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A Seminar Report submitted in partial fulfillment of

the requirements for the award of the degree of







Gowdavelli ,Medchal road,RR District.

Storage is already a vital part of enterprise IT infrastructure and IP Telephony Storage is

a leading technology for cost-effective and easily-deployable network storage. With the
increased adoption of open standards-based architecture by the enterprise telephony
market as well as the Central Office telecom industry, IP Telephony Storage (using
Network Attached Storage) will gain acceptance as an entry-level storage tool and a
viable low-cost alternative to expensive Fibre Channel SANs.
IP Telephony Storage enables a variety of storage extensions to enterprise telephony
applications and special use servers by seamlessly integrating into a site’s network
infrastructure and providing a dedicated network path for redundant and scalable storage.
IP Telephony Storage products are administered over the network with web-based tools
designed to allow remote management of the appliance from practically any client with
the proper security credentials.

Key benefits of NAS:-

• IP Telephony Storage reduces the cost of storage while increasing scalability to
higher capacities

• Adds flexibility by supporting most network protocols and

• Provides data management features required for remote administration.

These characteristics align the IP Telephony Storage appliance with storage needs
common to the enterprise environment. Thus, telecom storage creates a vertical market
for IP Telephony Storage as a telephony data solution.

Network-attached storage (NAS) is file-level computer data storage connected to a

computer network providing data access to heterogeneous clients. As of 2010[update]
NAS devices are gaining popularity, as a convenient method of sharing files among
multiple computers. Potential benefits of network-attached storage, compared to file
servers, include faster data access, easier administration, and simple configuration.

NAS systems are networked appliances which contain one or more hard drives, often
arranged into logical, redundant storage containers or RAID arrays. Network-attached
storage removes the responsibility of file serving from other servers on the network. They
typically provide access to files using network file sharing protocols such as
NFS(Network File System), SMB(Server Message Block), or AFP(Apple Filling

Networked storage reduces

wasted capacity, the time to
deploy new storage, and backup
inconveniences; it also simplifies
management, increases data
availability, and enables the
sharing of data among clients.

IP Telephony Storage uses an IP interface management layer on top of a set of physical

disks; a computer with one or more network interfaces; a Redundant Array of
Independent Discs (RAID) controller; and software that allows remote
access,maintenance and administration of all components, and the data volume for a
classic network fileserver application. (See Figure A: IP Telephony Storage Architecture)
The physical disks can be ATA, SATA, SCSI or iSCSI (FC drives are usually confined to
a Storage Area Network or SAN devices). Embedded within the IP Telephony Storage
platform is a RAID Host Bus Adapter(HBA) that can initialize and maintain once or
more RAID volumes using the physical disks.
Figure A: IP Telephony Storage Architecture:-

The storage resources of an IP Telephony Storage device are accessed via network
volume shares and clients through the Network File System (NFS) protocol for
UNIX/Linux clients or Common Internet File System (CIFS) protocol for Windows
clients, which are run over IP.

The key management and usability features of an IP Telephony Storage device are
essential to successful integration into the enterprise telephony application network:-

• Self-contained and PISUOS: Pre-installed special use operating system ready to

use out of the box. Most IP Telephony Storage products require a few simple
steps to attach to most networks and provide user access to the IP Telephony
Storage volume.

• Pre-configured remote management interface supported by multiple web browsers

and/or proprietary Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs).

• RAID Storage Management: Manage the creation and administration of the RAID

• IP Telephony Storage Computer Management: Manage the physical IP Telephony

Storage components such as the hard drives, NIC, HBA, etc.

• Volume Management: Create and manage volumes on the RAID array.

• Quotas Management: Manage the amount of volume storage space a specific user
or group can consume.

• Directory Management: Create and manage a volume’s directory structure.

• OS Update: Upgrade the IP Telephony Storage server’s operating system.

• Disaster Recovery: Prepare for and recover from remote server failure by backing
up to or restoring from server configuration and volume-specific image files. The
IP Telephony Storage itself can use snapshots to capture the local volume’s file
system at a point in time, and to back up a volume’s Access Control List (The list
that controls access to directories and files) and quota settings as part of a disaster
recovery strategy.

• Antivirus Management: Manage integrated antivirus application for data stored on

the IP Telephony Storage.

• Host File Management: Add or remove servers/clients from the hosts file.

