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Б А К А Л А В Р И А Т

Т.Ю. Полякова, Л.В. Комарова

Английский язык
в транспортной логистике

Рекомендовано
УМО по образованию в области лингвистики
Министерства образования и науки Российской Федерации
в качестве учебного пособия для студентов,
обучающихся по специальности 080506 «Логистика»

КНОРУС • МОСКВА • 2014


УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ.я73
П54
Рецензенты:
Н.В. Авдевич, старший преподаватель кафедры лексикологии английского языка
Московского государственного лингвистического университета (МГЛУ), канд.
филол. наук,
Т.В. Кожевникова, заведующая кафедрой иностранных языков Московского техни-
ческого университета связи и информатики (МТУСИ), канд. пед. наук, доц.

Полякова Т.Ю.
П54 Английский язык в транспортной логистике : учебное пособие /
Т.Ю. Полякова, Л.В. Комарова. — М. : КНОРУС, 2014. — 240 c. — (Бака-
лавриат).
ISBN 978-5-406-03238-1
Основная цель пособия — подготовить студентов бакалавриата технических
вузов по профилю «Логистика и управление цепями поставок» к использованию
английского языка в их будущей профессиональной деятельности. В соответствии
с Примерной программой по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» для подготовки
бакалавров (неязыковые вузы) пособие направлено на овладение студентами лек-
сикой, используемой в сфере логистических операций, а также на формирование
навыков и умений говорения, аудирования, чтения и письма.
Соответствует Федеральному государственному образовательному стандарту
высшего профессионального образования третьего поколения.
Для студентов технических вузов, специализирующихся в области логистики
и международных транспортных операций, а также для всех интересующихся пробле‑
мами логистики.
УДК 811.111(075.8)
ББК 81.2Англ.я73
Полякова Татьяна Юрьевна
Комарова Людмила Викторовна
Английский язык в транспортной логистике
Сертификат соответствия № РОСС RU. АЕ51. Н 16509 от 18.06.2013.
Изд. № 6549. Подписано в печать 08.11.2013. Формат 60×90/16.
Гарнитура «Newton». Печать офсетная.
Усл. печ. л. 15,0. Уч.-изд. л. 10,2. Тираж 1000 экз. Заказ №
ООО «КноРус».
127015, Москва, ул. Новодмитровская, д. 5а, стр. 1.
Тел.: 8-495-741-46-28.
E-mail: office@knorus.ru http://www.knorus.ru
Отпечатано в филиале «Чеховский Печатный Двор»
ОАО «Первая Образцовая типография».
142300, Московская область, г. Чехов, ул. Полиграфистов, д. 1.

© Полякова Т.Ю., Комарова Л.В., 2014


ISBN 978-5-406-03238-1 © ООО «КноРус», 2014
CONTENTS

Предисловие для студентов............................................................................... 4

Предисловие для преподавателей..................................................................... 7

Introductory Text ................................................................................................ 12

Unit 1. ROAD TRANSPORT.............................................................................. 13

Unit 2. RAIL TRANSPORT................................................................................ 37

Unit 3. MARITIME TRANSPORT..................................................................... 60

Unit 4. INTERMODAL TRANSPORT............................................................... 85

Unit 5. LOGISTICS ...........................................................................................108

Unit 6. WAREHOUSE TERMINALS AND CUSTOMS......................................134

Unit 7. CONTRACTS...........................................................................................163

Unit 8. TRANSPORT AND LAW.........................................................................194

English-Russian Dictionary...................................................................................221
Предисловие для студентов

Мы живем в эпоху стремительно развивающихся международ-


ных связей, определяющихся в значительной степени глобализа-
цией экономики. Логистические отделы многих компаний одними
из первых чувствуют происходящие изменения. Нередко комплек-
тующие для конкретного производства, расположенного в провин-
циальном городке одной страны, поступают из разных стран и могут
отправляться для сбыта на другой континент. Специалистам в обла-
сти логистики необходимо уметь разговаривать на английском языке
по телефону, вести деловую переписку с зарубежными партнерами,
читать информационные материалы, разбираться в тонкостях кон-
трактов на иностранном языке, т.е. они должны быть подготовлены
к осуществлению определенных профессиональных обязанностей
на английском языке как языке международного общения. Именно
этому вы сможете научиться, обучаясь английскому языку по пред-
лагаемому пособию.
Пособие состоит из предисловия для студентов, предисловия
для преподавателей, введения (Introductory Text), восьми уроков-
тем (Units) и англо-русского словаря (English-Russian Dictionary).
Introductory Text дает общее представление о предмете «Логисти-
ка», в дальнейшем конкретизируемое в темах, которым посвящены
уроки пособия.
Каждый из уроков-тем содержит следующие разделы: Introducing
New Information («Введение новой информации»), Developing Reading
Technique («Развитие техники чтения»), Learning New Words («Заучи-
вание новых слов»), Reviewing Grammar («Повторение грамматики»),
Learning to Listen and Speak («Обучение слушанию и говорению»),
Learning to Write («Обучение письму»), Learning to Read and Analyse
(«Обучение чтению и анализу»), Vocabulary (Словарь). Названия
этих разделов отражают основные аспекты вашей будущей работы
над английским языком.
Раздел Introducing New Information представлен тематическим
текстом. Хотя пособие не является учебником по логистике, тексты
этого раздела с одной стороны знакомят вас с отдельными сторона-

4
ми логистической деятельности, а с другой — дают возможность ос-
воить необходимые для будущей работы слова и термины.
Раздел Developing Reading Technique представлен упражнением,
выполнение которого предполагает предварительное чтение текстов
преподавателем. Необходимость и важность его выполнения опре-
деляется тем, что скорость чтения про себя и скорость переработки
извлекаемой информации в значительной степени зависят от того,
насколько доведены до автоматизма навыки чтения вслух.
Раздел Learning New Words направлен на закрепление новых слов
и терминов.
Раздел Reviewing Grammar содержит упражнения, выполнение
которых позволит повторить изученную ранее грамматику, правиль-
но оформлять предложения на английском языке при устном обще-
нии и понимать сложные предложения в письменных текстах. Если
вы чувствуете пробел в знаниях по грамматике, вы можете обратить-
ся к учебнику «Английский язык для инженеров» или какому-либо
грамматическому справочнику.
Раздел Learning to Listen and Speak представлен диалогом партне-
ров, который очень часто проходит в форме телефонного разговора.
Поскольку в устной речи чрезвычайно важно понимать собеседни-
ка, то выполнение первого и второго заданий всегда связано с про-
слушиванием диалога. Последующая отработка чтения вслух гото-
вит вас к использованию фрагментов диалога и к самостоятельному
ведению беседы для достижения поставленной цели.
Раздел Learning to Write посвящен ведению деловой переписки.
Вы не только получите возможность познакомиться с образцами де-
ловой корреспонденции, но и научитесь самостоятельно составлять
письма в соответствии с поставленной задачей.
Раздел Learning to Read and Analyse содержит несколько текстов.
Вы сможете по-разному применять имеющиеся у вас умения читать
в зависимости от стоящей перед вами задачи. Вы увидите, что даже
очень короткое письменное сообщение может заключать большое
количество важной информации. Три текста в конце этого раздела
расширят ваше представление о будущей специальности. В процес-
се работы над ними вам предлагается написать реферат или сделать
устное сообщение. В случае необходимости дополнительную инфор-
мацию по составлению рефератов и подготовке докладов вы можете
найти в учебнике «Английский язык для инженеров» либо в другом
источнике.

5
Раздел Vocabulary содержит необходимую для работы с конкрет-
ным уроком-темой лексику. Сначала в нем представлена лексика
из текста раздела Introducing New Information и диалога раздела Learning
to Listen and Speak. Эти слова предназначены для заучивания. Особое
внимание следует обратить на сочетаемость новых слов с другими
словами, употребляемые с ними предлоги и т.д., что сделает вашу уст-
ную речь грамотной и точной. Здесь же вы найдете слова, которые по-
могут вам в чтении текстов из раздела Learning to Read and Analyse. Они
предназначены не столько для использования в устной речи, сколько
для их узнавания и понимания их значений в письменных текстах.
В конце пособия имеется «Англо-русский словарь» (English‑Russian
Dictionary), в котором представлены слова из всех разделов Vocabulary
в алфавитном порядке с транскрипцией. Поскольку слова и терми-
ны, включенные в пособие, относятся к довольно новому научному
и практическому направлению человеческой деятельности, извест-
ному как «Логистика», некоторые из них еще не нашли отражения
в словарях. Их знание даст вам возможность знакомиться с различ-
ными публикациями в области логистики.
Мы надеемся, что работа с пособием будет интересной, а навы-
ки и умения, приобретенные в результате этой работы, позволят вам
использовать английский язык в будущей профессиональной дея-
тельности.
Успехов вам!

6
Предисловие для преподавателей

Настоящее пособие предназначено для обучения английскому


языку студентов бакалавриата технических вузов по сравнительно
новой специальности «Логистика». Оно может быть использовано
для организации обязательного обучения по дисциплинам «Ино-
странный язык» и «Деловой иностранный язык», а также по дис-
циплинам вариативной части учебного плана. Материалы посо-
бия могут найти применение в процессе реализации магистерского
и аспирантского курсов по данному направлению либо при обуче-
нии студентов по профилю «Организация перевозок».
Основная цель пособия — подготовка обучающихся к исполь-
зованию английского языка как языка международного общения
в профессиональной деятельности. В соответствии с действующей
Примерной программой по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» для
подготовки бакалавров1 пособие направлено на формирование
и дальнейшее развитие межкультурной профессионально ориенти-
рованной компетенции и предусматривает овладение обучающими-
ся умениями чтения, говорения, аудирования и письма с ориента-
цией на будущую логистическую деятельность.
В области обучения чтению, которое продолжает оставаться од-
ной из основных конечных целей обучения, ставится задача даль-
нейшего развития четырех видов чтения: изучающего, поискового,
просмотрового и ознакомительного. В качестве учебного материала
используются современные аутентичные тексты, имеющие непо-
средственное отношение к специальности «Логистика». Эти тексты
представляют собой образцы журнальных и газетных статей, реклам-
ных сообщений, деловой корреспонденции, контрактов. В соответ-
ствии с проведенным нами исследованием потребностей инженеров
в области использования иностранного языка в профессиональной
деятельности чтение деловых писем и контрактов занимает значи-
тельное место в их работе2.
1
Примерная программа по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» для подготовки бака-
лавров (неязыковые вузы). М. : ИПК МГЛУ «Рема», 2011.
2
Полякова Т.Ю. Иностранный язык в профессиональной деятельности инженеров //
Вестник Московского автомобильно-дорожного института (государственного технического
университета). Вып. 7. М. : МАДИ (ГТУ), 2006.

7
Важной задачей пособия является обучение устной речи. Име-
ются задания, обеспечивающие дальнейшую практику в аудирова-
нии, а также направленные на формирование умений монологиче-
ской и диалогической речи. При этом большое внимание уделяется
развитию умений ведения разговоров по телефону, поскольку, как
показало вышеуказанное исследование потребностей специалистов,
общение, опосредованное телефоном, является одним из наиболее
востребованных для специалистов технического профиля.
В области обучения письму авторы ставили задачу подгото-
вить обучаемых к написанию деловых писем, резюме и рефератов
статей.
Пособие рассчитано на 160 часов работы в аудитории, однако
его структура и содержание позволяют использовать учебный ма-
териал достаточно гибко в зависимости от уровня языковой подго-
товки обучающихся и целей рабочей программы, принятой в кон-
кретном вузе.

