araviTar safuZ-
wevis] imedi sul daukargavs, sxva sakuTar Tvalsazriss das- vels ar iZleva, da verc gonivrul mizezs pouloben imis
jerebia, zogi ki cxadi rac aris, imaSic daeWvebas cdilobs. asaxsnelad, Tu ratom ara swamT an eWvoben.49
(3) amitom, vfiqrob, imaTTvis, vinc am [sakiTxebze] muSaobs,
orgvari msjelobaa saWiro: WeSmaritebis dasacavi da
2
WeSmaritebis Sesaxeb.45 WeSmaritebis dasacavi imaTTvisaa,
vinc urwmunoa da eWvobs, WeSmaritebis Sesaxeb ki - vinc
keTilgonieria da WeSmaritebas xalisiT iRebs. amitom am (1) ase ganvsajoT: yovelgvari urwmunoba, gaCenili ara
[sakiTxTa] Seswavlis msurvelebma yovel calkeul SemTxve- naucbaTevad da ganusjelad, aramed safuZvliani mizeziTa
vaSi arsebuli viTareba unda awon-dawonon, msjeloba amas da WeSmaritebisTvis Sesaferisi damajereblobiT, Tavis
Seufardon, gamosakvlev sakiTxTa rigi saTanadod gamarTon marTebulobas maSin inarCunebs, roca Tavad saqme, romlisac
da ise ar mouvideT, rom erTi da imave principis mudam dacvis ara swamT, arasarwmunod gamoiyureba. xolo imisi
mizniT gauTvaliswinebeli darCeT [sakiTxTa] Sesabamisoba da urwmunoba, rac sarwmunoa, im adamianebs sCvevia, vinc WeSma-
TiToeulisaTvis Sesaferisi adgili. (4) dasabuTebisa da ritebas arajansaRad gansjis. (2) amitom visac aRdgomisa ara
bunebrivi Tanmimdevrobis TvalsazrisiT [WeSmaritebis] Sesa- 47
miwaTmoqmedebis magaliTi platonuria, gamoiyeneba sakiTxis
xeb msjeloba mudam win uswrebs [WeSmaritebis] dasacav msje- wamowyebisas. ix. mag. Plat. Eutyph. 2d. (Crehan, p. 169).
lobas, xolo meti sargeblianobis46 TvalsazrisiT ki, piri- 48
analogiuri msjeloba mkurnelobisa da swavlis magaliTze ix.
Plat. Sophist. 230c-d.
44 49
es qristianebs exeba da ara, magaliTad, iseT mowinaaRmdegeebs,
45
rogorc gnostikosebia, romelTac aTenagora sakmaod uxeSad
46
moixseniebda. (De Res. 2, 2; 8, 5; 9,1) (Pouderon, gamokvl. 93).
38 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 39

swams an eeWveba, nu gamoTqvamen ganusjelad Tavis azrs imis aRsasruleblad, rac icis, an arasakmarisad aqvs, is
aRdgomis Sesaxeb, rac TavaSvebulT50 gaaxarebda; adamianTa saqmes ar wamoiwyebs, Tu Wkua hyofnis da sakuTar SesaZleb-
gaCena maT an araviTar mizezs ar unda daukavSiron, rac lobebs sworad gansjis. radgan ganusjelad Tu wamoiwyo,
advilad uariyofa, an arsebulTa mizezis RvTisadmi mikuTv- Canafiqrs ver aRasrulebs. (5) magram RmerTma SeuZlebelia
nebiT am moZRvrebis safuZveli unda ganixilon da amis ar icodes aRsadgen sxeulTa buneba mTlianobaSi, maTi
Sedegad daasabuTon, rom aRdgoma sruliad arasarwmunoa. nawilebisa da nawevarTa mixedviT,53 an ar [icodes], Tu saiT
(3) magram amas [mxolod im SemTxvevaSi] ganaxorcieleben, Tu midis TiToeuli daSlili [nawili], an kavSiris54 romelma
SeZleben damtkicebas, rom RmerTs ar ZaluZs an ar nebavs nawilma miiRo is, rac daiSala da monaTesavesken wavida,55
mkvdari an sruliad daSlili sxeulebi isev SeaerTos da Tundac adamianebs sruliad ganuyoflad eCvenebodeT is, rac
imave adamianTa aRnagoba mianiWos.51 xolo Tu es ar SeuZliaT, mTels xelaxla mWidrod SeuerTda. radgan igi [e.i. RmerTi],
moeSvan uRvTo urwmunobasa da dauSvebel avsityvaobas. vinc TiToeuli [sxeulis] agebamdec icnobda im Sesaqmnel
xolo marTali rom ar aris, vinc ambobs: "ar ZaluZso", da arc
is, vinc: "ar nebavso", Semdgom naTqvamSi gacxaddeba.52 53
6"J• J, :XD@H 8@< 6" :`D4@< - "nawiliT" aq ufro did nawils
(4) is, rom vinme [garkveul] saqmes ver Seasrulebs, gadmovcemT, "nawevariT" ufro pataras.
sinamdvileSi imiT ganisazRvreba, rom man ar icis, rac gasa- 54
J@ FJ@4P,\@L. es sityva, romelic dasavlur TargmanebSi
keTebelia, an rac icis, imis kargad gasakeTeblad sakmarisi "elementad" gadmodis, aq, ioane petriwiseuli tradiciiT, "kavSirad"
Zala ar Seswevs. magram visac imisi ar gaegeba, rac unda vTargmne. miTumetes, rom FJ@P, @<-i "kavSiris", rogorc raRac
Seqmnas, ver wamoiwyebs da saerTodac ver ganaxorcielebs erTeulTa erTianobis Tanamedrove mniSvnelobasac ufro
Seesabameba, vidre "elements", romelic Zalauneburad umcires
imas, rac ar icis. xolo vinc gasakeTebeli kargad icis, Tu
ganuyofel nawilakze gvafiqrebinebs. platonizmSi FJ@4P, @<-i ara
saidan unda gakeTdes da rogor, magram Zala an sul ara aqvs umartivesi nawilaki iyo, aramed sxvadasxva sawyisTa erToblioba,
maTi garkveuli naerTi. prokles Tanaxmad, yoveli "stiqioni"
50
puderonis azriT, aq gnostikosebi igulisxmebian. (Pouderon, TavisTavad kosmosia (Procl. in Tim. III E 172,3 Diehl). Schoedel-i aRniSnavs,
teqsti, gv.220). rom aTenagoras es teqsti hgavs platonis msjelobas "kavSirTa"
51
"aRnagoba" (FbFJ"F4H) platonuri gamoTqmaa sagnis agebulebis daSlis Sesaxeb (Tim. 57b, 81a). sayovelTaod gaziarebuli iyo is azric,
aRsaniSnavad. Sdr. Tim. 32 c, 36 d. - Crehan, p. 169. aq aTenagora Tavisi rom "stiqionebi" garkveul naerTs warmoadgendnen ("that the elements are
naSromis pirveli nawilis gegmas gvamcnobs: RvTis uZaloba (2, 4 - 9); ‘compounds’ was commonly held"), aRniSnavs Schoedel-i da miuTiTebs
RvTis arndoma (10 - 11). es, imave dros, sxeulis aRdgomis aetiusze, Plac. 1,1,2. platonic werda "stiqionTa" nawilebis Sesaxeb,
mowinaaRmdegeTa or ZiriTad arguments exmianeba, rogorc romlebic "daSlis" Semdeg mimoiqceodnen da Semdeg sxvadasxva saxiT
warmarTebisa (Orig. C. Cels. V, 14. ix. agreTve Justin., Quaest. ad Christ. XV, PG erTiandebodnen (Tim. 56d - 57c). aTenagora msjelobda stiqionTa
6, 1477 d - 1480 a), aseve gnostikosebisa (Justin. De Res. II, PG 6, 1573; V, 1577 nawilebis Sesaxeb, romlebic mWidrod ukavSirdebian erTmaneTs (2, 5,
- 1580; Irenaeos, Haer. V, 4, 1; Tertul. De Res. XI, 3) da qristianebisa (Meth. De 3, 2. - Schoedel, p. 93).
Res. I, 22, 1. - Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 220-221). meTodes Tanaxmad, origene 55
aTenagoras azriT, yoveli "stiqioni", romlisganac adamiani
(De Res. I, 20, 2) sayvedurobda imaT, visac mTeli sxeulis aRdgoma Sedgeba, garkveul garemos ekuTvnis da is aucileblad amave
swamda; isini emyarebodnen debulebebs, romelTa Tanaxmad "RmerTi garemoSi unda dabrundes. b. puderoni miuTiTebs, rom es berZnul
akeTebs, rac surs" da "RmerTisTvis yvelaferia SesaZlebeli", da ver azrovnebaSi gavrcelebuli azria: Eurip. Chrys. Frag. 839 Nauck, v. 9-11:
iTvaliswinebden, rom iseT rameze laparakobden, rac sworedac rom “miwis nayofi miwasve ubrundeba", da a. S., - citata, sxvaTa da sxvaTa
RvTisTvis "SeuZlebelia" da "arasakadrisi". (Schoedel, p. 93). Soris, markus avreliusTan, VII, 50 ; Method. De Res. II, 26, 2 (imave
52
momdevno abzacSi aTenagora asabuTebs, rom RmerTisTvis konteqstSi); ix. agreTve Justin. 1 Ap. XIX, 5; Tatian, Ad Graec. VI, XX; Irenaeos,
iseTive advilia mkvdarTa aRdgena, rogorc cocxalTa Seqmna Haer. V, 3, 2; Method. De Res. I, 14, 4-5; Graeg. Nyss. De an. et Res. 20 b-c; M. Felix,
(Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 221). Octav. V, 8. (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 222).
40 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 41

kavSirTa bunebas, romlebisganac adamianTa sxeulebi [Sedge- Teslebs [miiCnevs].60 imitom rom Zala, romelic maT mier
ba], da am kavSirTa nawilebsac, romelTa gamoyeneba [man] uformod miCneul [arsebas] formas aniWebs,61 usaxosa da
adamianuri sxeulis agebisTvis ganizraxa, mas, cxadia, uwesrigos nairgvari saxeebiT awesrigebs,62 kavSirTa nawilebs
SeuZlebelia ar scodnoda, Tu saiT wavida mTelis56 daSlis Tavs uyris, erTiansa da martiv Tesls simravled Slis,
Semdeg TiToeuli [im Semadgenel nawilTagan], romlebic man daunawevrebels anawevrebs, aracocxals sicocxles aZlevs,
calkeuli [sxeulis] srulqmnas moaxmara. igive Zala aerTianebs daSlilebs, aRadgens dacemuls, mkvdars
(6) rac Seexeba CvenSi amJamad arsebul saganTa wessa da xelaxla cxovelyofs, xrwnads uxrwnelad gadaaqcevs.63
sxva [movlenaTa] gansjas,57 ufro rTulia [jer] arqmnilis (3) imave RmerTs, imave Zalasa da sibrZnes SeuZlia
winaswarcodna; magram RvTis didebisa da misi sibrZnisaTvis gamoacalkevos is, rac nairgvar cxovelTa simravleSi da-
orive bunebrivia da Tanabrad advili: [jer] arqmnilis 60
puderonis azriT, aTenagoras mxedvelobaSi hyavs platoni an
winaswarcodna Tu ukve daSlilis codna. aristotele (roca "nivTierebaze" laparakobs), stoelebi ("kavSirni")
da bolos an romeliRac samedicino skola ("Teslebi" - Sdr. qvemoT,
3 XVII, 2), an aTenagoras homeomeriebi, romlebsac "Teslebic" ewodeboda
(1) [RmerTs] rom sxeulTa aRdgomisTvis sakmarisi Zala (ix. Irenaeos, Haer. II, 14, 2. Sdr. Justin, De Res. VI, PG 6, 1581). igive sqema
Seswevs, amas maTive dabadeba cxadyofs. [RmerTma] Seqmna ada- meordeba amave paragrafis bolos ("uformo arseba", "kavSirebi",
"erTiani da martivi Tesli"). msgavsi sqema aqvs minucius feliqss, Oct. V,
mianTa sxeulebi araradan, mianiWa maT da maT [Semadgenel]
7 (samyaros Seqmnis Sesaxeb samgvari hipoTeza). ix. aristotelec, De
sawyisebs pirveli aRnagoba58. amitom gaxrwnilsac - ra gziTac anima 1, 2, 404 b. (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 225). amave adgilTan dakavSirebiT
ar unda moxdes [gaxrwna] - [RmerTi] advilad aRadgens, misTvis Schoedel-i varaudobs, rom anaqsagora SeiZleba gulisxmobdes (a)
xom es Tanabrad SesaZlebelia.59 (2) am sabuTs veraferi sokratemdel filosofosebs (nivTiereba), (b) platons an
daakldeba imiT, nivTierebaSi ganWvrets vinme pirvelsa- aristoteles (kavSirni), (g) anaqsagoras (Teslebi). termini
fuZvlebs Tu adamianTa sxeulebis sawyisad kavSirebs an ("nivTiereba" "sxeulis" mniSvnelobiT), wers Schoedel-i, mileteli
filosofosebis mier gamoiyeneboda pirvelsawyisis aRsaniSnavad
56
igulisxmeba adamianis sxeuli (Sdr. Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 223). (Aetius, Plac. 1. 9. 6). (Schoedel, p. 95). aq albaT sifrTxilisaTvis unda
57
sakmaod bundovania am winadadebis meore nawili: (•D davazustod: Tu aTenagora "nivTierebis" xsenebisas marTlac miletel
filosofosebs gulisxmobda, maSin mas ara TavisTavad es filosofia
6D\F4<. puderonis Targmani aseTia: "et pour autant qu’on puisse en juger pour unda egulisxma, aramed misi doqsografiuli interpretacia, romelic
les autres" (p. 223). Schoedel: "and in considering our judgement as to other possibilities" miletel filosofosebs pirvelsawyisad "nivTierebis" ( )
(p. 93). Crehan-is Targmani: "and according to the judgement of men of the past" (p. aRiarebas miawerda.
82). Crehan-i, am adgilis Tavis Targmans rom gvTavazobs, Pratten-is 61
Sdr. aristoteles, Phys. 1, 191 a 10. (Pouderon, teqsti, gv 225).
versias akritikebs: "Pratten’s version ‘the judgement we form of other matters’ - 62
Schoedel-is azriT, aq ZiriTadad platonikosebi igulisxmebian;
seems an irrelevant remake for Athenagoras to have made." (Crehan, p. 169). "uwesrigos mowesrigebis" TemisTvis ix. Plat. Tim. 30a, 51a; cf. Aetius, Plac.
puderoni (romlis Targmani SinaarsiT pratenisas hgavs) varaudobs, 1.9.4-5 (in: Doxographi Graeci. ed. Diels); Sdr. Justin., Ap. 1.10.2. (Schoedel, p. 93).
rom am frazaSi miwieri da zeciuri movlenebis opoziciaa Crehan-is azriT, aq igive, aTenagoras mier zemoxsenebuli
gamoxatuli (Crehan, p. 169). neitraluria rusuli Targmani, filosofosebi igulisxmebian, romlebic adamianis sxeulis
ramdenadac maSi ara Cans, ra aris is "sxva", romelsac Cven ganvsjiT. Semadgenel nawilTa sawyisad zogad nivTierebas, dauSlel kavSirebs
58
6"J• J¬< BDfJ0< FbFJ"F4<. Targmanis meore varianti: “[RmerTma] an Teslebs miiCnevdnen. anaqsimandre pirveli Teoriis momxre iyo,
Seqmna adamianTa sxeulebi (ararsebulni Sesaqmis pirvel safexurze) aRniSnavs Crehan-i, anaqsagora - meorisa, galenosi ki Teslebis
da maTi [Semadgeneli] sawyisebi”. Teorias emxroboda. (Crehan, p. 169-170).
59
Sdr. Justin, De Res. V, 59O, PG 6, 1579; Tatian, Ad Graec. VI (Pouderon, 63
Sdr. I kor. 15:42 da 53. Sdr. iustine, I Ap. XIX, 4 (Pouderon, teqsti,
teqsti, gv. 224). gv. 226).
42 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 43

qucmacebula, romlebic Cveulebriv am sxeulebs Tavs esxmian robiT mSobelTa mier bavSTa SeWmis SemTxvevebi, agreTve
da am gziT madas iokeben, Semdeg ki xelaxla SeaerTos isini cnobili midiuri trapezi66 da Tiestes tragikuli nadimi.67
maTsave sakuTar nawilebsa da nawevrebTan, imisda miu- maT Sekribes is ubedurebebi, romlebic berZnebsa da barba-
xedavad, maTi gadasvla erT cxovelSi moxda Tu mravalSi, an rosebSi momxdara da amis safuZvelze, rogorc Tavad hgoni-
erTi [cxovelidan] meoreSi, im SemTxvevaSic, Tu [maT mSTanTq- aT, daaskvnes, rom aRdgoma SeuZlebelia, imitom rom erTi da
mel cxovelTan] erTad gaxrwnilni, bunebrivi daSlis gziT igive [sxeulis] nawilebi sxva sxeulebTan erTad ver aRdgeba;
kvlav pirvelsawyisebs daubrundnen. es is [sakiTxia], rome- [aseT dros] an pirveli sxeulebis aRdgena iqnebao SeuZ-
lic, Cans, zogs gansakuTrebiT abnevs, maT Soris imaTac, vinc lebeli, raki maTi Semadgeneli nawilebi sxva sxeulebSi
sibrZniT gvakvirvebs, da vinc - ar ki vici ratom - safuZv- gadavida, an, Tu isini [Tavis] pirvel [mflobelebs] gadaec-
lianad miiCnevs im eWvebs, romlebsac mravalni gamoTqvamen. nen, maSin meoreni iqnebian naklulni.

4 5
(1) isini amboben, rom mravali sxeuli, sanaosno katast- (1) me mgonia, rom am xalxma, upirveles yovlisa, ar icis
rofebsa Tu mdinareebSi damxrCvali, Tevzebis lukmad samyaros Semoqmedisa da ganmgeblis Zala da sibrZne68: man
iqceva, omSi Tu sxva ufro sastiki mizezisa da garemoebaTa TiToeul cocxal arsebas [misi] bunebisa da gvarisTvis Sesa-
gamo daRupulebsac damarxvis nacvlad momxvduri cxove- ferisi da saWiro sakvebi Seuxama69 da gaumarTlebled
lebis gamaspinZleba uwevT.64 (2) ase nadgurdeba sxeulebi, miiCnia, rom nebisnieri buneba nebismier sxeulTan gaerTia-
xolo maTi Semadgeneli nawilebi da nawevrebi cxovelTa nebuliyo da Serwymuliyo; arc gaerTianebulTa gancal-
simravleSi qucmacdeba da saWmlis saxiT sakvebismimReb sxeu- keveba iyo misTvis SeuZlebeli. piriqiT, igi nebas aZlevs
lebs uerTdeba. amitom jer imas amboben, rom maTi gamijnva TiToeul qmnilebis bunebas misTvis Sesaferisi gziT imoq-
SeuZlebelia, Semdgom ki ufro rTul [sabuTsac] umateben: medos an [zemoqmedeba] ganicados.70 igi sapirispiros abrko-
(3) marTlacda, kaciWamia cxovelebis xorci, Tu is ada- lebs da yvelafers, rac surs, saiTac surs, iqiT warmarTavs
mianTa sakvebadac varga, maT [e.i. adamianebis] kuWs gaivlis an gezs ucvlis. garda amisa, ar iTvaliswineben imis SesaZ-
da maT mimReb sxeulebs SeuerTdeba. e.i. adamianTa nawilebi,
romlebic maTi mSTanTqmeli cxovelebis sakvebadaa qceuli, 66
ix. herodote, I, 107-119: saSineli nadimi, romelic SurisZiebis
uTuod sxva adamianTa sxeulebSi moxvdeba, roca maT Soris mizniT midielTa mefem Tavis naTesavsa da msaxurs, harpagoss
"Suamavali" cxovelebi Tavisive naWamiT sakvebs im adamia- gaumarTa da romelic kanibalizmiT dasrulda.
nebSi gadaitanen, romelTa lukmad Tavad iqcnen. 67
atrevsma, SurisZiebis mizniT, Tavis Zmas Tiestes misive Svilebis
(4) amas kidev ufro did tragediebs umateben: esaa xorci miarTva. ix. agreTve Athenag. Leg. III, 1; XXXVI, 1; Justin. Oratio ad
SimSilisas da sigiJeSi yrmaTmWameloba,65 an mtris mzakv- Graec. II, PG 6, 236; Euseb. H.E. V,1,14; Min. Felix. Octav. XXVIII, 2. (Crehan, p.
163).
64
puderoni aRniSnavs, rom es e.w. kvebis jaWvis argumenti 68
RvTis yovlisSemZleobaSi eWvis Setana mkrexeloba iyo. Sdr.
(adamiani-cxoveli-adamiani), Zveli problemaa. Sdr. Justin. Quaest. Graec. Justin. 1 Ap. XIX, 5; [Justin], De Res. V, PG 6, 1580; Iren. Haer. V, 3, 2. (Pouderon,
XV PG 6, 1465, 1477; Tatian. Ad Graec. VI; Greg. Nyss. In Res. III, PG 46, 660 b-d. teqsti, gv. 230).
igive argumentebi hqondaT warmarTebs, Sdr. Porphyr. fr. 94 (in: Porphyrius 69
esaa galenis Teoria, De Nat. Fac. I, 10, 20 (Kühn, II, 2O) (Schoedel, p.
"Gegen die Christen", 15 Bücher, Zeugnisse, Fragmente und Referate. Hrsg. von Adolf 99).
von Harnack. Berlin 1916). (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 226-227). 70
esaa aristoteluri garCeva aqtiuri da pasiuri moqmedebisa (De
65
esaa, albaT, miniSneba ioseb flaviosis mier gadmocemul Gen. Corr. I, 315 b 5). es Tema galenosTanac aris (De nat. fac. 1.2, 1.3, 1.14, 2.8
saSinel ambavze, B. J. 6. 199-219. (Schoedel, p. 97). - Kühn, II, 7,8,46,111) (Schoedel, p. 99).
44 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 45

leblobasa da bunebas, vinc ikvebeba da kvebavs. (2) ucxoa, mTlianad unda moispos da bunebrivi gziT gavides, an
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi mixvdebodnen, rom yvelaferi, rasac sxva raRacad gardaiqmnas, ramdenadac [organizmTan] Serwyma
cocxali arseba SemTxveviTobis ZaliT gadaeyreba, misTvis ar ZaluZs. xolo mkvebavi sxeulis Tviseba mTlianad unda
Sesaferisi sakvebi ver iqneba; piriqiT, zogierTi ram muclis Tanxvdes da bunebrivad SeuerTdes sakvebismimReb cxovelis
RrusTan SexebisTanave ispoba: is amoRebinebiT, eqskre- Tvisebebs, da ase, saTanado gzaTa gavliT, bunebrivi
mentebis saxiT an raRac sxva gziT gamoidevneba, ise rom ganwmendis meSveobiT zedmiwevniT gasufTavebuli,
mcire xniTac ver gauZlebs Tavdapirvel bunebriv monelebas, [organizmis] arsebisaTvis uxinjo danamatad74 iqces. (2)
miTumetes - sakvebismimReb [organizmTan] Serwymas.71 (3) aseve sakuTriv mxolod mas unda vuwodebdeT "sakvebs", Tu saqmis
is, rac moinela da ramac pirveladi gadamuSaveba gaiara, WeSmariti gansazRvreba gvsurs, radgan igi ganagdebs
mTlianad ver Seerwymeba sakvebis mimReb nawevrebs, [aramed] yovelives, rac ucxoa da saziano sakvebismimRebi cxovelis
zogi mucelSive dakargavs kvebis unars, zogi ki meoradi organizmisTvis,75 agreTve im did tvirTs, romelic muclis
gadamuSavebisas _ RviZlSi monelebis dros72 gamoiyofa da asavsebad da madis dasakmayofileblad Semodis.
iseT raRacad iqceva, rasac mkvebavi unari dakarguli aqvs. (3) veravin uaryofs, rom es [WeSmariti sakvebi] uerTdeba
Tavad RviZlismieri gadamuSavebac adamianTa kvebas sakvebismimReb sxeuls, Sewnuli da Sewebebuli mis yvela
mTlianad ki ara xmardeba, aramed [nawilobriv] bunebrivi nawilsa da nawevarTan. meores mxriv, sxvagvari - e.i.
nametis saxiT gamoiyofa. xolo danarCeni sakvebi arabunebrivi [sakvebi] swrafad ixrwneba, Tu ufro Zlier
sakvebismimReb nawilebsa da nawevrebSi gadamuSavdeba da Zalas Seeria. xolo Tu Tavad sZlia, igi advilad gaxrwnis
momatebuli da moWarbebuli [nivTierebis] ZaliT masTan Zleuls, gardaqmnis mas Sxamian wvenad da sawamlav
Sexebuls gaxrwnis an Seisisxlxorcebs. Tvisebebad, ramdenadac [TviTon] sakvebismimReb sxeuls
saWirosa da sawadels verafers moutans. (4) amis SesaniSnavi
6 sabuTia is, rom mravali sakvebmiRebuli cxoveli tanjvas,
(1) cocxal arsebaTa Soris mravalgvari bunebrivi safrTxesa76 da sikvdils swored maSin ganicdis, roca
sxvadasxvaobaa da cxovelTa TiToeul gvarsa da Zlieri SimSilisas sakvebTan erTad masTan Sereul momwam-
sakvebismimReb sxeulTan erTad misTvis bunebrivi sakvebic lav da bunebis sawinaaRmdego [nivTierebebsac] STanTqavs. es
sxvadasxvaobs. cxovelTa kvebisas, roca ganwmenda da gamo- mTlad damRupvelia sakvebismimRebi sxeulisaTvis, raxan igi
yofa samgzis xdeba,73 yvelaferi, rac cxovelis kvebisTvis marTlac imiT ikvebeba, rac misi bunebis Sesaferisia, xolo
sapirispiroTi iRupeba.77
71
(5) marTlac, Tuki bunebiT gansxvavebul cxovelTa nair-
gamoyofisa Tu monelebis sakiTxebSi aTenegora galenoss
misdevs. Zvelad arCevdnen sami saxis monelebas: mucelSi, RviZlSi,
gvarobasTan erTad bunebis Sesaferisi sakvebic mraval-
sxeulis nawilebSi. Galen, In Hipp. Aliment. Comm. 5, Kühn t. XV, p. 385-386; De gvaria, da arc mTlianoba sakvebisa, romelsac cxoveli
Usu Part. IV, 1-6 (Kühn, III, 266-274). Method. De Res. II, 9,2-4. (Pouderon, teqsti, iRebs, arc misi romelime [nawili] ar Seereva sakvebismimReb
gv. 232). sxeuls, aramed mxolod is, rac sruli monelebis procesSi
72
galenosis Tanaxmad, RviZli monelebis ZiriTadi organoa.
(Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 232-233). RviZlis gansakuTrebul mniSvnelobaze 74
BD`F80R4<, e.i. imave bunebisa unda gaxdes, rac
Wamis monelebis procesSi ix. Galen, De Usu Part. Corp. 4.3 (Kühn, III, 269), De mimRebi organizmi.
Aliment. 4.5 (Kühn, XV, 385-6). ix. agreTve grigol noseli, De Opif. Hom. 75
FbFJ"F4H.
301-2, PG 44, p.241D. (Schoedel, p. 101). 76
6\<*L<@<. puderonisa da Sedelis TargmanebSi "avadmyofoba".
73
es xdeba mucelSi, RviZlSi, organoebSi. Galen, De Nat. Fac. 2,8 (Kühn, 77
Sdr. Plat. Tim. 81e: bunebissawinaaRmdego tkivilis momgvrelia,
II, 113-14), 3,13 (Kühn, II, 192-3). (Schoedel, p.101). bunebrivi ki sasiamovno.
46 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 47

ganiwminda da amasTanave, mocemul sxeulTan uxinjo arc lorwo, arc naRveli, arc sunTqva.81 radgan rac odesRac
erTianobisken midrekileba da sakvebismimReb nawilebTan sakvebismimReb sxeulebs sWirdeboda, is aRar dasWirdebaT,
Sewyobis unari gamoavlina, - amitom cxadia, rom rac bunebis roca sakvebismimRebTa moTxovnilebaTa moxsniTa da ganad-
sawinaaRmdegoa, verasodes SeuerTdeba imas, visTvisac is gurebiT kvebis aucileblobac moixsneba.
bunebiseuli da Sesaferisi sakvebi ar aris, aramed an muclis (2) garda amisa, vinmem romc miiCnios, rom aseTi sakvebiT
Rrus gaivlis, sanam raRac sxva wvens warmoqmnis, mounele- rac aris gamowveuli, xorcamdec aRwevs, mainc araviTari
badsa da gafuWebuls, an Tu didxans SerCa, tkivilsa da mZime aucilebloba ar iqneba imisa, rom xorci, romelic es wuTia
sens gamoiwvevs, romelic spobs bunebis Sesabamis sakvebsa da sakvebad iqca, sxva adamianis xorcTan urTierTobaSi misi
im xorcsac, romelic sakvebs saWiroebs. (6) magram igi romc Semadgeneli nawili gaxdes. radgan xorci, romelmac sxva
odesme ganidevnos raRac wamlebiT, ukeTesi sakvebiT an xorci STanTqa, samudamod ver Seinaxavs STanTqmuls, da arc
bunebrivi ZalebiT Zleuli, didi zianis gareSe mainc ar is [xorci], romelic mas SeuerTda, SeinarCunebs simdgradesa
Caivlis, radgan [organizmisTvis] bunebrivi wonasworobis da imis gverdiT yofnis [unars], rasac SeeZina. igi did -
momtani ar aris, mis bunebasTan SeuTanxmeblobis gamo. ZiriTadad orgvar - cvlilebas ganicdis: xan jafiTa da
dardiTaa morRveuli, xan tanjviT, wvalebiTa da avad-
7 myofobiTaa qancgawyvetili, an kidev metismeti gadaxure-
(1) Tundac vinmem dauSvas, rom ase Semosuli sakvebi (mainc biTa Tu gaciebiTaa dasneulebuli, radgan [nawilebi],
Cveulebisamebr "sakvebi" vuwodoT mas), arabunebrivobis romlebic sakvebs Rebuloben, rCebian imad, rac arian, da ar
miuxedavad, [mainc] nawildeba da icvleba raRacad, rac icvlebian xorcsa da cximTan erTad.
albobs an axmobs, aTbobs an agrilebs, am varaudidan verafer (3) aseTi cvlileba Tuki SeemTxva xorcs, cxadia, rom
Sedegs miiRebs;78 saqme isaa, rom aRdgomili sxeulebi isev gacilebiT didi iqneba is cvlileba, romelic xorcs Seusa-
Tavisi nawilebisgan Sedgebian, xsenebulTagan ki arcerTi bamo kvebisgan ergeba. jer wonaSi moimatebs da WamiT
araa [maTi] nawili da arc nawilis mimarTeba an mdebareoba79 gasuqdeba, Semdeg ki [zedmets] rogorRac amoafrqvevs da
gaaCnia. isini samudamod ver darCebian sakvebismimRebi wonaSi daiklebs, zemoxsenebuli erTi an ramdenime mizeziT.
[organizmis] nawilebTan, verc aRdgomisas aRdgebian maTTan [organizmis] nawilebTan mxolod is [sakvebi] darCeba, romel-
erTad,80 roca sasicocxlod aRaraferia saWiro, arc sisxli, sac SekavSireba, Senaxva da gaTboba SeuZlia. igi bunebis
78
mieraa SerCeuli da [organizmis] nawilebTan isea Sewyobili,
am oTxi Tvisebis Tanasworobis darRveva organizmSi rom maTTvis bunebis Sesabamis sicocxlesa da sasicocxlo
avadmyofobas iwvevs. Sdr. Hippocr. De Nat. Hom. IV, Littré, t.VI, p.39-41;
daniSnulebas uzrunvelyofs.
Galen, De Nat. Fac. II, 9 (Kühn, II, 126,128); Meth., De Res. 2.10.2-4. am ukanasknel
teqstSi laparakia imaze, Tu rogor xdeba TbiliT cxelis gazaveba, (4) verc zemoganxilulis jerovani gansjiT, verc amis
civiT Tbilis Serbileba, xmeliT Txevadis Semtkiceba; RmerTma sapirispirod gamoTqmul daskvnaTa SewynarebiT moxerxdeba
adamianic ase Seqmna, e.i. rogorc mikrokosmosi, romelic mTelis [Cveni oponentebis] naTqvamis WeSmaritebis dasabuTeba. ada-
yvela nawils Seicavs. (Schoedel, p. 105, Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 240). mianTa sxeulebi verasdros Seereva sxva - imave bunebis mqone
79
FPXF4Hs JV>4H. sxeulebs, Tundac odesme ugunurebiT, sxvisi gavleniT
80
aTenagora cdilobda Teologiisa da misi drois medicinis grZnobisunarwarTmeulebma aseTi sxeuli igemon, an TviTonve
(Crehan-is SeniSvnis Tanaxmad, zogadad 1900 wlamde arsebuli SimSilobisas an sigiJisas maTive gvaris sxeuliT Tavi
medicinisa) SeTanxmebas. sainteresoa, rom qristianuli waibilwon. TumcaRa isic gvsmenia, rom arseboben adamianis-
RvTismetyvelebis ganviTarebis uadres etapze aTenagora
aRdgomasTan dakavSirebiT aseT detalebze msjelobda. (Crehan, 81
Sdr. Galen, De Nat. Hom. 1, 18 (Kühn, XV, 59) (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 238-
p.171). 239).
48 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 49