• Remote Shutdown or Reboot: Restart or power down the IP Telephony Storage


• IP Telephony Storage Network Management: Configure the network settings of

the IP Telephony Storage such as the DHCP client, static IP address, Subnet
Mask, Default Gateway, DNS servers, Domain Name, WINS Servers, Ethernet
interface duplex speed and network bonding (standalone, failover, load

The key availability feature of IP Telephony Storage:

• The volume and the IP Telephony Storage O/S will reside on a Redundant Array
of Independent Discs, which increases reliability.

The key security and access control features of an IP Telephony Storage device:

• Share Management: Manage shares to control access to different segments of a

volume’s directory structure.

• Administration Password: Password protected login to IP Telephony Storage

administration utilities.

• Share Access: Set up share security by assigning users and groups access rights.
• User Management: Add, delete, and edit user profiles.

• Group Management: Add, delete, and edit group profiles.

• Windows/UNIX/Linux Authentication: Configure authentication for

servers/clients from UNIX NIS networks,

• Windows domains, and Active Directory.

• Secure HTTP Access: Enable/disable requirement for secure HTTP access.


IP Telephony Storage storage requirements for open telecommunications

enterprise applications have steadily increased over the past few years. With
Unified Messaging, Call Recording, Communications Server Backup, Disaster
Recovery and Logging, combined with classic fileserver storage the need for cost
effective, easy-to-use and flexible network storage is at a


There are a variety of telephony applications that could utilize an IP Telephony

Storage device. Some of the more prominent are:
• Call Recording: Most call center applications have provisions for
recording phone conversations. Depending on the level, or existence, of
voice compression used to record the call to file as well as the amount of
voice data being recorded, the necessity for high-capacity storage that is
easily accessible by servers and clients is apparent. Some servers may be
specifically designed for recording and may use maximum compression
and high-capacity local storage for a large number of users continuously
and simultaneously recording (100+ users) and would not need an
additional storage device. However, the cost of a recorder server is high
and many companies do not need this level of voice file storage. IP
Telephony Storage is a good fit in cases where telephony applications
servers do not provide enough local capacity to handle the voice data
storage. Below is a chart that describes the average storage requirements
of call recording applications:

Voice codes Recording rate Size of 10 minute

recorded voice
G.711 64Kbps 4.69MB
ADPCM 32Kbps 2.34MB
GSM6.1 13.2Kbps 0.97MB
Uncompressed voice (G.711) can quickly use up available storage on the host
telephony application server drive. By adding IP Telephony Storage to the
telephony application server network design, the storage, management,

and retrieval of uncompressed voice data is greatly improved

• Error-Logging: Call center applications and other telephony servers use

error reporting and logging in a variety of ways. Many times
troubleshooting telephony application problems with call routing, ISDN,
DNIS and ANI, and voicemail require some type of utility that logs
various aspects of the call function. The volume of logs depends on call
volume and the application but in some cases, full error logging can take
up over 10 GB of file space per day. By directing the logs to the device IP
Telephony Storage, the issue of the host server drive capacity can be

• Disaster Recovery: The open telecommunications server is not just a

computer system; it is a critical service provider. Traditional tape backup
solutions may not be able to restore a server to full functionality in a
timely or cost-effective fashion. Near-line storage solutions, where backup
data is stored on inexpensive drive arrays until a full tape backup is
scheduled, are timelier but still require additional single-use equipment.
Using IP Telephony Storage and a backup application, you can create a
snapshot of the system, which can then be stored on and restored from the
IP Telephony Storage.
This makes the IP Telephony Storage an invaluable asset to an
environment where there is a telephony application server. Using an
imaging application to create a snapshot of the complete filesystem
(including the operating system, applications and all associated files), the
IP Telephony Storage device can be used for backup, management, or
restoration of these images. For a typical drive with full-featured
telephony application installed, the compressed backup image will be from
2 GB to 4 GB in size. If multiple snapshots are needed as part of a
comprehensive disaster recovery policy, the local host drive will not be
sufficient in size to hold multiple images. Additionally, the best practice
would be to store the recovery images on a drive other than the host
telephony application drive in case of physical or mechanical failure of all
drive media in the host server. Backing up the images onto the IP
Telephony Storage, with its RAID storage array and easy network access,
is the perfect complement to any disaster recovery policy of a telephony
server application.