Структура пособия
Настоящее пособие, которое может быть дополнено аудиопри-
ложением, состоит из предисловия для студентов, предисловия для
преподавателей, содержащего методические указания по работе
с пособием, введения (Introductory Text), восьми уроков-тем (Units)
и англо-русского словаря (English-Russian Dictionary).
Во введении представлен один текст, предназначенный для чте-
ния. В нем вводится и объясняется содержание понятия «логисти-
ка», раскрываются ее составляющие и их роль в современной эко-
номике. Цель этого текста — ввести обучаемых в профессионально
ориентированную проблематику учебного материала, сделать его
доступным для понимания в случае, если они еще не приступили
к изучению специальных дисциплин. Кроме того, предложенные
в этом разделе задания позволяют преподавателю познакомиться
со студентами учебной группы и получить представление об уровне
их коммуникативной компетенции.
Уроки-темы посвящены ключевым вопросам логистики: уни-
модальным перевозкам (Road Transport, Rail Transport, Maritime
Transport), интермодальным перевозкам (Intermodal Transport), об-
щим проблемам логистики (Logistics), складированию и таможне
(Warehouse Terminals and Customs), логистической документации
(Contracts, Transport and Law).

8
Структура урока-темы
Каждый урок-тема состоит из девяти разделов: Introducing
New Information, Developing Reading Technique, Learning New Words,
Reviewing Grammar, Learning to Listen and Speak, Learning to Write,
Learning to Read and Analyse, Vocabulary. Выделение данных разделов
отражает в целом последовательность работы с учебным материа-
лом, а также основную направленность каждого из разделов. В то
же время в них имеются задания, предполагающие взаимосвязанное
развитие различных видов речевой деятельности.
Раздел Introducing New Information вводит основную информацию
урока-темы. Содержание текста ориентировано на будущую спе-
циальность. Владение этой информацией необходимо для работы
с остальным учебным материалом. Понимание содержания текста
доступно студентам, не приступившим к изучению специальных
дисциплин.
С лингвистической точки зрения текст построен на изученных
грамматических явлениях. Новые слова и термины, предназначен-
ные для активного владения, выделены полужирным шрифтом. Вы-
полнение задания к тексту предполагает использование ознакоми-
тельного чтения.
Раздел Developing Reading Technique был введен, принимая во вни-
мание большое значение чтения вслух для развития умений чтения и
говорения. Он построен на первом тексте урока-темы. Выполнение
трех заданий этого раздела предназначено для самостоятельной до-
машней работы студентов. Представляется важным указание при-
близительного времени чтения текста вслух, так как скорость чтения
является косвенным показателем автоматизации навыков чтения.
Работа над новыми словами и терминами представлена в разделе
Learning New Words. В первом задании студентам предлагается найти
в первом тексте выделенные слова и попытаться определить их зна-
чения, опираясь на контекст. Этот этап работы направлен на раз-
витие языковой догадки, что является очень важным для будущей
деятельности бакалавров.
Проверка определенных значений по словарю в конце урока-
темы обеспечивает правильность понимания и знакомство с до-
полнительной лингвистической информацией. Следует обратить
внимание студентов на сочетаемость новых слов с другими словами
и предлогами. Предлагаемые в этом разделе упражнения направ-

9
лены на закрепление новых слов. В группах с хорошей языковой
подготовкой студентов в упражнении на перевод словосочетаний
из текста может быть предложено задание объяснить значение сло-
восочетаний на английском языке. Последнее в этой серии упраж-
нение на перевод словосочетаний с русского языка на английский
может быть использовано для контроля или самоконтроля.
Раздел Reviewing Grammar посвящен повторению грамматиче-
ских явлений, изученных студентами ранее в рамках базового курса.
В упражнениях этого раздела повторяются образование и употре-
бление личных и неличных форм глагола, словообразовательные
модели, столь важные для расширения потенциального словаря об-
учаемых. Большое внимание уделяется использованию предлогов и
артиклей. Неправильное использование артиклей, по мнению ис-
следователей, является одной из основных и трудно искореняемых
ошибок при обучении устной речи на английском языке. Общая на-
правленность этого раздела — подготовка обучаемых к правильному
использованию грамматических явлений в продуктивных видах ре-
чевой деятельности: говорении и письме. Помимо объяснений пре-
подавателя, для выполнения этих упражнений студенты могут ис-
пользовать учебник «Английский язык для инженеров»1 и учебное
пособие «Существительное и артикль»2, а также другие грамматиче-
ские справочники.
Раздел Learning to Listen and Speak направлен на развитие навы-
ков и умений устной речи. Основу этого раздела составляет образец
диалога профессионального характера. Диалог может быть пред-
ставлен в записи в аудиоприложении. Все слова, предназначенные
для активного владения, выделены шрифтом.
Первое задание этого раздела предполагает слушание текста, чи-
таемого преподавателем. Цель первого слушания — общее понима-
ние текста. Повторное слушание выполняется с целью извлечения
конкретной информации.
Поэтапное выполнение упражнений, следующих за двумя зада-
ниями на прослушивание, должно постепенно подготовить обуча-
емых к использованию фрагментов диалога в речи. Завершающий
этап работы обеспечивает использование сформированных навыков
и умений в новой ситуации, в некоторой степени аналогичной ситу-
1
Полякова Т.Ю., Синявская Е.В., Тынкова О.И., Улановская Э.С. Английский язык для
инженеров. М. : Высшая школа, 2007.
2
Полякова Т.Ю., Панова С.С. Существительное и артикль. М. : Высшая школа, 2003.

10
ации диалога-образца. В коммуникативном задании формулируют-
ся цель и мотив высказывания участников диалога.
Раздел Learning to Write готовит обучаемых к чтению и состав-
лению деловой корреспонденции. В коммуникативных ситуациях
представлены образцы аутентичных писем, а ситуация позволяет
сформулировать цель, мотив и дополнительные обстоятельства чте-
ния и письма. Некоторые упражнения этого раздела требуют ис-
пользования извлекаемой из писем информации в монологической
и диалогической речи. При недостатке учебного времени они могут
быть пропущены.
Раздел Learning to Read and Analyse содержит несколько разных
по жанру аутентичных текстов. Тексты лишь в некоторых случаях
подвергались сокращению и незначительной адаптации. Они на-
правлены на развитие навыков и умений просмотрового, ознако-
мительного, изучающего и поискового видов чтения, что обеспечи-
вается сопровождающими тексты заданиями. При необходимости
для решения особых методических задач преподавателем могут быть
предложены дополнительные задания к трем последним текстам,
включая задания на устный и письменный перевод. При желании для
детального анализа преподавателем может быть выбран один из этих
текстов в соответствии с интересами обучаемых и уровнем их языко-
вой подготовки. Имеющиеся в пособии задания к этим текстам тре-
буют составления реферата, развернутого плана одного из текстов,
выбранного с учетом интересов обучаемого, а также подготовки до-
клада. Возможность выбора текста для использования в дальнейшей
работе обучаемого, предложение дополнительного текста и заданий
способствуют хорошему усвоению материала студентами и позволя-
ют осуществить индивидуальный подход к обучению.
Рекомендации по составлению рефератов и докладов могут быть
получены студентами от преподавателя либо найдены в учебнике
«Английский язык для инженеров».
Vocabulary включает слова и термины из разделов Introducing New
Information и Learning to Listen and Speak, предназначенные для актив-
ного владения, а также слова и термины из раздела Learning to Read
and Analyse, облегчающие понимание текстов для чтения и предна-
значенные для их узнавания в тексте.

11
INTRODUCTORY TEXT
Market economy has brought a lot of new business terms into the Rus-
sian language. Логистика (logistics) is one of them.
The word ‘logistics’ dates from the ancient Greek logos – ‘ratio, word,
calculation, reason’ and was used in ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine
empires to denote the military’s need to supply themselves with arms, am-
munition and rations as they moved from their base to a forward position.
With increasing development of trade and economy, it started to be
used in business too. Moving raw materials to manufacturers and then
finished goods to customers used to be a simple job for men with strong
backs and little education. Today more than ever before senior manage-
ment of a firm is concerned about improving transportation management
and logistics as transportation represents a major expense item and freight
transportation accounts for about 6 per cent of gross domestic product
of a country.
The goal of transportation is to ensure that all raw materials arrive at the
factory at the proper time and in good condition. To achieve that it is nec-
essary to focus on improvements of operations that lead to a better service
at the lowest cost. Transportation managers are also involved in many other
operations. They assist marketing by quoting freight rates for salespeople,
suggesting quantity discounts that can be based on transportation savings
and selecting carriers and routes for reliable delivery of products.
The meaning of logistics is expanding. Now we speak about inbound,
internal, outbound logistics, transport logistics, strategic logistics, ware-
housing logistics, integrated logistics etc. According to the Council of Lo-
gistics Management, now one of the world’s prominent organizations for
logistics professionals, ‘logistics is that part of the supply chain process
that plans, implements and controls the efficient, effective forward and
reverse flow and storage of goods, services and related information be-
tween the point of origin and the point of consumption in order to meet
customers’ requirements’. As transport logistics is a major factor in the
supply chain process, the authors of this book have paid much attention
to modes of transport, transport companies’ operations as well as to some
other activities related to customs clearance, warehousing and safe delivery
of goods to final destinations.

12
Unit 1
ROAD TRANSPORT

INTRODUCING NEW INFORMATION


Ex. 1. A. Read the text and find 2—3 sentences that express the main idea.

ROAD TRANSPORT
Rusavto as international road carrier has been operating in the world
market of transportation and forwarding services since 1968.
It is a major transport company which deals with first-class partners
throughout Europe, Asia, and the Middle East and carries out large orders
of about 2 million tons every year. For the last few years international car-
riage of goods has considerably increased. The volume of transported cargoes
is growing, new routes appear, and the range of goods is becoming wider.
In the European market of transport services the Company closely co-
operates with more than a hundred international transport and forwarding
firms.
The Company has an up-to-date fleet about 3,500 motor vehicles with
a carrying capacity of 20 to 30 tons and a body volume of 60 to 103 cu.m.
which are capable of carrying any cargoes, including those requiring certain
temperature conditions, containers, large-size and bulky cargoes. More
than half the trucks are the products of such well-known manufactur-
ers as Mercedes-Benz, Volvo etc. Among the imported semi-trailers are
Trailor, Schmitz, and Koegel. All these vehicles satisfy the international
requirements regarding technical reliability, safety of goods, and ecological
standards. The vehicles of Rusavto meet the requirements of international
transportation by road and are used on the routes of the CIS and Europe.
The Company transports large consignments on the door-to-door
principle. It also handles small consignments of less than 5 tons at their ter-
minals in Moscow, St. Petersburg, and other places, stores them in ware-
houses, makes customs clearance and delivers groupage cargo to the final
destination.

13
B. Reread the text and say if the statements below are true or false. Correct
the false statements.
1. Rusavto carries very small consignments to Germany.
2. Rusavto trucks do not meet the requirements of international trans-
portation regarding ecological standards.
3. They have been operating in the international market since 1988.
4. The Rusavto fleet of vehicles is about 3,500 trucks and semi-trailers.
5. Rusavto has terminals throughout Russia and the CIS.
6. Frozen chicken does not require temperature conditions during
carriage.
7. Rusavto buys new vehicles from American manufacturers.
8. Rusavto does not make customs clearance.
C. Look through the text again and say what was mentioned in the text
about
a) road transport of goods;
b) the Rusavto fleet of vehicles;
c) the transport services Rusavto offers their clients.

DEVELOPING READING TECHNIQUE


Ex. 2. A. Listen to the text Road Transport and follow it with your eyes.
B. Listen to the text again and repeat it sentence by sentence.
C. Read the text aloud. Approximate time of reading is 1.5 min.

LEARNING NEW WORDS


Ex. 3. A. Find the words in bold type and try to guess their it meaning. Check
up the translation of the words in the Vocabulary (p. 33). Write them out
in your vocabulary.
B. Write down all the words unknown to you in your vocabulary.