saxovani mxecebi, anu isini, visac adamianisa da cxovelis bu- cxovelTagan mTlianad Semusrvili, an kidev, sxeuls mTlianad
neba aqvs Sereuli. maT yvelaze Tamami poetebi warmosaxaven. mowyvetili [zogierTi nawili] sxva nawilebze adre yofiliyos
gaxrwnili. xolo kvlav erTmaneTTan SeerTebulni, isini imave
8 mdebareobas daikaveben, rom aRorZindes imave sxeulis harmo-
(1) raRaa saTqmeli im sxeulTa Sesaxeb, romlebic sakvebad nia da agebuleba,82 da mkvdaris an sruliad gaxrwnilis
arcerT cxovels ar ergo da romlebsac wilad mxolod aRdgoma da sicocxle [ganxorcieldes].83 (5) magram amis Sesaxeb
miwaSi damarxva xvda Tavisi bunebis sapativsacemod? es sityvis gagrZelebis dro aRar aris. daskvnebs yvela
niSnavs, rom arcerTi cxoveli ar yofila Semoqmedis mier daeTanxmeba, Tu naxevradmxeci araa.
imave gvaris cxovelTa sakvebad gankuTvnili, maSinac ki,
roca igi sxva gvaris warmomadgenelTa bunebrivi sakvebia. 9
(2) Tu [oponentebi] marTlac SeZleben daasabuTon, rom (1) bevri ram aris winamdebare gamokvlevisTvis ufro
adamianis xorci adamianisave sakvebad aris gankuTvnili, saWiro, amitom gverds avuvli imaT, vinc [mtkicebisaTvis]
veRaraferi aRudgeba win imas, rom urTierTWama bunebriv adamianur saqmeebsa da am saqmeTa mkeTebel adamianebs
[procesad] warmoCndes, iseve rogorc sxva, bunebrivad mimarTavs, romlebsac ar ZaluZT dangreuli an droiT daZve-
Serwymuli ram. xolo vinc amis Tqmas bedavs, Seeqces lebuli an sxvagvarad ganadgurebuli saqmeebis ganaxleba.
uZvirfasesi adamianebis xorcs, rogorc [TavisTvis] yvelaze Semdeg ki [es oponentebi], mekeceebsa da xelosnebTan
ufro Sesaferiss, da Tavis axloblebsac amiTve gau- Sedarebis gziT, cdiloben aCvenon, rom RmerTic ar inebebda,
maspinZldes! (3) magram Tu amisi Tqmac ki ucodveloba ar da romc eneba - ver SeZlebda mkvdari an gaxrwnili sxeulis
aris, [maSin] adamianis mier adamianis xorcis Wama didi aRdgenas. ver iTvaliswineben, rom amiT RmerTs Seuracx-
saZaglobaa da sibilwe, da yvela ukanono da bunebis sawi- yofen, yvelaze ufro ukeTurTa msgavsad,84 da sruliad
naaRmdego saWmelsa da saqmeze metad dasagmobia. bunebis gansxvavebulTa Zalebs [aTanabreben], ufro zustad ki Tavad
sawinaaRmdego verasdros miaRwevs sakvebis saxiT bunebebs, romlebic am ZalebiT sargebloben, da xelosnur
[organizmis] im nawilebsa da nawevrebSi, romlebic sakvebs [nawarms] bunebrivs [utoleben].
saWiroeben. xolo sakvebad rac ar iqceva, verc imas Seewyoba, (2) aseTi [argumentebisTvis] Tavis Sewuxeba ara Rirs.
ris kvebasac Cveuli ar aris. adamianTa sxeulebic veras- marTlacda, sisulelea zedapirulsa da amaosTan SekamaTe-
dros Seereva [maTsave] msgavs sxeulebs, romelTaTvis [isini] ba. bevrad ufro sarwmunoa da yvelaze ufro WeSmaritia imis
arabunebriv sakvebs warmoadgenen, miuxedavad imisa, rom Tqma, rom rac adamianebisTvis SeuZlebelia, RmerTisTvis
Semzaravi ubeduri SemTxvevis gamo maT mucelSi xSirad SesaZlebelia.85 Tuki am [sabuTebiT], maTi sarwmunoebis
aRmoCndebian xolme.
82
(4) [piriqiT, es sxeulebi], mkvebav Zalas moklebulni, kvlav azri isaa, rom erTi da igive elementi erTi da imave organizmis
im [Semadgenlebad] daiSlebian, romelTagan Tavisi pirveli Semadgeneli nawili aris da sxva sxeulis organul nawilad ver
iqceva. Sdr. markus avreliusi: "sikvdili, rogorc sicocxle, bunebis
aRnagoba miiRes, da SeuerTdebian maT, TiToeuli misTvis
saidumloa, Serwymaa imave kavSirebisa [anu elementebisa]". (Pouderon,
gankuTvnili droiT. xolo iqidan kvlav gamoiyofian imis teqsti, gv. 244).
sibrZniTa da ZlierebiT, vinc cxovelis mTeli buneba 83
Sdr. ioane, 11:25.
Sesaferis ZalTagan Seamtkica, da bunebrivad uerTdeba 84
puderonis azriT, gnostikosebi igulisxmebian. Sdr. [Justin]. De
TiToeuli maTgani erTimeores, Tundac [sxeuli] cecxliT iyos Res. II, PG 6, 1573c (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 247).
gadamwvari an wyliT gadampali, an mxecTagan Tu mtacebel 85
Sdr. iob. 42:2; maTe 19,:26; mark. 10: 27; luka 18,:27. Sdr. Justin. I Ap.
XVIII ("avismTqmelni amboben, rom xorcis aRdgoma ara xdeba, radgan
50 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 51

gamo,86 agreTve zemoganxiluli yvela [sabuTiT] mtkicdeba, nilebebi aRar eqnebaT da [pirutyvebic] aRar dasWirdebaT,
rom es SesaZlebelia, amitom, cxadia, SeuZlebeli ver iqneba miT ufro maSin yovelgvari monobisagan ganTavisuflebul
da RmerTisTvis arasasurvelic ar aris. [pirutyvT] veRaraferi daazaralebs.
(4) maT romc ena amoedgaT, Semoqmeds ver daabralebdnen,
10 rom usamarTlod iyvnen damdablebulni adamianebTan
(1) radgan mas rac ar nebavs, ar nebavs rogorc usamarTlo SedarebiT, radgan iseTive aRdgoma ar ergoT. saqme is aris,
an rogorc uRirsi [saqme]. xolo usamarTloba [anu ziani] an rom visi buneba Tanaswori ar aris, msajuli maT Tanaswor
Tavad imasTan mimarTebaSi igulisxmeba, vinc unda aRdges, an bolos89 ar ganusazRvravs. garda amisa, visac usamarTloba-
sxva vinmes mimarT. magram savsebiT naTelia, rom gareSeTagan ze warmodgena ara aqvs, mas verc usamarTlobaze sayveduris
da imaTgan, vinc arsebulTa ricxvs miekuTvneba, usamarT- Tqma SeeZleba.
lobas aravin ganicdis. (2) goniseuli arsebani87 ver ganic- (5) verc imas vityviT, rom aRdgomili adamianis mimarT
dian usamarTlobas adamianTa aRdgomisagan (igi xom maTi raRac usamarTloba SeiniSneba. igi xom sulisa da
arsebobisTvis sruliad araa damabrkolebeli; adamianTa sxeulisgan Sedgeba, magram arc sulis arc sxeulis
aRdgoma arc usamarTlobaa [maT mimarT], arc Seuracxyofa88). TvalsazrisiT ar ganicdis usamarTlobas [ar zaraldeba].
verc pirutyvTa Tu usuloTa buneba ganicdis usamarTlobas: arcerTi saRad moazrovne ar ityvis, rom suli [aRdgomiT]
isini xom aRdgomis Semdeg aRar iarsebeben. xolo rac ar usamarTlobas ganicdis, radgan [am SemTxvevaSi] Zalaune-
aris, is verc usamarTlobas ganicdis. burad sulTan erTad awmyo cxovrebis uaryofac gamova.
(3) magram romc vinmem dauSvas [pirutyvTa] maradmyofoba, radgan Tu amJamad, roca [suli] xrwnad da vnebad sxeulSi
isini mainc ver ganicdian usamarTlobas adamianTa sxeulebis mkvidrobs,90 usamarTlobas aranairad ar ganicdis, miT ufro
ganaxlebisas. radgan Tu [pirutyvni] amJamad adamianTa uxrwnelsa da uvnebosTan Tanamcxovrebs usamarTloba aRar
bunebasa da - sanam adamianebs [isini] sWirdebaT - maT moTxov- SeemTxveva. magram arc sxeuli ganicdis usamarTlobas;
nilebebs emorCilebian, da mainc, uRlis qveSa da srul radgan Tu amJamad xrwnadi, uxrwnelTan Tanamyofi, usamarT-
monobaSic araviTar usamarTlobas [zians] ar ganicdian, cxa- lobas ar ganicdis, cxadia, rom momavalSi uxrwnels,
dia, rom roca [adamianebi] uxrwnelni gaxdebian, moTxov- uxrwnelTan myofs, usamarTloba miT ufro ar SeemTxveva.
(6) magram verc imas ityvis vinme, rom RmerTisTvis uRirsi
saqmea daSlili sxeulebis aRdgena da SeerTeba. radgan Tu
SeuZlebeliao misi imave saxiT Sekreba, roca igi mkvdaria da
is, rac uaresia, uRirsi ar aris - e.i. xrwnadi da vnebuli
daSlili."); Iren, Haer. V, 5, 2; kelsosi origenesTan, C. Cels. V, 14 da origenes
pasuxi, C. Cels. V, 23; igive Tema filosofiaSi: Cicer. D.N.D II, 30, 77; III, 39,
sxeulis qmna, miT ufro ar iqneba uRirsi is, rac umjobesia:
92. (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 248). Sedeli aRniSnavs, rom RvTis uxrwneli da uvnebeli [sxeulis qmna].
yovlisSemZleoba is ena iyo, romelSic martivi qristianebi
ufiqrelad TavSesafars poulobdnen. kelsosi am enas akritikebda.
ix. agreTve origenisti meTodesTan: Meth. De Res. 1, 21, 1: "da am
sirTuleebis Sedegad TavSesafars im [TezisSi] pouloben, rom
89
JX8@H. am sityviT gamoixateba "bolo" ("dasasruli",
RvTisaTvis yvelaferi SesaZlebelia". (Schoedel,, p. 109). "aRsasruli"), "mizani", "daniSnuleba", "Sedegi". amdenad, Cveni
86
§<*@>@H. es aristoteluri terminia (Top. 100a 30), romelic imas Targmanis am ramdenime sityvis dedniseuli Sesatyvisi erTi sityvaa.
gulisxmobs, rac sicxades TavisTavSi Seicavs da yvelas mier SeiZleba
90
sulisa da sxeulis mimarTeba (sxeuli adgilsamyofelia sulisa,
aRiarebul iqnas (Crehan, p. 172). misi cixea, misi karavia da a.S.) ix. plat. krat. 400bc; tim. 69c; Sdr II
87
igulisxmeba angelozebi da sxva ciuri arsebebi. Sdr. Leg. XXIII, 4. kor. 5:1 da 1 kor. 3,:16-17; Tatian. Ad Graec. XV; Tertul. De Res. XLI, 1-3.
88
$D4H. (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 251).
52 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 53

11 adgils ikavebs da zogjer ufro gamosadegic xdeba, radgan


[pirveli nawilis daskvna. meore nawilis gegma] aTavisuflebs da windawinve ganwmeds im urwmunobisgan,
(1) vinaidan TiToeuli gamosakvlevi [sakiTxi] cxadyo- romelic zogs aSfoTebs, da im eWvisa da cruwarmodgenebisgan,
filia bunebis Sesabamisi pirveladi [debulebebiTa] da imiT, romlebic axalbedebs [sCveviaT].
rac amas mosdevs, amitom cxadia, rom SemoqmedisTvis Sesa- (6) orive [msjelobas] erTi miznisken mivyavarT, radgan
Zlebeli, sasurveli da Rirseuli saqmec aris daSlili RvTismosaobisken aRamaRlebs sicruis mamxilebelica da
sxeulebis aRdgoma. xolo amiT mtkicdeba, rom sapirispiro WeSmaritebis damamtkicebelic, Tumca isini sulmTlad erTi
[azri] mcdaria da urwmunoTa [Sexeduleba] uazroa. da igiveni ar arian. erTi maTgani, rogorc vTqvi, yvela
(2) raRa saWiroa am [debulebaTa] erTmaneTisadmi mimarTe- morwmunesTvisaa aucilebeli, agreTve imaTTvis, vinc WeSma-
basa da erTmaneTTan kavSirze laparaki (Tu mainc "kavSirs" ritebisa da sakuTari xsnisaTvis iRwvis. meore [msjeloba] ki
vambobT, TiTqos raRac gansxvavebulobiT iyvnen gamijnuli), garkveul SemTxvevebSi zogierTisTvis da zogierTis wina-
da ara ubralod imisi Tqma, rom rac [RmerTs] ZaluZs, is aRmdeg ufro gamosadegaria.
nebavs kidec, xolo rac RmerTs nebavs, imisi aRsruleba (7) [yovelive] es Sejamebulad windawinve unda gveTqva
ZaluZs, da es mnebebelis Rirsebas Seefereba? ukve Tqmulis mosagoneblad. exla ki sagans mivubrundeT da
(3) xolo is, rom sxvaa WeSmaritebis Sesaxeb msjeloba da vaCvenoT aRdgomis Sesaxeb msjelobis WeSmariteba (a) im
sxvaa WeSmaritebis dasacavi, zemoT sakmarisad ganimarta,91 mizezis [safuZvelze], romlis Tanaxmad da romlis gamoc iSva
agreTve isic, Tu riTi gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisgan da sad pirveli adamiani da misi Camomavalni (Tumca isini erTnairi
da vis mimarT gamoiyeneba TiToeuli. magram araferi uSlis gziT ar gaCenilan);93 (b) yvela adamianis, rogorc adamianis,
xels, saerTo simtkicisa da ukve Tqmulis [momavalSi] sa- saerTo bunebis [safuZvelze]; (g) da bolos, Semoqmedis mier
TqmelTan dakavSirebisaTvis, kvlav mivubrundeT am [msjelo- adamianTa gansjis94 [safuZvelze], romelic imas exeba, Tu
bebsa] da imas, rac maT mosdevs. erTs bunebiT pirveloba ramden xans icocxla TiToeulma da ra kanonebiT ixelmZRva-
Sehferis, meores ki - pirvelis dacva, gzis gakvalva da nela. xolo es gansja rom samarTliania, eWvi aravis
windawinve ukugdeba yovelive damabrkoleblisa da Seepareba.
Semaferxeblisa.
(4) WeSmaritebis Sesaxeb msjeloba, yvela adamianisaTvis 12
simtkicisa da xsnisaTvis aucilebeli, bunebiT, rigiTa da [meore nawilis dasawyisi. pozitiuri dasabuTeba]
sargeblobiT pirvel adgilzea. bunebiT, radgan saganTa codna a. miznobrivi mizezi]
moaqvs, rigiT, radgan imaSi da imasTan erTad arsebobs, risi (1) mizeziT ganpirobebuli sabuTi imis ganxilvas
cxadmyofelic aris; sargeblobiT, radgan mcodneTaTvis gulisxmobs, adamiani tyuilad da arafrisTvisaa Seqmnili
simtkicesa da xsnas uzrunvelyofs. (5) WeSmaritebis dasacavi Tu raRacis gamo? Tu raRacis gamo, maSin risTvis iSva: rom
msjeloba ki bunebiTa da ZaliT qvemdgomia, radgan crus icocxlos da iarsebos im bunebis Tanaxmad, romliTac iSva,
mxileba naklebia WeSmaritebis ganmtkicebaze. is rigiTac
meorea, radgan mniSvnelobas cruwarmodgenebis mqoneebTan
93
winaaRmdegobaSi iZens; cruwarmodgena ki meoradi Tesvisa da igulisxmeba, rom adamianTa pirveli wyvili RmerTma Seqmna,
gafuWebis Sedegia.92 magram miuxedavad saqmis aseTi viTa- danarCenebi ki am wyvilis STamomavalni arian. (Pouderon, teqsti, gv.
256).
rebisa, [WeSmaritebis dasacavi msjeloba] mainc xSirad pirvel 94
aTenagora gvauwyebs naSromis meore nawilis mokle gegmas:
91
ix. aqve, 1, 3-5. mizezi, buneba, gansja (anu gankiTxva: 6D\F4H). Sdr. qvemoT, 14, 4-5.
92
Sdr. aqve, 1, 1. (Pouderon, 256).
54 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 55

Tu sxvisi saWiroebis dasakmayofileblad?95 Tu saWiroebis [mxolod] sakuTriv am qmnilebaTa sicocxlisa da marad-


dasakmayofleblad, maSin an Tavad Semoqmeds [esaWiroeba myofobisaTvis. (4) azri98 ver daaskvnis, rom saWiroebis
raRac] an vinme sxvas, vinc RmerTisTvis axlobelia da [misgan dakmayofilebaa adamianTa Seqmnis mizezi. imitom rom
adamianze] ufro did mzrunvelobas imsaxurebs. ukvdavT araferi sWirdebaT da adamianTa mxridan saarsebod
(2) Tu ufro zogadad ganvixilavT, davrwmundebiT, rom arasdros araviTar Sewevnas ar saWiroeben. pirutyvni ki99
yvela, vinc keTilgonieria da saqmes logikuri gansjiT bunebiT daqvemdebarebulni arian da maTgan TiToeuli, rac
udgeba, winaswargansazRvrulidan tyuilad arafers gaake- SeuZlia, im moTxovnilebas ukmayofilebs adamianebs. magram
Tebs: igi an sakuTari moxmarebisTvis qmnis an im piris saWi- [pirutyvni] imisTvis rodi gaCenilan, rom Tavad [adamianebi]
roebis dasakmayofileblad, visTvisac zrunavs, an TviTon moixmaron. imitom rom ar SeiZleboda da arc SeiZleba, rom
nakeTobis gamo, raRac bunebrivi miswrafebiTa da siyva- ganmgebeli da winamZRvari100 imdenad CamoqveiTdes, rom
ruliT mis Sesaqmnelad rom aRiZvris. vTqvaT (magaliTs unda udaresis sargeblobaSi aRmoCndes, an gonieri ugunurs
mivmarToT, rom sakiTxi naTeli gaxdes), adamiani saxls daeqvemdebaros, romelic mmarTvelobisTvis gankuTvnili ar
aSenebs sakuTari moxmarebisTvis, xolo xarebs, aqlemebsa da aris.
sxva misTvis saWiro cxovelebs - yoveli maTgans Sesaferis (5) marTlacda, Tu adamiani umizezod da amaod ar
sadgoms [uSenebs]. es [ukanaskneli] TiTqos sakuTari moxmare- gaCenila (imitom rom RvTis mier gaCenilTagan, Semoqmedis
bisTvis ar aris, magram saboloo jamSi amisTvisaa, Tumca ganzraxvis Tanaxmad, amao araferia), da arc Tavad
erTi SexedviT [TiTqos] imaTTvis aris, visTvisac [adamiani] Semoqmedis an RvTis mier gaCenili romelime sxva qmnilebis
zrunavs. bavSvebsac ara sakuTari an sxva Tavis axlobelTa saWiroebis dasakmayofileblad, [maSin] cxadia, rom pirve-
sargeblobisTvis aCens, aramed imisTvis, rom mis mier ladi da ufro zogadi sabuTis Tanaxmad, RmerTma adamiani
Sobilebma SeZlebisdagvarad didxans iarsebon; SvilTa da TavisTvisa101 da im sikeTisa da sibrZnis gamo Seqmna, romelic
SvilTaSvilTa memkvidreobiT [adamiani] sakuTar sikvdil- mis mTels SesaqmeSi ganiWvriteba,102 xolo meore, ufro
sac mSvidad Sexvdeba da amgvarad ifiqrebs, rom mokvdavi qmnilebebTan dakavSirebuli sabuTis Tanaxmad - Tavad qmni-
ukvdaviyofa.96 (3) magram es adamianebs exeba. xolo RmerTma lebaTa sicocxlisaTvis, [da] ara imisTvis, rom [sicocxle]
arc umiznod Seqmna adamiani (igi brZenia, sibrZnes ki umizno xanmokled anTebuliyo,103 Semdeg ki Camqraliyo. (6) vfiqrob,
saqme ara sCvevia), arc sakuTari sargeblobisTvis: mas xom aseTi sicocxle arguna RmerTma qvewarmavlebs, frTosanT da
araferi sWirdeba. xolo radgan araferi sWirdeba, Tavis wyliscxovelT, anu sazogadod yvela pirutyvs. xolo vinc
qmnilebaTagan sakuTari sargeblobisTvis igi arcerTs ar Tavis TavSi Semoqmedis xats atarebs,104 gonebas flobs da
srulyofda. magram arc Tavis sxva romelime qmnilebisTvis 98
8`(@H.
Seuqmnia adamiani. imitom rom araferi, rasac azrovnebisa da 99
•8`(@4.
gansjis unari aqvs, ukeTesia is Tu uaresi,97 ar Seqmnila da ar 100
e.i. adamiani. Sdr. dab. 1, 26... Justin. 1 Ap. X, 2; 2 Ap. V, 2. Orig. C. Cels.
iqmneba sxvisi saWiroebis dasakmayofileblad, aramed IV, 74. stoicizmic anTropocentrulia, Sdr. mark. avrel. V, 16.
(Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 260).
95
*4• PD,\"< - vTargmniT xolme "saWiroebis dakmayofilebi- 101
es "TavisTvis", cxadia, ar gulisxmobs, rom RmerTs raRac aklda
sTvis", "moTxovnilebis dakmayofilebisTvis", "sargeblobisTvis". da amdenad, adamiani sWirdeboda.
96
Sdr. Plat. Symp. 206c. (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 117). 102
RvTis sikeTis Sesaxeb SesaqmesTan dakavSirebiT ix. magaliTad,
97
e.i. angelozebi da adamianebi. adamianis aseTi gansazRvreba Plat. Tim. 29d-e; Albinos, Epitome XII,1; Clem. Alex. Paed. I, 3, 7, 2-3. (Pouderon,
(azrovnebisa da gansjis unaris mqone) cnobilia - Iren. Haer. IV, 37, 6. teqsti, gv. 261).
(Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 260). Crehan-is varaudiT ki aq sxvadsxva "donis" 103
Sdr. Justin. De Res. VIII, PG 6, 1585ab (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 261).
adamianebzea laparaki (gv. 173). 104
. adamiani
56 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 57

logikuri gansja xvda wilad - Semoqmedma maT samaradiso 13


arseboba ganukuTvna, raTa Seicnon Tavisi Semoqmedi, misi (1) Cven gvwams [momavali aRdgoma] aranakleb imisa, rac
Zala da sibrZne, misdion kanonsa da samarTals da ukve moxda, da sakuTari bunebis mWvretelT gviyvars
gauWirveblad maradmyofobdnen im [wesiT], romliTac winare sicocxle [misi] gaWirvebiTa da warmavalobiT, radgan
cxovreba warmarTes, Tumca [maSin] warmavalsa da miwier [swored aseTi sicocxle] Seefereba amqveyniur cxovrebas, da
sxeulebSi [imyofebodnen]. mtkiced gvwams [momavalSi Cveni] uxrwnelad maradyofna. es
(7) qmnileba, romelic sxvisi gulisTvisaa Seqmnili, wyvets adamianTagan [gagonilis safuvelze] tyuilad rodi
Tavis arsebobas, roca aRar arsebobs is, risTvisac igi SegviTxzavs, - cru imedebiT ki ar vsazrdoobT, [aramed]
Seiqmna. igi amaod yofnas aRar ganagrZobs; RvTis mier Seqm- verwmuneT ucTomel winds - Cveni Semoqmedis ganzraxvas,
nilTa Soris xom amao araferia. xolo vinc bunebiT Tavad romlis Tanaxmad man adamiani ukvdavi sulisa108 da
arsebobisa da sicocxlisTvis iSva - ramdenadac [misi arsebo- sxeulisgan Seqmna, Seumzada goneba da Tandayolili wesi109
bis] mizezi bunebasTanaa Serwymuli da [am mizezis] ganWvreta sacxoneblad da RvTis mier [im] niWTa dasacavad, romlebic
mxolod sakuTriv arsebobaSi SeiZleba, - is verasodes cnobier yofasa da gonier cxovrebas Seefereba. kargad
Seiguebs mizezs, romelic misi arsebobis srul Sewyvetas viciT, rom aseT cxovels ar Seqmnida da ar Seamkobda yove-
ganapirobebda.105 live imiT, rac maradmyofobisTvisaa gankuTvnili, rom ar
(8) Tu [zemoxsenebuli mizezi] arsebobaSi mudam eneba, rom [es] qmnileba maradarsebuliyo.
ganiWvriteba, amitom cocxali arseba, rakiRa gaCnda, mTlia- (2) maSasadame, raki am yvelafris Semoqmedma adamiani
nad unda gadarCes, rom bunebrivad moqmedeba [SeZlos] da keTilgonieri sicocxlis moziared Seqmna, rom Seqmnils
zemoqmedeba ganicados. [amaSi] mis Semadgenel orive [nawils], RvTis dideba da yvelaferze [ganfenili] sibrZne eWvrita da
romlebisganac igi iSva, Tavisi wvlili Seaqvs: suli mudmivad am WvretaSi maradarsebuliyo, RvTis ganzraxvisa da [Tavisi]
arsebobs im bunebasTan TanxmobaSi, romliTac gaCnda, da Tavis wilxvedri bunebis Tanaxmad, - [amitom] Sesaqmis mizezi110
movaleobas asrulebs: igi, Cveulebisamebr, win aRudgeba maradmyofobas sarwmunos xdis, maradmyofoba ki - aRdgomas,
sxeulis vnebebs da Sesabamisi gansjiTa da sazomiT romlis gareSe adamiani maradmyofi ver iqneba. Tqmuli
awondawonis movlenebs. xolo sxeuli bunebrivad midrekilia naTelyofs, rom Sesaqmis mizezi da Semoqmedis ganzraxva
imisken, rac mas sCvevia da misTvis dadgenil gardasaxvebs106
("raxan zecaSi, e.i. ukeTes adgilas, viqnebiT, amitom sxeulic ukeTesi
ganicdis asakis, garegnobisa da sididis mixedviT, da bolos gveqneba").
aRdgomasac. (9) aRdgoma ki gardasaxvis ukanaskneli saxea, im 108
sulis ukvdaveba (e.i. misi mudmivmyofoba sikvdilis Semdeg
dros jer kidev cocxalTa cvlilebaa ukeTesobisken.107 aRdgomamde, roca sxeuli aRar arsebobs) araa sazogado azri
qristianobaSi. ix. Tatian. Ad Craec. XIII ("adamianis suli TavisTavad araa
rogorc RvTis xati (xatoba xSirad gamoixateboda terminiT , 6f<) ukvdavi; igi mokvdavia, magram mas isic SeuZlia, rom ar mokvdes").
mniSvnelovani Tema iyo platonizmsa da patristikaSi. mesame saukuneSi mtkicdeba sulis ukvdavebis rwmena. Sdr. Tertul. De Res.
105
arseboba (yofna) RvTis xatad Seqmnili adamianis arsebiseuli II, 13; Meth.De Res. I, 51, 5-6; III, 5, 10 (suli ukvdavia da sxeuli mokvdavia,
Tvisebaa, amdenad, SeuZlebelia adamianis arsebobis sruli Sewyveta. magram ukvdaveba ZaluZs). (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 265).
109
es TiTqos RmerTis arsebobis ontologiuri argumentis analogiiT <`:@H §:NLJ@H filosofiaSi cnobili cnebaa. ix. Diog. Laert. VII, 87-
adamianze gadmotanaa, analogia ki, Tavis mxriv, imas emyareba, rom 88 (stoicizmis Sesaxeb); Albinos, Epitom. IV, 8 (platonizmis Sesaxeb). Sdr.
adamiani RvTis xatia. amasTan dakavSirebiT ix. Crehan, p. 174, n. 43. Justin. 2 Ap. II, 4; Dial. XCII, 1; Origen. C. Cels. I, 4. (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 265).
110
106
:,J"$@8Z - vTargmniT "gardasaxvad", "cvlilebad". gavixsenoT, rom aTenagora aRdgomis WeSmaritebas Sesaqmis
107
aRdgoma rogorc cvlileba (gardasaxva) pavleseuli azria. ix. mizezis safuZvelze cxadyofs (ix. T. 12). Semdegi argumenti
fil. 3:21. Sdr. Orig. C. Cels. V, 18 ("gaumjobeseba"); Meth. De Res. III, 4,3-5 (gansakuTrebiT T. 15) adamianis bunebas emyareba.
58 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 59