• File server: In addition to telephony applications, local call center agents,

LAN administrators and remote Internet users can be given access to the
storage volume for voice mail, fax and email retrieval, as well as other,
more traditional file server storage. All of these applications for the IP
Telephony Storage require only that the IP Telephony Storage be added
to the network and some basic administration occurs for the shared
storage, security and permissions, and minor configuration of the
telephony application server itself. (See Figure B: IP Telephony Storage
Network Design)
Figure B: IP Telephony Storage Network Design:

Sites employing open standards telephony architectures do so usually because of the

platform’s flexibility, reliability, and lower total cost of ownership. This thinking extends
into all areas of the enterprise network – especially network storage.
Implementing a IP Telephony Storage into a network with an enterprise telephony
application will require much less management overhead than trying to add additional
storage and file sharing functionality to an existing special-use telephony platform.
There is also the fact that creating a dual use for the telephony server will reduce the
reliability of the service it provides and may also impact performance. The typical
available storage for an open telecommunications server is between 73 GB and 146 GB.
This amount may be enough for most small enterprise logging and recording but if the
requirement for additional storage exceeds 300 GB, then the cost of adding the storage
locally can be cost prohibitive. The cost to add a 700GB+ to a locally attached SCSI
RAID storage device to an open communications server is much higher and less
manageable and scalable than adding a IP Telephony Storage of the same capacity.

Here is a general cost comparison: *

• 2U External Hot Swap SCSI cabinet with seven 146 GB SCA U320 hard drives
(~730 GB RAID 5) and a U320

• Single Channel RAID controller = $10.27 per Gigabyte of storage.

• 1U IP Telephony Storage with four 250 GB ATA drives (~750 GB) = $6.93 per
Gigabyte of storage.

(*Source: Retail cost of leading manufacturer’s models of external JBOD and RAID
controller verses the retail cost of a leading manufacturer’s model of a IP Telephony
Storage appliance)
In this case, adding local attached SCSI RAID is ~67% more expensive than adding IP
Telephony Storage of similar capacity. It should also be pointed out that there would be
increased administration and maintenance of the telephony server if it also must support
the additional storage device. The cost of adding a dedicated standard file server to the
network to provide this storage may be more in line with the IP Telephony Storage, but
the administration requirements to install, configure and maintain the sever will be much
greater with a stand-alone fileserver than with a IP Telephony Storage.

Technology innovations continue to enhance IP Telephony Storage performance

scalability, flexibility, and ease of management. More content and data are becoming
digital and require file serving and storing capability. Faster networks will promote more
use of networked storage to replace desktop PC storage for much-easier storage
administration. Networking technology advances and deployment may accelerate the
separation of storage and server components of IP Telephony Storage.By 2008, the total
revenue for external NAS appliances are expected to be $1.8 billion with over 300,000
Terabytes shipped. IP Telephony Storage/NAS and SAN will be the dominant forms of
enterprise data storage, and telecom application servers that run in the enterprise network
will undoubtedly utilize this type of storage technology in many locations. (See Figure
C:External NAS Market Trends)
Figure C: IP External NAS Market Trends:-
Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004* 2005* 2006* 2007* 2008*
1444. 1510. 1309.2 1206. 1317.6 1460.1 1582.59 1702.18 1817.30
385 749 8 618 6 2 1 8 2
Total revenue
149. 4.6 9. 10 8. 7. 6.
6% % -13.3% -7.8% 2% .8% 4% 6% 8%
Growth in
year (%)
13045. 27852 48739. 62367 86753.9 121396. 167487. 229324 308565.
88 .26 71 .79 6 5 6 .2 5
396.1 113.5 7 28 39. 3 36. 34.
% % 5% % 1% 9.9% 38% 9% 6%
Growth in
621 7 7 7 9 1 11 13
67 9363 4946 9724 84649 4171 04737 7112 0630
NAS units

133.1 27.7 -5.6 6.4 6.2 11.2 11.2 11.8 11.5

Growth in
209. 350.9 650.33 782.2 1024.8 12 1599.12 1958.15 2362.1
8522 477 1 963 65 89.11 9 8 28

per unit
11 67.2 85.3 20.3 31 2 20.6
2.8% % % % % 5.8% 24% 22.5% %
Growth of
per unit
27.992 60.13 98.102 111.5 138.544 170.111 209.310 257.712 311.411
09 23 71 387 8 9 9 1 5
per hard

7 114.8 1 2
7.4% % 63.1% 3.7% 24.2% 22.8% 23% 23.1% 0.8%
Growth in
per hard


Network Attached Storage – NAS is a disc storage device that utilizes IP as the I/O
interface to a shared network volume.