Ex. 4. Explain the meaning of the following phrases within the text:
1) to operate a terminal;
2) to deal with first-class partners;
3) to satisfy the requirements;
4) to handle large consignments;
5) to deliver goods to the final destination;

14
6) to be capable of carrying containers;
7) to satisfy ecological standards;
8) to transport goods on door-to-door principle;
9) an international road carrier;
10) the market of transport and forwarding services;
11) an up-to-date fleet of vehicles;
12) cargo requiring certain temperature conditions.
Ex. 5. Match these verbs and noun phrases and translate the expressions they
make into Russian:
to require bulky cargo
to operate temperature conditions
to deal with large orders
to be capable of groupage cargo
to include carriage of goods
to increase warehouses
to handle a fleet of vehicles
to store large consignments
to carry out goods
Ex. 6. Fill in the gaps with the words given below. Change the form of the words
if necessary.
to compete, competition, competitive, competitor (or rival)
Two or more companies which sell or manufacture the same product
are _________. They are in _________, and they _________ for cus-
tomers. In order to sell more goods than its _________, a company must
be _________. It is important to keep ahead of the _________ by selling
at _________ prices.

Ex. 7. Complete the sentences choosing the right word and changing its form
if necessary.
1. She’s busy now. She’s (work, operate) on the report for the confer-
ence.
2. Since when have you been (work, operate) for this forwarding com-
pany?
3. The new service (work, operate) on Saturdays from London to Tel
Aviv and returns next week via Italy.
4. They (work, operate) a fleet of old aeroplanes which need mod-
ernization.

15
5. A new air-cargo terminal started (work, operate) last week.
6. This machine (work, operate) perfectly.
7. Balkan Cargo (work, operate) in the Russian market for five years
and among other planes (work, operate) one Antey plane.
Ex. 8. Check yourself. Give the English equivalents of the following Russian
word combinations:
1) работать на рынке транспортных услуг;
2) выполнять большие заказы;
3) работать с первокласcными партнерами;
4) значительно увеличить международные перевозки грузов;
5) объем и ассортимент перевозимых грузов;
6) сотрудничать со многими транспортными и экспедиторски-
ми фирмами;
7) современный парк машин грузоподъемностью...;
8) способный перевозить любой груз;
9) продукция широко известных производителей;
10) отвечать мировым стандартам;
11) обрабатывать большие партии грузов и мелкопартионные
грузы;
12) брать на хранение;
13) выполнять таможенную очистку;
14) перевозить обратный груз к месту назначения.

REVIEWING GRAMMAR
Ex. 9. Study the table.
The Tenses of the Verb in the Active Voice
Indefinite/ Continuous/ Perfect Perfect Continuous
Simple Progressive
Formula V to be + V-ing to have+ V-ed to have been + V-ing
(IV ф. гл.) (III ф. гл.) (IV ф. гл.)

} }
Present ask am have asked have been asking
asks (3-е л. ед. ч.) is asking has
are
Past asked (II ф. гл.) was
were } asking
had asked had been asking

}
} } have asked } have been asking
Future shall (1-е л. ед. ч.) shall shall shall
ask
will (все лица) be asking will will
will

16
Ex. 10. A. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the usage
of different tenses of the verb.
1. We did a deal with Mitsubishi last year.
2. Mercedes-Benz always supply spare parts to their customers as soon
as they require them.
3. We’ve got enough trucks in stock at the moment and can dispatch
them immediately.
4. They have been operating in the world market for a number of years.
5. International carriage of goods is increasing from year to year.
6. Unfortunately we don’t make customs clearance.
7. They cooperated with many European carriers three years ago.
8. We can carry both groupage cargoes and large consignments to the
final destination.
9. We used containers on that route.
10. They stored the whole consignment in their warehouse at the Ros-
tov terminal.
B. Make questions to which the above sentences may be the answers.

Ex. 11. Complete the sentences putting the verbs in the correct tense.
1. They (sell) trucks for a number of years. They (sell) more than
500 units last month.
2. When they (set up) the new forwarding company? — They (not,
set) it up yet, but the new company (start) operating in two weeks
because a few new routes (appear) lately.
3. This is a high-quality product. It always (meet) the requirements
of the customers.
4. The volume of carriages in Russia (increase) greatly for the last few
years.
5. Brown & Co. (run) a transport business last year too. They (oper-
ate) in the world market since 1996. Now they (cooperate) with two
French forwarders.
6. If you (place) an order now, we (deliver) the goods by the end of this
month.
7. Rusavto (carry) dangerous cargo to different countries for five years.
8. If you (handle) five trucks a week, we (sign) a service contract.
9. The driver (talk) on the phone while I (fill in) the Customs Decla-
ration.
10. What (ensure) safety of the goods during transportation?

17
Ex. 12. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Несколько лет назад на российском рынке начали работать
более 200 новых фирм.
2. Новый маршрут позволит фирме работать более эффек-
тивно.
3. С какими странами мира работает фирма Danzas?
4. Где ты сейчас работаешь? — На выставке.
5. Он работает в торговле уже два года.
6. Я работаю секретарем, и мне нравится моя работа.
7. «Британские авиалинии» впервые осуществили перевозку
грузов в Японию в 1974 году.
Ex. 13. Put in prepositions where necessary.
1. How many trucks do you have ___ stock ___ the moment? We are
carrying ___ large orders and want to buy two more trucks ___ im-
mediate delivery.
2. Could you call ___ later? The president is talking ___ our French
agent.
3. — What is the price ___ your semi-trailer?
— As you are our regular buyer who we have been dealing ___ ___
many years, we can offer you a lower price.
4. — Does our price suit ___ you?
— I’m afraid it’s not quite competitive as compared ___ the prices
___ world market.
5. We heard ___ their firm ___ the exhibition ___ Paris. They offered
transportation ___ the door-to-door basis.
6. We’ll place an order ___ your firm ___ 50 two-axle semi-trailers if
the price suits ___us.
7. FinnTruck Ltd has a fleet ___ 700 vehicles ___ carrying capacity
___ 38 and more tons.
8. — How long have you been cooperating ___ this Swedish com-
pany?
— ___ five years.
— I like their approach ___ business. We’re going to discuss a new
deal ___ them ___ one ___ these days.
9. The Cronos Group deals ___ refrigerated semi-trailers. Their
products have always been ___ high quality and met ___ the re-
quirements ___ their customers.

18
10. — When could you deliver the spare parts ___ us? We need them
urgently.
— We’ll be able to dispatch ___ them as soon as you supply us ___
all required documentation.
Ex. 14. Put in articles where necessary.
1. We have received ___ fax message about ___ Containers Model
ST-5 and would like to advise you that we could place ___ order
with you for 50 containers if you could offer us ___ complete con-
tainer for ___ period of three months for ___ test as we agreed dur-
ing ___ talks in Moscow. We are expecting ___ contract from you
within ___ few days.
2. They need ___ trucks of ___ high capacity.
3. ___ carrying capacity of ___ Koegel trucks is much higher than
___ capacity of your trucks.
4. ___ terms of ___ delivery are ___ same as under ___ previous con-
tract.
5. During ___ talks they will discuss ___ prices, ___ conditions
of ___ carriage and ___ other matters.
6. If __ machine breaks down during __ guarantee period, we’ll repair
it free of ___ charge.
7. ___ forwarding company transports ___ large consignments of ___
goods to ___ final destination.
8. ___ first consignment of ___ spare parts will arrive at ___ port
in ___ month.
9. Do ___ Russian trucks meet ___ international requirements re-
garding ___ ecological standards?
10. ___ ecological standards regarding noise are becoming higher.
Ex. 15. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Кто обещал им поставить полуприцепы к концу года?
2. Если он предложит нам оборудование по более низкой цене,
мы разместим заказ на 100 машин.
3. Эта экспедиторская фирма использует свой подвижной со-
став на новых маршрутах.
4. Мы бы хотели просмотреть инструкции по уходу и эксплуа-
тации.
5. Ему казалось, что растаможивание груза не займет так много
времени.
6. За последнее время число продаваемых машин возросло.

19
7. Данный тягач обладает большой мощностью и отвечает евро-
пейским экологическим стандартам.
8. — Сколько машин с грузом вы обрабатываете ежедневно?
— Наш терминал не очень большой; вчера, например, мы
обработали 30 машин.

LEARNING TO listen and SPEAK


Ex. 16. A. Listen to the conversation and say what it is about:
a) buying spare parts;
b) selling trucks;
c) buying and selling trucks.

MEETING WITH A POTENTIAL CUSTOMER


Jack Evans, Sales Manager of Truck Motor Ltd, is talking to a Russian
businessman, who is visiting the factory.
Evans: When we set up this visit, Mr. Ivanov, I forgot to ask you how you
heard about us. Did you see our goods on display at the London
exhibition?
Ivanov: No, it was nothing like that, actually. I saw your trucks when
I was visiting a terminal in Spain. They were operating very ef-
ficiently, even though they were over ten years old.
Evans: That’s because we offer a good after-sales service. We always
promise to get spare parts to customers as fast as possible.
Ivanov: I like to hear that. So often, suppliers just don’t want to know as
soon as one of their machines breaks down.
Evans: It’s not the way we run our business. When we sell our goods,
we offer a complete package: a high-quality product, competi-
tive price, two-year guarantee, reliable after-sales service. . . and,
of course, a good service manual — one that the customer can un-
derstand easily.
Ivanov: I’m impressed by your approach to business. We’ll probably do
a deal while I’m here.
Evans: Ah, that sounds interesting.
Ivanov: It’s possible I’ll place an order for your PX5 model.
Evans: Good.
Ivanov: If I did, could you dispatch, say, four or five immediately?
Evans: Yes. We’ve got plenty in stock at the moment. No problem.

20
Ivanov: I’d like to call my office first and talk to some of my colleagues.
If they agree, we could discuss the deal tomorrow.
Evans: Great. That suits me fine.
B. Listen to the conversation again and say if the statements below are true
or false. Correct the false statements.
1. Mr Ivanov saw the trucks at the exhibition in Osaka.
2. The trucks were brand new.
3. Ivanov was going to do a deal with Truck Motor Ltd when he came
to Moscow.
4. Truck Motor Ltd could dispatch the goods immediately.
5. Ivanov wanted to come back to the matter in a day or two.
C. Listen to the conversation and repeat it sentence by sentence.
D. Rearrange the conversation. If you have difficulty, translate the sen-
tences into Russian.
Ivanov: I’m impressed by your approach to business. We’ll probably
do a deal while I’m here.
Ivanov: I like to hear that. So often, suppliers just don’t want to know
as soon as one of their machines breaks down.
Evans: Ah, that sounds interesting.
Evans: When we set up this visit, Mr Ivanov, I forgot to ask you how you
heard about us. Did you see our goods on display at the London
exhibition?
Ivanov: No, it was nothing like that, actually. I saw your trucks when
I was visiting a terminal in Spain. They were operating very ef-
ficiently, even though they were over ten years old.
Evans: That’s because we offer a good after-sales service. We always
promise to get spare parts to customers as fast as possible.
Evans: It’s not the way we run our business. When we sell our goods,
we offer a complete package: a high-quality product, competi-
tive price, two-year guarantee, reliable after-sales service. . . and,
of course, a good service manual — one that the customer can
understand easily.
E. Complete the conversation.
Ivanov: Mr Evans, how did you hear about us? Did you see our goods
on display at the exhibition in Osaka?
Evans : No, I saw your trucks when _____________________________

21
Ivanov: What did you think of them?
Evans: _________________________________________________
Ivanov: How old were they?
Evans: _________________________________________________
Ivanov: _________________________________________________
Ex. 17. Have a conversation with your partner using the information below.
Your suppliers of spare parts have let you down. They did not deliver
spare parts on time. It’s not the first time they’ve broken their obligations.
Explain to your new supplier the urgency of having spare parts for your
trucks. Ask them what after-sales package they can offer and then discuss
your future order with them.