aRdgomas aSkarad adasturebs. ukavia TiToeuls, romelia maT Soris pirveli, romeli
(3) da radgan esaa mizezi, romelmac adamianis amqveynad meore, mesame da sul ukanaskneli.
mosvla ganapiroba, jerovani iqneboda im sabuTis ganxilva, (4) aseTi dalagebisas pirvel [adgilze] adamianTa Seqmnis
romelic zemoTqmuls bunebiTa da logikuri Tanmimdevro- mizezi unda davayenoT, e.i. Semoqmedis ganzraxva, riTac
biT111 mosdevs. kvlevisas Sesaqmis mizezs Seqmnil adamianTa Seiqmna adamiani. mas, Sesabamisad, Seqmnil adamianTa buneba
buneba mosdevs, SeqmnilTa bunebas - Semoqmedis mier maTi unda davukavSiroT, [magram] ara rogorc rigiT meore,
samarTliani gansja, xolo yovelive amas - cxovrebis dasas- [aramed] imitom rom SeuZlebelia erTdroulad orives
ruli. raki dasawyisi [ukve] gamovikvlieT, axla, Sesabamisad, gansja, miuxedavad imisa, rom isini Tanaarseboben da
adamianTa buneba ganvixiloT. mocemuli [sakiTxisTvis] Tanabrad mniSnelovanni arian.
(5) swored am pirveladi sabuTebis [saSualebiT],
14 romlebic dasabams Semoqmedebidan iReben, naTlad cxaddeba
(1) WeSmaritebis debulebebis an sakvlev sakiTxTa aRdgoma; xolo aranakleb [amisa], aRdgomas sarwmunos xdis
dasabuTeba, rac naTqvams ucTomel damajereblobas aniWebs, gangebis sabuTebi, patividan Tu sasjeli, romelic TiToeul
saTaves garedan ki ar iRebs, an iqidan, rac vinmes hgonia an adamians samarTliani gankiTxvis Sedegad miergeba, da is
egona, aramed sazogado da bunebrivi gagebidan,112 an dasasruli, romelic adamianur cxovrebas mosdevs.
[sakiTxTa logikuri] Tanmimdevrobidan. (2) radgan [saqme] an (6) saqme isaa, rom mravalni, vinc aRdgomis moZRvrebas
mxolod pirvel debulebebs exeba, da amdenad, mxolod ganixilavs, [aRdgomis] mizezs mTlianad mxolod mesame
gaxsenebaa113 saWiro bunebrivi gagebis aRsaZvrelad, an kidev [sabuTze] amyareben, radgan miaCniaT, rom aRdgomas gankiTxva
[saqme exeba] im [debulebebs], romlebic bunebrivad pirvelT ganapirobebs.115 es rom mcdaria, ucxadesad Cans iqidan, rom
mosdeven, da agreTve bunebriv Tanmimdevrobas; saWiroa maTi yvela gardacvlili adamiani aRdgeba, magram yvela
rigis [dacva], da roca warmovaCenT imas, rac WeSmaritad aRdgomili ar ganikiTxeba. imitom rom mxolod gankiTxva rom
gamomdinareobs pirveli an winamavali [debulebebidan], ar yofiliyo aRdgomis mizezi, maSin xom ucodvelni da
moxdes [Tavad] WeSmaritebisa da WeSmaritebis sandoobis114 marTalni ar aRdgebodnen, magaliTad, sruliad Cvili
ugulebelyofa, an kidev bunebiT dawyobilisa da garCeulis bavSvebi. magram radganac isinic aRiareben, rom yvela
[erTmaneTSi] aRreva, anu bunebrivi jaWvis darRveva. aRdgeba, da sxvebTan erTad sul patarebic, amitom aRdgoma,
(3) aqedan gamomdonare, vfiqrob, saWiroa, rom is, vinc upirveles yovlisa, ara gankiTxvis gamo xdeba, aramed
mocemul [sakiTxTa gadawyvetas] cdilobs da [imis] Semoqmedis ganzraxvisa da qmnilebaTa bunebis gamo.
gonivrulad gansja surs, xdeba Tu ara adamianur sxeulTa
aRdgoma, upirveles yovlisa, kargad unda daukvirdes amis 15
damtkicebisTvis saWiro [sabuTebis] Zalas, Tu ra adgili [b. adamianis buneba, rogorc aRdgomis sabuTi]
111
(1) adamianTa Seqmnis mizezis ganxilva TavisTavad
, e.i. jaWvad. es stoelTa cnebaa. sakmarisia imis saCveneblad, rom aRdgoma, bunebrivi
112
. stoelTa cnobili terminia, romelic
mimdevrobiT,116 sxeulTa daSlas mohyveba. da mainc
adamianisTvis Cveul zogad cnebebs gamoxatavs. es pirveladi
marTebuli iqneboda, zemoganxilulidan araferi gamogveto-
debulebebis, romelTa damtkiceba SeuZlebelia. xolo rac maTgan
115
aris, is -iT (ix. wina SeniSvna) anu logikuri TanmimdevrobiT gankiTxvisa da aRdgomis mimarTebas aTenagora exeba
gamomdinareobs. (Crehan, p. 175-176). "mimarTvaSic", Leg. XXXI, 4; XXXVI, 2.
116
113
. Sdr. platonur anamneziss (fedoni 72e...). aTenagora aRdgomas sikvdilis logikur da bunebriv Sedegad
114
•FNV8,4". warmoadgens. ix. agreTve aqve, qvemoT, 16 da 17.
60 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 61

vebina da ukve Tqmulis Sesabamisad yoveli momdevno rulic erTi unda hqondes, xolo erTi dasasruli, WeSmari-
[sakiTxidan] amosavali gveCvenebina maTTvis, visac es TviTon tad, maSin iqneba, roca TviT cxoveli, romlis boloc aris es
ar ZaluZs. [amisTvis], upirveles yovlisa, [unda ganvixiloT] aRsasruli, sakuTar aRnagobas SeinarCunebs. es wmindad
Seqmnil adamianTa buneba, rasac imave azramde mivyavarT da igive cxoveli iqneba, Tuki igivea yvelaferi is, risganac,
aRdgomis Sesaxeb imave rwmenas gvaniWebs. rogorc nawilebisgan, igi Sedgeba. [nawilebi] ki igive iqneba
(2) adamianTa mTeli buneba, sazogadod, ukvdavi sulisa im erTianobis SigniT, romelic sakuTriv maT axasiaTebs,
da dabadebiTganve sulTan Senawevrebuli sxeulisgan Sedge- radgan daSlilni, kvlav [am] cxovelis aRnagobis [Sesamtki-
ba.117 TavisTavad arc sulis, arc calke sxeulis bunebisTvis ceblad] SeerTdebian.
ganukuTvnebia RmerTs dabadeba, sicocxle da mTeli (4) igive adamianTa aRnagoba naTelyofs aucileblobiT
arseboba, aramed erToblivad maTgan Seqmnili adamia- gamomdinare aRdgomas mkvdari da daSlili sxeulebisa,
nebisTvis, imisaTvis, rom risganac [Sedgebian] dabadebisas radgan mis gareSe bunebrivad ver SeerTdebodnen igive nawi-
da sicocxleSi, imiTve galion sicocxle erTi da ziari lebi da verc imave adamianTa buneba Semtkicdeboda.
aRsasasrulisken. amitomaa [adamiani] erTiani cocxali (5) xolo Tu adamianebs goneba da azri120 imisTvis mieca,
[arseba], ori [sawyisisgan Sedgenili], romelic ganicdis rom goniseulni Seimecnon, e.i. ara marto arsebani, aramed
[yovelive] imas, rasac ganicdis suli da imasac, rasac mimniWeblis sikeTe, sibrZne da samarTlianoba, [amitom] auci-
sxeuli, moimoqmedebs da akeTebs imas, rac grZnobad da lebelia, rom imis maradmyofobasTan erTad, risTvisac121
logikur gansjas saWiroebs. es Senawevreba erTi miznisken boZebulia logikuri gansja,122 Tavad es amaze mimarTuli
aRiswrafis, rom yvelaferi yovelmxriv erTian harmoniad da gansjac maradmyofobdes. magram am gansjis maradmyofoba
Tanxmobad118 warmoCndes: adamianis dabadeba, buneba, sicocx- SeuZlebelia, Tu ar iarsebebs buneba, romelmac igi miiRo,
le, saqmeni da gancdebi, cxovreba da bunebrivi aRsasruli.119 da is, raSic es buneba arsebobs.
(3) Tuki erTian cxovelSi erTi mTlianoba da erTi (6) xolo goneba da azri miRebuli aqvs ara calke suls,
Tanxmoba arsebobs, rogorc sulismier aRZrvaTa, aseve aramed adamians.123 amitom aucilebelia, rom adamiani, rome-
sxeulebriv moqmedebaTa [Soris], maSin maT yvelas dasas- lic am oris [erTianobiT] arsebobs, maradmyofobdes. magram
misi mudam arseboba SeuZlebeli iqneba, Tu is ar aRdga.
117
adamiani rom aris kavSiri ori sawyisisa - ukvdavisa da (7) aRdgomis gareSe arc adamianTa, rogorc adamianTa,
mokvdavisa, es berZnuli koncefciaa, romelic iudevelobisTvis ucxo buneba SenarCundeba. xolo Tu adamianTa buneba ar Senar-
iyo (iudaizmSi adamiani mTlianobaa). Sdr. erTis mxriv platons, Cunda, maSin amaod Seswyobia suli sxeulis moTxovnilebebsa
Phaedr. 246c da markus avreliuss VI, 32, meores mxriv ki iustines, De Res.
da mis survilebs, sxeuls amaod dauokebia Tavisi vnebebi,
VIII, PG 6, 1585 b , tatianes, Ad Graec. XV (suli sxeulis gareSe ver
gamovlindeba, verc sxeuli aRdgeba sulis gareSe), irineoss, Haer. V, 8, sulis aRviriT pyrobilsa da misadmi morCilqmnils.124 amao
2, tertulianes, De Res. VII, 9, XL, 3. kavSiri am or elements Soris [yofila] goneba, amao - Wkua,125 samarTlianobis dacva, wvrTna
arsebiTia: adamiani ar daiyvaneba mis sulze, amitom sxeulis aRdgena yovelgvar saTnoebaSi, kanonTa dadgena da gawyoba, mokled,
aucilebelia pirovnebis mTlianobisTvis. Sdr. tertulianes, De Res.
120
LIII, 1 (gnostikosTa winaaRmdeg); irineoss, Haer. V, 6, 1 (gnostikosTa 8`(@H.
121
winaaRmdeg); meTodes, De Res. I, 34, 3-4 (origenes winaaRmdeg). sxeuli- igulisxmeba is, risi Semecnebac unda moxdes: RvTis sikeTe,
mSvinva-suli samkomponentobis Sesaxeb, romelic sxeuli-sulis sibrZne da a.S.
122
wyvilTan paralels qmnis ix. Pouderon, teqsti, Appendice VI. (Pouderon, 8@(46¬ 6D\F4H.
123
teqsti, gv. 272-273). esaa gnostikosebTan kamaTi.
124
118
FL:BV2,4". Sdr. Plat. Phaedr. 246a-b (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 277).
125
119
JX8@H. ND`<0F4H.
62 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 63

rac ki adamianTa Soris da adamianTaTvis aris mSvenieri, raRac wyvetili130 SeiniSneba. nurc aRdgomas uarvyofT imis
gansakuTrebiT ki Tavad adamianTa dabadeba da buneba. (8) gamo, rom suli sxeulisgan gancalkavdeba,131 xolo nawilTa
magram Tu yvela saRvTo saqmidan da RvTis mier mocemul da nawevarTa rRveva uwyvet sicocxles gankveTs. (5)
saCuqarTagan sruliad gamoricxulia amaoeba, maSin yovlad grZnobadi cxovrebac xom TiTqos wydeba, ZilSi bunebrivad
garduvalia isic, rom sulis ukvdavebasTan erTad mara- xdeba grZnobaTa da fizikur ZalTa dauZlureba, roca
diuli iyos sxeulis arsebobac, ise rogorc es mis bunebas adamianebs Tanazomieri drois SualedebSi CaeZinebaT, Sem-
Sehferis. deg ki isev garkveuli gziT TiTqos gamococxldebian. magram
am dros xom ar uarvyofT, rom es igive sicocxlea! vfiqrob,
16 am mizezis gamo Zils sikvdilis Zmas uwodeben;132 ara imitom
(1) nuravis gaukvirdeba, rom sikvdiliTa da xrwniT rom erTi da imave winaparTagan Tu mSobelTagan dabadebu-
Sewyvetil sicocxles "maradmyofobas"126 vuwodebT. gasaTva- lad miiCneven, aramed imitom, rom gardacvlilebsa da
liswinebelia, rom am saxelwodebas erTi mniSvneloba ara mZinareT urTierTmsgavsi pasiuroba eufleba, uSfoTvelo-
aqvs127 da maradmyofobis sazomi erTi ar aris, radgan arc bis mizeziTa da agreTve imis gamo, rom saganTa da movle-
maradmyofTa bunebaa erTi. (2) xolo Tu maradmyofTagan naTagan isini aRarafers grZnoben, TviT arsebobasa da
TiToeuls Tavisi bunebis Sesabamisad aqvs maradmyofoba, sakuTar sicocxlesac ki.
amitom sruliad uxrwnelebsa da ukvdavebSi ver hpoveb imave (6) Tu adamianTa sicocxles, dabadebidan daSlamde aseTi
saxis maradmyofobas, [romelic adamianebs aqvT], vinaidan wyvetilobiT aRsavses, da gankveTils yovelive imiT, rac
umjobesi arsebani ar Tanaetolebian qvemdgomT. arc adamia- zemoT iTqva, mainc ar veridebiT igive cxovreba vuwodoT,
nebSi iqneboda swori am Tanabari da ucvleli maradmyofobis amitom arc rRvevis miRma sicocxle unda gamovricxoT (mas
Zieba, radgan [uzenaesi arsebani] dasabamiTgan ukvdavebad da xom Tan aRdgoma axlavs!), Tundac raRac xniT igi sulis
maradmyofebad iSvnen da usasrulod arseboben mxolod Se- sxeulisgan gamijnviT ganikveTebodes.
moqmedis ganzraxvis128 safuZvelze, maSin rodesac adamianebs
sulismier aqvT dabadebidan ucvleli maradmyofoba, sxeu- 17
lismierad ki isini cvalebadobis gziT iZenen uxrwnelebas. (1) saqme is aris, rom adamianTa bunebas, romelsac Semoqme-
(3) amas gulisxmobs aRdgomis Sesaxeb moZRvreba. gvsurs dis ganzraxviT imTaviTve wyvetiloba xvda wilad,133 cxovre-
aRdgoma da velodebiT sxeulis daSlas, rogorc 130
•<T:"8\".
gaWirvebiTa da rRveviT [aRsavse] cxovrebis Sedegs, da mis 131
esaa sikvdilis tradiciuli berZnuli gansazRvreba. Sdr.
Semdgom uxrwneli maradmyofobis imedi gvaqvs. Cven ar platoni, fedoni, 67d (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 280).
vuTanabrebT pirutyvTa129 aRsasruls Cvens aRsasruls, arc 132
Zilis sikvdilTan Sedareba berZnebTan: homerosi, iliada, XIV,
pirutyvTa maradmyofobas - adamianTa maradmyofobas, rom 231; odisea, XIII, 79-80; platoni, sokrates apologia 40d.
SecdomiT ar gavuTanabroT adamianTa buneba da sicocxle qristianebTan: tertuliane, De Res. XVIII, 9. ix. agreTve aTenagora, Leg.
imaT, visTanac maTi Sedareba ar SeiZleba. XII, 3. aTenagoras azriT, adamianis suls (igi ukvdavia) sZinavs
aRdgomamde, ise rom arc sixaruli icis, arc tkivili
(4) nurc is SegvaSfoTebs, rom adamianTa maradmyofobaSi
("hipnofsiqizmi"). es upirispirdeba, mag. tertulianes, De Res. XVII, 2,
126
aq da sxvagan: *4":@<Z. romelic Tvlis, rom suls erTgvari sxeulebrioba aqvs, romliTac
127
sxvaa maradmyofoba gamoTqmuli RvTis mimarT da sxva - sikvdilis Semdeg, aRdgomamde, SegrZneba da gancda SeuZlia. Sdr.
adamianis mimarT. irineosi, Haer. V, 31, 2 (suli aRdgomas elodeba). (Pouderon, teqsti, gv.
128
(<T:Z. 281).
133
129
anu ugonoTa: •8`(@4. es "imTaviTve" gansxvavdeba Sesaqmisagan (dab. 3:22), sadac
64 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 65

ba da maradiulobac wyvetili aqvs, gankveTili ZiliTa da aRdgomas, radgan WeSmaritebis sarwmunoyofisTvis [logiku-
sikvdiliT an asakobrivi cvlilebebiT. amasTanave Tavidanve ri ganazreba] ufro sandoa da uryevi, vidre gamocdileba.
cxadad rodi iCens Tavs is yvelaferi, rac mogvianebiT unda
aRsruldes. (2) vin daijerebs, Tu ara gamocdilebiT ganswa- 18
vluli, rom erTgvarovan134 da gauformebel135 TeslSi amdeni [g. gangebisa da gankiTxvis sabuTi]
da aseTi mZlavri Zalaa dabudebuli, an SeerTebisa da (1) axlaxans Cvens mier motanili yvela sabuTi, romlebic
Sesqelebis [unaris mqone] masis136 aseTi nairgvarobaa, vgu- kvlevas emsaxureba da aRdgomas sarwmunos xdis,
lisxmob Zvlebs, nervebs, xrtilebs, agreTve kunTebs, xorcs, erTgvarovania, radgan erTi da imave safuZvlidan momdina-
Signeulobasa da sxeulis sxva nawilebs? imitom rom es reobs; maTi safuZveli Sesaqmis Sedegad pirveli adamianebis
[yvelaferi] SeumCnevelia jer kidev svel TeslebSi,137 arc dabadebaa. zogierTi Tavad im pirveli safuZvlidan iZens
CvilebSi Cans is, rac zrdasrulebs axasiaTebs, arc simtkices, romlidanac aRmocendeba, sxvebi ki, romlebic
zrdasrulebs [Seetyoba] is, rac maT [am asakis] gadalaxvis adamianTa bunebasa da cxovrebas exeba, sarwmunoebas RvTis
Semdeg [eqnebaT], da arc am ukanasknelT - is, rac moxucebs mier Cvens mimarT winagangebidan iZenen. mizezi, romliTac da
[aqvT]. (3) miuxedavad imisa, rom xsenebulTagan zogi sul romlis gamoc gaCndnen adamianebi, adamianTa bunebasTan mWi-
ar amJRavnebs, zogi ki bundovnad [avlens] bunebriv dro kavSirSi [ganxiluli],139 Tavis safuZvels SesaqmeSi
mimdevrobasa da im cvlilebebs, romlebic adamianTa bunebas hpovebs, xolo samarTlianobaze [damyarebuli] sabuTi, ro-
SeemTxveva, mainc ician maT, vinc ugunurebiTa da mliTac RmerTi keTilad Tu borotad mcxovreb adamianebs
daudevrobis gamo amgvari gansjis mimarT brmani ar arian, gansjis - maT boloSi; [es sabuTebi] xom ZiriTadad aqedan
rom jer Tesva unda moxdes, xolo roca Teslebi momdinareoben, Tumca arsebiTad winagangebaze arian
Seisaxsrebian calkeul nawilebad da nawevrebad da, damokidebulni.
gaRvivebulni, dRis sinaTleze gamovlen, maSin xdeba (2) pirveladi [sabuTebi] SeZlebisdagvarad moviyvaneT.
pirveli asakobrivi zrda da zrdis Sedegad momwifeba, axla sasurvelia mocemuli [Tema] momdevno [sabuTebiT]
xolo damwifebulni siberemde bunebriv ZalTa Sesustebas naTelvyoT. vgulisxmob im pativisa Tu sasjelis ganxilvas,
ganicdian, Semdeg ki damaSvral sxeulTa rRveva xdeba. romelic yovel adamians samarTliani gankiTxvis safuZvelze
(4) am dros, roca Tesls ara aqvs aRbeWdili adamianTa elis adamianis cxovrebis aRsasruls. xolo maT Soris
zoma Tu forma, arc sicocxlis pirvelsawyisebad daSla bunebiT uwinaresi win unda wamoiwios da, upirveles
[emCneva], bunebriv xdomilebaTa jaWvi sarwmunos xdis imas, yovlisa, gankiTxvis Sesaxeb sabuTi iqnes ganxiluli. wina-
rac mxolod xilul movlenaTa safuZvelze sarwmuno ar mdebare [sakiTxTa] sawyissa da rigs Tu gaviTvaliswinebT,
iqneboda. miT ufro azri,138 romelic WeSmaritebas bunebrivi unda davuSvaT, rom vinc RmerTs am yovlierebis Semoqmedad
gamomdinareobis safuZvelze ikvlevs, sarwmunos xdis aRiarebs, missave sibrZnesa da samarTlianobas unda
miakuTvnos yvela qmnilebis dacva da winagangeba,140 Tu surs
sikvdili codvis nayofia.
sakuTari principebis erTguli iyos. xolo vinc ase gansjis,
134
... FBXD:"J4. es zedsarTavi nawarmoebia
aRiarebs, rom arc miwaze da arc caSi araferia warumarTve-
anaqsagoraseuli terminidan .
135 li da ugangebo, aramed yvelaferze - uxilavsa da xilulze,
e.i. romlis SigniT formaTa diferenciacia jer ar momxdara.
136
, e.i. xorcis masebi (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 282).
137
Tesli ZiriTadad “svelia”. Sdr. hipokrate, De Gen. 1, 1, Littré, t.
139
Sdr. zemoT, 12-17.
VII, p. 470. (Pouderon, p. 282-283).
140
SemoqmedebiT aqti gangebas ukavSirdeba. Sdr. Leg. VIII, 8
138
8ó(@H. (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 289).
66 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 67

mciresa Tu didze - Semoqmedis mzrunveloba vrceldeba; (3) [sawyisisgan Sedgenili erToba] aRar arsebobs, roca suli
yvela qmnileba xom Semoqmedis mzrunvelobas saWiroebs, sxeuls gaemijneba da TviTon sxeulic im [nawilebad]
TiToeuli Tavisi bunebisa da daniSnulebis mixedviT. daiSleba, romlebidanac iqna Sekrebili, da roca araferia
arafrismomcemi Tavmomwoneoba iqneboda maTi aq gvarebad darCenili uwindeli iersaxidan, TviT gardasul saqmeTa
dayofa an imis CamoTvla, TiToeuls bunebiT ra Seefereba. xsovnac ki). Sedegi yvelasTvis cxadia: warmavalma da
(4) xolo aq adamianis Sesaxeb aris laparaki, romelic, xrwnadma, mociqulis Tanaxmad,144 ukvdaveba unda Seimosos,
rogorc SeWirvebuli, sakvebs saWiroebs, rogorc mokvdavi - raTa aRdgomiT mkvdarTa cxovelyofisas gancalkavebulTa
memkvidres, rogorc gonieri - samarTals. Tqmulidan an sruliad daSlilTa kvlav gaerTianebisas, TiToeulma
TiToeuli adamians bunebrivad aqvs: sakvebi sicocxlisaTvis [adamianma] samarTlianad miiRos is, rac sxeulis meSveobiT
sWirdeba, memkvidre - gvaris mudmivobis, samarTali - qmna, kargi iyo is Tu cudi.145
sakvebisa da memkvidreobis kanonieri [ganawilebisTvis].
rogorc sakvebi da memkvidreoba orives exeba, samarTalic 19
orives unda exebodes. "oriveSi" ki sulisa da sxeulisgan (1) maTTvis, vinc [RvTis] gangebas aRiarebs da Cvens
[Sedgenil]141 adamians vgulisxmob. swored aseTi adamiania amosaval debulebebs eTanxmeba, Semdeg ki - ar vici ratom -
pasuxismgebeli yvela saqcielisTvis, romlisTvisac igi TviTonve sakuTar principebs uaryofs, am sabuTebs unda
jildos an sasjels Rebulobs. (5) namoqmedaris samarTliani mivmarToT da kidev sxvebsac, Tu mokled da gakvriT naTqva-
gankiTxviT samarTali orives mimarT aRsruldeba: arc mis ganvrcoba gvsurs.
mxolod sulma unda zRos samagiero imisTvis, rac sxeulTan (2) xolo maTTvis, visac safuZvelSive Cvengan gansxvavebuli
erTad moimoqmeda (radgan Tavad suli ar ganicdis [azri aqvs], umjobesia, jer sxva amosavali davuSvaT, raTa
midrekilebas142 im Secdomebisadmi, romlebic sxeulismier maTTan erTad eWvi SevitanoT imaSi, rac maT afiqrebT, da
siamovnebas, Wamasa da movlas ukavSirdeba), da arc mxolod maTTan erTadve aseTi ram ganvixiloT: nuTu adamianTa sicocx-
sxeulma (radgan Tavad igi ganurCevelia kanonisa da le da mTeli arseboba [RvTis] TvalTaxedvis gareSea darCeni-
samarTlis mimarT), aramed maTgan [Sedgenili] adamiani gani- li da iseT Rrma wyvdiads Seupyria dedamiwa, rom Tavad
kiTxeba misi yoveli saqmisTvis. [Cveni] gamokvlevis Tanaxmad, adamianebi da maTi saqmeebi umecrebiTa da mdumarebiT moucavs?
es arc am cxovrebaSi moxdeba (radgan [adamians] am cxovreba- Tu bevrad ufro saimedoa vifiqroT, rom Semoqmedi sakuTar
Si Rirsebisamebr rodi miegeba: bevri uRvTo da yovelgvari qmnilebebs zedamxedvelobs, radgan igi mcvelia yovelive
ukanonoba da borotebis Camdeni sikvdilamde gauWirveblad arsebulisa da momavlisa, saqmeTa da ganzraxvaTa msajulia?146
miatans da, piriqiT, vinc sicocxleSi sul saTnoebas (3) Tu adamianebs namoqmedarisTvis araferi moekiTxebaT,
avlenda, tanjvaSi, ciliswamebaSi, dabezRebasa da aTasgvar maSin maT pirutyvebTan SedarebiT araviTari upiratesoba
ubedurebaSi cxovrobs),143 arc sikvdilis Semdeg (radgan ori ara hqoniaT. piriqiT, maTze sacodavnic yofilan, radgan
vnebebs iokeben da RvTismosaobis, samarTlianobisa da sxva
141
. saTnoebisTvis iRwvian. maS mSvenieri yofila veluri da
142
igi •BD@FB"2ZH aris , e.i. "uvneboa". Crehan-is azriT, es termini, mxecuri cxovreba, ugunureba siqvele yofila, samarTlis
SesaZloa, aTenagoras SemoRebuli iyos. SemdgomSi mas xSirad
iyenebda klimenti aleqsandrieli. (Crehan, p. 178).
144
143
marTalTa devnis Sesaxeb ix. Leg. XXXI, 2, sadac naxsenebi arian I kor. 15:52-53.
145
piTagora, heraklite, demokrite da sokrate. maTi devnis Sesaxeb II kor. 5:10.
146
xSirad werdnen qristianTa devnasTan dakavSirebiT, ix. Justin. 1 Ap. V, 3; gankiTxva dakavSirebulia gangebasTan, iseve rogorc gangeba
XLVI, 3; X, 5-8. Orig. C. Cels. I, 3; II, 41 (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 190). SesaqmesTan. (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 292).
68 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 69

muqara - mxolod xumroba, nairgvari siamovnebis moneba - gebas] ver gauZlo? maSasadame, damsaxurebis mixedviT gan-
SesaniSnavi ram. xolo maT yvelas saerTo wesi da erTi kanoni kiTxva arc am cxovrebaSi sruldeba, arc sikvdilis Semdeg.
aqvT, TavSeukavebelTa da avxorcTaTvis metad Zvirfasi:
"vWamoT da vsvaT, radgan xvale movwydebiT."147 aseTi 20
cxovrebis bolo ki, zogs rom hgonia, siamovnebac ki ar aris, (1) sikvdili an sruli Caqrobaa sicocxlisa, roca
aramed sruli ugrZnoblobaa.148 (4) xolo Tu adamianTa Semo- sxeulTan erTad sulic iSleba da ispoba, an [sikvdilis
qmedi Tavisi qmnilebebisaTvis zrunavs da arsebobs sama- Semdgom] mxolod suli rCeba dauSleli, daunawilebeli,
rTliani gankiTxva imaTi, vinc keTilad da borotad gauxrwneli, xolo sxeuli ixrwneba da iSleba, da aRarc
icxovra, es an awmyo cxovrebaSi [unda moxdes], roca jer Tavisi namoqmedari axsovs, arc sulismieri gancdebi.
kidev cocxalia, vinc keTilad Tu borotad icxovra, an (2) Tu adamianTa sicocxle mTlianad Caqra, maSin veRar
sikvdilis Semdeg, roca [adamiani] daSlasa da rRvevas gamovlindeba [RvTis] zrunva150 aracocxal adamianTa mimarT
ganicdis. (5) magram verc erTsa da verc meore SemTxvevaSi da gankiTxvac aRar moxdeba imaTi, vinc saTno an boroti
ver davaskvniT, rom samarTliani gankiTxva aRsruldeba. am cxovrebiT icxovra. kvlav Semobrundeba ukanono cxovreba
cxovrebaSi xom arc kargebs miezRveba samagiero sikeTisa- da mis Tanmxleb ugunurebaTa wyeba, da am ukanonobaTa Tavi -
Tvis, arc ukeTurT - borotebisTvis. uRmerToba.151
(6) imaze aRarafers vambob, rom im bunebis SenarCunebis (3) sxeuli romc gaixrwnas da daSlil [nawilTagan]
SemTxvevaSi, romelSic amJamad vimyofebiT, mokvdavi buneba TiToeuli Tavis monaTesavesken wavides, suli ki uxrwneli
verc gauZlebda im sasjels, romelic gansakuTrebiT mraval- darCes, arc am SemTxvevaSi - samarTlis Tandaswrebis gareSe -
ricxovan da mZime danaSaulebs Seefereba. (7) radgan yaCaRi, eqneba adgili sulis gankiTxvas. imitom rom SeuZlebelia
warCinebuli Tu tirani, romlebmac usamarTlod aTasobiT RvTisagan Tu RvTis mier152 raime gankiTxva [moxdes],
[adamiani] warwymides, erTi sikvdiliT ver moixsnian amisTvis romelsac samarTali ar axlavs. saqme isaa, rom gankiTxvas
movlenil sasjels. da visac RvTis Sesaxeb WeSmariti warmo- samarTali maSin ar axlavs, roca aRar arsebobs samarTlia-
dgena sul ara aqvs, vinc qedmaRlurad da avsityvaobiT nobisa Tu ukanonobis Camdeni. xolo yvela cxovrebiseuli
icxovra, saRvTo ugulebelyo, daarRvia kanonebi, Seuracxyo saqmis Camdeni, romelTa gankiTxva xdeba, adamiani iyo da ara
bavSvebi da qalebi, ukanonod daarbia qalaqebi, saxlebi suli TavisTavad. mokled rom vTqvaT, aseTi daSveba
gadawva mobinadreebTan erTad, aawioka qveyana, gaanadgura samarTlis [arsebobas] ver uzrunvelyofs.
mosaxleoba, xalxi da mTeli modgma149- rogor daitevs [misi]
mokvdavi sxeuli Sesabamis sasjels, Tu sikvdilma
damsaxurebul [sazRaurs] win gauswro, xolo mokvdavma bune-
21
bam [am adamianis] Tundac erTi namoqmedarisTvis [pasuxis- (1) qvelmoqmedebisTvis pativis migebisas sxeuli aSkarad
daiCagreba; igi xom im Sromis moziarea, romelsac suli
147 eweva, magram qvelmoqmedebisTvis migebul pativs igi ver
esaia 22:13, romelic aris pavlesTan 1 kor. 15:32, da
warmodgenili iyo aTenagoras Legatio-Si XII, 3 (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. gaiziarebs. xSirad suli Sendobas hpovebs im codvaTa gamo,
295).
148
es epikurelebis kritikaa. epikuresTan sikvdili sruli 150
ND@<J\H.
ugrZnoblobaa. es, faqtiurad, is siamovnebaa, romelic brZenisTvis 151
•2,`J0H.
sicocxleze ufro sanatrelia (diogene laerti, 2, 86, 93-5). (Pouderon, 152
, e.i. uSualod RvTisgan da RvTis mier,
teqsti, gv. 295; Schoedel, p. 135). magram SualobiT. ix. Crehan-is Targmani, gv. 109. Sdr. Pouderon,
149
*-:@Hs 8"`Hs §2<@H. teqsti, gv. 299: “par Dieu et en son nom”.
70 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 71

romlebic xorcielma moTxovnilebebma da saWiroebam ziarebisken, romlebisken TviTon miiswrafvis? ltolvani da