NFS – Network File System is a stateless (non file-locking) network protocol used
primarily in UNIX and Linux networks.

CIFS – Common Internet File System is an enhanced version of Microsoft’s Server

Message Block (SMB) protocol. It is file locking, state controlled protocol that is used in
many different networks including Windows.

G.711 – A voice codec that is the international standard for encoding telephone audio on
a 64 kbps channel. It is a Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) scheme operating at an 8 kHz
sample rate, with 8 bits per sample.

ADPCM - Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation is a group of codecs that

differentiate between the actual speech signal and a predictive speech signal and use
adaptive prediction and quantization to increase voice compression and playback
performance. Intel Dialogic uses ADPCM for vox filetypes.

GSM 06.10 – Global System for Mobile Communication is an adaptive multi-rate speech
codec for the digital cellular telecommunications system, which allows efficient
compression of voice data. It uses RPE/LTP (residual pulse excitation/long term
prediction) coding to compress frames of 160 13-bit samples (8 kHz sampling rate, i.e. a
frame rate of 50 Hz) into 260bits.

Codec - An abbreviation of coder/decoder, a codec is a generally a piece of software that

is capable of encoding or decoding a data stream or signal.

HBA – Host Bus Adapter is a device on the host computer that controls other media
devices on a communication bus.

SAN – A high speed Storage Area Network that generally uses Fibre Channel as the
communication I/O.

SCSI – Small Computer System Interface is a parallel bus I/O for high-performance disk
drives and peripherals.

iSCSI - Internet SCSI is an IP-based implementation of SCSI that delivers SCSI

commands over IP networks.

Fibre Channel – FC is a high-speed, high-bandwidth serial bus I/O using optical fiber to
connect devices such as HBAs, switches, and storage devices.

SATA – Serial ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment) is serial bus I/O that replaces
Parallel ATA as the standard for desktop and entry-level server storage media.

NAS is useful for more than just general centralized storage provided to client computers
in environments with large amounts of data. NAS can enable simpler and lower cost
systems such as load-balancing and fault-tolerant email and web server systems by
providing storage services. The potential emerging market for NAS is the consumer
market where there is a large amount of multi-media data. Such consumer market
appliances are now commonly available. Unlike their rackmounted counterparts, they are
generally packaged in smaller form factors. The price of NAS appliances has plummeted
in recent years, offering flexible network-based storage to the home consumer market for
little more than the cost of a regular USB or FireWire external hard disk. Many of these
home consumer devices are built around ARM, PowerPC or MIPS processors running an
embedded Linux operating system.

A clustered NAS is a NAS that is using a distributed file system running simultaneously
on multiple servers. The key difference between a clustered and traditional NAS is the
ability to distribute (e.g. stripe) data and metadata across the cluster nodes or storage
devices. Clustered NAS, like a traditional one, still provides unified access to the files
from any of the cluster nodes, unrelated to the actual location of the data.


IP Telephony Storage should be considered a prime component for any enterprise

telephony application network design that requires 300 GB+ of storage beyond what is
available on the local host server. Storage systems are becoming the dominant investment
in corporate data centers and a crucial asset in e-commerce, making the rate of growth of
storage a strategic business problem and a major business opportunity for storage
vendors. In order to satisfy user needs, storage systems should consolidate resources,
deploy quickly, be centrally managed, be highly available, and allow data sharing. It
should also be possible to distribute them over global distances, make them secure
against external and internal abuse, and scale their performance with capacity. Putting
storage in specialized systems and accessing it from clients across a network provides
significant advantages for users. Moreover, the most apparent difference between the
NAS and SAN versions of network storage—use of Ethernet in NAS and Fibre Channel
in SAN—is not a core difference and may soon not even be a recognizable difference.
Instead, we may have NAS servers that look like disks, disks that connect to and operate
on Ethernet, arrays of disk bricks that, as far as the user is concerned, function as one big
disk, and arrays of smart disks that verify every command against the rights of individual

Network Attached Storage

Scalable Platform with Advanced RAID Subsystem
Intel Corporation
IP Telephony and the Interaction Center Platform ®David Fuller
Interactive Intelligence