LEARNING TO WRITE
Ex. 18. A. You work for a transport company carrying goods throughout Eu-
rope. Read the following letter sent to your company, explain to your
boss in Russian what the letter is about and ask him if the information
is of interest to your company. If yes, enumerate the points that are most
important to you.
Dear Sirs,
We have received your letter of the 1st of June regarding Road Service
Russia/UK and vice versa.
We offer to run a joint service from Moscow to London and from London
to Moscow in cooperation with you starting with operations on once‑a-
week basis each way.
We are ready to send a loaded trailer to you and receive a loaded trailer
from you with either a full load for one consignee or groupage cargo for
a number of consignees.
Trailer turn round time in the UK will be about three days.
It is, of course, necessary to estimate together the operation costs for both
parties. In our opinion there are great possibilities for both companies
to operate a very successful service.
We shall be pleased to discuss the matter in detail with you at any time
convenient to you.
Anthony Smith
Managing Director
Green & Co. Ltd

22
B. Write a reply to Green & Co. Mention the following:
a) your interest in cooperation;
b) your wish to invite their representative to discuss details concerning
cooperation;
c) your considerations about operation costs, volume of cargo to be
transported both ways and the time of dispatching the first consign-
ments.

LEARNING TO READ AND ANALYSE


Ex. 19. A. Read the advertisement and say who it is intended for:
a) companies dealing with transportation;
b) individuals;
c) companies importing or exporting goods from Europe;
d) companies importing or exporting goods from Asia;
e) companies importing or exporting goods from America.

EXPRESS EXPRESS
<<<<<<<<<<<< >>>>>>>>>>>
MARTINI EUROSPEED
EUROPEAN EXPRESS
EXPRESS DELIVERIES
IN EUROPE
All destinations The dedicated
Dedicated vehicle operator
Transits to 17 tons to express your freight
with confidence
TIME „„ vans — 17 tonners
IS „„ door-to-door
ON OUR „„ U.K. — Scandinavia — Poland
SIDE „„ all of Europe — U.K.
Any time, „„ 24 hours
Any place,
Anywhere
Tel. 0151 545 0515 Tel. 0151 245 4143
Fax. 0151 545 0520 Fax. 0151 245 4140

Notes:
express delivery прямые поставки
dedicated cпециализирующийся на одной области деятельно-
сти, на одном направлении

23
B. Read the advertisement again and answer the questions.
1. What types of vehicles do the companies have?
2. What routes do they operate on?
3. What cargo can they transport?
4. Which of the two firms would you contact to transport your cargo?
Why?
C. You represent Eurospeed. Describe the services of your firm to a po-
tential customer.

Ex. 20. Read the text and say whether it is


a) an advertisement;
b) a passage from a textbook;
c) an encyclopedia article;
d) a newspaper article.

German forwarder InterSchen and Swedish BTL are going to set up


one of the biggest transport firms in Europe. The two companies have
a combined turnover of more than $4 billion with a workforce of around
20,000 in 30 European countries. BTL chief executive Hakan Larson said
the company had studied ways of expanding its land transport over the last
months. He said: “In InterSchen we have found a partner that shares our
values and views on the market coverage, large-scale operation, and long-
term business development.” He also added that job cuts would take place
as a result of this deal.

B. Read the text again and answer the questions.


1. What is the combined turnover of the two companies?
2. What is their workforce?
3. Why will job cuts take place?

C. You are Hakan Larsen of BTL. Speak about the joint venture and
changes the company is going to make.

Ex. 21. Get ready to make a presentation at the annual conference on Interna-
tional Transport and Logistics to be held in St. Petersburg on the 3rd
of June 20… Read the texts given below and decide what topic of your
presentation will be. Make a plan of your presentation and prepare a
report according to the plan.

24
From the History of Road Transport
Part I
People have long used truck-like vehicles to transport goods, though
before mechanical engines they were often drawn by pack animals or hu-
mans. But as civilizations have advanced, the need for better, more power-
ful methods of transportation has evolved alongside the evolution of socie-
ty. Improved vehicles require better means of movement, just as improved
roads and movement among places has allowed for the development
of better vehicles. Trucks of all kinds occupy the roads, from semi-trucks
carrying mega payloads across major highways to stylish Studebaker per-
sonal truck models from the middle of the 20th century being carefully
maintained by classic truck enthusiasts. The trucks of today fulfill many job
descriptions, but their usage is solidly defined in the human consciousness:
a truck is not mistaken for any other type of vehicle. From its early use as
“a cart for carrying heavy loads” to the modern “motor vehicle for carrying
heavy loads,” the word “truck” definitively embodies the idea of moving
goods — but the idea has come a long way.
Dictionary.com

The Early Days of Trucking


Before the advent of advanced transmissions and gear drives for inter-
nal combustion engines, trucking was slow to establish its niche even as
railroads were limited to rail interaction among city centers. While there
were hundreds of truck manufacturers in the United States in the early
20th century, those that survived (including Mack, Peterbilt, Chevrolet,
and International) were able to adapt to meet the ever-expanding and
changing needs of the trucking industry. Drivers frequently started their
own trucking companies. Companies with multiple drivers or company-
specific fleets handled transportation of commodities among cities with
gradually increasing ranges, corresponding to the evolution of the truck.
The first major trucking boom occurred during the prosperous postwar
1920s. Not only were roads constantly improving and reaching more plac-
es, but “balloon tires” replaced the solid rubber tires, and bigger trucks
with closed cabs helped companies travel farther, carry more, and do so
with greater comfort.
A number of trucking companies went bankrupt during the Depression,
but those who survived got a boost. In 1935, Congress entered the picture by
passing the Motor Carrier Act, which authorized the Interstate Commerce

25
Commission to regulate the trucking industry. Since World War I, road
transport had shown great potential, and rail tariffs were easily undercut by
numerous emerging trucking companies competing in the open market.
The Motor Carrier Act established freight-hauling rate regulations,
limited the number of hours that truckers were allowed to drive, and over-
saw trucking company’s range as well as the type of freight they could car-
ry. Trucking companies were concerned regulations would override their
competitive advantages over rail carriers. But road infrastructures improved
with driver demand, opening up opportunity for trucking traffic. Railroad
transportation of both people and goods diminished with the rise of the au-
tomobile, and much of the rail infrastructure, particularly in America, has
been steadily dismantled over the course of the 20th century.

The Age of the Automobile


In the United States, the authorization of the Interstate Highway Sys-
tem in 1956 allowed the trucking industry to burst full-force into the scene.
At the same time, however, the 40s and the 50s saw the rise of the auto-
mobile in conjunction with one of America’s major population shifts from
the city to the suburb. Truck manufacturers experienced a boom during the
war as defense contracts encouraged big truck and heavy-duty vehicle pro-
duction on behalf of the war effort. For the most part, standard automo-
bile production halted during the war, so products that emerged following
it were repackaged versions of cars from before the war. Innovative new
personal truck designs, however, were direct offshoots of war efforts, and
fresh, modern pickups began hitting the market before new car models.
The postwar era of truck production was the beginning of intense
competition among these Detroit truck makers (especially between Ford
and Chevrolet) that has persisted to the present day. Only now, however,
American trucks compete with quality entries from foreign competitors
who have gradually won over a large share of the market, particularly with
vehicles that have proven themselves reliable and, of special concern, more
fuel-efficient.
Part II
In the commercial trucking industry, new engine designs with a fo-
cus on performance emerged after World War II. Direct-injection turbo-
charged diesel engines that became a standard emerged during the 1950s,
in large part thanks to the work of Volvo in Sweden. Engine manufacturers
such as the U.S. Cummins and British Perkins companies began heavily

26
supplying the market with diesel engines through the 1960s as the trucking
industry began its conversion from standard gasoline. Truck transmissions
evolved with improved highways around the world. Trucks were being built
for longer distances, higher speeds, and heavier loads. One significant ex-
ample from the 1960s was the construction of the Asian highway, which
helped link the Middle East, India, Afghanistan, and the Far East. This
initial inter-Asia development spurred later construction linking Western
Europe with Asia. Meanwhile, the American trucking industry initially led
the way in air suspension technology though the European industry quickly
followed suit. Other innovations such as multi-axle vehicles and articulat-
ed semi-truck designs were developed to deal with new types of payloads,
most importantly that of freight container shipping (Gibbins 1978).
Malcom McLean started the McLean Trucking Company with one
truck in 1937, the way many entrepreneurs did. But McLean not only built
a trucking empire of some 1,700 trucks and 32 terminals across the United
States, but he also spearheaded the transportation industry that created the
global marketplace: container shipping. McLean first pitched his idea to the
railroad industry, with whom he was in direct domestic competition. Other
companies and the U.S. military had broached the idea of standardized con-
tainer shipping, but McLean made it ubiquitous. He acquired an oil tanker
business, then obtained a major loan to acquire the Waterman Steamship
Corporation, which controlled docking and related ship facilities.
At the warning of the Interstate Commerce Commission, McLean un-
loaded his trucking industry to focus solely on shipping. After developing
standard-sized steel truck containers (that could be fixed to a trailer chassis
for use on the road), McLean launched his first container ship on April 26,
1956. McLean’s idea almost instantly caught on as customers responded
to increased speed of service and lower rates, and that idea was born the
day he sat for hours in his sole truck in a line waiting for stevedores to break
down loads from the trucks and individually haul crates and bundles onto
the ships. The trucking industry began to take hold of the idea as did the
Port of New York Authority, which, as McLean eyed international ship-
ping, built the first container port in the world (Evans 2004). With domes-
tic ventures more easily connected to a global marketplace, trucking has
remained a vast industry into the 21st century.

The Rising Cost of Energy


Today, fuel remains readily available, but prices have become increas-
ingly prohibitive for vehicles with poor fuel economy.

27
Commercial industries and individuals who rely upon trucks have been
hit especially hard by the rising oil prices, which, in turn, have affected
everyone as transportation costs carry over into the cost of goods and ser-
vices. Truck manufacturers had responded to the energy crises of the 1970s
by developing more aerodynamic, more fuel-efficient trucks, and federal
deregulation of the industry in the 1980s created uniformity among state
laws that opened up the country to double-trailers and coast-to-coast car-
riers. But today’s energy crisis has made everyone uneasy, from small busi-
ness operators to major transportation conglomerates.
The trucks of tomorrow, from the pickup to the eighteen-wheeler, may
need to be powered by an existing alternative fuel — or by an energy source
not yet conceived. Mass transportation has been the catalyst of the modern
global economy. But without relatively inexpensive means of movement,
the transportation of commodities can be expected to experience signifi-
cant changes.
Posted July 14, 2008

References
Adams, Ronald G. 2000. 100 Years of Semi Trucks. Osceola, WI: MBI Publishing Com-
pany.
Evans, Harold. 2004. They Made America. New York, NY: Little, Brown and Com-
pany.
Gibbins, Eric and Graeme Ewens. 1978. The Pictorial History of Trucks. Secaucus, N.J.:
Orbis Publishing Limited.
Mueller, Mike. 1999. The American Pickup Truck. Osceola, WI: MBI Publishing Com-
pany.
Nelson, James. C. “The Motor Carrier Act of 1935”. The Journal of Political Econo-
my, Vol. 44, No. 4. (August 1936): 464—504.
Vlasic, Bill. “G.M. Shifts Focus to Small Cars in Sign of Sport Utility Demise”.
The New York Times. June 4, 2008. Retrieved June 10, 2008 from The New York
Times Website.

Road Transport Unions


FIATA
FIATA, in French “Fédération Internationale des Associations de
Transitaires et Assimilés”, in English “International Federation of Freight
Forwarders Associations”, in German “Internationale Föderation der

28
Spediteurorganisationen”, was founded in Vienna/Austria on May 31,
1926.
FIATA, a non-governmental organization, represents today an in-
dustry covering approximately 40,000 forwarding and logistics firms, also
known as the “Architects of Transport”, employing around 8—10 million
people in 150 countries.
It is  recognized as representing the freight-forwarding industry
by many other governmental organizations, governmental authorities, pri-
vate international organizations in the field of transport such as the Inter-
national Chamber of Commerce (ICC), the International Air Transport
Association (IATA), the International Union of Railways (UIC), the In-
ternational Road Transport Union (IRU), the World Customs Organiza-
tion (WCO), the World Trade Organization (WTO) etc.
In summary FIATA is the largest non-governmental organization
in the field of transportation. Its influence is worldwide.