ganapiroba, maSin roca Tavad sxeuli ver eziareba jildos siamovnebani, SiSebi da tkivilebi,157 romelTa mizezi mudam
im keTil saqmeTaTvis, romlebisTvisac sicocxleSi Sroma arazomiereba aris, sxeulidan iRebs dasabams, da nuTu aqedan
[sulTan] erTad gawia.153 gamomdinare codvebi da codvebisTvis movlenili sasjeli
(2) maSinac, roca codvaTa gankiTxva xdeba, sulis mimarT mxolod suls unda ergos? suls xom TavisTavad amdagvari
samarTlianoba ver iqneba daculi, Tu suli marto agebs araferi sWirdeba, igi arc ltolvas, arc SiSs, arc vnebas
pasuxs im codvebisTvis, romlebic sxeulis zemoqmedebiT ganicdis imis mimarT, rasac Cveulebriv adamiani ganicdis.
Caidina, roca sxeuli mas sakuTari vnebebisken da miswrafebe- (5) magram romc davuSvaT, rom vnebebi mxolod sxeuls ki
bisken ubiZgebda,154 xan moxiblviTa da macdurobiT, xan ufro ar axasiaTebs, aramed [mTel] adamians, rac TavisTavad
Zalismieri zewoliT, zogjer ki [sulis sxeulTan] im sworia, radgan misi cxovreba ori [sawyisisgan Sedgenili
SeTanxmebulobis gamo, romelic [suls ubiZgebs], sxeulis erTianobaa], Cven mainc ver vityviT, rom vnebebi suls
sasikeTod da misi agebulebis SenarCunebisTvis [iRvawos].155 Seefereba, roca sakuTriv sulis bunebas ganvixilavT. (6)
(3) an rogor ar iqneboda usamarTloba, rom mxolod suli radgan Tu suls sruliad ar sWirdeba sakvebi, mas arc
gansjiliyo imisaTvis, risadmi mas, misi bunebis Tanaxmad, ltolva eqneba imisadmi, rac saarsebod ar sWirdeba, arc
araviTari ltolva, miswrafeba da survili ar gaaCnia, ro- miswrafebas imisken, risi moxmarebac ara sCvevia; metic, igi
goricaa, magaliTad, aRviraxsniloba, Zaladoba, sixarbe da verc ki idardebs im fulisa Tu qonebis uqonlobis gamo,
sxva amasTan dakavSirebuli codvebi? (4) borotebaTa rasTanac saerTo araferi aqvs.
umetesoba xom imitom xdeba, rom adamianebi mozvavebul (7) xolo Tu suli xrwnaze Zlieria, igi ar SeuSindeba imas,
vnebebze ver mZlavroben, romlebic sxeulis moTxovnilebaTa rasac misi gaxrwna SeeZleboda. igi ar Seudrkeba SimSils,
da saWiroebaTa gamo mozvavdnen, agreTve im ndomisa da sneulebas, saxiCrobas, Seuracxyofas, cecxlsa da maxvils,
moTxovnilebis gamo, romelic am [dauokeblobas] Tan axlavs. radgan maTgan igi ziansa da tkivils ver ganicdis; masze arc
amis gamoa yovelgvari mflobeloba da miTumetes moxmareba, sxeulebi moqmedeben, arc sxeulebrivi Zalebi.
agreTve qorwineba da yvela cxovrebiseuli saqme, (7) xolo Tu vnebaTa mikuTvneba sakuTriv sulebisTvis
romlebSic da romelTan mimarTebaSi Cans is, rac Secdoma uazrobaa, am vnebaTagan momdinare codvebisa da Sesabamisi
aris da rac ar aris. maS sadRaa samarTali, Tu mxolod suli sasjelis mxolod sulebisTvis akideba metismeti usamarT-
ganisjeba imisTvis, risadmic pirvelad sxeuli ganicdis loba da RvTiuri gankiTxvisTvis uRirsi [saqme] iqneboda.
vnebas156 da sulsac ezideba im saqmeTa Tanavnebisa da
153
sulisa da sxeulis erToblivi pasuxismgeblobis Sesaxeb Sdr. 22
[Justin], De Res. VII, PG 6, 1585c - 1588a; Tertulian. De Res. VIII, 3; XIV, 11; XVI, 15; (1) garda amisa, uazroba ar iqneboda, roca saTnoeba da
XL, 12; Greg. Nys. De An. et Res. 141d - 144a (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 299). boroteba calke suls ar ganekuTvneba (radgan saTnoebad
154
orfikul-platonur tradiciaSi suli iseTi substanciisgan adamianis saTnoebas miviCnevT, iseve rogorc mis sapirispi-
aris Seqmnili, rom mas SeuZlia sixarulisa da tkivilis gancda,
Sesabamisad, jildosi da sasjelisa. amas uaryofs aTenagora (XIX, 7). axasiaTebs; sakuTriv sulis vnebaze laparaki aramarTebulia.
tertuliane ki gulisxmobs, rom suls garkveuli mgrZnobeloba da tertulianesTan piriqiTaa: suli ganicdis vnebebs da igi maT sxeulis
sxeulovneba aqvs (De Res. XVII, 1-2; XXXIII, 10). (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 300). gziT iokebs, rac stoelTa tradicias Seesatyviseba. Sua
ix. agreTve zemoT, Sen. 142. platonizmSi (albinosi) vneba sulis avadmyofobaa, an, nebismier
155
•88@J, * 6"J• FL<*D@:¬< ¦< PVD4J@H :XD,4 6" 2,D"B,\"H J-H SemTxvevaSi, misi racionaluri moZraoba mainc ar aris. (Pouderon,
J@ J@L FLFJVF,TH. teqsti, gv. 300-301).
156
rogorc ukve aRiniSna, aTenagoras Tanaxmad vneba sxeuls 157
esaa oTxi stoikuri vneba. (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 301).
72 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 73

rod borotebas sxeulisgan gancalkavebul martomyof suls raRaciT sargeblobas aris Cveuli. amgvarad mowyobil
ar [mivakuTvnebT]), maTTvis movlenili jildo da sasjeli sulSi ki ar moipoveba is, rasac [sxeulis] nawilTa egoistu-
mxolod suls rom etvirTa? (2) an rogor warmoidgens kaci ri qmedeba163 ewodeba.
mxolod sulSi simamacesa da simtkices,158 roca suls ar
aSinebs arc sikvdili, Wriloba, dasaxiCreba, sasjeli Tu 23
Zaladoba, arc maTTan dakavSirebuli tkivilebi an maTgan (1) dadgenili kanonebi adamianebs exebaT. amitom, yvelaze
gamowveuli tanjva? (3) rogor [warmovidginoT mxolod didi uazroba iqneba, kanonieri Tu ukanono saqmeTaTvis
sulSi] TavdaWeriloba159 da gonivruloba, roca suls sazRauris gadaxda mxolod sulebs rom daekisros. (2) rad-
araviTari survili ar ubiZgebs sakvebisaken, sqesobrivi gan Tu samarTlis Tanaxmad, kanonis amRiarebeli ukanono-
kavSirisa Tu sxva siamovnebisken - arc Signidan aRagznebs mas bisTvis Tavad isjeba, xolo kanonebs adamiani aRiarebs da
raime Zala, arc garedan aqezebs? (4) [mxolod sulSi rogor ara suli TavisTavad, [amitom] adamianmave unda agos pasuxi
warmovidginoT] keTilgoniereba, roca masze araa codvebisTvis da ara sulma TavisTavad. imitom rom RmerTs
damokidebuli raRacis gakeTeba an argakeTeba, arCeva an sulebisTvis ar dauwesebia, Tavi Seikavon imisgan, rac maT
uaris Tqma, miT ufro, rom mas araviTari miswrafeba da srulebiT ar exeba, rogoricaa magaliTad siZva, mkvleloba,
bunebrivi ltolva raime qmedebisadmi ar axasiaTebs?160 qurdoba, Zarcva, mSoblebis upativcemloba da, saerTod,
(5) saerTod, rogor iqneboda sulebisaTvis yovelgvari swrafva, romelsac axloblebisTvis usamarT-
damaxasiaTebeli samarTlianoba erTmaneTisadmi an sxvaTa - loba da ziani moaqvs. (3) arc "pativi eci mamasa Sensa da
imave an gansxvavebuli gvaris warmomadgenelTa mimarT, roca dedasa"164 Seefereba mxolod sulebs - maT es mcnebebi ar
maT ar gaaCniaT is, Tu saidan, risi meSveobiT an rogor161 ganekuTvneba, radgan sulebi ki ara Soben sulebs da am gziT
miakuTvnon [TiToeuls] kuTvnili [wili] damsaxurebis mixed- mamis an dedis saxels iZenen, aramed adamianebi adamianebs. (4)
viT an analogiiT,162 garda RvTisadmi pativiscemisa? maT ara arc "ara imruSo"165 odesme Tqmula an Tundac nagulisxmevi
aqvT araviTari ltolva da miswrafeba imisken, rom moixma- yofila sulTa mimarT, radgan maTSi ar aris mamrisa da
ron sakuTari da uari Tqvan sxvisaze. bunebiT Sesaferis mdedris garCeva,166 arc sqesobrivi kavSiris unari an misken
[saganTa] moxmareba an [amaze] uaris Tqma xom imas axasiaTebs, ltolvaa. xolo aseTi ltolva roca ar aris, arc kavSiria
visac moxmareba sCvevia, suls ki araferi sWirdeba da arc SesaZlebeli. xolo visac sqesobrivi kavSiri ara aqvs, mas
verc kanonieri kavSiri eqneba, rogoricaa qorwineba. xolo
158
aq da qvemoT CamoTvlilia stoelebis mier aRiarebuli kanonieri kavSiri sadac ar arsebobs, iq verc ukanono
siqveleebi. (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 304-305). kavSiri da sxva colisken ltolva an [masTan] kavSiri iqneba
159
¦(6DVJ,4", anu sakuTari Tavis flobis unari. SesaZlebeli. mruSoba xom swored es aris. (5) sulebisTvis
160
es adgili naTels xdis, rom aTenagoras azriT adamianis qurdobis an sixarbis akrZalvac ar iqneboda swori. imitom
individualoba sulis da sxeulis erTianobiT ganisazRvreba. rom maT ara sWirdeba is, rac sxvebs sWirdeba, vinc bunebrivi
amasTanave sxeulis funqciebi TiTqos ufro mkafiod aris moTxovnilebisa Tu saWiroebis gamo Cveulia qurdobasa da
gansazRvruli vidre sulisa. mainc ras "akeTebs" suli aTenagoras
azriT? 163
*4@BD"(\". es platonuri sityvaa (Sdr. kanonebi, IX, 875b, sadac
161
, e. i. wyaro, saSualeba da forma. mas uaryofiTi mniSvneloba hqonda). aq albaT sxeulisa da mis
162
. Schoedel-i aRniSnavs, rom es ori nawilTa mimarTebazea miniSneba. (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 306).
tipis Tanasworoba (arsebiTad igiveobrivi) aristotelesTan aris 164
gamosvl. 20:12. luka 18:20. maTe 19:19.
(Pol. 1301a26, 1301b31): pirovnebis "damsaxureba" analogiiT 165
gamosvl. 20:14. l. 18:20. mT. 5:27. Sdr. rom. 13: 9.
gansazRvravs misaReb upiratesobebs. (Schoedel, p. 143, Crehan, p. 180). 166
Sdr. Plat. Tim. 91a (Crehan, p. 180).
74 aTenagora aTeneli mkvdarTa aRdgomis Sesaxeb 75

yaCaRobas [da itacebs], magaliTad, oqros, vercxls, Tvalwin xdeba.


pirutyvs an sxva rames, rac sakvebad, TavSesafrad an saxma- (3) marTlac, gana ver vxedavT, rom miwaTmoqmedebs Tavisi
rad gamoadgeba. ukvdavi bunebisTvis ki usargebloa yoveli- daniSnuleba [bolo] aqvT, eqimebs - Tavisi, aseve Taviseburia
ve is, riskenac armqone, rogorc saWiro nivTisken, miiltvis. imisi daniSnuleba [bolo], rac miwidan aRmocendeba, da sxva
(6) am [sakiTxTa] ufro sruli gamokvleva imaTTvis aris cxovelTa daniSnuleba [bolo], romlebic miwis [nayo-
migvindia, visac TiToeuli maTganis ufro guldasmiT fiT] ikvebebian da bunebrivi cikliT mravldebian.
ganxilva an mowinaaRmdegeebTan ufro Tavmomwone SekamaTeba (4) Tu es cxadia da bunebriv da xelovnur Zalebsa da
surs. CvenTvis ki zemoTqmulic kmara da is, rac masTan moqmedebebs171 bunebis Sesabamisi dasasruli mosdevs, [amitom]
SesabamisobaSi aRdgomis [WeSmaritebas] sarwmunos xdis. isic savsebiT aucilebelia, rom adamianTa dasasruls,
amave [sakiTxebze] ufro metad SeCereba drouli ar iqneboda. romelTac gansakuTrebuli buneba aqvT, sxvaTa dasasrulTan
Cven miznad is ki ar dagvisaxavs, araferi gamovtovoT iqidan, saerTo araferi hqondes. amitom dauSvebelia, erTi da igive
rac SeiZleba iTqvas, aramed [gvsurs], mokled vaCvenoT dasasruli logikuri gansjis armqoneTac mivakuTvnoT da
SekrebilT, Tu rogor unda gvesmodes aRdgoma da damswreTa [imaTac], vinc bunebrivi kanoniTa da gansjiT moqmedebs, vinc
SesaZleblobebs SevusabamoT [TemisTvis] gankuTvnili gonier cxovrebas [eweva] da samarTals [icnobs].
sabuTebi. (5) arc umtkivneulo dasasruli iqneboda am
ukanasknelTaTvis sakuTriv damaxasiaTebeli, romelic grZ-
24 nobis sruliad armqoneT aqvT.172 magram es arc is sixaruli
[d. miznobrivi sabuTi] iqneboda, romelsac sxeuls kveba da garToba, an siamovne-
(1) mocemuli [Tema] metnaklebad gamovikvlieT da isRa baTa siuxve aniWebs: maSin xom cxoveluri cxovreba upirate-
dagvrCa, rom miznobrivi sabuTi167 ganvixiloT. is TqmuliT sobas moipovebda, xolo saTno cxovreba umizno iqneboda. me
ukve naTelyofilia168 da mxolod dakvirvebasa da ganvrco- mgoni, aseTi dasasruli cxovelebsa da saqonels Seefereba
bas moiTxovs, raTa vinmes ar egonos, rom zemoT naTqvamidan169 da ara adamianebs, romlebsac ukvdavi suli da logikuri
raRac dagvaviwyda da amgvarad mxedvelobidan gamogvrCa sa- gansjis unari aqvT.
wyisi debuleba da dasawyisSive gakeTebuli klasifikacia.170
(2) amisa da amiT gamowveuli SesaZlo kamaTis gamo kargi 25
iqneboda Tundac imis aRniSnva, rom bunebrivad warmoqmni- (1) [adamianis arsebobis saboloo mizani] arc sxeulisgan
lebsa da xelovnurad Seqmnilebsac, TiToeuls Tavisi saku- gancalkavebuli sulis netarebaa,173 radgan sicocxle Tu
Tari daniSnuleba [bolo] unda hqondes. amas gvaswavlis bolo adamianis ori Semadgeneli [nawilidan] erTerTs ki ar
yvelasTvis saziaro azri da amasve adasturebs is, rac Cvens [ekuTvnis], aramed [Tavad adamians], romelic orivesgan Se-
167
-i aRniSnavs 171
Sdr. zemoT, 9,1 (J• NLF46V - J• J,P<46V). Zalis (anu
etaps, romelic amqveyniuri arsebobis Semdgomia. pirutyvTaTvis SesaZleblobis - *b<":4H) da moqmedebis (¦<XD(,4") opozicia
("alogurTaTvis"), aTenagoras Tanaxmad, es ugrZnoblobaa, aristoteluria: Phys. I, 8, 27, 191b; Met. 8, 6, 1048a. galeniosi amas
adamianisTvis - ara. amdenad, adamianisTvis am boloTi mizanic biologiis sferoze ganavrcobda (De Nat. Fac. I, 2, Kühn, t. II, p.7).
ganisazRvreba da es (e.i. bolo, dasasruli, mizani) erTi sityviT - (Pouderon, teqsti, gv. 312).
JX8@H - gamoixateba.
172
aTenagora darwmunebulia, rom cxovelebs mgrZnobeloba ara
168
Sdr. 13.3, 14.5, 15.2-3 da 18.1-2. aqvT. (Sdr. Crehan, p. 181).
169
Sdr. 18.2.
173
platonikosTa an gnostikosTa Tvalsazrisia: mxolod
170
Sdr. 13.3. ganwmendili, usxeulo sulia netari.
76 aTenagora aTeneli 77

dgeba. adamians, rogorc mTels, wilad aseTi cxovreba xvda


da am sicocxles sakuTari dasruleba unda hqondes.
(2) xolo Tu dasruleba orive [Semadgenels erTad] exeba,
da misi gamovlena cocxlebSi - am cxovrebis manZilze -
SeuZlebelia, ukve mravaljer Tqmuli mizezis gamo, da arqimandriti kvipriane kerni
[SeuZlebelia] calke myof sulSic (imitom rom mocemuli
adamiani, rogorc mTlianoba, aRar arsebobs, roca sxeuli moZRvris momzadebis Sesaxeb*
ixrwneba an sruliad iSleba, Tundac suli TavisTavad
darCes), amitom gardauvalia, rom adamianTa dasasrulis
momavali sulieri mwyemsis momzadeba qristianobis isto-
gamovlena raRac sxva mdgomareobaSi moxdes, romelic imave
riis yvela droebaSi RvTismetyvelTa da asket-maswavlebel-
cocxal arsebas, ori [sawyisidan Sedgenils], ganekuTvneba.
Ta yuradRebis centrSi idga. samoZRvro mecnierebis kursSi
(3) amisi aucileblobiT gamomdinareoba ganapirobebs
es sakiTxi ramdenime problemad iyofa. es ori umTavresi
imas, rom ueWvelad unda moxdes gardacvlili da sruliad
kiTxvaa:
daSlili sxeulebis aRdgoma da kvlav imave adamianebis
1. saWiroa maRali samRvdelo msaxurebisTvis momzadeba,
aRdgena. imitom rom [adamianebisTvis Sesaferisi] dasru-
Tu mTeli es saqme RvTis madls unda mivandoT, romelic
leba bunebis kanoniT nebismieri adamianisTvis ganurCevlad
yvelafers Seavsebs da gankurnavs?
ki ar dgindeba, aramed igi imave [adamians ganekuTvneba],
2. Tu momzadeba saWiroa, maSin raSi unda mdgomareobdes
romelmac winandeli cxovreba ganvlo. xolo imave adamianTa
is?
aRdgena SeuZlebelia, Tu igive sxeulebi imave sulebs ar
am ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi gamoikveTeba ramdenime Tema:
daukavSirdnen. igive sxeuli ki imave suls ver miiRebs, Tu
momzadeba sulieri, momzadeba inteleqtualuri, garegnuli
ara aRdgomiT. swored esaa, rasac adamianTa bunebis
da a. S.
Sesaferisi bolo mosdevs.
am sakiTxis zogadi ganxilvisas SeiZleba or sapirispiro
(4) xolo gonieri sicocxlisa da logikuri gansjis
azrs SevxvdeT. erTis mixedviT, veraviTari adamianuri mec-
bolo, ar SevcdebiT Tu vityviT, aris ganuSorebeli
niereba, specializacia an xelovneba verafers gaakeTebs da
maradmyofoba174 imasTan, rasac bunebrivi azri175 gansa-
arc unda gaakeTos iq, sadac suliwmidas madls mouwodeben,
kuTrebiT kargad aris Cveuli: esaa dauRalavi sixaruli
romelic aris yovlisSemZle da amitom TviTkmari
[RmerTis] momniWeblis WvretiT da misi moZRvrebiT, Tumca
(sakmarisi). meore azris mixedviT piriqiT momzadeba
adamianTagan mravals, romlebic ufro Zlieri vnebiT
saWiroa, Tanac momzadeba safuZvliani, daxvewili da farTo.
amqveyniuri [siamovnebisken] rom iltvis, aseTi bolo ar
Tu erTi Tvalsazrisis mixedviT, mRvdeli unda
ergeba. (5) magram saerTo xvedrs ver gaabaTilebs imaTi
akmayofilebdes mxolod liturgiuli praqtikisaTvis
mravalricxovneba, visac misTvis Sesaferisi bolo ara xvda.
aucilebel ubralo moTxovnebs da primitiulad gagebul
yvela Sesabamisad ganikiTxeba da TiToeuls - imisda
RvTivmosaobas, sxva Tvalsazrisis mixedviT momavali mRvd-
mixedviT keTilad icxovra Tu borotad - Sesabamisi jildo
lis momzadeba imdenad farTodaa gagebuli, rom mis
an sasjeli ergeba.
valdebulebas akuTvneben soflis meurneobas, medicinas da

174 * amonaridi wignidan:


FL<*4"4T<\.,4< filonis terminia. (Crehan, p. 181).
175
NLF46`H... 8`(@H. .
78 kvipriane kerni moZRvris momzadebis Sesaxeb 79

sxvadasxva praqtikul disciplinebs. Soris mravlad arian Tavisi drois uganaTlebulesi


samoZRvro mecnierebam unda ipovos garkveuli wonaswo- adamianebi. ioane oqropiris, grigol RvTismetyvelis, basi-
roba da moipovos is saSualo, "oqros", sameufo gza, romel- li didis, fotiusis da sxvaTa naSromebi uxvad Seicavs
zec mRvdeli ar gadaixreboda primitivizmsa da obskura- amonawerebs yovelnairi sasuliero Tu saero wignebidan, maT
tizmSi da amave dros, ar iqneboda gatacebuli zedmetad Soris - warmarTulidanac. qristianobis arsis Sesaxeb
saero da mRvdlisTvis sruliad Seuferebeli interesebiTa gavrcelebul mcdar SexedulebaTagan erT-erTi yvelaze
da saqmeebiT. miuRebeli ueWvelad isaa, TiTqos qristianoba miamitTa,
am Sesavali SeniSvnebis Semdeg vupasuxoT zemoT dasmul umecarTa da ganaTlebis moZuleTa religia iyos. amas
pirvel SekiTxvas: saWiroa ki samRvdelod (mRvdlobisTvis) amtkicebdnen sxvadasxva dros imperatori iuliane
momzadeba? gandgomili da cnobili kelsosi, radgan maT qristianobi-
aq TavisTavad ibadeba damadasturebeli pasuxi. amas sadmi mtruli grZnobebi amoZravebdaT da misi daknineba
gvkarnaxobs samRvdeloebis mTeli istoria da eklesiis ewadaT. amasve amtkiceben Cvens droSi qristianobisTvis Tav-
gamocdileba. marTalia, qristianobis istoriaSi yovelTvis gamodebuli adamianebi, romlebic misi siwmindis SenarCu-
ar arsebula sasuliero saswavleblebi, magram momaval nebisTvis mzad arian gaaubraloon da bnelSi gaxvion is.
mRvdlebs mudam moeTxovebodaT am maRali xarisxis Sesafe- sagangebod iyo zegardmo ganCinebuli, rom bagaSi, sadac
risi mzaoba. garda amisa, mas Semdeg, rac eklesiuri cxov- gankacebuli logosi iSva, ara marto ubralo mwyemsebi
reba SedarebiT mSvidi da organizebuli gaxda, saeklesio mividnen, aramed RvTis maZiebeli aRmosavleli mogvebi,
ierarqiaSi gaCnda miswrafeba sistemuri ganaTlebis keraTa qristianobis miRma saRvTo WeSmaritebis matareblebi. Tu,
dasafuZneblad. eklesiis istoriis pirvelsave saukuneebSi erTi mxriv, macxovarma ubralo mebadurebs mouwoda, meore
daarsda cnobili sasuliero saswavleblebi aleqsandriaSi, mxriv qristianobis udides gamavrcelebelTa Soris iyo
konstantinopolSi, romsa da mraval sxva adgilas. didi mociquli pavlec, Tavisi drois uganaTlebulesi kaci.
saRvTismetyvelo kamaTebisa da eresebis epoqam es miswra- qristianobas Tavidanve gamouCndnen iseTi moazrovneebi da
feba kidev ufro gaaZliera. Tuki pirvel sam saukuneSi dmcvelebi, rogorebic iyvnen wminda mowame iustine
sistemuri saRvTismetyvelo da samRvdelo ganaTleba nakle- filosofosi, aTenagora, klimenti aleqsandrieli, rom
bad organizebuli iyo, qristianobis saxelmwifo religiad aRaraferi vTqvaT msoflio moZRvarTa da mRvdelmTavarTa
gamocxadebis Semdeg es saqme TandaTanobiT aewyo da mTels pleadaze, eklesiis oqros xanaSi rom moRvaweobdnen.
daixvewa. Tumca saeklesio ganaTlebis forma mudam ucvleli unda gavixsenoT, rom pavle mociquli, sami samoZRvro
ar yofila: karga xans saswavlo centrebs monastrebi warmo- epistoles avtori, aramcired moTxovnebs uyenebda Tavis
adgendnen, zogjer momaval moZRvrebs Semoikrebdnen gamo- mowafeebsa da Tanamosagreebs, da avaldebulebda saTana-
rCeuli ierarqebi Tu mRvdlebi. es maSin xdeboda, roca dod gamoecadaT yvela, vinc episkoposis xelidan mRvdlad
eklesias araqristianebi daipyrobdnen, an - Tu qveyana kurTxevas iTxovda. mociquli gvirCevs, naCqarevad aravin
miyruebuli da qristianuli centrebisgan mowyvetili iyo. vakurTxoT mRvdlad (1 tim. 5:22), moiTxovs, rom episkoposi
yvela SemTxevevaSi dabejiTebiT SeiZleba iTqvas, rom iyos ara marto umwikvlo, aramed ganswavluli (1 tim. 3:2),
eklesia arasdros tovebda uyuradRebod am sakiTxs, didi rom kurTxevis maZiebelni jer unda gamoicadnon (1 tim. 3:10),
sifrTxiliT ekideboda mRvdlad kurTxevas da momavali mRvdelmsaxuri marad unda aswavlides mTeli Tavisi
mRvdlebisgan safuZvlian da mravalmxriv momzadebas ZalauflebiT (tit. 2:15), droulad Tu udrood (2 tim. 4:2);
moiTxovda. mtkiced idges imaze, rac uswavlia da rac irwmuna (2tim.
eklesiis saxelganTqmul moZRvarTa da mwyemsmTavarTa 3:14), jansaR moZRvrebSi unda ganamtkicebdes da sawinaaRm-
80 kvipriane kerni moZRvris momzadebis Sesaxeb 81

degos win unda aRudges (tit. 1:9) qadagebdes da aswavlides mZRvanelo momavali mRvdlebisTvis, wminda ambrosi medio-
(1 tim. 4:11), gamudmebiT kiTxulobdes, Seagonebdes, da lanelis "mRvdelmsaxuris movaleobaTaTvis", netari ieroni-
damoZRvravdes (1 tim. 4:13). mes "mRvdelTa cxovrebisaTvis". mRvdlis movaleobaTa
mociqulTa epistoleebidan rom gadavideT RvTismetyve- Sesaxeb werda wminda papi grigol dialogosi, amave Temaze
lebis klasikuri xanis moZRvarTa nawerebze, aqac advilad SesaniSnavi sityvebi aqvT wminda efrem asurs da grigol
vipoviT zemoTqmulis damadasturebel sabuTebs. qristia- RvTismetyvels, romelic, rogorc cnobilia, iZulebiT
nobis gaubraloebis da obskurantizmis momxreebi amaod akurTxa mRvdlad misma mamam, ris Semdegac grigoli udabno-
imowmeben zogierTi qristiani moZRvris cxovrebas, vTqvaT, Si gadaixvewa, radgan Tavi ar miaCnda mRvdlobis Rirsad.
episkoposi seviris, yofili memaudis, da aleqsandresi - misi 42-e, sityva (apologia) swored am nabijis ganmartebas
yofili menaxSiris. es SemTxvevebi gamonaklisia da maTi exeba da imasac gvacnobs, Tu rogor moiazrebda grigol
msgavsi Znelad Tu moiZebneba samRvdeloebis istoriaSi. RvTismetyveli mRvdelmsaxuris cxovrebas da moRvaweobas;
eklesias sul sxva moTxovnebi hqonda. Tavis saukeTeso da amitom mRvdlebi mas saxelmZRvanelod unda iyenebdnen.
mravalnacad moZRvarTa piriT eklesia marto sarwmunoebas ai, ras wers ioane oqropiri: "mohyavT mRvdlebad
ki ar moiTxovda mRvdlebisgan da, miT umetes, umecarni da im simdidris ganmkargavad ganaweseben, romelic
episkoposebisgan, aramed - sjulismoZRvrebaSi (sjulis- macxovarma Tavisi sisxliT gamoisyida". samRvdelo saqmis
mecnierebaSi) gawafulobas, wignier sibrZnes, romelic, dro gamoucdelTaTvis CabarebiT, TviT mRvdlobas vamaxinjebT.
rom gadis da eklesia umetesi safrTxis winaSe dgeba, xSirad gamoiTqmis Tvalsazrisi, rom momzadeba akninebs
TandaTanobiT unda gaRrmavdes da gafarTovdes. mudam unda rwmenas, siwmindes, simdables da ase Semdeg. aq kargi iqneba
gvaxsovdes, rom didi mwvaleblobebis, ganxeTqilebebis, gavixsenoT netari ieronimes sityvebi: "ubir da umecar mRvd-
SfoTis da sxva cdunebebis krizisul wuTebSi eklesiis lebs Tavi wmindanebi hgoniaT, radgan araferi gaegebaT".
xomaldis gezs erTguli, mravalnacadi da ganbrZnobili xolo grigol RvTismetyveli gvafrTxilebs: "jer TviTon
mesaWeebi gamarTavdnen xolme. magram, rogorc Cans, ganiswavle da mere sxva damoZRvre", an kidev: "sxva fermwer-
primitivizmis da bneleTis mociqulobis aCrdili uwinac TaTvis uvargisi xati nu iqnebi", "CvenTan swavlasa da
dastrialebda sasuliero wodebas. SemTxveviT ar momxdara, swavlebas Soris zRvari aravis dauwesebia", "erTia cxvrebis
rom eklesiis bevri rCeuli moZRvari Seagonebda samRvdelo da Zroxebis mwyemsva da sxvaa - adamianTa sulebis marTva".
xarisxis mqoneT, Tu ra Znelia am xelobis floba, da ramdenad Semdgom saukuneebSic ar dadumebula im moZRvarTa da
aRemateba is yovelnair kacobriul sibrZnes da xelovnebas. mwyemsmTavarTa gamafrTxilebeli xma, romlebsac esmodaT,
saintereso gadmocema arsebobs papi leon I didis cxovre- Tu ra saxifaToa naCqarevad da gamoucdelad xeldasxma.
bidan. mas sikvdilis win petre mociquli gamoecxada da ruseTSi samRvdelo momzadebaze werdnen ganmanaTlebeli
yvela codvis miteveba auwya, garda erTisa - rom naCqarevad tixon zadonski, mama ioane kronStadteli, da am Temaze
da ugulisyurod akurTxevda mRvdlebs. sabolood, gansa- bevria naTqvami samRvdelo RvTismetyvelebis kursebSi. gavi-
kuTrebuli locvis Semdeg, meore gamocxadebisas, paps am xsenoT, rom samoZRvro RvTismetyvelebis zogierTi specia-
codvis mitevebac euwya. listi (mitropoliti antoni) arc ki aRiarebda mRvdlad
amitom bunebrivia, rom didi moZRvrebi da ierarqebi "mowodebas" da mTeli yuradReba mRvdlis momzadebis
xSirad afrTxilebdnen da sayvedurobdnen rogorc mRvdlo- sakiTxze gadaqonda.
bis maZieblebs, ise maT xeldamsxmelebsac am sakiTxisadmi sasuliero saswavleblebSi didi dro eTmoboda samRvde-
ugulisyuro damokidebulebis gamo. gavixsenoT ioane oqro- lo momzadebas. revoluciamdel ruseTSi mRvdlad momzade-
piris "eqvsi sityva mRvdlobis Sesaxeb" - darigeba da saxel- bis sazogado kursi 10 wliani iyo (4 weli sasuliero
82 kvipriane kerni moZRvris momzadebis Sesaxeb 83