Objectives
FIATA’s main objectives are:
„„ to unite the freight-forwarding industry worldwide;
„„ to represent, promote and protect the interests of the industry by
participating as advisors or experts in meetings of international bodies
dealing with transportation;
„„ to familiarize trade and industry and the public at large with the services
rendered by freight forwarders through the dissemination of information,
distribution of publications etc.;
„„ to improve the quality of services rendered by freight forwarders by
developing and promoting uniform forwarding documents, standard trading
conditions etc.;
„„ to assist with vocational training for freight forwarders, liability
insurance problems, tools for electronic commerce including electronic
data interchange (EDI) and barcode.

Best Practices Discussions


The following guidelines will be applied to any “best practices” discus-
sion.
All industry practices discussed should involve an attempt to reduce
costs, realize efficiency or improve the quality of service. Discussions
should be limited to what is reasonably necessary to accomplish these le-
gitimate goals.

29
As in other areas of FIATA activity, price and other competitively
sensitive terms of trade should not be discussed in the “best practices”
context. Specific present or future competitive plans and strategies of in-
dividual companies should not be discussed, nor should specific customer
information or specific companies’ costs.
In discussing “best practices”, no agreement should be reached to use
only a particular practice, to deal with suppliers or customers on particu-
lar terms, or to exclude a member or other competitor for using different
practice.
Prior to a “best practices” discussion, an agenda should be prepared
and any questions about whether a matter is appropriate for discussion
should be referred to counsel before inclusion on the agenda. Minutes
should be kept of all meetings at which “best practices” are discussed.
Should questions arise about the propriety of a “best practices” discussion,
the discussion should be discontinued until counsel can be consulted.

IRU
History and Mission
The International Road Transport Union (IRU) is the world road
transport organization which upholds the interests of bus, coach, taxi and
truck operators to ensure economic growth and prosperity via the sustain-
able mobility of people and goods by road worldwide.
History
The International Road Transport Union (IRU) was founded in Ge-
neva on 23 March 1948, one year after the United Nations Economic
Commission for Europe (UNECE), to expedite the reconstruction of war-
torn Europe through facilitated international trade by road transport.
The IRU started as a group of national road transport associations
from eight Western European countries: Belgium, Denmark, France, the
Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.
A global industry federation of national Member Associations and As-
sociate Members in 73 countries on the five continents, the IRU today
represents the interests of bus, coach, taxi and truck operators worldwide,
from large fleets to individual owner-operators.
As such, the IRU has a truly global vision and acts effectively at the in-
ternational, regional, national and even local level with public authorities
by implementing its motto, “Working together for a better future”.
The IRU, as the global voice of the road transport industry, works to-
wards achieving the twin goals of Sustainable Development and Facilita-

30
tion of road transport worldwide. However, the IRU is not merely an in-
dustry interest group but defends the interests of economy and society as
a whole.
Indeed, the road transport industry is the backbone of strong economies
and dynamic societies. It is therefore legitimate and indispensable to main-
tain a dialogue with all institutions and stakeholders that can impact the
sector’s future growth, innovation capacity and investment decisions,
in order to represent and safeguard an industry that is vital to economic
growth, social development and, ultimately, prosperity and which plays
a crucial role in everyone’s life by meeting the demand for the sustainable
mobility of both people and goods.
The IRU’s mission is therefore to facilitate road transport worldwide
and ensure its sustainable development, notably by using vocational training
to promote professional competence in the sector and improve the quality
of services it offers.
It defends customers’ freedom of choice between transport modes and
the equal regulatory treatment of all modes, and promotes cooperation
and complementarity with all other modes of transport.
The IRU is involved in activities which include, but are not limited to:
„„ partnership among all its active and associate members and with
related organizations and industries to define, develop and promote policies
of common interest;
„„ monitoring all activities, legislation, policies and events that impact
the road transport industry, responding to and cooperating with all actors
involved;
„„ strategic reflection on global challenges of energy, competition and
social responsibility, drawing on the strengths and expertise of its members
channeled through the IRU Commissions and Working Parties;
„„ dialogue with intergovernmental bodies, international organizations
and all other stakeholders concerned by the road transport industry,
including the public at large;
„„ cooperation with policy makers, legislators and opinion-makers,
in order to contribute to informed and effective legislation, striking the right
balance between the needs and interests of all;
„„ public-private partnerships with relevant authorities to implement legal
instruments such as the TIR Convention under UN mandate or concrete
transnational projects such as the reopening of the Silk Road;
„„ communication of the role and importance of the road transport
industry, of its position on various issues and of reliable data and information;

31
„„ provision of practical services and information to road transport
operators, such as the latest fuel prices, waiting times at borders, secure parking
areas, professional training, legislative developments, legal assistance etc.;
„„ training to promote professional competence in the sector, improve
the quality of services it offers and ensure compliance of road transport
training standards with international legislation, through the IRU Academy.

VOCABULARY
1. carry (v) перевозить
carry by road перевозить автомобильным транспортом
carry by rail перевозить железнодорожным транспортом
carry by air перевозить воздушным транспортом
carry by sea перевозить морским транспортом
We don’t carry many goods by rail now.
carrier (n) перевозчик
road carrier автомобильный перевозчик
rail carrier железнодорожный перевозчик
air carrier авиаперевозчик
sea carrier морской перевозчик
carriage (n) перевозка
Air carriage is very expensive.
carrying capacity грузоподъемность
сarry out (v) выполнять
2. considerably (adv) значительнo
3. operate (v) работать, действовать
The new manager will operate from his office in London.
operation (n) работа, эксплуатация (машин и оборудования)
I’d like to see this machine in operation.
operation instruction инструкция по эксплуатации и уходу
4. forwarding (adj) экспедиторский
forwarding company экспедиторская компания, фирма-экспедитор
syn. forwarder
They are one of the biggest forwarding companies in Europe.
5. deal with (v) вести дело, заниматься; ведать; рассматривать вопрос
They have been dealing with Sony for two years.
deal (n) сделка
It’s a good deal.
syn. transaction
6. increase (v) увеличивать(ся)
increase (n) увеличение

32
a 5% increase увеличение на 5%
The increase in sales is not big enough.
7. cargo (n) груз
groupage cargo сборный груз
What type of cargo do you carry?
8. route (n) маршрут
At the talks our partners offered a new route.
9. range (n) ассортимент; размах
The company produced a wide range of goods three years ago.
10. fleet (n) парк; флотилия
fleet of vehicles парк транспортных средств
fleet of trucks парк грузовых автомобилей
fleet of vessels флот
They are planning to increase their fleet of vessels.
The container fleet will increase to 50 units by the end of the year.
11. capable (adj) способный
He is not capable of using such methods.
12. include (v) включать
What does the price include?
13. requirement (n) требование
meet (satisfy) the requirements отвечать требованиям
Do our terms meet your requirements?
require (v) требовать
They require the goods in a month.
This cargo requires certain temperature conditions.
14. size cargo крупногабаритный груз
This forwarding firm doesn’t carry large-size cargo.
15. truck (n) тягач
We require trucks of high capacity.
trucking (n) перевозка грузов с использованием тягачей, автомобильные
перевозки
16. trailer (n) прицеп
semi-trailer полуприцеп
17. vehicle (n) автотранспортное средство; колесное транспортное средство
18. reliable (adj) надежный
reliability (n) надежность
19. safety (n) сохранность; безопасность
safe (adj) безопасный
safe transportation безопасная транспортировка
safe delivery безопасная доставка
They couldn’t guarantee safe delivery of the goods because of the situ-
ation in the country.
20. consignment (n) партия груза
They carried large consignments to the final destination.

33
consignor (n) грузоотправитель
consignee (n) грузополучатель
Put down the full name of the consignee here.
21. handle (v) обрабатывать (груз)
How much cargo can you handle?
handling (n) обработка
22. store (v) хранить, складировать
Where are the chemicals stored?
storage (n) складирование, хранение
You are responsible for storage.
23. warehouse (n) склад
They have their own warehouse where they can store more than
5,000 tons.
24. customs clearance таможенная очистка
Do you make customs clearance?
сustoms declaration таможенная декларация
25. clear (v) зд. растаможивать
26. destination (n) пункт назначения
final destination конечный пункт назначения
A forwarding company is a transport firm which delivers the goods
to the final destination.
27. set up (v) основывать, учреждать, организовывать
They set up a joint venture last year.
set up a visit договориться о встрече
28. efficiently (adv) эффективно
The manager worked very efficiently.
29. spare (adj) запасной
spare parts запасные части
They need spare parts for the new trucks.
syn. spares
30. customer (n) заказчик
We’ve got a lot of customers now.
31. supplier (n) поставщик
supply (n) предложение (товаров и услуг)
Do you know what D/S means? — Sure. Demand and supply.
supply (v) снабжать, поставлять
supply sb with sth
supply sth to sb
When could you supply the spare parts?
Who supplies you with spare parts?
32. break down ломать(ся)
The machine broke down because the operator didn’t follow the op-
eration instruction.
break-down (n) поломка

34
33. run (v) вести (дело)
He’s been running this shop since last year.
34. package (n) пакет, упаковка
complete package полный пакет
35. undertake (v) принимать обязательства
undertake to carry принимать обязательства по перевозке
undertake delivery принимать обязательства по доставке
The Buyers undertake to observe the Sellers’ Operation Instructions.
36. quality (n) качество
high quality высокое качество
low quality низкое качество
be of high (low) quality высокого (низкого) качества
Their goods have always been of high quality.
37. competitive (adj) конкурентоспособный
competition (n) конкуренция
competitor (n) конкурент
compete (v) конкурировать, соревноваться
Their prices are not quite competitive.
38. manual (n) руководство, справочник
service manual руководство по обслуживанию
39. approach (n) подход
I don’t quite like your approach to this matter.
approach (v) приближаться
The ship is approaching the port.
40. appropriate (adj) соответствующий, уместный
41. place (v) помещать, размещать
place under loading подавать под погрузку
We’ll place a truck under loading tomorrow at 9 o’clock.
place an order with sb for sth
They want to place an order with us.
42. dispatch (v) отправлять
When can you dispatch the first consignment?
dispatch (n) отправка
Please indicate the point of dispatch.
43. immediately (adv) немедленно
syn. promptly, urgently
We require five semi-trailers immediately.
44. stock (n) наличие (продукция, имеющаяся на складе), запас
The stock is limited at the moment.
have in stock иметь в наличии
We haven’t got so many refrigerators in stock.
45. regulation (n) постановление, распоряжение
When was the new regulation adopted?
regulate (v) регулировать, контролировать

35
46. comprise (v) включать, заключать в себе; составлять
47. sophisticated (adj) cложный, усложненный
48. inconsistency (n) несовместимость, несоoтветствие
49. ultimately (adv) в конце концов, в конечном итоге
50. hazardous (adj) рискованный, опасный
51. emphasize (v) подчеркивать
52. level out (v) растягивать на какой-либо поверхности
53. ascertain (v) устанавливать, выяснять
54. elaborate (v) детально, тщательно разрабатывать
55. enterprise (n) предприятие
56. appeal (v) взывать к кому-либо; апеллировать
57. implement (v) осуществлять, выполнять
implementation (n) осуществление, выполнение
58. adjust (v) приводить в порядок, улаживать; приспосабливать
59. prevail (v) превалировать
60. ensure (v) обеспечивать, гарантировать
61. bow (v) кланяться
62. forbid (v) (forbade, forbidden) запрещать
63. avoidance (n) избежание, уклонение
avoid (v) избегать, уклоняться
64. consequence (n) последствие
65. laud (v) хвалить, восхвалять, прославлять
66. assure (v) уверять, заверять
67. strive (v) (strove, striven) стараться, прилагать усилия
68. concede (v) уступать
69. entail (v) влечь за собой; вызывать
70. levy (v) взимать сбор, налог
71. proponent (n) защитник (политики, определенных мер)
72. shortfall (n) дефицит, недостача
73. deficiency (n) нехватка, дефицит
74. curtain (n) занавес
75. retraction (n) отказ, отмена
76. justify (v) оправдывать
77. exclusively (adv) исключительно
78. call for (v) призывать
79. lobbying (n) лоббирование
80. surcharge (n) доплата, дополнительный сбор
81. guide (v) направлять
82. emit (v) выделять (тепло, газы)
emission (n) выделение
83. bottleneck (n) узкий проход, проезд, место

36
Unit 2
RAIL TRANSPORT

INTRODUCING NEW INFORMATION


Ex. 1. A. Read the text and find 2—3 sentences that express the main idea.

RAIL FREIGHT COMPANIES


International Rail Freight is the grandfather of all inter-railway coop-
erative efforts in Europe, at least for intermodal traffic. It was established
in 1993 when two big rail companies, Rail Freight and Inter Freight, signed
an agreement of cooperation.
Rail Freight was founded in 1967 and is owned by 28 different railways.
Its head office is in Basle, but there are offices throughout Europe from
Lisbon to Moscow.
Inter Freight was founded in 1949 with the purpose of handling refrig-
erated rail traffic in conventional rail wagons. They have a fleet of 6,500
container wagons and handled 46,500 tonnes of temperature-controlled
consignments last year.
Although IRF operates trains mainly in Western Europe, a scheduled
service in Moscow and Turkey has been also introduced. They are planning
to start time-tabled trains for classic (non-container) wagon-loaded traffic.
A shuttle service to Barcelona is expected to go into operation soon.
IRF is cooperating in a number of joint ventures, a customer service
organization is being set up in Germany.
The Company’s main goal is to increase productivity by developing
train control system with special fleet control functions. They are also try-
ing to increase the capacity of their main routes by raising the axle loads
from 31 to 35 tonnes per axle. Steel wagons are being replaced by rapid-
discharge aluminium wagons. Automatic wagon identification points have
recently been installed in addition to hot box detectors. In close coopera-

37
tion with other big European rail operators they are working on a system
of freight “freeways” to reduce journey time and become fully competitive
both on price and services.
B. Reread the text and say if the statements below are true or false.
Correct the false statements.
1. Rail Freight is a state company with the head office in Berlin.
2. Rail Freight was established in 1993.
3. IRF operates in Western Europe and handles refrigerators only.
4. A scheduled service to Moscow will be introduced next year.
5. The main goal of the company is to increase its fleet.
6. The company has increased the axle load to 40 tons per axle.
7. Hot box detectors have recently been installed on all trains that run
on the route Barcelona — Moscow.
8. IRF are trying to reduce journey time by replacing steel wagons
with rapid-discharge aluminium wagons.
C. Look through the text again and say what was mentioned in the text
about
a) IRF and their business;
b) the IRF fleet of wagons;
c) the main goal of the Company.

DEVELOPING READING TECHNIQUE


Ex. 2. A. Listen to the text Rail Freight Companies and follow it with your eyes.
B. Listen to the text again and repeat it sentence by sentence.
C. Read the text aloud. Approximate time of reading is 1.5 min.

LEARNING NEW WORDS


Ex. 3. A. Find the words in bold type and try to guess their meaning. Check up
the translation of the words in the Vocabulary (p. 56). Write them out
in your vocabulary.
B. Write down all the words unknown to you in your vocabulary.
Ex. 4. Translate the following phrases within the text:
1) to introduce a shuttle service;
2) to handle refrigerated rail traffic;

38
3) to increase the capacity of the route;
4) to operate a scheduled service;
5) to reduce journey time;
6) to become competitive;
7) to replace a fleet control system.
Ex 5. Match these verbs and noun phrases and translate the expressions they
make into Russian:
to handle into operation
to go conventional railway wagons
to replace joint venture
to reduce productivity
to raise rapid-discharge wagons
to establish wagon identification points
to own delivery time
to install a railway
Ex. 6. Fill in the gaps with the words given below. Change the form of the words
if necessary.
to produce, products, production, productivity
A manufacturer (or a manufacturing company) _________ goods. The
goods it makes are its ________ . When a manufacturing company extends,
it usually increases its ________ . If one year it ________ 100 tonnes and
the next year it ___________ 110 tonnes, it has increased _________ by
10%. When a company invests in new equipment, its _________ is grow-
ing. Each company thinks of increasing its _________ .
Ex. 7. Make nouns from the verbs given below and insert them in the following
sentences.
Model: reduce — reduction
to own, to introduce, to replace, to produce, to handle, to install
1. Our partners agreed to deliver_____ by the end of the month.
2. The _____ of the new shuttle service to Moscow was suspended for
two months.
3. The _____ and the shareholders will hold a meeting in December.
4. Toyota is one of the main _____ of high-quality cars in the world.
5. If prices for oil go up, _____ costs will rise dramatically.
6. If _____ in a country increases and economy starts booming, peo-
ple get rewarding jobs, earn good money and want more _____ .

39
7. _____ of cargo at railway terminals sometimes take a lot of time.
8. The joint company had to invest heavily into the _____ of new hot
box detectors.

Ex. 8. Check yourself. Give the English equivalents of the following Russian
word combinations:
1) железнодорожные перевозки грузов;
2) установить новое оборудование;
3) создать совместное предприятие;
4) увеличить производительность;
5) ввести новый маршрут движения поездов по расписанию;
6) определить основную цель работы;
7) увеличить нагрузку на ось;
8) с целью обработки рефрижераторных составов;
9) подписать соглашение о сотрудничестве;
10) система идентификации вагонов;
11) выставить счет заказчику;
12) отгрузить заказ морем;
13) разместить твердый заказ на 100 детекторов у «Смит и Ко»;
14) предоставить 5%-ную скидку;
15) вести переговоры по заключению сделки;
16) назначить обоснованные цены.

REVIEWING GRAMMAR

Ex. 9. Study the table. Pay attention to the forms of the Passive Voice.
The Tenses of the Verb
in the Passive Voice

Indefinite/Simple Continuous/Progressive Perfect


Formula to be + V-ed to be + being + V-ed to have been + V-ed

} } }
Present am am have
is asked is being asked been asked
are are has
Past was
were
} asked was
were } being asked had been asked
Future shall
will
} be asked —
shall
will } have been asked

40
Ex. 10. Translate the sentences paying attention to the Passive Voice. Make
questions and negative statements.
1. Dangerous cargoes are carried in containers.
2. Scheduled services are being introduced now.
3. Their fleet of vehicles was increased last year.
4. The goods will be cleared at this terminal.
5. The French truck has just been loaded.
6. Russian trucks can be used on international routes.
7. The new model of truck will have been developed by 2015.
Ex. 11. Make sentences according to the models using the words and word com-
binations given as promts.
Model A: When were the goods handled?
Prompts: this groupage cargo, the container, consignment No. 19, this
semi-trailer, the German trucks, the frozen chicken.
Model B: Where will the truck be sent?
Prompts: the order (to place), the spare parts (to deliver), the deal (to make),
the colleague (to meet), the goods (to sell), the trucks (to buy).
Model C: The cargo has just been loaded, hasn’t it?
Prompts: the ship (to discharge), the visit (to set up), the machines (to sup-
ply), the best prices (to offer), good after-service (to promise).
Model D: They are impressed by the range of our products.
Prompts: the after-sales service, the low prices, the high quality of the
goods, the reliability of the machines, our approach to business,
the warehouse equipment.
Ex. 12. Make questions to which the following sentences may be the answers.
1. Most cargo in Russia is transported by rail. (How?)
2. When you make a deal with foreign partners, you usually ask them
to reduce the price which is offered. (What?)
3. The volume of cargo going through the Channel Tunnel will double­
over the next few years. (When?)
4. National railways in Europe will be privatized to meet the growing
market requirements of the European Community. (Why?)
5. Western freight forwarders wanted to cooperate with Russian rail.
(Who?)
6. Most wagons in Russian rail were replaced last year. (When?)

41
7. Up-to-date equipment has recently been installed at rail terminals
in the Moscow region. (Where?)
8. When customers are invoiced, two copies of Invoice are usually
written out. (How many?)
9. As a rule, good discounts are given to regular buyers. (Who?)
Ex. 13. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Наши прицепы продаются во многих странах Азии по вполне
конкурентоспособным ценам.
2. Вчера вам звонили несколько раз. Я просила перезвонить се-
годня утром.
3. Запасные части будут поставлены к концу недели.
4. Если появится новый маршрут, перевозки продуктов увели-
чатся в два раза.
5. — Машину уже загрузили?
— Нет еще. Мне кажется, загрузку закончат только к вечеру.
6. Сколько груза обрабатывает ваш терминал?
7. Таможенная очистка груза производится на этом терминале, да?
8. Большинство товаров, которые импортировались в нашу
страну, перевозилось автомобильным транспортом.
9. Подвижной состав фирмы Truck & Trailer не будет использо-
ваться на этом маршруте.
10. — Когда могут быть отправлены грузы по нашему заказу?
— Вы имеете в виду запасные части к полуприцепам? Они
только что были отправлены.

Ex. 14. Put in the verbs using the correct tense in the Active or Passive Voice.
1. When goods (carry) from one place to another, they (insure) with
an insurance company.
2. As we (not, give a discount), we (buy) trucks from Volvo last year.
3. The wagon (discharge) at the moment. When your trucks (arrive)
at the station?
4. Swiss railways (not, be able to carry) 4-metre high vehicles across
Switzerland until the construction of the new tunnels (complete).
5. What new freight service just (introduce) by their company?
6. When they (invoice) customers, CIF prices usually (quote) as they
(have) forwarding agents throughout Europe.
7. A new terminal (go into operation) last week, but the volume
of freight which we (handle) (not, reduce).

42
8. A German-Austrian joint venture (set up) recently to increase pro-
ductivity and reduce costs.
9. Many transport and forwarding companies in Russia (create) by
private investors who realize the importance of the development
of intermodal traffic.
10. Broken parts (replace) as soon as we (inform) of the breakage.
Ex. 15. Put in prepositions where necessary.
1. We have just introduced this service _____ the market and think we
can raise productivity _____ 5%.
2. A big concession was made _____ the Buyers as we realized that
their order was worth $ _____ _____ our company.
3. If you quote _____ CIF prices, we think we’ll be able to place
a bigger order _____ you.
4. A new route will go _____ operation next month _____ addition
_____ the shuttle service which was introduced _____ last year.
5. We’ll give you a 10% discount _____ the price if you increase your
order _____ 100 wagons.
6. The new hot box detectors were bought _____ the Italian manu-
facturers. They are _____ high quality and satisfy _____ the world
standards.
7. We were invoiced _____ the amount of $ _____ to be paid _____
the end _____ the month.
8. The company requires _____ 100 pallets _____ immediate delivery
and 100 more _____ three months.
9. If you don’t mind, this deal will be discussed _____ your manager
_____ the 2nd _____ February.
10. —What’s the purpose _____ your coming _____ Brusells?
— It’s a business trip. I was invited _____ Sky Cargo Ltd.
Ex. 16. Put in articles or possessive pronouns where necessary. Get ready to dis-
cuss the text.
_____ Britain is _____ only state in _____ European Union which ful-
ly privatized _____ rail service. _____ other states such as _____ Germa-
ny, _____Italy, _____ Sweden, and _____ Netherlands have _____ state
ownership of _____ railways though there was _____ decision of _____
E.U. to create _____ single competitive rail market in _____ Europe.
_____ main competitor for _____ rail is _____ road transport, but to at-
tract freight away from _____ roads _____rail industry _____ must invest

43
in _____ new projects. Traditionally, _____ British Rail Freight had left
_____ investments in _____ rolling stock and _____ terminals to _____
customers.
However, _____ new business approach is to provide _____ wagons
if and when _____ clients ask for them and to organize _____ collection
and _____ delivery from _____ rail head to _____ customer. _____ in-
terest in _____ rail freight has been historically minimal because _____
requirements of _____ price, _____ reliability, and _____ time were not
met. _____ rail is _____ alternative to _____ road, but this is more true
for _____ shuttle service than for _____ multi-drop stations.
There is _____ growing interest in _____ rail because _____ people’s
attitudes are changing but _____ rail has to stand up financially.