saswavlebeli da 6 weli sasuliero seminaria), srulyofili upirvelesi, rac sulieri aRzrdis gzaze SemdgarT
momzadebis mosurneebs kidev 4 wliani kursi unda gaevloT moeTxovebaT da rac Zalze xSirad aklia samRvdeloebas,
saRvTismetyvelo akademiaSi, ase rom, srul ganaTlebas 14 rodesac is gatacebulia politikiT da erovnuli
weliwadi sWirdeboda. kaTolikeebsac aqvT TavianTi "mcire miswrafebebiT, an iZulebulia izrunos saarsebo purze da
seminariebi", "didi seminariebi" da Cveneburi saRvTismetyve- materialur pirobebze. amgvari sulieri zrda erTbaSad ar
lo akademiebis Sesatyvisi fakultetebi. zogjer sagangebo modis - saamisod mTeli cxovreba unda iRvawo, siyrmidanve
viTarebaSi (omianobisas, areulobisas an Soreul provin- unda aRizardo Seni Tavi, gadaWriT unda airCio, romel gzas
ciebSi) aucilebeli xdeboda samRvdelo kursebis Semokle- mihyvebi - amqveyniurs Tu araamqveyniurs.
ba, magram es mxolod gamonaklisi iyo sazogado wesidan. am arCevanSi ori momenti gamoikveTeba: uaryofis da
Tu gadavalT imis garkvevaze, Tu raSi mdgomareobs dasturis. pirveli imas niSnavs, rom gadaWriT uarvyoT
mRvdlis momzadeba momavali saqmianobisTvis, es sakiTxi yvelaferi rac amqveyniuri gagebiT mimzidvelia: amqveyniuri
Tavidanve unda davyoT sam nawilad: aTvla da sargebeli, kariera, nacionalur-politikuri
1) sulieri momzadeba, crurwmenebi da sxva. es ar niSnavs kulturuli cxovrebi-
2) gonebrivi momzadeba, sagan gandgomas da adamianTa sazogadoebaSi monawileobis
3) garegnuli momzadeba. uaryofas. es imas niSnavs, rom Tavi gaviTavisufloT yovel-
nairi amqveyniuri midrekilebisgan, qveynierebis borote-
sulieri momzadeba bisgan, arasulieri instinqtebisgan; ar davemorCiloT da ar
davyveT ama soflis pirobebs da nebismier codvas. dasturis
mxare ki isaa, rom daviunjoT yovelive sulismieri,
mRvdlobis kandidati, momavali moZRvari emzadeba
yvelaferi, rac madlis sauflos miekuTvneba. amas
samRvdelo xarisxis misaRebad, anu sasuliero wodebis
ganviTareba sWirdeba da es cneba ramdenime mizans moicavs.
misaRebad ( ). TavisTavad sityva "sasulie- grigol RvTismetyvelis TqmiT, mRvdels hmarTebs zeciu-
ro" ukve bevris momTxovnia. sxva enebSi Sesatyvisi terminebi roba, anu is ar unda iyos amqveyniuri usjuloebis Tanaziari
sviaSCenstvo (serbulad), clerge, clergy (frangulad, inglisu- da miwier faseulobaTa tyve. mRvdels hmarTebs siwminde. si-
rad, da berZnulad) mTlianad ar gadafaravs mis mniSvnelo- wminde ar aris arc fsevdo-sulieri, stilizebuli purita-
bas. mas ufro Seesabameba germanuli Geistlicher, sityvidan Geist1, nizmi da usicocxlo, sisxlnakluli spiritualizmi, arc
suli. es niSnavs, rom samRvdeloebas, pirvel rigSi, gansakuTrebuli gamoTqmebis dazepireba da saeklesio
suliereba moeTxoveba. sasuliero piri unda miekuTvnebodes stiliT metyveleba, arc netari saxis miReba, arc pirferoba,
sulis sauflos, da ara socialur yoveldRiurobas, mate- aramed WeSmariti suliereba, anu miswrafeba marTl-
rialuri moTxovnilebebis da angariSis sferos, politi- madidebeli asketikis umaRlesi idealisken - RvTis Svilad
kuri interesebis samyaros da a.S. esaa, uwinares yovlisa, qcevisken, gansulierebisken, sakuTari Tavis da sxvebis
sakuTari Tavis aRzrda saRvTo sasufevlis suliskveTebiT, ganRmrTobisken. mRvdeli unda iyos gulisxmieri da
sakuTar TavSi am sasufevlis aRSeneba, radgan sasufeveli mowyale, rac sentimentalobas ki ar niSnavs, aramed sxvisi
sadme ki ar aris, qveynierebis romelsame adgilas, aramed - sixarulis, codvis, mwuxarebis da tkivilis gaziarebis
Cvens SigniT. sasufeveli RvTisa ar aris Teokratiuli unars. mRvdeli unda iyos Rirsi, anu msgavsi qristesi, keTi-
idilia, is Cveni sulierebis kategoriaa. swored es aris is li mwyemsis srulyofili idealisa. mRvdeli unda iyos
locvismoyvare, anu, unda uyvardes yvela saxis locviTi
1
germanulad Geist - suli, Geistlicher - usulieresi. Rvawli, kerZod, ganmartovebiTi locva, goneri (iesos
84 kvipriane kerni moZRvris momzadebis Sesaxeb 85

locva), sataZro, da gansakuTrebiT saRmrTo liturgiis aseve Tanamedrove mecnieruli ekzegetikuri literaturis
msaxureba. Tu mRvdels locva ar uyvars da ar SeuZlia, Tu Seswavla.
locvis stiqiaSi ar Sesula, RvTismsaxureba ar izidavs da sulieri aRzrdis procesSi wminda mamaTa naSromebi,
yvelanairi sapatio Tu arasapatio mizeziT mas Tavs aridebs, gansakuTrebiT ki asketikuri, unda gamoviyenoT, rogorc
aseTi mRvdeli Tavisive TavTan modis winaaRmdegobaSi da is zneobrivi srulyofis saxelmZRvanelo, radgan es naSromebi
sasuliero dawesebulebis unayofo Cinovnikia mxolod. kabinetebSi ki ar dawerila, aramed udabnoSi mravalwliani
mRvdeli unda iyos Tavmdabali, anu ar unda amoZravebdes ganmartoebisa da samonastro gamocdilebis Sedegia. aq
siamayis, Tavmowonebis, qedmaRlobis, pativmoyvareobis, erTgvari ierarqiuli wesi unda davicvaT: kiTxva SedarebiT
TavmoTneobis da egoizmis instinqtebi. es Tavmdabloba unda martividan unda daviwyoT (aba doroTe, ioane kronStad-
gamoixatebodes ara upiratesis winaSe Tavis dabla daxraSi, teli, Teofane dayudebuli da egnate brianCaninovi, ambrosi
an xelmoweraSi "mdabali mRvdeli ...". Tavmdabloba niSnavs, optineli da sxva), Semdeg ki ufro rTulze gadavideT,
iyo Tavisufali egocentrizmis yovelgvari gamovlinebi- rogoricaa "filokalia", isaak asuri, "kibisaRmwereli",
sagan, sakuTar personas ar ayenebde samyaros SuagulSi, ar svimeon axali RvTismetyveli, grigol palama.
tkbode sakuTari TaviT da sxva amgvari. samRvdelo momzadebisTvis metad qmediTi saSualebaa
mravlad SeiZleba im miznebis CamoTvla, romlebsac xSiri aRsareba, sulier sakiTxebze saubari gamocdil
mRvdeli unda eswrafodes, Tumca, ZiriTadad, esec sakmari- adamianebTan, wmindanTa cxovrebis, cnobili mamebis da
sia. yovelive CamoTvlili SeiZleba daviyvanoT erT mlocvelebis biografiebis kiTxva. dasavlur qristianoba-
Tvisebamde - suliereba, anu is, rom Tavi davixsnaT yvela- Si monastrebSi danergili aqvT gansakuTrebuli, xangrZlivi
nairi codvisa da yvela miwieri, socialuri, nacionaluri, varjiSebi locvasa da sulier WvretaSi. amgvari
politikuri interesis momZlavrebisagan. saamisod ki ganmartoebuli da sakuTar Tavze dakvirvebuli varjiSi,
sulieri aRzrdis saSualebebs unda mivmarToT. anu marxva ( ) mniSvnelovnad damoZRvravs da sulieri
ar SevcdebiT, Tu vityviT, rom sulierebis mosaxveWad saunjiT gaamdidrebs suls.
yvelaze mZlavri saSualebaa locva. locva TavisTavadac zemoT CamoTvlilis garda sulier momzadebas xels uw-
xom sulieri cxovrebis nawilia, magram misi wyalobiT yobs avadmyofTa monaxuleba, gaWirvebulTa daxmareba, da,
SegviZlia sulieri samyaros sxva sikeTeebsac veziaroT, saerTod, TanagrZnobis yovelnairi gamovlineba, roca ki
SegviZlia locviT gamoviTxovoT is, rac gvaklia. mRvdlo- saWiroa. sasargeblo iqneba, Tu davfiqrdebiT ara mxolod
bis mosurneebi locvas skolis merxidanve unda daeCvion. warmaval siZneleebze, aramed sikvdilis wuTze, maradiso-
momaval mRvdels rom RvTismsaxureba izidavs, an piriqiT, baze, saiqio cxovrebaze. amaSi mRvdlobis axalgazrda
Tavs rom aridebs mas, ukve amiT SegviZlia vimsjeloT, Tu kandidatebs Zalian daexmarebaT micvalebulTa sulis
saiT hqris misi goneba, mZime tvirTia misTvis locva, Tu mosaxseneblad fsalmunebis kiTxva.
yvelaze sasurveli saqme. Tumca amis ganzogadebasac unda zemoTqmuli rom SevajamoT, davaskvniT, rom sulieri
veridoT, radgan locvis niWi metad individualuria. zogs wrTobisTvis unda gamoviyenoT yvelaferi, rac momaval
sataZro locva ufro moswons, radgan esTetikurad mRvdels sawuTros kanonebisa da adaTebis momZlavrebisgan
mimzidvelia da tibikonis mixedviT keTilgangebuli, zogs daifaravs da zeciurobas da sulierebas moupovebs. es
senakSi faruli da gulismieri locva urCevnia. asea Tu ise, yvelaferi Seadgens sagans kerZo disciplinisa, samoZRvro
mRvdels moxveWili unda hqondes locvis stiqia. asketikis saxeliT rom aris cnobili.
amas mosdevs saRmrTo werilis kiTxva, dazepireba, gaaz-
reba, mis ganmartebebSi CaRrmaveba, rogorc wminda mamaTa, Targmna zaza TvaraZem
86 interviu 87

amjerad Cemi viziti umTavresad ganapiroba Tqven


qveyanaSi ukanaskneli wlis ganmavlobaSi momxdarma didma
politikurma cvlilebebma. Cemi azriT, es Zalian pozitiuri
cvlilebebia da es is droa, roca eklesiebsac SeuZliaT
dadebiTad imoqmedon momavlisTvis.
episkoposi stiven plateni
l.a.: ra SegiZliaT TqvaT Tqveni eklesiis urTierTobis
Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi moqmed eklesiebTan da, uwinares
inglissa da saqarTvelos bevri aqvT yovlisa, Cveni qveynisTvis tradiciul, saqarTvelos marTl-
saerTo madidebel eklesiasTan?

s.p.: Cemi azriT, inglisis eklesia imis gamo, rom is ingli-


saqarTveloSi ama wlis 1-5 agvistos stumrad imyofeboda sis nacionaluri eklesiaa, Tavis upirveles amocanad
anglikanuri eklesiis mRvdelmTavari, veikfildis episko- yovelTvis saxavda urTierToba daemyarebina sxva qveynebis
posi, saqarTveloSi inglisis eklesiis warmomadgeneli did erovnul eklesiebTan. amitom bunebrivia, upirveles
stiven plateni (Stephen Platten). mas esaubra Jurnal "emaosis" yovlisa Cven visurvebdiT gvqonoda kargi urTierToba da
mTavari redaqtori levan abaSiZe. urTierTgageba saqarTvelos marTlmadidebel eklesiasTan.
es tendencia kidev ufro Zlierdeba, vinaidan, da es Sei-
levan abaSiZe: batono episkoposo, Tqven saqarTveloSi Zleba bevrs paradoqsulad eCvenos, marTlmadidebeli
anglikanuri eklesiis oficialuri warmomadgeneli brZande- eklesiebi yvelaze axlos arian anglikanurTan. Cemi azriT,
biT. ra SegiZliaT gviTxraT Tqveni misiis Sesaxeb da piradad es marTlac asea, Tumca Cveni RvTismsaxurebebi erTmane-
saqarTvelosTan Tqveni damokidebulebis Sesaxeb, sadac Tisgan sakmaod gansxvavdeba. mizezi am siaxlovisa aris is,
adrec yofilxarT da megobrebic gyavT? rom anglikanebs sjeraT, rom maTi doqtrina (rwmena) aris is,
rasac isini loculoben da RvTismsaxureben. ase rom, Cveni
stiven plateni: Tavidanve vityvi, rom me saqarTvelos rwmenis wyaro, saboloo jamSi, Cveni locvania. igivea
did megobrad miviCnev Tavs da imedi maqvs, rom es asec aris. marTlmadideblobaSi, sadac aseve, rogorc loculob, ise
me miyvars es qveyana. bolo 11 wlis ganmavlobaSi araerTxel gwams. moviyvan Cveni siaxlovis meore niSans. Tqven
Camovsulvar da yovelTvis didi sixaruliT moveSurebi. me avtokefaluri eklesiebi xarT da TiToeul eklesias Tavisi
miyvars aqauri xalxi stumarTmoyvare, Tbili, megobrulad meTauri (patriarqi) hyavs. amave dros, es erTi eklesiaa da
ganwyobili, da miyvars es qveyana, misi buneba, mTebi, romleb- konstantinopolis, anu msoflio patriarqi, aris primus inter
sac axlac vxedavT. es SesaniSnavi qveyanaa da me minda, rac pares, pirveli TanasworTa Soris. da es Zalian hgavs
SeiZleba metma adamianma icodes mis Sesaxeb. anglikanuri Tanamegobrobis mowyobas da masSi kenterberiis
amjerad me ara var kerZo vizitiT, aramed Camovedi, mTavarepiskoposis gansakuTrebul adgils.
rogorc inglisis eklesiis warmomadgeneli, da me Camovitane ase rom, Cemi azriT, didi mniSvneloba aqvs gvqondes
kenterberiis arqiepiskoposis werili patriarq ilia II- urTierToba saqarTvelos marTlmadidebel eklesiasTan. me
saTvis. me warmovadgen inglisSi myof eklesiebs da ara Cem Tavs patriarq ilia II-s megobrad miviCnev da vicnob mas
marto anglikanur eklesias. ukve 12 welia. me organizeba gavukeTe kenterberiis mTavar-
episkoposis vizits saqarTveloSi da saqarTvelos eklesiis
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patriarqis vizits inglisSi 1993 wels. me kargad maxsovs rom Filioque-s damateba gviandeli movlenaa dasavleTisTvis.
SesaniSnavi suraTi, romelic londonis "taimma" gamoaqveyna sainteresoa, rom Cveni locvanis bolo gamocemaSi dabeW-
vizitis dawyebis meore dRes. am suraTze saqarTvelos dilia mrwamsis orive varianti Filioque-Ti da mis gareSe. ise
patriarqi navis erT boloSi zis, xolo kenterberiis rom, Cven garkveul progress mivaRwieT. aris mravali
mTavarepiskoposi meoreSi; isini saubroben da ase auyvebian sfero, sadac Cven, dasavleTSi SegviZlia gaviRrmavoT
mdinare temzas. es Zalian kargi xatia Cveni eklesiebisTvis, eklesiis umTavres doqtrinaTa gageba imiT, rom Tqven
romlebic dialogSi arian Cabmulni erTmaneTTan, usmenen da mogismenT da TqvenTan dialogSi CavebmebiT.
SesaZloa, sargeblobas naxuloben erTmaneTis tradiciis magaliTad, marTlmadidebloba yovelTvis did
saganZuris gacnobiT. mniSvnelobas aniWebda Sesaqmis Teologias. Cemi azriT, dasa-
ase rom Cven valdebulad vTvliT Tavs, ganvagrZoT es vleTi umTavres aqcentebs cxonebis (xsnis) Teologiaze
dialogi da gvjera, rom bevri ram unda viswavloT Tqvengan. akeTebda. amitom Cven Tqvengan unda viswavloT, radgan Sesaq-
Cveni amJamindeli arqiepiskoposi kargad icnobs marTl- mis Teologia dagvWirda; gansakuTrebiT, rodesac iseT
madideblobas. misi sadoqtoro naSromi rusi Teologis, samyaroSi vcxovrobT, romlis momavali safrTxeSia garemos
sergi bulgakovis memkvidreobas exeba, da es kidev ufro met dabinZurebis da ganadgurebis gamo. msoflio patriarqma am
stimuls gvaZlevs ganvaviTaroT urTierToba marTlmadide- sferoSi ramdenime mniSvnelovani iniciativa wamoiwyo da,
bel eklesiasTan. Cemi azriT, Cven SegviZlia bevri viswavloT da sulierad
gavmdidrdeT Tqveni tradiciidan. me imedi maqvs, rom es
l.a.: ras gvetyodiT anglikanur-marTlmadideblur dia- kidev ufro dagvaaxlovebs saboloo erTobis mizans.
logze? ra stadiazea is dRes? konfesiaTSorisi dialogis
saboloo mizani xom erTobis aRdgena unda iyos. rCeba Tu ara l.a.: saqarTvelos davubrundeT. rogorc cnobilia,
es perspeqtiva Cven SemTxvevaSi, Tu imdenad davSordiT mas, saqarTvelos eklesia TiTqmis erTaderTi gamonaklisia
rom xeli CaviqnieT am saboloo mizanze da dialogs marTlmadidebel eklesiebs Soris, romelmac ekumenuri
dialogisTvis vagrZelebT? organizaciebi datova rogorebicaa eklesiaTa msoflio
sabWo (ems) da evropis eklesiaTa konferencia (eek). saqarT-
s.p.: diax, erToba saboloo mizani unda iyos. amave dros velos eklesiis oficialur warmomadgenelTa mimarTeba sxva
Cven realisturad unda SevafasoT is, Tu ra vadebSi konfesiebisadmi xSirad antiekumenuri suliskveTebiT gamo-
SeiZleba misi miRweva. isic unda gvaxsovdes, rom arc ingli- irCeva. ra SegiZliaT amis Sesaxeb gviTxraT? xom ar aZnelebs
sis eklesias da arc saqarTvelos eklesias ar SeuZliaT es Tqven ormxriv urTierTobas saqarTvelos eklesiasTan?
gadawyvetilebis damoukideblad miReba. es unda iyos mTlia-
nad anglikanuri eklesiis da mTlianad marTlmadidebeli s.p.: upirveles yovlisa, unda iTqvas, rom ekumenuri
eklesiis gadawyvetileba. moZraobis umTavresi sazrisi pirad urTierTobebSia. maga-
Cemi azriT, bolo wlebSi Cven garkveul progress mivaR- liTad, im faqts, rom me am diliT erTi saaTi gavatare
wieT. amis magaliTia Filioque-s1 muxli, rac tradiciulad patriarq iliasTan, CemTvis udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs,
abrkolebda Cvens urTierTobebs. Cemi azriT, dasavleTis imitom, rom me mjera, rom Cven gvakavSirebs uwyveti
eklesiebi (inglisis eklesia namdvilad), amJamad aRiareben, urTierToba, imedi maqvs, megobrobac ki. da Tu Cven erTmane-
1 Tis gvesmis da gulwrfelad vsaubrobT Cven Soris arsebul
Filioque, laTinurad "da Zisagan", nikea-konstantinepolis
siZneleebze, - es sawyisi wertilia Cveni urTierTobisTvis.
mrwamsSi dasavleTis eklesiis mier damatebuli nawili, rac
miuRebeli aRmoCnda aRmosavleTis eklesiisaTvis, - l.a. swored amitom aris samwuxaro, rom saqarTvelos eklesia ar
90 stiven plateni interviu 91

aris amJamad ems-sa da eek-s wevri. es organizaciebi raRac gaxdnen erTobliv ziarebaSi da erTobliv locvebSi miiRon
dogmebisTvis ki ar arseboben, aramed adamianebisTvis, monawileoba, rac eklesiis kanonebis darRvevaa...
romlebic erTmaneTs xvdebian. es organizaciebi aadvileben
adamianTa Sexvedrebs da, samwuxaroa, rom saqarTvelos s.p.: upirveles yovlisa, me ar mgonia rom vinme ems-Si
eklesiis mier am organizaciis datovebis gamo (me imedi gawevrianebiT Tavis identobas kargavdes. rac Seexeba ems-s
maqvs, rom droebiT) mravali Sexvedra da saubari ar Sedga. kritikas, inglisis eklesiis wevrebi da misi sinodi amaSi
yvela CvenTagani ems-sa da eek-is wevrebi vzaraldebiT imiT, marTlmadideblebs ar Camouvardebodnen, magaliTad, 70-ian
rom Tqven eklesias wvlili ar Semoaqvs. me gavbedav da wlebSi, rodesac Cven didi uTanxmoeba gvqonda rasizmTan
vityvi, rom qarTuli mxarec zaraldeba imiT, rom sxvebTan brZolis konkretul sakiTxebSi (Cveni azriT, sruliad
erTad ar aris CarTuli am saqmeSi. miuRebeli iyo finansuri daxmarebis gaweva im
me mesmis, rom dRes dasavleTSi bevri ramea iseTi, rac eqstremistuli jgufebisTvis, romlebsac ems rasizmTan
mimzidveli araa, magram Cven xom aRar vcxovrobT iseT brZolis programis farglebSi exmareboda).
samyaroSi, sadac SesaZlebelia sruli izolacia ucxo ase rom, ems-Si da eek-Si monawileoba ar niSnavs imas, rom
gavlenebisagan da saqarTvelos eklesiam es romc moindomos, yvelafers eTanxmebi, aramed mxolod imas, rom Tqven xarT
mis garSemo arsebuli kultura imasve ar gaakeTebs. da Tu organizaciis wevri, romelic dialogs uwyobs xels.
eklesia Tavs izolaciaSi moaqcevs, maSin roca kultura rac Seexeba RvTismsaxurebas, aq unda ganvasxvavoT ori
ara, eklesia bevrad araefeqturi gaxdeba. kulturasTan ram. Tu Cven vsaubrobT saRvTo liturgiaze (wirva,
urTierToba ar niSnavs qristianobis Ralats, ar niSnavs, evqaristia), maSin savsebiT sworia is mosazreba, rom
rom eTanxmebi yvelafers, rasac saero mecniereba akeTebs. me, adamianebma ar unda miiRon masSi monawileoba, sanam isini ar
piradad, amas ar visurvebdi, magram, me isev gavimeoreb, rom iqnebian darwmunebulni, rom rogorc erTi sxeulis
Cven orive mxares gvWirdeba dialogi, orive mxares (eklesiis) nawilebi, isini erT rwmenasa da erTian xedvas
gvWirdeba erTmaneTisgan swavla. Cven, qristianebs SegviZ- iziareben. magram rodesac saqme exeba sityvis msaxurebas,
lia gadamwyveti sityva vuTxraT msoflios, albaT ufro rasac Cven ufro araformalur msaxurebas vuwodebT, maSin
mniSvnelovanic ki, vidre wina epoqebSi, radgan dRes iseTi amgvarma erToblivma msaxurebam ar SeiZleba ziani moitanos.
problemebi gaCnda, rac mTel planetas exeba. es problemebi Cven yvelas gvwams, rom Tayvans vcemT erT ganuyofel samebas.
ar aris mxolod garemos dacva, aramed terorizmi da sxva. Cven gvwams, rom erTi da igive mrwamss viyenebT (filiokves
amitom gadamwyvet mniSvnelobas iZens adamianTa Soris Sesaxeb me zemoT visaubre). me ver vxedav, ra ziani SeiZleba
urTierTgageba. saxarebis centrSi ki ori ramaa: RvTis mier moitanos amgvarma locvam, Cemi azriT mxolod sikeTe. me
yovelives Seqmna da cxoneba (xsna). minda Tqveni Sekrebis wevri gavxde. me ar minda iseTi ram
ase rom, me minda vuTxra saqarTvelos eklesias, gTxovT, gavakeTo, rac Tqveni eklesiisTvis miuRebeli iqneba, magram
dabrundiT sabWoSi. Tqven Cven gvWirdebiT. am sabWoSi me minda TqvenTan erTad locva da me minda, rom Tqven CvenTan
monawileobiT Tqven ar awerT xels iseT rames, rasac ar erTad ilocoT.
eTanxmebiT. Tqven, ubralod, CaerTvebiT adamianur saubarSi,
romelic iq grZeldeba. l.a.: samarTliani iqneba Tu ara, Tu vityviT, rom amgvari
grZnobebis safuZveli (me imedi maqvs, rom ormxrivi) isaa, rom
l.a.: oponentebis mTavari argumenti imaSi mdgomareobs, Cven, orive mxare erTmaneTs vaRiarebT, rogorc qristianebs.
rom Cven SeiZleba Cveni TviTmyofadoba (identoba) davkar-
goT da, rom SeiZleba iq Cveni warmomadgenlebi iZulebulni s.p. absoluturad geTanxmebiT. anglikanebs da
92 stiven plateni interviu 93

marTlmadideblebs Zalian bevri aqvT saerTo. Cven gvaqvs sazogadoebis problema xdeba. radgan, saboloo jamSi,
erTnairi mowiweba da rwmena wminda werilisa, saerTo rogor unda marTo efeqturad qveyana, Tu ar arsebobs
memkvidreoba nikeis mrwamsisa da saerTo samsafexuriani Rirebulebebisa da rwmenis garkveuli saerTo birTvi? Tu es
msaxureba _ episkoposi, mRvdeli, diakoni. SeiZleba iTqvas, birTvi gaqra, maSin SeuZlebelia vinmem miaRwios aRiarebas
rom mxolod Cven, marTlmadideblebs da kaTolikeebs gvaqvs da misaRebi iyos, rogorc avtoriteti. Cven ar viciT, amas
es samsafexuriani msaxureba da xeldasxmis uwyveti rogor unda vebrZoloT.
tradicia. amgvarad, Cven bevrad meti da didi ram gvaqvs Cemi azriT, Cven kidev erTxel unda mivmarToT adamianebs,
saerTo, vidre is, rac erTmaneTisgan gvaSorebs. da movuwodoT imisken, rasac me obieqtur Rirebulebebs
vuwodebdi. xom arsebobs RirebulebaTa birTvi, romelzec
l.a.: Cemi Semdgomi kiTxvebi Seexeba qristianobas Cven yvela vTanxmdebiT? magaliTad, TiTqmis yvelasTvis
dasavleTis sazogadoebaSi. rogor fiqrobT, dReisaTvis cxadia, rom aravis aqvs ufleba adamians sicocxle
eklesia (an qristianebi) xom ar agebs brZolas dasavleTis ZaladobiT waarTvas, iqneba es omis, mkvlelobis Tu Tundac
sazogadoebaSi? im sazogadoebaSi, romelic sul ufro sae- sikvdiliT dasjis gziT. amgvari magaliTebi SeiZleba
ro da, SesaZloa, antiqristianulic ki xdeba? eklesiis gavagrZeloT. rodesac Cven mivadgebiT obieqturi Rire-
aqtiur wevrTa ricxvi xom dramatulad daeca. bulebebis birTvs, Cndeba kiTxva, saidan iRebs dasabams es
birTvi? ra aris misi wyaro? qristianebi amboben, rom is
s.p.: gagikvirdebaT, magram im fonze, rodesac eklesiaSi uciloblad miuTiTebs RmerTze. sainteresoa, rom dasavle-
mosiaruleTa ricxvi marTlac mcirdeba, me mainc mimaCnia, Tis zogierTi wamyvani filosofosi dRes ubrundeba
rom eklesiis gavlena ar sustdeba. Cem qveyanaze rom garkveul obieqtur aTvlis wertils (reference point). isini
vilaparakoT, amis erT-erTi niSani aris is, rom mTavrobis yovelTvis ar amboben, rom es RvTis rwmenas gulisxmobs,
wevrebi mzad arian usminon eklesiebs, gansakuTrebiT, magram Teologebi maT kiTxvas usvamen: "Tu Tqven am
humanitarul, socialur da eTikur sakiTxebSi. amasTanave, mimarTulebiT midixarT, es xom gulisxmobs garkveuli
Cvens mTavrobaSi aris ramdenime wevri, romlebic erTguli transcendentuli aTvlis wertilis arsebobas?"
qristianebi arian (strongly loyal Christians); premierministri da ase rom, Cemi azriT, eklesiebma mniSvnelovani roli unda
kabinetis ramdenime wevri, magaliTad, anglikanebi arian. Seasrulon ara marto qristes saxarebis gavrcelebaSi (rac
rasakvirvelia, aravin uaryofs, rom eklesiam mravali maTi upirvelesi mizania), aramed unda daexmaron Cven sazo-
mimdevari dakarga da dRes eklesiaSi naklebi adamiani gadoebas ZiriTad RirebulebaTa xelaxla aRmoCenaSi.
dadis, magram es imitom ar xdeba, rom adamianebi Cemi intuicia meubneba, rom Tqven saqarTveloSi
Tavdajerebuli antiqristianebi an aTeistebi arian. sinamd- mniSvnelovan gzajvaredinze dgaxarT, rac imave kiTxvamde
vileSi Tavdajerebuli (committed) aTeistebi dRes ufro migiyvanT. eklesias ar SeuZlia ganze gadgoma, man
cotani arian, vidre 40 wlis win. Cemi azriT, dasavleTis mniSvnelovani adgili unda daikavos am ZiebaSi.
sazogadoebaSi Cven gvaqvs relativizmis (fardobiTobis)
sul ufro mzardi grZnoba. amas xSirad postmodernizms l.a.: ra SegiZliaT gviTxraT evrokavSirze, romelic
uwodeben da, Cemi azriT, amaSi imas gulisxmoben, rom farTovdeba da saqarTvelomac ganacxada masSi gawev-
adamianebi TviTon, damoukideblad iReben gadawyvetilebas rianebis survili?
sakuTar rwmenaze da qmedebebze, da maT ar awuxebT sxva evropis gaerTianebas aqvs ekonomiuri, politikuri da
adamianTa, an adaminTa jgufebis azri. Cemi azriT, es kulturuli ganzomileba. ras ityodiT sulier ganzomi-
problema scildeba eklesiis sazRvrebs da mTlianad lebaze, evropis sulier gaerTianebaze? ra perspeqtivebi
94 stiven plateni interviu 95