Notes:
ownership собственность
to create cоздавать
rolling stock подвижной состав
to provide обеспечивать
rail head железнодорожный терминал

Ex. 17. Translate the sentences into English.


1. Плата за перевозку грузов по железной дороге недавно значи-
тельно возросла. Железнодорожный транспорт в России при-
надлежит государству, которое последнее время проявляет
большой интерес к его развитию.
2. Интермодальные перевозки в Европе постоянно развивают-
ся. Каждый год создаются совместные транспортные пред-
приятия и возникают экспедиторские фирмы.
3. Во время гарантийного периода все неисправные детекторы
заменяются на новые бесплатно.
4. Если фирме предоставляется скидка, продавец надеется, что
заказ будет увеличен.
5. Будет несправедливо делать им уступку снова. В прошлый
раз мы организовали разгрузку в выходной день, хотя они
не оплатили грузчикам эту работу.
6. При перевозке любой груз непременно страхуется.
7. Вы можете назначить цену и выписать счет сразу же? Товар
нужен нам срочно.

44
8. Вы не возражаете, если счет будет выслан вам завтра?
9. — Ты думаешь, стоит поторговаться?
— Конечно. Продавец почти всегда делает скидку. Наша
цель — купить дешевле.
10. Новые вагоны поступили на российский рынок в прошлом
году. Они были куплены многими перевозчиками, так как их
грузоподъемность намного выше, чем у предыдущей модели.

LEARNING TO LISTEN AND SPEAK

Ex. 18. A. Listen to the telephone conversation and say what discount Mr Ivanov
received at the end of the talk: 2%, 2.5%, or 5%.

MAKING A DEAL
Mr Ivanov, a Russian businessman, is in England. He is visiting Brown
& Co. Ltd, a firm which manufactures electronic equipment. He is negoti-
ating a deal with Robert Smith, Sales Manager of the Company.

Ivanov: Mr Smith, we want to place a firm order for XBS3 Detectors.


Smith: Excellent. How many would you like to buy?
Ivanov: We’d like five for immediate delivery and 130 in two months time.
By the end of June, that is.
Smith: I see. That’s a very good order. I didn’t realize you were that
big. Well, you know, the price of the detector is $1,200 per unit.
That’s without freight and insurance. When we invoice the cus-
tomers, we usually quote FOB Southhampton. But perhaps you
prefer the goods to go by air?
Ivanov: No, air freight’s too expensive. They can go by sea. But if you
don’t mind, I’d like you to quote CIF St Petersburg.
Smith: All right, we can do it. You want us to quote for 135 XBS3 Detec-
tors, CIF St Petersburg, goods to be shipped by sea.
Ivanov: Correct. There’s one other thing. As this is a fairly big order, I was
wondering what sort of discount you could offer. Would 5% be
reasonable?
Smith: Oh, I don’t think we could go that high. As a special concession …
since you are a new customer, I could possibly give you 2% off the
price.

45
Ivanov: 2%? That’s not too much. This order will be worth over $.....
to your company.
Smith: Yes, I realize that.
Ivanov: And don’t forget, we may place orders for some of your other
models.
Smith: I tell you what. I don’t want to talk about it any longer. How
about 2.5%?
Ivanov: Oh, I suppose that’s fair enough. OK then, agreed.

B. Listen to the conversation again and say what you remember about
a) Brown and Co. Ltd and their products;
b) the order the Russian company was going to place with the British
company;
c) the discount Mr. Ivanov got from the manufacturers.
C. Listen to the conversation again and say if the statements below are true
or false. Correct the false statements.
1. Mr Ivanov is going to buy containers from the British company.
2. The price for the detectors includes freight and insurance.
3. Mr Ivanov prefers the goods to go by air.
4. Mr Smith quoted CIF St Petersburg.
5. Mr Ivanov didn’t ask for a discount.
6. Mr Smith offered Mr Ivanov a 10% discount.
7. The Russian company placed an order for 200 detectors.
D. Listen to the conversation and repeat it sentence by sentence.
E. Reorder the conversation. If you have difficulty, translate the sentences
into Russian.
Smith: I see. That’s a very good order. I didn’t realize you were that
big. Well, you know, the price of the detector is $1,200 per unit.
That’s without freight and insurance. When we invoice the cus-
tomers, we usually quote FOB Southhampton. But perhaps you
prefer the goods to go by air?
Smith: Excellent. How many would you like to buy?
Ivanov: Mr Smith, we want to place a firm order for XBS3 Detectors.
Smith: All right, we can do it. You want us to quote for 135 XBS3 Detec-
tors, CIF St Petersburg, goods to be shipped by sea.
Ivanov: No, air freight’s too expensive. They can go by sea. But if you
don’t mind, I’d like you to quote CIF St Petersburg.

46
Ivanov: We’d like five for immediate delivery and 130 in two months time.
By the end of June, that is.
F. Complete the conversation.
Ivanov: _________________________________________________
Smith: Oh, no. I don’t think we could go that high. As a special conces-
sion, since you are a new customer, I could possibly give you 2%
off the price.
Ivanov: _________________________________________________
Smith: But unfortunately our maximum discount is only 3%.
Ivanov: _________________________________________________
Smith: I tell you what. I don’t want to talk with you about it any longer.
How about 2.5%?
Ivanov: _________________________________________________
Ex. 19. Have a conversation with your partner using the information below.
You are a big road carrier in Russia, and you want to start international
operations in Germany and France, but as your trucks don’t meet the Eu-
ropean ecological standards, you have to buy five Volvo trucks to start op-
erations. Volvo trucks are rather expensive, and you want to get a discount
for your order for five trucks. Speak to a representative of Volvo and ask
him for a 10% discount. Tell him they can expect bigger orders from your
company in the future.

LEARNING TO WRITE
Ex. 20. A. You work for a big rail transport company. You have received a free
copy of International Freighting Weekly containing the following letter.
Your boss wants to know if it’s worth subscribing to the journal. Tell him
what the letter is about and recommend him to subscribe to the journal.

A Letter to the Editor


International Freighting Weekly
151 Roseberry Avenue,
London
15 December 20…
Dear Sir,
I am moved by Steve Winter’s viewpoint in IFW (December 15) and would
like to respond to it.

47
In the transport business, customers are making more and more demands
on their suppliers to improve quality and reduce costs. Our task is to be-
come more efficient and to achieve this goal, but the railways’ attitude
to service and pricing is quite different.
Channel Tunnel service levels have deteriorated to the point where one
of our customers has demanded we move his product by road. The level
of service is bad enough, but in addition to it the railways want a 4% in-
crease in their charges, which is neither moral nor deserved. They continue
to enjoy their monopoly position and ignore the real commercial problems.
I do not know any other industry where quality is allowed to suffer, yet
prices rise unchecked.

David Bull
Sales & Marketing Director
NDX

Notes:
to demand требовать
attitude отношение
level уровень
to deteriorate ухудшаться
charge плата
to deserve заслуживать
to suffer страдать

B. Read the letter again and answer the questions.


1. What service does NDX offer to their customers?
2. Why is the rail charge increased?
3. Is it possible to improve quality and reduce prices?
4. How can the situation in Channel Tunnel be changed?
5. Why is the writer annoyed?
C. You are the editor of International Freighting Weekly. Write a short let-
ter to David Bull and invite him to come to your office for an interview.
D. Role-play a telephone conversation between David Bull and the editor
of IFW who is inviting David to do an interview with their reporter.
E. Your boss has decided to subscribe to International Freighting Weekly.
Write a letter to them and make a subscription for the second half of the
year.

48
LEARNING TO READ AND ANALYSE
Ex. 21. A. Read the text and say whether it is
a) an advertisement;
b) a passage from a text-book;
c) an encyclopedia article;
d) a newspaper article.

The current optimism in the freight market has been encouraged by the
new Labour government. English Wales System (EWS) operation is worth
around 90 m tonnes per year and 7.5 m tonnes of this are petroleum and
chemical products. The company runs tank trains between ports and in-
land distribution terminals, carries a variety of liquids from various stages
in the production chain. Over the last few years EWS has been starting new
traffic flows and increasing the frequency of trains on the existing services.
As well as block trains, EWS attracts smaller customers which do not
want to contract a whole train. The Enterprise network serves around
200 locations across the country on both a direct and a hub-and-spoke
services and carries wagon, tank and container traffic.
EWS is adding new routs and “thickening” existing ones with a greater
frequency of service. They also invest in new designs for rolling stock and
track to make the UK rail infrastructure compatible with the Continent.
B. There are names of goods and types of vehicles in the article. Find them
and write them out.
Goods Vehicles

C. Say what you remember from the article about the EWS operations.

Ex. 22. A. Read the advertisement and say who it is intended for:
a) companies dealing with transportation;
b) individuals;
c) companies importing or exporting goods from Europe;
d) companies importing or exporting goods from Asia;
e) companies importing or exporting goods from America.
SeaRail offers an efficient and safe method of transporting goods by
rail between Russia and Scandinavia. In Russia the consignors load Rus-

49
sian wagons, and SeaRail takes care of the reloading in Finland to mod-
ern bogie changeable wagons. SeaRail delivers the goods to the consign-
ee in Sweden, Norway or Denmark via the trainferry m/s SeaWind. The
trainferry sails between Turku and Stockholm daily.
SeaRail has got about 300 wagons, can also offer collection/distribu-
tion by lorry for areas with no rail network. SeaRail also offers warehousing
services in Turku.
B. Read the advertisement again and answer the questions.
1. Why is the company called SeaRail?
2. Rail tracks are different in different countries, aren’t they?
3. What additional services do SeaRail offer?
C. You work for a transport company in Russia. You want to find new part-
ners in Norway. You have read the SeaRail advertisement. Write a letter
to them asking for detailed information about their company.

D. You represent a transport company. Describe the services of your com-


pany to a potential customer.

Ex. 23. Get ready to make a presentation at the Annual International Confer-
ence on Transport and Logistics. Read the texts given below and decide
what topic of your presentation will be. Make a plan of your presenta-
tion and prepare a report according to the plan.

What Is a Freight Train?


A freight train is a train which is used to carry cargo, in contrast to pas-
sengers. Freight trains consist of at least one engine and a chain of train
cars which are coupled together. People use trains to carry freight all over
the world, with costs for shipping by train being generally lower than those
for air freight or truck freight. However, freight trains are less flexible for
shipping than trucks, planes, and ships, since they must stick to the regions
where tracks are available for use.
People have been using freight trains for cargo ever since the train
was invented. Before motor trucks railroads controlled inland transport
of goods and services in the 19th century. The powerful railroad indus-
try was the focus of technological innovation in an era when intermedi-
ate transportation needs were largely met by vehicles drown by pack ani-
mals. Trains are quick and efficient and have a number of advantages when
it comes to shipping cargo, including the capability of pulling a very heavy

50
load with a surprisingly low use of energy. A single powerful locomotive
can pull a very long train of freight cars, with some companies using mul-
tiple locomotives in what is known as a locomotive assist. Locomotive as-
sists are used for extremely long freight trains to ensure that the train has
enough power to get over steep hills.
There are a number of ways in which freight can be packaged
on a freight train. Classically, freight trains carried goods in bulk in box-
cars or wagons, and this technique is still used for some things. More com-
monly, freight trains are loaded with shipping containers. Containerization
allows goods to be moved easily between ships, trains, and trucks without
the need for repacking. Freight trains also have specialized cars like refrig-
erated cars for food and specially-built racks for loading cars.
In some nations, railroads and trucking companies have come up with
a creative cooperative shipping method in which trucks drive straight up
onto the flat cars of a freight train. This technique, known as “trailer on flat
car” or “piggybacking,” can be extremely useful. It allows truckers to take
advantage of the high speeds and efficiency of train travel, while ensuring
that goods can reach their end destinations, even if those end destinations
are beyond the reach of a freight train.
The rise of trucking, shipping, and flying freight has led some rail-
roads to alter their methods of doing business in order to attract custom-
ers. Many companies have supported containerization and piggybacking
to make it easier for customers to combine shipping methods, and the
use of frequently scheduled trains also encourages customers, by assuring
them that their goods will be moved quickly. The energy efficiency of us-
ing a freight train also became a selling point in the early 21st century,
when many companies wanted to engage in more environmentally-re-
sponsible business practices, and the costs of fuel began to rise radically,
making energy efficiency appealingly cheap as well as environmentally
sound.