aqvT amaSi eklesiebs? da ra perspeqtiva aqvs am yvelaferSi saboloo jamSi, qristianuli TvalTaxedviT (kerZod,
saqarTvelos? marTlmadidebluri TvalTaxedviTac, romelSic ase didi
mniSvneloba eniWeba adamianis ganRmrTobis RvTismetyve-
s.p.: Tavidan vityvi, rom adamianebs midrekileba aqvT lebas) is iqceva im gzad, romelic miuTiTebs xalxis da
egoizmisaken, rogorc pirovnulad, aseve jgufurad. Cven kacobriobis umTavres daniSnulebaze, rac RmerTSia.
yvelam es kargad viciT. me xSirad viqcevi ase. Cemi azriT, me mimaCnia, rom uwinares yovlisa am mizezis gamo
evrokavSiris swraf gafarToebas bevri egoisturi mizezi saqarTvelos did sargeblobas moutans evrokavSirSi
aqvs. es exeba ekonomiur progress da imeds, rom qveynis gaerTianeba, Tumca Tavisi mniSvneloba ekonomiur da
moTxovnilebebi ukeT dakmayofildeba, Tu es qveyana evro- politikur mizezebsac eniWebaT.
kavSiris wevri gaxda. me vici ramdenime qveyana, romlebic
sakmaod CamorCebodnen evrokavSiris dones da masSi l.a.: didi madloba saubrisTvis. bolos xom ar gsurT
gaerTianebis Semdeg swraf progress miaRwies. raime uTxraT Cveni Jurnalis mkiTxvels?
me ar vambob, rom es TavisTavad cudia. sakmaod damai-
medebelia, rodesac vxedavT ekonomiur gaTanabrebas sxvada- s.p.: diax. Cemi azriT, britaneTs (an ufro zustad
sxva qveynebs Soris. magram, Tu mxolod im mizniT veswrafviT ingliss) da saqarTvelos sami ram aqvT saerTo.
evrokavSirSi gaerTianebas, rom misgan raime miviRoT, es Cemi pirveli aris maTi adgilmdebareoba gzajvaredinze.
azriT, niSnavs adamianis bunebaSi arsebuli yvelaze mdabali erT-erTi mizezi imisa, rom britaneTma postimperiul
aspeqtebis waxalisebas. magram qristes saxarebis centrSi epoqaSic SeinarCuna keTildReoba da pozicia, aris misi
uangarobaa, gacemaa da ara mitaceba. sxvagvarad rogor unda geografiuli mdebareoba. inglisi evropis gzajvaredinzea
gavigoT TviT ieso qristes sikvdili, romelic man Tavisi atlantisken mimaval gzaze. saqarTveloc gzajvaredinze
nebiT miiRo maTgan, vinc misi saxarebis qadagebiT iyo dgas kavkasiaSi evropasa da azias Soris, evropasa da
daSinebuli? arabul samyaros Soris. Cemi azriT, saqarTvelos didi
amitom, me mgonia, rom evrokavSiri ar aris martooden SesaZleblobebi aqvs, Tu amis realizacias SeZlebs. Sesa-
ekonomiuri, an politikuri progresis kavSiri, aramed aseve Zloa, britaneTs da saqarTvelos bevri iseTi ram aqvT, risi
is adamianis sulze miuTiTebs. aTiode wlis win, Jak de- erTmaneTisTvis gaziarebac SeuZliaT.
lorma, imxanad evrokomisiis prezidentma isaubra evropis meore, Cven orives gvaqvs SegrZneba, rom ganapiras varT.
sulis Sesaxeb. delori kaTolikea, sakmaod Ria adamiani da inglisSi me xSirad momismenia: "miyvars evropaSi mogzau-
zomieri morwmune. me mis mimarT didi simpaTia maqvs. delori roba" TiTqos inglisi evropa ar yofiliyo. me aseT dros
ar gulisxmobda evropaSi axali saqristianos Seqmnas. Cven minda amis mTqmels Sevaxseno, rom Cven evropa varT. guSin
aRar vcxovrobT iseT samyaroSi, sadac es SesaZlebelia amgvari ram Tqveni sagareo saqmeTa ministrisaganac movis-
(evropaSi xom didi religiuri umciresobebia musulmanTa, mine; man miTxra: "britaneTSi, rasakvirvelia, xalxi sxvagva-
budistTa, induistTa da sxvaTa saxiT). "evropis suliT" is rad fiqrobs, vidre evropaSi".
miuTiTebda, rom humanizms ufro Rrma mniSvneloba aqvs, radgan Cven ganapiras, kunZulze varT, amitom gvaqvs
vidre arsebobis yvela sxva elements. da Tu Cven ugulve- "mokveTilobis" grZnoba. aris cnobili inglisuri Zveli
belyofT humanizmis suls pirovnulad, an jgufurad, maSin xumroba: "nisli Camowva arxze - kontinenti mogvwyda Tavidan"
Cven cud dReSi CavcvivdebiT. (Fog over the channel, continent is cut off). da Tu Sen kunZulze xar
ase rom, Cemi azriT, Tu evrokavSiri SeZlebs moicvas (gavixsenoT, rom XIX saukunemde inglisidan kontinentze
sulis sfero, maSin is WeSmaritad gahumaniurebuli iqneba da moxvedra sakmao drosa da siZneleebTan iyo dakavSirebuli),
96 stiven plateni 97

iZulebuli xar, ibrZolo gadarCenisTvis. amisaTvis brita-


neTma uZlieresi floti Seqmna.
Tqven aseve ganapiras xarT. evropaSi xarT Tu ara?
saboloo jamSi, mniSvneloba ara aqvs rukaze sad gavavlebT
evropis sazRvars, mTavari isaa, rom Tqven evropis ukidures
samxreT-aRmosavleTiT xarT. es meore saerTo niSania. mRvdeli kaxaber kurtaniZe
da bolos, mesame saerTo niSani: Cveni mfarveli wmindani
wminda giorgi. Cven ar viciT bevri wminda giorgis Sesaxeb, fundamentalizmis gadalaxva
magram rac viciT, aris is, rom wminda giorgis patronobis
qveS Cvenma orma erma didi gza ganvlo qristianuli rwmeniT.
me, rogorc inglisis eklesiis wevrma, minda Tqven
winaTqma
mogmarToT: gTxovT, gaxsovdeT Tqveni mfarveli wmindani da
gaxsovdeT, visTvis dasdo man Tavi - Cveni uflis ieso "fundamentalizmis gadalaxva" daiwera q. TesalonikSi
qristesTvis. 2000 wlis gazafxulze. es aris ZiriTadad Tesalonikis
me CamovTvale sami ram, rac Cven saerTo gvaqvs. es ki saRvTismetyvelo universitetis profesoris giorgi
erToblivi muSaobis mniSvnelobaze migviTiTebs. mancaridisis imave saxelwodebis statiis Targmani. Tumca
alag-alag masSi CarTuli maqvs monakveTebi sxva misi
statiebisaganac. aris erTgvari kompilacia da ver vityvi,
rom aris zusti asli mancaridisis naazrevisa. aseve, teqstis
mTavar nawilSi gamoyenebuli maqvs sxva saqveynod cnobili
da aRiarebuli Teologebis msjelobebic. yovelive amis
mizezi iyo is, rom vcdilobdi qarTulenovani mkiTxve-
lisaTvis gameziarebina, Tu ram moaxdina Cemze yvelaze didi
STabeWdileba saberZneTSi Cemi yofnisas. iyo kidev erTi
mizezi, romelmac gansazRvra kidec Temis Sinaarsi. saqme
imaSia, rom 1999 wels, sapatriarqoSi erT-erT Sekrebaze
(romelic iwereboda televiziis mier, Tumca misi saeTero
gadacema ar Semdgara) warmovTqvi xuTwuTiani sityva. vTqvi,
rom yoveli saeklesio ganxeTqilebis safuZveli aris
subieqtis Rrmad Sinagani imedgacrueba anu sulier sferoSi
xelmocaruloba (im xanad "bostonuri" ganxeTqileba
aqtualuri Tema iyo). es subieqti Tavis am viTarebas
SeiZleba verc ki acnobierebdes. aseT sulier mdgomareobas
eklesiurad ewodeba "sasowarkveTileba" anu "momowvlilve-
loba". Cemi gamosvlis Semdeg episkoposebma danielma
(daTuaSvili) da nikolozma (faCuaSvili) mTxoves (oficia-
luri kurTxeva ar mouciaT) am Temaze memuSava, damexvewa da
Semdeg maTTvis gamecno. magram iyo erTi problema:
98 fundamentalizmis gadalaxva kaxaber kurtaniZe 99

msjelobisas ZiriTadad vefuZnebodi arqimandrit sofroni mRvd. nikoloz ludovikosi, - aseve arsebebi mowodebul
saxarovis naazrevs da maSin masze dayrdnoba da amis arian gaxdnen saukuno Tanaarsi (erTarsi) droSi [gada-
xmamaRla gancxadeba ar iyo mainca da mainc mosawoni. erTis Wimuli] mudmivi dialogis wiaR". da dRes swored am mizeziT
mxriv, zagorskidan Citis motanili ambis, e.w. ÎÁÑ-is (Îäíà vaqveyneb oTxi wlis win daweril naSroms, Tumca CemTvis
Áàáêà Ñêàçàëà) mixedviT arq. sofroni SeiZleba "prelestniki" cxadze ucxadesia mravali misi nakli. wamowyebuli dialogi
(sulierad cdunebuli) yofiliyo. meores mxriv ki werda unda Sedges. gavixsenoT mamardaSviliseuli "agora", sadac
rusulad, e.i. mavan evropulad "ganaTlebulTa" azriT unda "igoravon", Tundac rom daumTavrebelma da bolomde
werda mdare xarisxis wignebs. mokled, rbilad rom vTqva da vergagebulma, azrebma, raTa gavigoT is, rac viciT, magram
bevri ar vilaparako, im periodSi saqarTveloSi jer bolomde kargad ver gagvigia.1 xolo yoveli codnis
arqimandriti sofroni saxarovi popularuli da miRebuli saboloo Sinaarsi anu namdvili azri aris, ra Tqma unda,
ar iyo (amJamad ar vici ra damokidebulebaa mis mimarT). da RmerTi. ai, ras ambobs wm. ioane damaskeli: "ar dagvtova Cven
ai, pirveli, ramac yvelaze metad gamaxara saberZneTSi da RmerTma srul ucodnelobaSi, radgan mis mier bunebiTad
survili aRmiZra gameziarebina es sixaruli axlob- aris STaTesili yvelaSi codna imisa, rom arsebobs RmerTi".2
lebisaTvis, iyo is faqti, rom arqimandriti sofroni swored am codnis gasagebadaa saWiro misi garegamotana
saxarovi aRmoCnda yvelas mier aRiarebuli (maT Soris dialogis saSualebiT. xolo es dialogi ki xorcieldeba
aTonis mTazec) rogorc meoce saukunis erT-erTi yvelaze adamianis moRvaweobis yvela sferoSi, unda mas es Tu ara.
didi sulieri da imavdroulad Teologiuri mecnierebis gaCumebac am dialogis nawilia. ese igi niadag unda
avtoriteti. xolo rac Seexeba giorgi mancaridissa da gvaxsovdes, rom mudam vimyofebiT ama sofelTan mimarTebaSi
pergamos mitropolit ioanes (ziziulasi), isini piradad da es mimarTeba anu urTierToba qristianebs gvevaldebu-
icnobdnen da emowafebodnen arqm. sofronis. metic, giorgi leba vaxorcieloT siyvaruliT da ara siZulviliTa da
mancaridisis statiebis krebuli, romelTa Sorisac iyo niSnismogebiT, radgan RmerTi aris siyvaruli da ise
"fundamentalizmis gadalaxva", mieZRvna swored arqimand- Seiyvara es sofeli, rom Tavisi mxoloSobili Ze misca
riti sofroni saxarovis xsovnas. ase rom, ori kurdRlis misTvis (Sdr. in. 3:16; 1 in. 4:8-9 da wm. ioane oqropiris wirvis
erTad daWera ganvizraxe: vTargmne "fundamentalizmis gada- anaforis locva).
laxva", rac saSualebas maZlevda Semesrulebina meufeebi-
sadmi micemuli dapireba, da amave dros, Sevavse igi imgva- kaxaber kurtaniZe
rad, rom Cemi gancdac yofiliyo masSi asaxuli, raTa igi Tesaloniki 2004 w.
gameziarebina sxvebisaTvis. roca vlaparakob gancdis (ara
litoni grZnobis, aramed cnobieri gancdis) gaziarebaze, ra
Tqma unda, vgulisxmob dialogs, gancdaTa dialogs. vgu-
lisxmob urTierTobas, raSic mTlianad viqnebiT Cabmulni da
rac, ra Tqma unda, ar gamoricxavs kamaTsa da daZabulobas,
oRond aucileblad gamoricxavs mtrobasa da SuRls (dapi-
rispireba yovelTvis rodia SuRli). dialogi aris swored
is, rasac Cven vuwodebT pirovnul urTierTobebs da romlis 1
Sdr. mamardaSvili m., saubrebi filosofiaze. Tbilisi 1992.
gareSec ar arsebobs adamiani, radgan "rogorc RmerTi aris gv. 79-80.
uzenaesi ( ) dialogi da aris saukuno Tanaarsi 2
wm. ioane damaskeli, marTmadidebluri sarwmunoebis
(•4@T<\TH ), - ambobs Tanamedrove RvTismetyveli zedmiwevniTi gadmocema 1,1. Tbilisi 2000. gv.28. PG94,786 C.
100 fundamentalizmis gadalaxva kaxaber kurtaniZe 101

fundamentalizmis gadalaxva Ti) RmerTTan da adamianebTan pirovnuli urTierTobis


cxovreba. xolo qristianis saTnoeba (keTilqmedeba, siqvele)
xSirad adamiani rwmenas iyenebs mxolod piradi aris suliwmidasTan ziarebis nayofi. amgvarad, eklesia ar
ubadrukebis gadasafaravad. imedgacruebuli Tavis warmoadgens adamianur wesdebas, aramed aris ganRmrTobis
xelmocarulobis misaCqmalad mimarTavs sarwmunoebs da mudmivi wvdoma, xolo eklesiis RvTismetyveleba ar aRmocen-
ayenebs Tavisi egoizmis samsaxurSi. upirispirdeba da deba adamianuri sityvisagan, aramed RvTis sityvisagan
ilaSqrebs sxvebis winaaRmdeg, TviT RvTis winaaRmdegac ki, (qristesagan). saboloo azriT, qristea `mxolod RmerTica
oRond sjera (da gulwrfeladac), rom ibrZvis RvTis wminda da Teologic~.5 adamiani ki Rirsi xdeba iRvTismetyvelos
da Seuryvneli rwmenisaTvis. arada, RvTis rwmena gamovlin- mxolod rogorc RvTis sityvis Tanaziarma da megobarma.6
deba da ganmtkicdeba pirovnuli urTierTobis sferoSi, rac RmerTTan pirovnuli ziareba-urTierTobis gareSe Teolo-
iTxovs RvTis mcnebebis ganuxrelad da TavganwirviT dacvas. gia ara mxolod naklulia, aramed SeiZleba iyos cdomili da
xolo RvTis mcnebebis dacva ki aris mTeli cxovrebis mudam amasTan erTad zianis momtanic. eklesiisaTvis WeSmaritebas
aqtualuri Tema, anu Tavad sicocxlis sagani, rogorc misi aqvs hipostaturi (gvamovnebiTi,) e. i. pirovnuli xasiaTi.
umaRlesi mizani. yoveli mcneba, cxadia, gulisxmobs qristem Tqva: `me var WeSmariteba.~ (in. 14.6). sazogadodac,
siyvarulis mTavar mcnebas. ase rom, RvTis rwmena aris yovelgvari WeSmariteba mxolod pirovnebasTan kavSirSi
siyvarulis saqme anu moqmedeba misi. siyvarulTan erTad arsebobs: pirvel rigSi, arsebobs RvTis pirovnebasTan
izrdeba rwmena3 da Tu siyvaruli mcnebebis dacviT xorciel- dakavSirebiT da Semdeg gadaizrdeba yoveli adamianis
deba, maSin advili gasagebia, rom RmerTi ar mouwodebs pirovnebasTan kavSirSi. pirovnebisa da pirovnuli
adamians tipiuri anu daStampuli qmedebisaken, aramed urTierTobis gareSe batonobs arahipostaturi (upirovno,
pirovnuli urTierToba-ziarebisaken sxvasTan, RmerTTan da ugvamovno) qaosi, ararseboba, aryofna.
adamianTan.4 Tuki amgvari Tanaziareba ar xorcieldeba, maSin pirovnebis WeSmaritebis sisavse arsebobs mxolod
ar arsebobs WeSmariti qristianuli sicocxle. namdvili, erTarseba sameba RmerTSi. adamiani, rogorc individua-
qristianuli sicocxle aris qristeSi (qristes mier, qriste- luri (atomuri) arseba, aris mxolod potenciuri pirovneba.
imisaTvis, rom dasruldes, ganxorcieldes rogorc piro-
vneba, man unda moicvas mTeli xiluli da uxilavi samyaro da
3
`rwmenas, rogorc ndobas da TviTmitovebas RmerTSi, aqvs miuZRvnas igi am samyaros Semoqmeds. xolo amgvari miznis
bevri saerTo siyvarulTan, romelic Tavad RmerTia. amrigad,
misaRwevad saWiroa adamianma warmarTos Tavisi neba RvTis
roca giyvars da winadaegebi (Tavs miuZRvni), ramdenadac metad
SegiZlia, sxvas (meores), Sens Zmas _ qristes _ da warmocli
nebisaken RvTis mcnebebis dacviT. rogorc amas xSirad
winadagebaSi (msxverplad) Tavad Sens Tavs RmerTSi, maSin icnob mas ambobda arq. sofroni saxarovi: marTlmadidebeli eklesiis
(RmerTs): gwams da izrdeba Seni rwmena". (Arkhimandritu Basilliu. dRevandeli misia ama sofelSi imaSi mdgomareobs, rom
Eisodikon. Agio Oros. 1993). daexmaros adamians gaacnobieros da SeiTvisos pirovnebis
4
dostoevski naTlad gviCvenebs, rom adamianebis siyvaruli WeSmariteba da Tuki dasavleTi miiRebs pirovnebis WeSmari-
gadajaWvulia rwmenasTan da rom es orni sinamdvileSi erTi da tebas, maSin igi SesZlebs miiRos marTlmadidebloba. saqvey-
igive arian. misi romanis, "Zmebi karamazovebis" erT adgilas nod cnobili Teologi pergamos mitropoliti ioane
aTqmevinebs starec (ber) zosimas qalbaton xoxlakovasadmi (zizulasi) am sakiTxze ase msjelobs: Tuki dRevandel
("qalbatoni mcire rwmeniT"): "SeecadeT, rom SeiyvaroT Tqveni
5
axlobeli (moyvasi) qmediTad da dauRlelad. rac metad grigori palama, Siggramata. T.1. Thessaloniki 1996. gv. 93.
6
warematebiT siyvarulSi, miT ufro mtkiced darwmundebiT RvTis Sdr. in. 16, 14-16 : `Tqven Cemi megobrebi xarT... megobrebi
arsebobasa da sulis ukvdavebaSi". giwodeT.~
102 fundamentalizmis gadalaxva kaxaber kurtaniZe 103

civilizaciaSi arsebobs iseTi ram, rac nebas gvaZlevs da aris zelotizmi (moSurneoba). miuxedavad imisa, rom es ori
gvibiZgebs davfiqrdeT adamianis pirovnebis WeSmarit cneba ar aris sinonimi, mainc maT bevri ram aqvT saerTo: a)
Rirebulebaze, mas unda vumadlodeT IV saukunis kabadokiel zelotizmsac da fundamentalizmsac Tavidan dadebiTi
mamebs... dasavlur azrovnebaSi batonobs `pirovnebis~ mniSvnelobebi hqondaT, magram SemdgomSi uaryofiTi
avgustineseuli gageba, romlis mixedviTac pirovneba datvirTva SeiZines. b) zelotizmsac da fundamentalizmsac,
ganisazRvreba rogorc atomuri (individualuri) buneba... upirveles yovlisa, aqvT religiuri xasiaTi da amozrdi-
vambobT ra `pirovneba~-s, vgulisxmobT sakuTar TavSi lebi arian ama Tu im religiuri tradiciidan. g) orives
gamoketil individ-atoms. dRes dasavleTis filosofosebis mizania SeinarCunon tradicia da daicvan igi ganmaaxleblo-
mxridan arsebobs sxvadasxvagvari mcdelobebi, raTa bisagan (neoterizmisagan) da, imavdroulad, gamoiyenon es
gamoixsnan `pirovneba~ `individ-atomisagan~. qristianobis tradicia rogorc qmediTi saSualeba awmyosa da momavlis
Sejaxebas sxva religiebTan, rogoricaa, magaliTad budizmi, SemosazRudavad. d) zelotizmica da fundamentalizmic
adamians aiZulebs gadaxedos pirovnebis individ-atomur Tanabrad ugulvebelyofen pirovnebas (personas, pirovnuli
tradiciul gagebas... dRes SeiZleba iyos saukeTeso dro sawyiss adamianSi) da aabsolutureben kanonebsa da upirovno
imisaTvis, rom mivubrundeT kabadokiur anu marTlmadideb- (impersonalur) sawyisebs.
lur swavlebas pirovnebis Sesaxeb.7 amaSi, ra Tqma unda, maSin, roca zelotizms aqvs sakmaod xangrZlivi winaisto-
dRevandel msoflios unda daexmaros (da es misi upirvelesi ria, fundamentalizmi saTaves iRebs XX saukunis dasawyisSi
valic aris) marTlmadidebeli eklesia. magram marTlmadide- da aRmocenebulia religiuri modernizmis sapirispirod. es
beli eklesia mudam awydeba iseT problemebs, romlebic xels dapirispireba pirvelad tradiciiT Rarib protestan-
uSlian da ayovneben mas am mniSvnelovani misiis ganxorciele- tizmSi warmoiSva. am SewinaaRmdegebis pirveladi mizani iyo
baSi. dRes erT-erTi amgvari da gansakuTrebiT rTuli religiuri safuZvlebis dacva (for the Fundementals). amrigad,
problemaa fundamentalisturi moZraoba eklesiis SigniT. 1919 wels amerikaSi dafuZnda qristianul safuZvelTa
fundamentalizmis metastazebi, bunebrivia, modebuli aqvs msoflio asociacia (World’s Christian Fundementals Association).
saqarTvelos eklesiasac, rogorc saerTo an kaTolike romis kaTolike eklesiis wiaRSi fundamentaluri moZraoba
saeklesio organizmis moukveTel wevrs. es ki uTuod abrko- iwyeba vatikanis II krebis ganmaaxlebluri gadawyve-
lebs mis saukeTeso Zalebs. maT aferxebs imsjelon Tavisuf- tilebebis Semdeg da mis sapirispirod. marTlmadideblur
lad da imoqmedon aqtiurad, raTa mkafiod da ara CarCoebSi ki SeiZleba aRniSnuliyo meZvelstiloba
"gawonasworebuli" saxiT warmoCndes eklesiis swavleba.8 saberZneTSi da ekumenisturi moZraobis winaaRmdeg mebr-
*** Zoli "WeSmariti marTlmadideblobis damcvelebi" - sxvada-
yvelaze miaxloebuli eklesiuri gansazRvreba, romelic sxva zomisa da wonis dajgufebebi, romlebic gabneulni
SeiZleboda mogveyvana fundamentalizmis gansamartavad, arian mTels msoflioSi. gansakuTrebiT Zlierad fundamen-
talizmi ganviTarda musulmanur samyaroSi mas Semdeg, rac
7
Sdr. Ziziulas I., The Contribution of Christian thought from Sinasos in islami Seejaxa dasavleTis sekularizaciis (gaamqveyniu-
Cappadocia. Athen 1985, gv. 36-37. rebis) suls. da bolos, fundamentalistur moZraobebs
8
roca vambob mkafiod da "gauwonasworebelad", ar vgulisxmob SeiZleba arc ki hqondeT gansakuTrebuli religuri xasiaTi
Seumcdarobas, aramed sakuTari Sexedulebebis gabedulad da raime arareligiur ideologias efuZnebodes.
gamoiTqmas im imediT, rom Tuki gaipara Secdoma an uzustoba, amas
fundamentalizmis tipologia vlindeba, rogorc
ar moyveba risxva da varami, aramed Seswordeba dialogurad da,
mebrZoli konservatizmi. Tuki Tavad konservatizmi
dae, hqondes am dialogs mkacri, oRond ara muqarisa da miwasTan
gasworebis xasiaTi. Semoifargleba tradiciis mSvidobiani dacviT, fundamenta-
104 fundamentalizmis gadalaxva kaxaber kurtaniZe 105

lizmi warmoCndeba, rogorc ieriSis mimtani im Zalebze, fenomenologia da gansazRvros misi kavSiri sazogadoebriv
romlebic mas emuqrebian. konservatizmi mijaWvulia monacemebTan, Teologias SeuZlia ufro metad CauRrmavdes
warsulTan, radgan iq eguleba WeSmariteba, xolo mas da Caswvdes mis ontologias (yofierebis sakiTxebs),
fundamentalizmi ebrZvis awmyos da mimarTulia momavli- radgan Teologiis (filosofiasTan erTad) prerogativaa
saken, miiCnevs ra warsuls gansakuTrebul WeSmaritebad. Seiswavlos adamianis pirovneba.
arc konservatizmsa da arc fundamentalizms araferi ara sociologia Tavisi bunebiT aris fenomenologiuri
aqvT saerTo namdvil tradiciulobasTan, radgan pirveli mecniereba da dakavebulia mxolod arsebuli realobis
rCeba warsulSi da ar ainteresebs tradiciis ganvrcoba gamovlinebebiT da mas ar ainteresebs ontologia
awmyosa da momavalze, xolo meore dainteresebulia awmyoTi (winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi is gadaiqceoda filosofiad). amis
da momavliT, magram cdilobs isini moaTavsos warsulis gamo igi an sruliad uaryofs an ugulvebelyofs religiur
gaqvavebul naWuWSi. faqtorebs, xolo persona, anu adamianis pirovneba, swored
fundamentalizmi, miuxedavad Tavisi religiuri religiuri da Teologiur-filosofiuri kvlevis sagania.
warmomavlobisa, ar warmoadgens wmindad religiur personiT da ontologiiT, pirvel rigSi, dakavebulia
fenomens da, ra Tqma unda, arc politikurs an sazogado- RvTismetyveleba. magram es ar niSnavs, rom igi sociologias
ebrivs. aRsaniSnavia, rom fundamentalizmi ar warmoCndeba ugulvebelyofs, piriqiT, misi dakvirvebebi da monacemebi
warsulis crumoTxovnebiT (e. i. ar wamoWris dromoWmul fenomenologiis sferoSi aris realurad xelisSemwyobi
sakiTxebs), aramed Cveni epoqis centraluri problemebiT. Teologiuri muSaobisaTvis. Tumca arc fundamentalizmis
yoveli mcdeloba, rom fundamentalizmi gairiyos rogorc Teologiuri kvleva ar SeiZleba miiCneodes erTsaxovnad.
paradoquli, dasacini an demonuri da dadaRiandes is da misi saSualebebi da gzebi, romelTac Teologia iyenebs, erTmane-
mimdevrebi maniqevlebad, bnelebad, "bnelze ufro bnelebad" Tisagan gansxvavdebian ara mxolod zogadad saqristianoSi,
an Tundac `talibebad~ da "mtrebad" (ybadaRebuli da aramed marTlmadideblobis wiaRSidac. zogierT SemTxve-
yovlad saZageli terminebi, romelic Tavad mis gamomyene- vaSi saxezea Teologiuri WeSmaritebis sruli gayalbeba.
bels Seuracxyofs pirvel rigSi), xels uSlis safuZvleb- namdvili marTlmadidebluri Teologia ganpirobebulia
rivi problemis danaxvas, romelic mis siRrmeSi Zevs. praqtikul eklesiur cxovrebaSi, mis empiriaSi adamianis
amgvarad, mcirdeba SesaZlebloba SeizRudos da aRikveTos pirovnuli monawileoba-ziarebiT an maT mimarT ndobiT,10
mis mier gamowveuli ziani. zedapiruli kinklaobis nacvlad vinc flobs da mowmobs am empirias (gamocdilebas). amrigad,
saWiroa Seswavlil iqnes fundamentalizmis ontologia9, anu empiriul-gamocdilebiT RvTismetyvelebaze dayrdnobiT
gamokvleul iqnes fundamentalizmis arsobrivi safuZveli SesaZlebelia winwaweva fundamentalizmis safuZvlebis
da mis donezeve moxdes misi daZleva. fundamentalizmi gagebisaTvis. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, fundamentalizmi
ganmsWvalavs mTels sazogadoebas da TiToeul mis wevrs wamoWris Cveni epoqis centralur problemas da es
cal-calke. sabolood ki, swored adamianis pirovneba aris problemaa pirovnebis (personis) sakiTxi.
fundamentalizmis bude (da ara sazogadoebis an sulieri samyaros rRvevam dRes dramatul zRvars miaR-
politikuri organizaciebis safuZvlebi), saidanac igi wia. religiuri rwmenis ugulvebelyofam (rwmenisa, romelic
metastazebiT moedeba mTels sazogadoebriv sxeuls. Tuki 10
sociologias SeuZlia Seiswavlos fundamentalizmis fundamentalizmis erT-erTi mkveTrad damaxasiaTebeli
Tvisebaa swored undobloba adamianTa mimarT. mudmivi eWvebi da
9
ontologia berZnuli sityvidan <J@H (ontos) arsebuli, varaudebi burusiviT gars exveva fundamentalist-mxsnels.: vin
myofi, da 8`(@H (logos) sityva, swavleba. swavleba filosofiuri masonia da vin ruseTis agenti, vin papistebis mowamlul-
swavleba arsebulis, yofierebis Sesaxeb. mogzavnili da vin ruseTume bneli reaqcioneli da a.S.
106 fundamentalizmis gadalaxva kaxaber kurtaniZe 107

SemakavSirebeli duRabi unda yofiliyo sazogadoebis fundamentalizmi eZiebs safuZvlebrivs, romelsac


awewili cxovrebisa) warmoSva adamianis daucveloba, mas miiCnevs (an surs, rom miiCnios) absoluturad. es Zieba aris
aRara aqvs araviTari sayrdeni da waritaceba nebismieri Rrmad religiuri, magram misi Sedegi ar aris Teologiuri,
mimarTulebiT, saiTkenac SemTxveviToba ubiZgebs. aseT am sityvis marTlmadidebluri gagebiT. es xdeba imitom, rom
viTarebaSi fundamentalizmi cdilobs SeinarCunos raime safuZvlebrivi Tavsdeba qmnilebis da ara uqmnelis
safuZvlebrivi Rirebulebebi, maT poulobs warsulSi da sibrtyeze. rogorc ki mxolod qmnileba CaiTvleba
moiazrebs rogorc sasicocxlod aucilebels awmyosa da TavisTavad realurad, maSinve gazviadebad da
momavlisaTvis. iseT arastabilur droSi, rodesac yvela- gadaWarbebad, an rogorc metafizikurad miiCneva uqmneli.
feri iryeva da adamiani gzakvalabneulia, aTasgvari idea- pirveli axasiaTebs warmarTobas, meore ki _ qristianuli
ideologiebis kaleidoskopuri monacvleobiT, Zieba raime Teologiis filosofiur gagebas. orive SemTxvevaSi
sayrdenisa sulac araa saeWvo da saZraxisi fufuneba, aramed gamoitoveba uqmneli, rogorc pirovnuli RmerTi _
swored rom sasicocxlo aucileblobaa. amitom dasaZraxia Semqmneli samyarosi. warmarTuli anu kerpTmsaxuruli
ara fundamentalistTa Zieba da mcdeloba ipovon raime midgoma mxolod arareligiur fundamentalizms rodi
gamosavali, aramed saWiroa gamoSkaravdes maTi cdomileba axasiaTebs. TviT aSkarad religiuri fundamentalisturi
ontologiis sferoSi, e. i. naCvenebi iqnes maTi Ziebis moZraobebic da, maT Soris, qristianulic `axerxeben~ amas.
arsobrivi cdomileba. amisaTvis sulac ar aris ase magaliTad: protestantul fundamentalizmSi gaabso-
savaldebulo maTze Tavdasxma da lanZRva, miTumetes, rom luturebul-gakerpebulia wminda werili; romis
marTlmadidebluri RvTismetyvelebis gadmosaxedidan, kaTolikursa da marTlmadideblurSi wm. werils emateba
romelic nestorianulad11 ar ganacalkevebs da gayofs tradiciebis (gadmocemaTa) simboluri sistemebi da axla es
religiurs (anu mistiurs) sazogadoebrivisagan, funda- ori ram xdeba absoluturi. monoTeistur religiebSi ki,
mentalizmis problema, pirvelyovlisa, Teologiur rogoricaa islami, saerTod gamoiricxeba pirovnuli
problemas warmoadgens (da es xdeba ara mxolod maSin, urTierToba uqmnelTan, radgan masSi RmerTi moiazreba,
rodesac saxeze gvaqvs misi tipiuri religiuri gamovlineba, rogorc Caketili Tavis TavSi.
aramed maSinac ki, rodesac Cndeba rogorc sazogadoebriv- swored es avtonomizacia Seadgens piks TviTganRmrTobisa da
politikuri an anTropologiuri fenomeni)12. kerpTmsaxurebisa. am viTarebaSi uTuod didi wvlili unda
11
nestorianizmad iTvleba swavleba, romlis mixedviTac Seitanos Teologiamac. magram rodesac eklesia qadagebs
qristes ori buneba mkveTrad gaemijneba erTmaneTs, ise rom qveynierebis xsnas, imave dros akavSirebs qveynierebas RmerTTan.
TiToeuli maTgani calke hipostasur erTeulad iqceva. Tu mxolod aseTi kavSiri (romel sferoSic ar unda lokalizdes)
ramdenad realurad arsebobda aseTi swavleba istoriaSi, es sxva amsxvreves zRudes TviTganRmrTobisa da kerpTmsaxurebisa...
Temaa da mas aq ver SevexebiT. mxolod aseTi kavSirisas winadaagebs (Seswiravs) eklesia sulier
12
Sdr. Matsuka Niko L., Eikoumeniki Kinisi. Tessaloniky 1996. gv. 21: da nivTier purs. gayofa aris civilizaciis adamiseuli
„zogjer Tvlian, TiTqos sazogadoebrivi da politikuri (pirvelqmnili) da Semdgomadamiseuli codva, romelic izrdeba da
problemebi ar arian eklesiis saqmianobisa da interesis uSualo basrdeba. civilizacia gayofs suls nivTisagan da ipyrobs
sferoebi da rom eklesia mxolod qadagebs qveynierebis cxonebas nivTiers (vTqvaT Tvlis, rom upirobod aucilebelia da mTavaria
da es problemebi SeiZleba gadaiWras [mxolod] politikuri ekumenistur moZraobaSi CarTva k.k). mcdari Teologia aseve yofs
xelisuflebis mier. es gayofa aris Sedegi kulturul- da ipyrobs mxolod suls (vTqvaT Tvlis, rom arafris didebiT ar
civilizaciuri Sizofreniis xafangSi moxvedrisa, im SeiZleba ekumenistur moZraobaSi CarTva k.k). xolo orives upyria
civilizaciisa, romelic gayofs da daaSoriSorebs RmerTs da erTnairi moCveneba da kerpi. es gayofa ki aris (rogoradac ar unda
samyaros, metafizikursa da fizikurs. qveyniuri problemebis vakeTebdeT amas) adamianis sikvdili da warumatebloba".
108 fundamentalizmis gadalaxva kaxaber kurtaniZe 109

qmnilebis gaabsolutureba aris religiuri warumateb- dapirispireba saWiroa swored am sibrtyeze, e. i. saWiroa
lobis mizezi. da radgan es gaabsolutureba amqveyniurze iseTi ontologia, romelic gamoavlens da gaaSiSvlebs fun-
SeCerebas niSnavs, cxadia, rom igi uaryofs qristes da damentalisturi ontologiis ususurobas. ar aris swori
igivea, rac kerpTmsaxureba. igi asaxiCrebs anTropolo- maTTan Widili maTive msgavsi fanatizmiT da daundoblobiT,
giasac da ayalbebs adamianis pirovnebis WeSmaritebasac, romelic kidev ufro metad aRrmavebs problemas.
radgan qmnileba xrwnadia da warmavali da ar SeuZlia ixsnas qristianuli swavlebis mixedviT, adamiani RvTis `xatad
adamiani sikvdilis SiSisa da mZlavrebisagan da mianiWos mas da msgavsad~ (`xatisebr da msgavsebad) aris Seqmnili (Sdr.
Tavisufleba da sisavse. amrigad, igi ver exmareba adamians dab. 1:26). igi ar aris TviTarsebuli, aramed qmnilia da
ganxorcieldes, rogorc pirovneba. mxolod amasofliurze srulyofildeba mxolod RmerTTan kavSirSi. adamianis
dayrdnoba, cxadia, ayalbebs adamianis namdvil daniSnule- ukiduresi ontologiuri zRvari aris araraoba anu `ara-
bas. adamians, rogorc pirovnebas, aRara aqvs momavali da arsi~ (`Sen araarsisagan yofad momiyvane Cuen~ _ wm. ioane
mizani da masSi Cndeba sicarielis gacnobierebuli an oqropiris wirva). meore ukiduresi zRvari aris RvTis nebis
gaucnobierebeli SegrZneba. xolo amas ki, Tavis mxriv, miyavs gameoreba qmnilis sibrtyeze (sferoSi). adamiani aris poten-
fundamentalizmis warmoSobamde. es sicariele da ciuri pirovneba anu hipostasi. misi, rogorc pirovneba-
arasaimedoba ar warmoadgens eTikur, aramed ontologiur hipostasis (personas), srulyofileba Seadgens adamianis
anu arsobriv viTarebas. marTlmadidebluri Teologiis arsebobis mizans da ganxorcieldeba misi zeamaRlebiT arqe-
mixedviT, Tuki uaryofilia pirovneba rogorc sawyisi, maSin tipisaken (pirvelsaxisaken) anu RvTisaken. aseTi zeamaR-
uaryofilia arsic da arsobrivic. "kabadokieli mamebis lebis gareSe adamiani rCeba datusaRebuli drosa da sivr-
samebis ontologia - ambobs mitrp. ioane - gamoavlens iseT ceSi da eqvemdebareba xrwnasa da sikvdils. radgan adamiani
filosofias, romelic konkretuls (Cvens SemTxvevaSi erTxel nebiT daemorCila codvas da am gziT masze
pirovnebas k.k) ar miiCnevs meoradad, arsTan, anu bunebasTan gabatonda sikvdili, misi zeamaRleba ar Sedga. magram amis
mimarTebaSi... mizezi RvTis arsebobisa aris pirovneba mamisa realizeba mudam SeTavazebulia misTvis ukve rogorc RvTis
(mama RvTisa k.k) da ara RvTis buneba anu arsi. amrigad, saCuqari anu qristes ZRveni. qristes pirovnebaSi gamoCnda
kabadokielma mamebma pirovnebas mianiWes ra ontologiuri namdvili adamiani, masSi gamovlinda WeSmariti pirovneba _
pirveladoba bunebasTan mimarTebaSi, arseboba Tavisufl- sayovelTao adamiani (meore adami), romlisaTvisac aRar
deba aucileblobisa da iZulebisagan".13 amrigad, funda- arsebobs arc garegani borkilebi da arc Zalaufleba,
mentalizms ar gaaCnia araviTari ontologiuri safuZveli. aramed absoluturi siyvaruli da Tavisufleba.
igi ar adgens namdvil ontologias da mxolod aRwevs, rom `pirovneba ar aris meoradi, aramed pirveladia da
Tavis mimdevrebze zewola moaxdinos, aiZulebs ra maT absoluturi, azria arsebobisa. pirovneba ar SeiZleba Sei-
miiRon eTikologia an deontologia14 rogorc ontologia. wiros msxverplad an daeqvemdebaros raime `ideas~, raime
aqaa misi sasikvdilo Secdoma da uZlureba, magram aqedanve eTikur an fizikur wess, sargebels an mizans, Tundac rom
gamomdinaroebs misi fanatizmi da daundobloba. da radgan wmidasa da Rirebuls. rom iarsebo WeSmaritad, rom iyo
fundamentalizmi ar Semoifarglavs sakuTar Tavs mxolod `vin~, unda iyo pirovneba, e. i. Tavisufali da yovelgvar
eTikiT, aramed cdilobs es eTikuri da deontologiuri aucilebloba-iZulebaze, religiur an ideologiur eTikaze
gadaanacvlos ontologiis sibrtyeze. masTan Sexvedra da maRla mdgomi.15 is, rac arsebobas mniSvnelobas da Rirsebas
naxe. Ziziulas I., The Contribution ... gv. 31-32.
13 15
Matsuka Niko. O satanas. Thessaloniki 1999. gv. 170: „ra Tqma unda, es
deontologia eTikis nawili, romelSic ganixilebaadamianis
14
ar niSnavs maT srul uaryofas, oRond isini ar unda gadaiqcnen
valdebulebis da movaleobis sakiTxebi. pirovnebis marwuxebad, aramed unda gamoiyenebodnen pirovnebis
110 fundamentalizmis gadalaxva kaxaber kurtaniZe 111

aniWebs, aris pirovneba, rogorc absoluturi Tavisuf- aucileblobebs. b) uqmnelis sferoSi, sadac igi moqmedebs,
leba~.16 `aravis aqvs ufleba, zewola moaxdinos adamianze da rogorc hipostasi _ RvTis hipostasis `xati~ da imyofeba
mis nebaze an daavaldebulos igi raime arCevaniT~.17 arc yovelgvari SemosazRvrulobis gareSe. amrigad, adamianSi
RmerTi avaldebulebs adamians, aramed rodesac igi erTdroulad Tanarseboben: damokidebuleba da Tavisuf-
Tavisufali nebiT emoneba codvas, mas mouwodebs daub- leba, xrwna da ukvdaveba, monoba da TviTmflobeloba. vinc
rundes Tavisuflebas. nebayoflobiT rCeba mxolod qmnilis sibrtyeze, igi ixrwneba
magram yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi adamiani ar aris abso- fizikur aucilebloba-saWiroebaSi da uZluria icxovros
luturad Tavisufali. mas aqvs mxolod Tavisufali arCe- namdvili sicocxliT da ganxorcieldes, rogorc pirovneba
vanis SesaZlebloba. igi moqmedebs erTdroulad or sibrt- RvTis xatisamebr. es aris mizezi adamianis pirovnebis
yeze: a) qmnili samyaros sibrtyeze, sadac vlindeba, rogorc dasneulebis. igi kargavs SesaZleblobas, gaixsnas da gafar-
misi elementi,18 da daqvemdebarebulia fizikur saWiroeba- Tovdes uqmnelisaken, miuaxlovdes sisrules da ganRmrTo-
bas, da waritaceba avadmyofuri mdgomareobisaken. Tavis-
sruli realizebisaTvis: ‚mas, visac ara aqvs fexqveS [mSobliuri] uflebis momaSTobeli xundebis moSorebis wadili, xunde-
miwa, mas arc RmerTi hyavs; da romelic uaryofs Tavis samSoblos _ bisa, romliTac mas borkavs misi qmnili da codviTdacemuli
uaryofs RmerTsac. _ ambobs Tavadi miSkini [dostoevskis buneba, gadaizrdeba bunebis sawinaaRmdego wadilSi.
`idioti~]. amrigad, Tuki vinmes ar uyvars Tavis samSoblo, Tavisi `adamiani mowodebulia, raTa gaiTavisuflos sakuTari Tavi
miwa da qveyana _ TvalTmaqcobs, rodesac ambobs, rom uyvars mTeli Tavisive bunebis Zalmomreobisagan da imoqmedos, rogorc
kacobrioba an rom aris oikumenuri (msofliuri); ...Tu vinmes surs
fizikuri kanonebisagan Tavisufalma pirovnebam...
iyos WeSmariti da Tanamimdevruli mebrZoli imisaTvis, rom
Secvalos qveyniereba da daamyaros adamianuroba, mSvidoba da
pirovnebis asketuri miswrafebis gareSe, - miswrafebisa
siyvaruli, aucileblad unda gamoavlinos konkretuli zrunva ganTavisufldes bunebrivi aucilebloba-iZulebisagan~ 19,
axlobelze (moyvasze) (mgoni, lanZRva-gineba ver CaiTvleba amgvar asketikis mizani da daniSnuleba _ ganxorcieldes adamiani,
zrunvad k.k), rodesac mas uWirs; sxva mxriv, igi aris cru da
TvalTmaqci, CaZiruli ganyenebul ideologiaSi~. mxolod damxmare saSualebaa, magram mis sferoSic ki yovelgvari
16
Ziziulas I., The Contribution ... gv. 34. warmateba mxolod RvTis saboZvaria da raimes miRweva ar unda
17
Arkhim. Sofronios. Opsometha tu Theou kathos esti. Esseks Aglias. gv. 334. mivaweroT sakuTar Tavs; 2. Tuki raime wrmateba SeimCneva, e. i. RvTis
18
ZvelqarTuli "kavSiri" ar iqneboda urigo am SemTxvevaSi saCuqari gacnobierdeba, saWiroa RvTisadmi madloba da ara
"elementis" nacvlad, radgan swored adamiani SeakavSirebs samyaros TviTtkbobisadmi micema; 3. gvmarTebs ar daviwyeba, rom marto ar
mTlianobad._ moZRvaro, locvisas Cemi goneba moqmedebs TavisTavad aris adamiani, aramed arian sxva Zma-adamianebi, arsebobs ara `mamao
ara mxolod dRisiT, aramed roca mZinavs [kidec]. xSirad, roca Cemo~, aramed `mamao Cveno~; 4. Tavmdabloba - rac aucilebelia
viRviZeb xolme, wyvetis gareSe grZeldeba danarCeni locva. iqneb es adamianisaTvis, e. i. TviTkmarobis ukugdeba, radgan mizani
cdomilebaa? pasuxi:_ cdomileba ar aris, Zmao, magram arc Seni ganRmrToba, xolo RvTis sisrule marad miuwvdomelia; 5.
sakuTaria. aris RvTis saCuqari da saWiroa mas madlobde da agreTve Tavmdabloba ara mxolod RvTis mimarT, aramed adamianebis
Txovde, raTa mianiWos igi sxvebsac, romlebic Senze ukeTesebi arian. mimarTac, rogorc RvTis xatebisa, romelTa mimarTac mudam
ase unda eubnebode RmerTs: ‚RmerTo Cemo, Tuki me ar momiZage, gvmarTebs viyoT Tavisufali egoizmisagan; 6. locva yvelasaTvis da
aramed momaniWe RvTaebrivi saCuqari, maS igi unda misce yovel Sens am locvaSi mTeli qmnilebis mocva. adamianis pirovneba unda
qmnilebasac, romlebic Cemze bevrad ukeTesebi arian" (Epistoles moicavdes mTel xilulsa da uxilav qmnilebas. amrigad, adamiani
Gerondos Paisiou agioritou. Eksdosy isihastiriou "Evaggelistis Ioannis o Theologos", gamodis atomur-individualuri karCaketilobidan da
suroty Tessalonikis. 1999, gv. 170). am pasuxSi Tavmoyrilia ramodenime Tavmdablobisa da RvTisa Tu moyvasis siyvarulis gziT miemarTeba
mniSvnelovani aspeqti keTilgonierebisa da moRvaweobis miznisa: 1. sayovelTao pirovnebamde.
`uCemod arafris qmna ar SegiZliaT~ (in. 15,5) _ ambobs ufali. askeza 19
Ziziulas I., The Contribution ... gv. 34.
112 fundamentalizmis gadalaxva kaxaber kurtaniZe 113

rogorc sayovelTao pirovneba, mTeli adami, _ brwyinvaled uxilav qmnilebas. amrigad, adamiani gamodis atomur-
Cndeba netarsaxsenebeli aToneli beris paisiosisa da erT- individualur karCaketilobidan da Tavmdablobisa da
erTi axalgazrda moRvawis kiTxva-pasuxSi: «erTma RmerTisa Tu moyvasis siyvarulis gziT miemarTeba
axalgazrda moRvawem, romelic friad warmatebuli iyo, sayovelTao pirovnebamde.
hkiTxa ber paisioss: samebis pirovnebis WeSmariteba cxaddeba eklesiaSi. wm.
_ moZRvaro, locvisas Cemi goneba moqmedebs TavisTavad samebis yoveli pirovneba aris savseba RvTaebisa. magram
ara mxolod dRisiT, aramed roca mZinavs [kidec]. xSirad, Tanadroulad TiToeuli pirovneba aris Ria danarCenebis
roca viRviZeb xolme, wyvetis gareSe grZeldeba danarCeni mimarT da ar SemoisazRvreba Tavis TavSi. RvTis
locva. iqneb es cdomilebaa? pirovnebebis urTierTgamsWvalva, romelic vlindeba wm.
pasuxi: sameba RmerTis absolutur erTobaSi, realizdeba kenoturi
_ cdomileba ar aris, Zmao, magram arc Seni sakuTaria. (warmocarielebiTi)21 siyvaruliT. amitomac aris RmerTi
aris RmerTis saCuqari da saWiroa mas madlobde da upirvelesad siyvaruli (Sdr. i. 1:4-8). es siyvaruli iRvreba
agreTve Txovde, raTa mianiWos igi sxvebsac, rolebis Senze `xatebad~ (`xatisamebr~) Seqmnilzec. ramdenadac Sors
ukeTesebi arian. ase unda eubnebode RmerTs: imyofeba adamiani siyvarulisagan, imdenad arasrulia misi
`RmerTo Cemo, Tuki me ar momiZage, aramed momaniWe sicocxle rogorc pirovnebisa. pirovnebis sisrule
RvTaebrivi saCuqari, maS unda misce igi yovel Sens xorcieldeba siyvarulsa da TavisuflebaSi.
qmnilebasac, romelic Cemze bevrad ukeTesebi arian’”20 `siyvaruli ar aris grZnoba (Tumca SeiZleba SeigrZobodes
am pasuxSi Tavmoyrilia ramodenime mniSvnelovani _ k.k), ar aris SegrZneba, romelic aRmocendeba bunebisagan,
aspeqti keTilgonierebisa da moRvaweobis miznisa: 1. rogorc yvavili xisagan. siyvaruli aris kavSir-urTierToba,
”uCemod arafris qmna ar SegiZliaT~ (i. 15:5) _ ambobs aris nebayoflobiTi gamosvla sakuTari Tavidan, uaryofa
ufali. askeza mxolod damxmare saSualebaa, magram mis sakuTari nebisa da Tavisufali damorCileba sxvisi nebisadmi.
sferoSic ki yovelgvari warmateba mxolod RvTis sxva vinme da kavSir-urTierToba masTan aris is, rac gvaZlevs
saboZvaria da raimes miRweva ar unda mivaweroT sakuTar igiveobriobas Cvensas, is, rac gvxdis viyoT vinc varT~,22 ese
Tavs; 2. Tuki raime warmateba SeimCneva, e.i. RvTis saCuqari igi pirovneba. mecxre saukunis musulmanma mistikosma sari-al-
gacnobierdeba, saWiroa RvTisadmi madloba da ara sakidim es SesaniSnavad Camoayaliba: «or adamians maSin uyvars
TviTtkbobisadmi micema; 3. gvmarTebs ardaviwyeba, rom erTmaneTi sruyofilad, rodesac erTi meores ase uwodebs:
marto ar aris adamiani, aramed arian sxva Zma-adamianebi, hoi, Cemo meo».23
arsebobs ara ”mamao Cemo~, aramed ”mamao Cveno~; 4.
Tavmdabloba - rac aucilebelia adamianisaTvis, e. i.
TviTkmarobis ukugdeba, radgan mizani ganRmrToba, xolo
21
RvTis sisrule marad miuwvdomelia; 5. Tavmdabloba ara kenozisi (kenoturi) 6X<TF4H - berZnuli sityvaa, niSnavs
mxolod RmerTis mimarT, aramed adamianebis mimarTac, dacarielebas. Ze RmerTTan dakavSirebiT aRniSnavs mis uaRres
rogorc RmerTis xatebisa, romelTa mimarTac mudam Tavmdablobas, rodesac saRvTo didebis mqonem ar iukadrisa monis
(e.i. adamianis) xatis miReba. termini momdinareobs pavle
gvmarTebs viyoT Tavisufalni egoizmisagan; 6. locva
mociqulis sityvebidan: "Tavi Tvisi daimdabla (©"LJ < ¦6X<TF,<) da
yvelasaTvis da am locvaSi mTeli qmnilebis mocva.
xati monisa miiRo" (filip. 2:7).
adamianis pirvneba unda moicavdes mTel xilulsa da 22
iqve gv. 34.
23
20
Epistoles Gerondos Paisiou agioritou. Eksdosy isihastiriou “Evaggelistis ix. kaZanZaki niko. aRsareba grekosTan. Tbilisi 1999. gv. 364.
Ioannis o Theologos“, suroty Tessalonikis. 1999, gv. 170. (Targmani Tamar mesxisa).
114 fundamentalizmis gadalaxva kaxaber kurtaniZe 115

*** SegveZlo gveTqva, rom TviT sikvdilis survilic meore


imisaTvis, rom ufro naTeli gaxdes CvenTvis Tu ras pirovnebisadmi siyvarulis gamo hqonda dauflebuli: `aqa
niSnavs kenoturi siyvaruli anu TviTwarmocarielebiTi gayrilni mijnurni munamca SeviyareniT~. sxvisTvis ispobs
sicocxle sxvisTvis anu sxvisiT urigo ar iqneba, gamoviyenoT sicocles da es ukve niSnavs, rom ar mokvdeba, ar daiRupeba
`vefxistyaosnis~ erTi vrceli pasaJi. rogorc pirovneba da aucileblad hpovebs ganviTarebas.
avTandili gaepareba rostevans da miemarTeba tarielTan sainteresod aris am ganviTarebis procesi gadmocemuli
xelmeored Sesaxvedrad. mas umZims ganSoreba TinaTinTan da mcire epizodSi: mojobebadaCneul tariels avTandili
misi mwuxareba aRwevs ukidures zRvars _ mas uCndeba hkiTxavs nestanis mier naCuqar samxareze, Tu `ragvar uyvars~
TviTmkvlelobis azri, magram masSi es azri ver imarjvebs. igi. tarieli ase axasiaTebs Tavis siyvaruls:
igi warmosaxviT mimarTavs TinaTins: `man uTxra: `saxe ra giTxra mis usaxosa saxisa,
`Tavsa moviklav me Tumca ar veWvde Sengan wyenasa, esaa Cemi sicocxle, Cemi momcemi axisa,
magram Sen gawyen Cemisa ar-sicocxlisa smenasa. mjobi yovlisa soflisa, wylisa, miwisa da xisa,
modi da mivscne cocxalma Tvalni cremlisa denasa.~ ar-sasmenelis mosmena ars umJavesi wmaxisa.~
avTandilisaTvis sicocxle axla tanjvaa, magram am samxrisadmi tarielis siyvaruli ar gamoisaxvis da ar
sxvisTvis, sxva pirovnebisaTvis mainc ganagrZnobs gamoiTqmis, igi aRemateba yovelive qmnil sawyiss da wadili
sicocxles `cremlis deniT~. cocxalma misca Tavi misi mosmenisa aris usargeblo da imedgamacruebeli. es
jojoxeTs siyvarulis gamo da ipova sicocxle da ara siyvaruli, ra Tqma unda, ukavSirdeba satrfos pirovnebi-
marto sakuTari, aramed (rogorc amas SemdgomSi sadmi siyvaruls (ufro swored, gamomdinareobs am
vnaxulobT) tarielisic. amrigad, igi iqceva sayovelTao siyvarulisagan), ganivrcoba da ukavSirdeba sxva qmnilebas.
pirovnebad. Tavis TavSi moicavs satrfos pirovnebas, magram pirovnul siyvaruls ar SeuZlia SeCerdes mxolod
megobrisa da megobrebis da a. S. igive gvxvdeba tariel- erT pirovnebaze da raime arapirovnulze, radgan buneba
Tanac. avTandili mas poulobs maSin, rodesac igi nebiT pirovnebis gareSe ar SeiZleba arsebobdes. amrigad, nesta-
miscemia kvdomas. araviTari Segoneba, araviTari daweril- nisadmi siyvaruli uciloblad unda gadaizardos sxva
dauwereli sibrZne ar Wris da igi ganagrZobs nebsiT pirovnebisadmi siyvarulSi da ara mxolod usulo anu
kvdomas. mxolod megobris Txovnis asrulebas Tanxmdeba. upirovno sagnisadmi. swored amisaken aRZravs avTandili
igi sakuTari survilis sawinaaRmdegod sxvisaTvis tariels, rodesac eubneba mas:
ukanasknelad Sejdeba cxenze, raTa amiT asiamovnos am `samxre gabia oqrosa, oqromWedlisa dnobili
sxvas. misTvis sikvdili lxenaa (`aw mivswurvivar uasako da usulo, ar sityvieri cnobili.~
sikvdilsa, dro momeaxla lxenisa~), magram igi Tmobs am samxre, oqromWedlis `dnobili~ buneba, pirovnebis
`lxenas~ da amxedrdeba: gareSe araraa da masze SeCereba personis uaryofas niSnavs24
`mindorTave waiyvana, tani mWevri aZrevina, da amitom avTandili sayvedurobs tariels:
xani warvles, siarulma mojobeba daaCina.~
24
sakuTari nebis sawinaaRmdegod siyvarulis gamo sxva Sdr. rom. 1:20: `uxilavi (e. i. RvTis pirovneba) wuTisoflis
pirovnebis nebis damorCilebam `mojobeba daaCina~ da igi dasabamidan qmnilebaTa (`dnobilTa~) xilviT Seicnoba, ase rom maT
kvlav iZens sicocxles, da es sicocxle Tavis bunebis (visac pirovnuli RmerTi ver icnes) gamarTleba ara aqvT~. xolo is
Tanaxmad, myisve iwyebs gavrcobas, ixsneba, raTa iqces filosofosebi, romlebmac Seicnes, rom arsebobs erTi RmerTi,
ivironis erT-erT eklesiaSi, sadac iveriis RvTismSoblis xati
zogadadamianur sicocxled. tariels axsendeba (avTandilis
asvenia, winaswarmetyvelebTan erTad arian freskebze gamosaxuli,
SegonebiT) asmaTi da gaemarTeba misken. Tumca Saravandedebis gareSe.
116 fundamentalizmis gadalaxva kaxaber kurtaniZe 117

`aRarad ginda asmaTi, _ naxe marTali brWobili... mudam aris erTi mamaSi, ZeSi da suliwmidaSi da aris maTi
pirvel glax, misi naWvreti, TviT mere Seni dobili.~ buneba, arsi. es siyvaruli gadmoiRvreba qmnilebisakenac da
upirovno siyvaruli ar arsebobs da Tu siyvaruli unda Ze RvTisa mTlianad warmocarielebulia Tavisi qmnilebis
gavrceldes, maSin igi unda gavrceldes pirovnebaze da ara mimarTac (`rogorc Seiyvara Tavisianebi... iseve bolomde
mxolod upersono saganze, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi Tavad es uyvarda isini~ (i. 13:1)). aseTi sruli siyvarulisakenaa
siyvaruli ar arsebobs. gamoxmobili araraobidan adamiani da radgan siyvaruli
mama RvTis pirovneba siyvaruliT Sobs Zes da aseve erTia da ar nawildeba, amitomaa, rom Tu giyvars erTi,
kenoturi siyvaruliT gamoavlens suliwmidas. mama RmerTi giyvars yvela, mTeli adami (`Seiyvare moyvasi~ da ara
mizezia Zesi da suliwmidasi. xolo suliwmidasa da Zes `moyvasebi~). adamianma SeiZleba uari Tqvas romelime
savsebiT aqvT es siyvaruli erTmaneTis mimarT, radgan TiTo- pirovnebaze siyvarulis gamo, magram ara ganyenebuli
eul maTze an maTSi mTlianadaa siyvaruli, e. i. RvTaebrivi siyvarulis, aramed konkretuli pirovnebisadmi siyvaru-
buneba. Ze aseve kenoturi siyvaruliT pasuxobs mamas da liT. magram es pirovnuli konkretuli siyvaruli aucileb-
mTlianad ubrundeba mas, ubrunebs Tavis siyvaruls. da lad gavrceldeba `uaryofil~ pirovnebazec. `Tu vinme mova
radgan mama siyvaruliT mTlianadaa warmocarielebuli CemTan da ar moiZulebs Tavis mamas, dedas, cols... ver
suliwmidaSi, aseve Zesac mTliani warmocarielebiTi siyva- gaxdeba Cemi mowafe... aravin aris Cemi gulisaTvis
ruli aqvs suliwmidasi. da es maTi siyvaruli aris saerTo da mietovebinos... an Zmebi... an mama... an deda... da as wilad ar
ganuyofeli. es siyvaruli aris maTi buneba da TiToeuli mieRos axla, amJamad (am sicocxleSi)... Zmebi da deda... am
maTgani am siyvaruls flobs srulad. amitomaa miuRebeli, devnasTan erTad, xolo momaval saukuneSi _ saukuno
rom Ze gadaadens mamisagan miRebul siyvaruls anu arsebas sicocxle (RmerTSi sicocxle)~ (luka 15:21-22; mr. 10:29-30).
suliwmidaSi, an TiTqos mamisa da Zis siyvaruli iyos calke Tuki siyvaruli aris ganyenebuli (zogadad samSoblosi,
pirovneba. Zes ararsebobidan ki ar miuRia arsoba mamisagan, zogadad eris, eklesiis, marTlmadideblobis, WeSmaritebis,
aramed igi Tanabari da Tanamaradiulia mamisa. mama, rogorc erTianobis, oikumenis (msofliosi) da a. S.), maSin siyvaruli
pirovneba, siyvaruliT Sobs Zes, rogorc pirovnebas. aseve ar arsebobs, radgan siyvaruli yovelTvis konketuli
mama siyvaruliT gamoavlens suliwmidas, rogorc pirovneba pirovnebisadmia mimarTuli. `ramdenadac metad miyvars
pirovnebas. es maradiuli Soba da maradi gamosvla aris kacobrioba, imdenad naklebad madardebs axlobelis (moyva-
maradiuli gamovlineba siyvarulisa. mamas uyvars maradiu- sis) siyvaruli~ - aTqmevinebs xolme Tavis gmirebs dosto-
li Ze Tavisi da uyvars maradiulad gamomavali suliwmida. evski. xolo Tuki siyvaruli ar aris ganyenebuli, aramed
Zes uyvars maradiuli mama da mamisagan maradiulad aris mimarTuli pirovnebisadmi an konkretuli pirovnebebi-
gamomavali suliwmida. suliwmidas uyvars maradiuli Ze, sadmi, maSin igi aucileblad RvTisagan momdinare
xati mamisa, Zes uyvars suliwmida gamomavali mamisagan. aseT siyvarulia.
urTierTobas wmida mamebi uwodeben maradiul wrebrunvas magram Tuki qristes sityvebidan erTi SexedviT ise Cans,
(circumincessio) ufro zustad ki urTierTdamtevneloba rom adamianTa pirovnebebi unda iyos mitovebuli da
(B,D4PfD0F0), rodesac yoveli saRvTo pirovneba mTlianad ugulebelyofili RvTaebrivi e. i. misi (qristes) pirovnebis
warmocarieldeba TiToeul saRvTo pirovnebaSi. Ze _ mamaSi, gamo da mxolod am SemTxvevaSi gavrceldeba es siyvaruli
mama _ suliwmidaSi, suliwmida _ mamaSi, mama _ ZeSi, Ze _ `uaryofilebze~, pavle mociquli naTels hfens am sityvebis
suliwmidaSi, suliwmida _ ZeSi (es maradiuli wrebrunva namdvil azrs. igi ambobs: `me visurvebdi me TviTon
rubliovis wm. samebis freskaze aris asaxuli). warmo- vyofiliyavi qristesgan gandgomili, Cemi ZmebisTvis, Cemi
carielebiTi siyvaruli ar izrdeba da ar mcirdeba. igi xorciel naTesavebisTvis (Tu es maT qristesTan moiyvanda)~
118 fundamentalizmis gadalaxva kaxaber kurtaniZe 119

(rom. 9:3). es `gandgoma~ SeuZlebelia, rogorc is pirveli warsuls Cabarda, aramed fiqrob, rom is Sens Tvalwin xdeba,
`uaryofa~, radgan rodesac `gandgoma~ da `uaryofa~ maSin cocxali xar. Caebi qmedebaSi axla da aq... Tu uaryof
gamowveulia pirovnebisadmi siyvaruliT, maSin aRar imaze fiqrs, rom es ukve dasrulda, rom ieso qriste agoniis
arsebobs gandgoma da uaryofa. sadac pirovnebisadmi siyva- Semdeg marTla mokvda, Tu Sen fxizlob, maSin RmerTi
rulia, iq uklebliv yvela danarCeni pirovnebisadmi cocxalia, Sen yofierebaSi xar, Sen cocxali xar Seni Tavis
siyvarulicaa, TviT mtrebisac ki (`giyvardeT Tqveni mtre- winaSe, samyaros winaSe... ».
bi~; mT. 6:44). adamiani mowodebulia TviTwarmocarielebiTi ar arsebobs WeSmariteba da miTumetes, misi `dogmaturi
(kenoturi) siyvarulisaken da, Tuki igi amas axorcielebs, formulebi~ pirovnebis gareSe. dostoevski ambobs: mwams,
anu misi ganxorcielebis gzaze dgas, maSin igi xdeba rom qriste aris WeSmariteba, magram Tuki vinme
sayovelTao adami da moicavs xilul da uxilav samyaros damarwmunebs, rom qriste ar aris WeSmariteba, me avirCev
mTlianad. mTeli qmnileba (uxilavic ki) dakavSirebulia viyo qristesTan da ara WeSmaritebasTan.
adamianTan, elis mas (`vinaidan qmnileba imediT moelis RvTis arsebobs erT-erTi asketi beris gamonaTqvami: viyo
SvilTa gamocxadebas, radgan qmnileba Tavis nebiT ki ar qristesTan da dae, viyo jojoxeTSi. magram pirovnuli
daemorCila amaoebas, aramed misi dammorCilebelis mier~ siyvaruli jojoxeTsac samoTxed aqcevs....25
(rom. 8:19-20). da amitom adamians, romelic daadga pirovnuli
siyvarulis ganxorcielebis gzas, Tanaexmianeba mTeli ***
samyaro. rodesac avTandili tarielisa da asmaTisagan
miemarTeboda fridonisaken, gzad miimRerda da fundamentalizmi ar cnobs pirovnebis WeSmaritebas da
arc Tavad pirovnebas. igi ar cnobs arc WeSmaritebis
`ra esmoda mRera ymisa, smenad mxecni movidian pirovnulobas da arc imas, rom WeSmaritebasTan ziarebas
misve xmisa sitkbosagan wyliT qvanica gamosxdian, aqvs pirovnuli xasiaTi. fundamentalizmi yovelTvis mouwo-
ismendian, gahkvirdian, ra atirdis atirdian...~ debs WeSmaritebas, uxmobs, magram arasdros ar Rebulobs
mas, ver Rebulobs, radgan pirovneba ugulvebelyofili
avTandilTan erTad, romelmac misca `cocxalma Tvalni hyavs. xolo rodesac dakargulia arsi, maSin mis adgilze
cremlisa denasa~, tiris mTeli samyaro, radgan kenoturi Cndeba arsis saxeba da gamovlinebebi, romlebsac unda
siyvaruli ama sofelSi tkivilTanaa dakavSirebuli, TviT ganemartaT es arsi. cxadad SegrZnebadi mowmobebi, logi-
ufalsac dioda cremli... kuri sqemebi, kanonebi da eTikuri aforizmebi advilad
miizidaven da aRagzneben adamianebs. amrigad, SeiaraRdebian
*** obieqturi realurobiT, erTgvari `garantiebiT~, romlebic
yoveli adamiani mowodebulia Tavisi pirovnebis Cndebian viTomc pirovnuli, sinamdvileSi ki individis
realizebisaken `RvTis xatad~. man unda gaimeoros qristes individualuri usafrTxoebis gasamyareblad. arada, piro-
RvTaebrivi pirovnebis gza. «me SemiZlia moviyvano franguli vnebis orientireba Tavisufalad, yovelgvari kriteriumisa
filosofiuri formula, paskalis formula, _ ambobs merab da sayrdenis gareSe unda moxdes, raTa is ganamdvildes
mamardaSvili, _ ieso qristes agonia samyaros bolomde (realizeba moxdes), rogorc sayovelTao pirovneba.
grZeldeba da mTeli am drois ganmavlobaSi ar unda daiZi- 25
no... Sen Tu ggonia, rom qristes agonia... moxda da Sens ukan Sdr: “mTlad me mekuTvnis qveyana: / mTaSi – mTa, barad – baria, /
zRva da xmeleTi erTian, / cas – varskvlavebis jaria... / iq
imyofeba, Sen dakarguli xar, TiTqos mkvdari xar. da
jojoxeTi, samoTxis / Tu damiketes karia.
piriqiT, Tu ar ggonia, rom qristes agonia ukve moxda da vaJa fSavela. simRera
120 fundamentalizmis gadalaxva kaxaber kurtaniZe 121

winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi saqme gveqneboda pirovnebaze pirovnuli sawyisis uaryofiT ganpirobebuli arsobrivi
ZaldatanebasTan `...adamianis Tavisuflebis Tu ganTavisuf- uZlurebis dasafaravad adamiani Tavs itvirTavs eTiko-
lebis (emansipaciis) didi aqti es aris kavSiris gawyvita logiiT, kanonebiT, dogmatebiT, tradiciiT da a. S. amgvari
arsebuli sinamdvilis kanonebTan... aRiarebul wesebTan, `ganmartebiT~ gamyarebulni ixiblebian Sinagan TviTkmayo-
romelTa mixedviT wydeba xolme problema ama Tu im viTare- filebaSi, rom icaven wmidasa da Rirebuls (Tavad RmerTsac
baSi~, _ ambobs m. mamardaSvili. marTlac, Tuki raime ki) da miecemian triumfalizms. amgvarad, fundamentalizmis
garegani Tu gareSe aiZulebs pirovnebas gaakeTos esa Tu is mTeli istoria aris adamianis mcdeloba dafaros Tavisi
arCevani, gaemarTos ama Tu im mimarTulebiT, maSin sadRaa Sinagani sicariele `garantiebiT~ anu obieqturi
Tavisufleba?26 Tavisufleba mZime tvirTia, igi rom jvaria damajereblobebiT.28 `gaubraloebuli koncefciis mizania,
adamianisaTvis, amas aCvenebs asketuri tradicia27 da brwyin- mTeli samyaro datios sul patara TavSi, imis TavSi, visac
valedaa gadmocemuli dostoevskis didi inkvizitoris araviTari survili ar gaaCnia iazrovnos: amgvarad, mas
igavSi. yvela Tavis gankargulebaSi hyavs ise, rom araviTar
26
Zalisxmevas ar moiTxovs aravisgan da amiT yvela
Sdr. kaZanZaki niko. aRsareba... gv. 389: `ufskrulia yoveli kmayofilia~, _ ambobs m. mamardaSvili.
adamianis irgvliv da ar arsebobs xidi~. da gv. 471: `ar vmuSaobT
eTika garkveul anTropologias eyrdnoba. anTropo-
Cven gasamrjelosaTvis, ara gvsurs anazRaureba, imedis gareSe
vibrZviT, samoTxis miRma, Tavisufal haerSi... ». aseve Sdr. logia adgens CarCoebs, romlis sazRvrebSic eTikas ufleba
«romanSi `RvTis glaxa~ francisko asizeli ase mimarTavs RmerTs: aqvs imoZraos. magram eklesiur anTropologiasa da eTikaSi
`ufalo, Tu imis gamo miyvarxar, rom samoTxeSi momaxvedro, ase ar xdeba. aq anTropologia daafuZnebs axal ontologias
ubrZane angelozs Sensas, gadamiketos Sesasvleli kari Tavis da eTika vlindeba rogorc amoqmedeba da Rirseba am axali
maxviliT; Tu imis gamo miyvarxar, rom jojoxeTis meSinia, maSin ontologiisa: `is, vinc qristeSia, axali qmnilebaa~ (2kor.
Camagde jojoxeTSi. magram Tuki mxolod SenTvisve miyvarxar, 5:17), fundamentalizmi ki yvelafris safuZvlad eTikas (da
SenTvis, ufalo, maSin Camikar gulSi~» (nikos kazanZakisi `askeza~, deontologias) debs.
Targmn. Tamar mesxma. gam. `mecniereba~, Tbilisi, 1997, gv. 94). qristianuli ontologia ar SemozRudavs adamians
sinamdvileSi es sityvebi perefrazirebaa sityvebisa, romelic
fsiqologiuri an sazogadoebrivi sferoTi. ra Tqma unda,
ekuTvnis me-8 saukunis moRvawe musulman qals rabia al-adavias
(naxe ).
isini ar arian uaryofilni, aramed gamoiyenebian da
27
aq moviyvanT arqimandrit sofronis (saxarovi) sityvebs
emsaxurebian axali Teologiis perspeqtivas. rac ar unda
wignidan beri siluani. eseqsi 1990 (rusulad) gv. 189-190: SeuZlia daatrialos, rac dedamiwaze wylis wisqvilebia, RvTis
`RmerTTan yofna adamianisaTvis yovelTvis rodia advili,... bevrma wisqvili ki _ ara~).
ar icis qristianuli Rvawlis Tanamimdevroba da ibneva am gzaze... 28
Sdr. kaZanZaki niko. aRsareba... gv. 408: `[unda] avarjiSo
dasawyisSi adamiani miizideba RvTisaken saRvTo madlis niWiT, goneba, rom ar gamogaSteros dajerebulobam, unda ipovo Sens
magram rodesac miemarTeba RvTisaken, maSin dgeba gamocdis winaSe daxuruli kari da ecado, rom gaaRo igi. ‚ar SemiZlia
xangrZlivi periodi. gamoicdeba adamianis Tavisufleba... da cxovreba dajerebulobis gareSe, _ ambobs adamiani, romelic
gamoicdeba zogjer `sastikad~... rodesac gamocdis Jami dgeba, iswrafvis rom moewyos, ipovos niadagi fexis dasadgmeli, Wamdes
maSin yvelaferi icvleba da zeca TiTqos ixureba da xdeba yru da im puris ukan, romelsac Wams, ver xedavdes aTasobiT mSier pirs.
yovelgvari locva-vedrebisaTvis... bolos, yvelaze mZime da ar minda, ar SemiZlia cxovreba daujereblobis gareSe , _ gaiZaxian
autaneli tanjva _ RmerTi miatovebs mas (`eloi, eloi, lama sxvebi, ver Wamen mSvidi sindisiT, ver sZinavT udardelad, ar
sabaqTani?~ mr. 15:34), maSin tanjva aRwevs Tavis srulyofilebas, amboben: am qveyanas ara aqvs nakli, dae numc Seicvleba saukunod
rameTu miT dawylulebulia mTeli adamiani misi arsebobis yvela nuraferi _ eseni iyvnen kargad, eseni arian marili RvTisa da suls
sferoSi". (Sdr. kaZanZaki niko. aRsareba... gv. 411: `adamianis cremls lpobis saSualebas ar aZleven~.
122 fundamentalizmis gadalaxva kaxaber kurtaniZe 123

mniSvnelovani iyos sazogadoebriv da fsiqologiur aramed ganxorcieldeba mxolod misi gafarToebiT


sferoSi realizebuli faqtorebi, da rac ar unda sayovelTao pirovnebamde, RvTis prototipis mixedviT,
gadamwyveti sasicocxlo Sedegebi hqondeT am faqtorebs, romelic gamoisaxeba misi, adamianis bunebaSi.
isini mainc droiseulni arian, e. i. droSi warmoiSvebian da morwmuneebi mowodebulni arian SeukavSirdnen erTmaneTs
droSive qrebian, Tuki ar farTovdebian ontologiur erTarseba samebis msgavsad: `raTa yvela erT iyos, rogorc
sferomde. es ontologia Cndeba qristes pirovnebaSi da Sen CemSi, mamao, me ki SenSi, raTa isinic iyvnen CvenSi~ (i.
ganiWvriteba qriste-arqetipis mimsgavsebiT mcxovrebi 17:22). es erTianoba xorcieldeba siyvaruliT, romelic
adamianis pirovnebaSi. eTika mxolod gamoavlens da moicavs mTels samyaros, TviT mtrebsac ki, da Tu kacs
ganmartavs am ontologias, efuZneba ra mas. Tuki kanoni an SeuZlia Caixutos mteri, maSin mas sikvdilis [aR]ar eSinia.
eTika CaiTvleba TviTkmarad, maSin gadasxvaferdeba, pirovneba, romelsac uyvars, ar upirispirdeba sxva
gaqarwyldeba is ontologia, romelzec isini unda pirovnebas an mTlianad samyaros, aramed aqvs Sinagani
dafuZnebuliyvnen da mis adgils daikaveben. qristianuli erToba yvelasTan. aseTi qristianuli perspeqtiva
eTikis mizania srulyos adamiani, rogorc `RvTis xateba~. fundamentalizmis sapirispiroa da, amave dros, Tavis TavSi
es ver xorcieldeba upirovno kanonebisa da sawyisebis moicavs SesaZleblobas aRematos mas, gadalaxos igi.
morgebiT, aramed pirovnuli ziarebiT pirvelsawyis fundamentalizmi saSiSia sazogadoebisaTvis, magram ufro
pirovnebasTan _ RmerTTan. es ziareba, romelic metad saSiSia eklesiuri sazogadoebisaTvis: `Tu marils
siyvarulis ziarebaa, mcnebebis dacviT xorcieldeba. xolo Zala gamoecala, riRaTi damarildes?~ (mT. 5-3). amitom
Tavad mcnebebis dacvasac aqvs ontologiuri xasiaTi, saWiroa meti Tavdadeba da ara myvirala heroizmi
radgan dafuZnebulia RvTis uqmnel madlze, aris ziareba fundamentalizmTan brZolisas, radgan SesaZlebelia, masTan
maradiul sicocxlesTan (`misi mcneba saukuno sicocxlea~ - araswori meTodebiT dapirispirebisas misi gaZliereba
i. 12:50). gamoiwvios.
adamiansa da RmerTs Soris kavSiri, romelic mcnebebis rodesac eklesiis SigniT qreba erTianobis SegrZneba da
dacviT xorcieldeba, aRemateba yovelgvar qmnilebas da morwmuneebi cxovroben rogorc erTmaneTisagan ganmxo-
alyaSi moaqcevs da amarcxebs yovelgvar adamianur loebuli, Caketili individebi, aseT SemTxvevaSi saWiroa
uZlurebasa da arasandoobas. adamianis pirovneba ixsneba da raime sayrdeni niSnulebis moZieba. yvelaze advili da
farTovdeba Tavisi arqetipisaken (pirvel-saxisaken), eziare- obieqturad sarwmuno gayrdenad aseT viTarebaSi saeklesio
ba mis sicocxles da miemarTeba Tavisi srulyofilebisa da gadmocemebis (tradiciebis) gaobieqturebaa: mamaTa
sisrulisaken (`iyaviT srulyofilni iseve, rogorc Tqveni teqstebi, eklesiuri cxovrebis wesebi da kanonebi
zecieri mamaa srulyofili _ mT. 5:48). swored es gadaiqcevian sabrZolo arsenalad. amgvarad, warmoiSveba
srulyofilebaa qristianuli eTikis mizani da aris mkacri fundamentalizmi, rac spobs sarwmunoebis WeSma-
adamianis, rogorc pirovnebis, ontologiuri srulyo- ritebas da gaaRmerTebs wesebs. rac ufro maRalia im
fileba da ganxorcieldeba qristes sicocxlis mimsgavsebiT tradiciis sandooba, romelsac icaven, imdenad mkacria
da masSi CarTva-ziarebiT. srulyofili adamiani aris fundamentalizmi. aseT SemTxvevaSi tradicia ar miiCneva
qriste. yvela adamiani mowodebulia gaimeoros is, rac cxovrebis erT-erT modelad, aramed obieqturobad, romel-
gaakeTa qristem, rogorc adamianma. qristianul eTikas mac unda gadafaros ontologiuri sicariele, e. i. Tavad
adamiani zeahyavs, radgan Zalmocemulia RmerTkac qristesa iqces yofierebad da yofierebis saTaved. realurad aq ar
da mis uqmnel madlTan ziarebiT. adamianis srulyofileba meTaurobs tradicia, aramed misi gaqvavebuli qerqi. ar arse-
ver ganxorcieldeba sakuTar individSi TviTSeWurviT, bobs tradiciuloba, aramed agresiuli konservatoroba.
124 fundamentalizmis gadalaxva kaxaber kurtaniZe 125

fundamentalizmi iyenebs qristianuli simboloebis29 marTlmadidebeli eklesia Tavisi bunebiT aris


saukeTeso nawils. amitom gareSe mzerisaTvis Znelia garCeva absoluturi. saRvTo gulmodgineba31 ar imyofeba mis
fundamentalistur midgomasa da saR eklesiur midgomas garekanze, aramed mis gulSi da misi sazomia RvTis Semecneba.
Soris. magram mainc arsebobs aSkara da cxadi niSani. is ar emsaxureba adamianur pirad interess da arc amasoflis
fundamentalizmi gamoacalkevebs da gaabsoluturebs mcnebebiT SemoisazRvreba. gulmodgineba yovelTvis
simbolur sistemebs da es SeimCneva im pirovnebebisa Tu Segnebulad Tansdevs WeSmarit RvTisSemecnebas, romelic
dajgufebebis qcevaSi, romlebic mas iyeneben, maSin roca aris ziareba da kavSiri siyvarulis RmerTTan, gamoabijeba
WeSmariti morwmune sazrdoobs am simboloTa sferodan da (§6FJ"F4H) qmnilebisagan da ziareba uqmnelTan. Zlevs
miemarTeba maTgan yofierebiTi ziarebisaken, fundamenta- sikvdilis SiSs da ixsneba da farTovdeba sicocxleSi.
listi nerviulad gaaabsoluturebs imave simbolur siste- marTlmadidebeli eklesia safuZvlad ar Rebulobs
mas, rCeba masSi da gaafTrebiT Tavs esxmis `mowinaaRmdege qmnilebebs, rac xdeba fundamentalizmSi. im wuTidan,
Zma-mters~. rodesac es xdeba, wydeba marTlmadidebloba da, ufro
rogorc siyvarulis gamovlineba, qristianoba imTaviTve zustad rom vTqvaT, marTlmadidebluri Teologiis
ucxoa fundamentalizmisTvis. qristianuli fundamentali- safuZvlebidan gamomdinare _ wydeba qritianobis arseboba,
zmi Tavis arsSi aris aralogikuri da uazro da aRmocenebu- radgan qmnileba xdeba kerpTmsaxurebis obieqti. aseTi
lia mxolod rogorc meoradi fenomeni. igi ar SeiZleba iyos gamrudebis safrTxe marad arsebobs marTlmadideb-
RvTisadmi (romelic aris siyvaruli) namdvili rwmenis lobisaTvis. ra Tqma unda, marTlmadidebeli eklesia dainte-
nayofi. qristianuli RvTisadmi rwmena da misi Tanayofnis resebulia dogmatebis detaluri dacviT, magram miuxedavad
gamocdileba adamians ar xdis fanatikosad da ulmobelad, amisa, mainc win miiwevs yovelgvari qmnili elementebis
aramed mas gardasaxavs da daamSvidebs. `vnebaSi myofi uaryofisaken, radgan isini Tavisi bunebiT uZlurni arian
adamianis (maT Soris, fundamentalistis) sindisis cbiereba daition umqneli (dogmatis sityvieri forma ver daitevs
didia da daxvewili. vnebiT Sepyrobili adamianis religiur gamouTqmel RmerTs). sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, esaa mizani
cxovrebaSi sindisi am vnebas warmoaCens, rogorc eklesiis apofatikuri (ukuTqmiTi) da mistiuri
simarTlisa da sasargeblos Ziebas da xSirad rogorc RvTis RvTismetyvelebisa.
didebisaTvis brZolas. qristes saxelisaTvis, romelmac `kidev erTxel SevZrav aramarto dedamiwas, aramed
nebiT sikvdils misca Tavi mtrebisaTvis, adamianebi mzad casac~. es `kidev erTxel~ niSnavs SeZrulis Secvlas,
arian idgnen (ibrZolon) sisxldaqcevamde, oRond ara Tavisi rogorc qmnilisa, raTa darCes uZravi (Sdr. ebr. 19:26-27).
sisxlis, aramed Zma-mtrisa ~.30 amrigad, qmnileba uariyofeba, raTa darCes uqmneli da
qristianuli fundamentlizmi Sedegia qristianuli uryevi samefo RvTisa da `axali qmnileba qristeSi~.
ideologiisa da ara cocxali rwmenisa `cocxali marTlmadidebluri Teologiis kriteriumebiT da
(pirovnuli-‚me var) RvTis~ mimarT. igi aris im adamianisa gansakuTrebiT qristianuli eTikis sazomiT, romelic
qmnileba, romelmac dakarga pirovnuli RmerTis WeSma- dafuZnebulia da dagvirgvinebulia `axali qmnilebis~
riteba, RmerTisa, romelsac uyvars adamiani da mouwodebs, ontologiaSi, qristianuli fundamentalizmi miekuTvneba
raTa emsgavsos mas, rogorc Tavisufali pirovneba. qristianuli WeSmaritebis Setrialebas da qristianobis
31
29
igulisxmeba yvela marTlmadidebluri dogmaturi Zeglebi, `vinaidan vumowmeb maT, rom aqvT gulmodgineba RvTisadmi,
rolebic gamoxataven eklesiis saxeliT mis rwmenasa da oRond ara Segnebulad. radgan RvTis simarTle ver Seicnes da
saRvTismetyvelo swavlebas. cdilobdnen sakuTari simarTlis dadgenas da RvTis siamrTles ar
30
arqim. sofroni (saxarovi). beri siluani... gv. 128. daemorCilnen~ (rom. 10 2-3).
126 fundamentalizmis gadalaxva kaxaber kurtaniZe 127

gawarmarTebas, pirovnebisa da misi Tavisuflebis patriarqis kurTxeviT gamosul wignebSi xSirad gvxvdeba
ucodinarobasa da uaryofas. azri sxva sarwmunoebis adamianebis SesaZlo cxonebis
Sesaxeb, da axla am sakiTxze mosTxoven Cvens eklesias mkacr
*** reagirebas. an vTqvaT: `aRmoaCenen~, rom qarTuli samxmiani
yvelgan SeiZleba Segvxvdes sulierebis tipi, romelsac galoba `arakanonikuria~ da mis akrZalvas moiTxoven. aseTi
aqvs pretenzia iyos WeSmaritebis kriteriumi. sulierebis am da msgavi `problemebi~ yovelTvis moiZebneba. da
tipisaTvis ucxoa Tavmdabloba, radgan mas, vinc am tips fundamentalistebi ver SeCerdebian, sanam mTlianad ar
miekuTvneba, arasodes epareba eWvi sakuTar TavSi, rom gabatondebian da Tavisi azrebiT ar warmarTaven eklesiis
sworad esmis eklesiuri swavleba. ra Tqma unda, cxovrebas. magram arc amaze gaCerdeba fundametnalisti,
fundamentalisti sulierebis aseT tips warmoadgens. igi radgan misTvis damaxasiaTebeli eqstremizmi aseT SemTxve-
Rrmadaa darwmunebuli, rom nebismieri pozicia, romelic ar vaSic gagrZeldeba. xolo, rogorc Cveni qveynis mware
emTxveva misas, arTmevs adamians imeds, gaxdes da iyos gamocdilebidan viciT, mmarTvelobaSi mosuli eqstremizmi
namdvili qristiani. magram maTi yvelaze damaxasiaTebeli eqstremizmad rCeba, eZebs da poulobs `mtrebs~ da
gamovlineba aris miswrafeba moiZion da ganairaRon mteri sabolood `mtrad~ aqcevs mTel msoflios. aseT gabatone-
(vTqvaT, ruseTis an vatikanis agentebi). fundamentalists ar bul eqstremizmTan Segueba ki SeuZlebelia da aucileblad
SeuZlia arseboba mtris xatis gareSe da radgan Tavis arsSi iwyeba mis winaaRmdeg brZola, rasac mohyveba destabili-
uaryo pirovneba, yovelTvis qmnis `mters~. misTvis arsebobs zacia, ngreva da safrTxe saboloo ganadgurebisa (Cveni
mxolod idea an ideebi. `me mwams marTlmadideblobis~, _ qveyana xom jerac am safrTxis pirispir dgas?!). miTumetes,
ambobs fundamentalisti, radgan ar icnobs pirovnul rom marTlmadideblur fundamentalizms yovelTvis aqvs
RmerTs. igi mzadaa Tavis ideas, `marTlmadideblobas~, anu survili (cxadi Tu dafaruli), daiWiros saxelmwifo
Tavis upirovno RmerTs Seswiros esa Tu is pirovneba, raTa eklesiis pozicia bizantiis Teokratiuli prototipis
uzrunvelyos Tavisi individualuri „cxoneba". `sinagogidan msgavsad da igi aucileblad wauyenebs saxelmwifos Tavis
mogkveTen... modis Jami, roca yovel Tqvens mkvlels egoneba, ukidures moTxovnebs.
rom amiT RmerTs emsaxureba... ase mogeqcevian, radgan ar rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, marTlmadidebeli eklesiis
icnes mama, arc me (i. 16:2-3). "me mwams adamiani", _ ityoda misia ama sofelSi aris gaacnos adamians pirovnebis WeSmari-
mitropoliti anton suroJeli, radgan adamianSi RvTis teba. `am misiis warmateba, _ wers protopresviteri vladi-
pirovnebis xatebas da potenciur RmerTs xedavda. `eWvi mer feodorovi, _ SesaZlebelia mxolod im pirobiT, Tu
Seitane da Tvali geWiros yvela adamianze, mas SeiZleba gadailaxeba fundamentalizmi... igi warmoadgens mTavar
eretikuli azri hqondes~, _ ityvis `marTlmadidebelobiT~ dabrkolebas marTlmadideblobis SemoqmedebiTi qadagebi-
Sepyrobili da `daZrwis, rogorc mbrdRvinavi lomi da eZebs, saTvis. erTi SexedviT, swored fundamentalistebi arian
vin Caylapos~ (1petr. 5:8). gajiutebuli saSineli gaafT- aqtiurni qadagebaSi, inarCuneben tradiciul keTilmsaxu-
rebiT da daundoblobiT esxmis Tavs `saeWvo~ pirovnebas. rebas, magram Tu davakvirdebiT yuradRebiT, cxadi gaxdeba,
marad mdgomni `marTlmadideblobis~ saguSagoze arafriT rom Semoqmedebisa da pirovnuli arCevanis gareSe
ar daixeven ukan da arc winsvlas SeaCereben. arasodes ar keTilmsaxureba aris zedapiruli da ar exeba pirovnebas.
dakmayofildebian `miRweuliT~. problema jer iyo `ekumenis- rogorc wesi, swored fundamentalizmi abrkolebs eklesiis
turi sabWo~. Semdeg `saeWvo pirebis saeWvo swavleba~ gareT myof xalxs, rom interesiTa da ndobiT Sexedos
unaTlav bavSvTa Sesaxeb. romc dakmayofildes maTi es eklesiur qadagebas, mousminos principulad axal ideebs,
axirebac, isini sxvas gamoZebnian: vTqvaT imas, rom ruseTis gamoimuSaos tolerantuli damokidebuleba am uCveulo
128 fundamentalizmis gadalaxva kaxaber kurtaniZe 129

faseulobebis mimarT. Tavad qristianobas ki aqvs Ria da Tqma ubiZgebs eklesiis wevrebs aqtiurad CaerTon dialogSi
gaxsnili xasiaTi. igi Tavs aravis moaxvevs Tavis mrwamss da da xels Seuwyobs gamovlindes eklesiis swavlebis potencia
azrebs, aramed mouwodebs `visac aqvs Tvali _ dainaxos~.32 da igi saCino gaxdes dialogis orive mxarisaTvis (Cven xom
fundametnalizmi gadasalaxavia. araviTar daTmobas yvelas gvWirdeba gavigoT is, rac Cvenve viciT?!). Tuki dRes
sasurveli Sedegi ar moaqvs. piriqiT, yoveli maTi mciredi eklesia iZulebulia wavides aucilebel daTmobebze funda-
“warmateba” amZafrebs situacias da aZlierebs maT. `super- mentalistebTan, es qarTuli sazogadoebis inertulobis
marTlmadideblebis~ miSveba did zians ayenebs eklesias. nayofia.
nebismieri maTTvis `saeWvo~ pirovneba iZulebulia gaCumdes `piradi (pirovnuli) brZola dRevandel samyaroSi didi
an saerTod wavides eklesiidan da sxva sferoSi iRvawos. brZolis badalia~, _ ambobs didi berZeni mwerali nikos
mravali niWieri pirovneba rCeba eklesiis gareT (maT ar kazanZakisi. TiToeulma pirovnebam unda mimarTos Zalisx-
surT raime kavSiri hqondeT fundamentalistebTan, romle- mevas (`TiToeulma Tavisi riskiT~, _ ityvis merab
bic eWviT uyureben yovelgvar Semoqmedebasa da kulturas, mamardaSvili), raTa ar gameordes mRvdelmTavar kaiafas
maT Soris qarTulsac) da maTi unari ar xmardeba eklesias. sityvebi: `gvijobs erTi adamiani (pirovneba) mokvdes
xolo eklesiaSi darCenili SemoqmedebiTi pirovnebebi (ganadgurdes) xalxisaTvis (`qveynis mSvidobisaTvis~),34
iZulebulni xdebian Zalian frTxilad iyvnen da ZiriTadad vidre mTeli eri daiRupos~ (i. 11:50) da xelaxla jvars ar
ganyenebuli da umtkivneulo, "gawonasworebuli" TemebiT acvamdnen qristes, radgan yvela adamiani qristes xatebaa,
arian dakavebulni. amis gamo ki warmoiSveba mankieri wre: pirovnebaa da potenciuri RmerTia. da bolos, Tuki Cven,
swored fundamentalistebi miiCnevian eklesiis aqtiuri marTlmadidebelma qristianebma, uxmod gadaveciT Tundac
`SemoqmedebiTi~ potencialad, rac kidev ufro aZlierebs erTi pirovneba gasanadgureblad, rogorRa davamowmoT
maT Tavdajerebulobasa da TviTtkbobas da kidev ufro `cocxali RmerTi~, pirovnebis WeSmariteba msoflios wina-
rTul pirobebs qmnis namdvili pirovnuli Semoqmedebi- Se, risTvisac varT mowodebulni?
saTvis. `Tqven xarT marili miwisa. Tu marils Zala gamoecala,
`fundamentalizmis daZleva mTeli sazogadoebis riTiRa damarildes?~ (mT. 5:13).
interesebs pasuxobs, radgan xels uwyobs sazogadoebis
erTianobis ganmtkicebas da undoblobis, mtrobis, fsevdo- 2000 w.
patriotizmis (rasac iwvevs fundamentalistebis Seqmnili Tesaloniki
TviTtkbobiTi garemo, _k.k), uaryofas. esaa Semoqmedebis
amocana, amocana RmerTTan TanamoRvaweobisa~.33 magram 34
Sdr. ZamaSvili a., gvasalia l., Wiaureli v.: kulturologia.
CvenSi, samwuxarod, swored sazogadoeba aris inertuli. `teqnikuri universiteti~, 1999. gv. 37-38: `mSvidoba ar udris
arada, sazogadoebis aqtiuroba aucilebelia. saWiroa, rom mxolod omis ararsebobas. Tu momxdur moZalades nebiT Caabareb
saqarTvelos sazogadoebam xSirad da Tamamad gamoTqvas yvela im Rirebulebebs, rasac igi Sengan omiT warTmevas cdilobs,
Tavisi azri, Tundac saeWvo, Tundac miuRebeli eklesiuri amiT Sen Tavidan aicileb oms, magram es SenTvis mSvidoba aRar
poziciisaTvis. sapirispiro azri sulac araa mavne da iqneba, vinaidan Sen dakarguli geqneba Seni cxovrebis sazrisis
sagangaSo. sagangaSo swored isaa, rom aseTi azris mimcemi Rirebulebebi. aseT dros mSvidoba, rogorc omis
dafarulad arseboba aZnelebs dialogs. azris Riad gamo- gamoricxva, imis sasargeblod muSaobs, vinc wagarTva
Rirebulebebi. ...mSvidoba udidesi Rirebulebaa mxolod maSin,
32
ix. vladimer feodorovi, ` ~, #18, 1999, gv. roca flob Sens Rirebulebebs... mSvidoba problemebis gareSe,
214. ilias azriT (lelT Runias sityvebiT), micvalebulis mSvidobaa:
33
feodorovi vladimeri... gv. 214 carieli mSvidoba miwaSic meyofis-o".