International Union of Railways


The International Union of Railways (UIC) is the worldwide organi-
zation for international cooperation among railways and promotion of the
rail transport mode. Founded in 1922, it currently gathers 200 members
on all five continents.
The Union’s main mission is to promote rail transport at a global level
in order to cope with current challenges of mobility and sustainable devel-
opment, by enhancing international cooperation between its members.

51
The UIC’s objectives are to facilitate exchange on best practices among
members, support members in their efforts to develop new business oppor-
tunities, propose new ways for improving economic performance of the
rail network, achieve interoperability and create new world standards for
railways (including common standards with other modes), develop centres
of competence (High Speed, Safety, Security, E-Business etc.).
UIC has:
„„ 82 active members (including the railways from Europe, Russia, the
Middle East, North Africa, South Africa, India, Pakistan, China, Japan,
Korea, Kazakhstan, and companies operating worldwide such as Veolia
Transport);
„„ 80 associate members (including railways from Asia, Africa, America,
and Australia);
„„ 35 affiliate members (related or ancillary rail transport businesses or
services).
UIC members may be:
„„ integrated railway companies;
„„ infrastructure managers;
„„ railway or combined transport operators, rolling stock and traction
leasing companies, service providers (restaurant services, sleeping cars,
public transport, maritime transport).

RAILROADS
Recently the railroad industry has recorded a new high for freight traf-
fic. Coal, grain, and chemicals are the major commodities shipped by rail.
However, intermodal railroad traffic has risen considerably. This rapid in-
crease is due to mainly the introduction of specialized railcars that carry
double stacked containers. The double stack efficiencies have made it pos-
sible to move containers faster, reducing delivery times and carrying export
and domestic traffic on the backhaul. Double stack cars now account for
approximately 40 percent of total intermodal capacity.
A once-fragmented industry could be in a position to offer more
unified regional services based on better-coordinated schedules and re-
lated services. For the customers of International Marketing Companies
(IMC; transportation coordinators for shippers who use rail as the primary
mode), this will offer a single regional service, faster and more efficient
use of routes, rail cars and cargo handling equipment, larger and faster
throughput of international rail yards, and improved communications be-
tween shippers and carrier.

52
On the other hand, it can be argued that if these rail mergers continue,
there is the possibility that shippers could have only two or three large na-
tionwide networks to meet their rail-related transportation needs. To pre-
vent monopoly pricing situations that would affect the competitiveness
of captive users of rail services, some shipper organizations are calling for
safeguards or alternatively, some kind of re-regulation of the railroad in-
dustry.
The rail industry is considering other improvements to reduce its costs
and improve services. One such initiative is the sharing of equipment be-
tween rail carriers to gain maximum utilization of those assets. For the
shipper, this could mean more cost-effective placement, loading, transit,
unloading, and release of intermodal containers and trailers. For carriers,
it has the potential of improving equipment utilization, maintenance and
purchasing/replacement programs for intermodal containers, trailers, and
transfer and storage yards.
Reliability of services by the rail industry is greatly dependent on the
condition of the rail carriers’ infrastructure. After decades of neglect, poor
service by the railroads often led to loss of customers where customers had
a choice of alternative services, or the business had moved or closed be-
cause of the lack of such alternatives. To win back customers, and possibly
attract new ones, the railroads have in the past decade and a half spent bil-
lions of dollars to improve their infrastructure to provide faster and more
efficient services, including intermodal. This includes improved tracks
crossings, faster intra-line and inter-line rail yards including intermodal,
and equipment handling and inspection systems to spot equipment dam-
age faster and more reliably.

TURKISH RAILWAYS — TIME FOR A CHANGE


Turkey is not a railway country in the Central European sense.
The truck is dominant in both domestic and international freight traffic.
The downward slope started for the Turkish state-owned railway in the
1950s. At that time, the railway still had an impressive market share of 60%.
Today the proportion of freight carried by rail in the Turkish transport
market has dropped to just 4%.
There is an urgent need for investment, but until now the resources
have not been available. Bureaucracy, lack of interest in customers’ needs
and the railway employees’ habit of expecting gifts of money all contribute
to the railway’s negative image. The fact that corruption is rife in the rail
sector, and also in other parts of the Turkish administration, is an open se-

53
cret. TCDD (Turkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryoallari) employees are
paid a minimum wage, and this is the way they make ends meet.
The TCDD is a state company and does not respond very flexibly
to customers’ needs. According to an Austrian company involved in inter-
modal transport to and from Turkey for many years carrying, for example,
mining products with its own 30 foot containers on this route, there are
usually no problems as soon as a train leaves, but until it happens, the cus-
tomer either has to have patience or put a banknote in with the waybill.
The railway network is inadequate and to a large extent obsolete. The
TCDD is a state within a state – terms such as customer service and mar-
keting are foreign words in every sense.
Schenker Arkas is a joint venture by Schenker Austria and the Turkish
transport operator Arkas. Schenker uses it for the conventional block-train
service from Hungary to Hankali (Istanbul). This train has been running
successfully for years and also offers the chance to taking freight to Bul-
garia and Romania on the way.
The TCDD’s busiest route is the line from the Bulgarian – Turkish
border to Istanbul. Here the wagons usually run according to schedule. But
from Istanbul, one has to be prepared for surprises at the Hankali terminal
in Istanbul where he has to organize the pick-up and distribution of freight
and the handling of incoming and outgoing intermodal shipment.
Hankali station lies at the western edge of Istanbul. This is where in-
coming freight trains from Europe finish their journey and leave for Europe
in the other directions. Not only intermodal trains and conventional trains
are handled on TCDD premises at Hankali. At this terminal there is also
a huge customs clearance zone for trucks, where the Turkish customs for-
malities are carried out. The customs agents are mostly former customs
officials who are very familiar with the complicated Turkish customs for-
malities. They know the rules of the game very well when they are dealing
with the Turkish customs bureaucracy.
According to Turkish customs regulations, containers, wagons etc.
must be temporarily cleared through customs on entering Turkey. If they
are not exported again within three months, they pass into the hands of the
Turkish state. This practice is contrary to the international GATT agree-
ment, which does not provide for temporary customs clearance of import-
ed transport equipment.
Although Turkey did sign the agreement, the Turkish international law
takes precedence over international law. For TCDD to apply the GATT
agreement, it must have specific directions from the government. But this
has so far not happened.

54
SOME BASIC ENGLISH TERMS

rail car железнодорожный вагон rail freighting entity подразделение,


stacked containers контейнеры, уло- назначающее тарифы за железно-
женные в штабель дорожные перевозки; компания,
double stack cars двухъярусные вагоны, занимающаяся грузовыми железно-
платформы (с погрузкой контейнера дорожными перевозками
в два яруса) block train маршрутный контейнерный
throughput пропускная способность; поезд
прирост; темпы роста customs clearance zone зона таможен-
storage yard складская площадка ной очистки грузов
yard завод; верфь; сортировочная пло- GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and
щадка Trade) Генеральное соглашение по
inter-line rail yard сортировочная стан- тарифам и торговле
ция для грузов прямого сообщения
track crossing железнодорожный пе-
реезд

VOCABULARY

1. freight (n) груз; фрахт (плата за перевозку); грузовые перевозки


2. rail freight железнодорожные грузовые перевозки
road freight автомобильные грузовые перевозки
sea freight морские грузовые перевозки
rail (n) железная дорога; рельс
It’s safer to carry goods by rail than by road.
railway (n) железная дорога
3. effort (n) усилие
I’ll make every effort to help you.
сooperative efforts совместные усилия
4. traffic (n) движение (транспорта); перевозки
intermodal traffic интермодальные (смешанные) перевозки
road traffic автомобильные перевозки; дорожное движение
rail traffic железнодорожные перевозки
Rail traffic is increasing.
5. own (v) владеть, иметь в собственности
Now British rail is not owned by the state.
owner (n) владелец, собственник
ownership (n) собственность
6. throughout (prep) через, по всей площади
RZD cooperate with a lot of freight forwarders throughout Europe.

55
7. purpose (n) цель
syn. aim
on purpose намеренно
He’s done it on purpose.
with the purpose of  c целью...
It was done with the purpose of handling rail freight.
8. conventional (adj) обычный
9. wagon (n) товарный вагон
Dangerous goods are not transported in conventional wagons.
10. schedule (n) расписание, график
schedule (v) составлять расписание, график, план
scheduled (adj) по расписанию, по графику
A scheduled rail service was opened last month.
11. introduce (v) вводить, представлять
A new product has just been introduced into the market.
introduction (n) введение, представление
12. timetabled (adj) идущий по графику
13. wagonload (n) вагон (как весовая единица)
14. shuttle service (n) регулярное движение между двумя пунктами; челноч-
ное сообщение
15. go into operation входить в эксплуатацию
A new plant went into operation last month.
16. joint venture совместное предприятие
This Russian-British joint venture was set up two months ago.
17. goal (n) задача, цель
To become a famous artist was the goal of his life.
18. productivity (n) производительность
labour productivity производительность труда
Labour productivity at the terminal was high enough.
19. raise (v) поднимать
raise the axle load поднять нагрузку на ось
20. per axle на одну ось
21. replace (v) заменять
All broken parts will be replaced this week.
replacement (n) замена; новая деталь взамен вышедшей из строя
When can you supply the replacements?
22. rapid (adj) быстрый, скоростной
They promised rapid unloading of the truck.
23. discharge (v) разгружать
It’s necessary to discharge the wagon today.
discharge (n) разгрузка
syn. unload, unloading
24. identify (v) определять, устанавливать (подлинность)
identification (n) распознавание, устанoвление

56
identification (identity) card удостоверение личности
25. install (v) устанавливать, монтировать
The equipment will be installed next week.
installation (n) установка
26. add (v) добавлять
Have you got anything to add?
addition (n) добавление, дополнение
in addition to в дополнение к...
I want to say a few words in addition to what has been said.
additional (adj) дополнительный
27. reduce (v) снижать
reduce journey time сократить время в пути
reduce prices снижать цены
Can you reduce your price?
reduction (n) снижение
28. firm (adj) твердый
It’s our firm offer.
29. realize (v) понимать, осознавать
He didn’t realize he was wrong again.
30. insurant (n) страхователь
insure (v) страховать
Is your car insured?
insurer (n) страховщик
insurance (n) страхование
When you go abroad, you must have a medical insurance.
insurance policy страховой полис
31. invoice (v) выписывать счет-фактуру
They invoiced us for the first consignment only.
invoice (n) счет-фактура
When can I have the invoice?
32. quote (v) назначать цену
Can you quote CIF St Petersburg?
quotation (n) котировка
Here is our quotation.
33. perhaps (adv) возможно
Perhaps we’ll reduce our price.
34. prefer (v) предпочитать
We prefer to sell on FOB terms.
preference (n) предпочтение
35. mind (v) возражать
Do you mind if I sit here? — No, please do.
36. ship (v) отгружать
The first consignment will be shipped in three months.

57
37. discount (n) скидка
give a discount предоставлять скидку
ask for a discount просить о предоставлении скидки
They asked us for a discount of 5%.
discount off (on) the price cкидка с цены
Сan you give us a discount off the price?
38. reasonable (adj) обоснованный
Your terms sound reasonable.
39. concession (n) уступка
After the talks they made us a small concession.
40. worth (adj) стоящий
be worth стоить
It’s worth discussing prices and a possible discount.
41. fair (adj) справедливый
I don’t think it’s fair.
42. neglect (v) пренебрегать; упускать
I hate his habit of neglecting important things.
negligence (n) небрежность, невнимание; халатность
The sales manager’s negligence resulted in short delivery.
negligent (adj) небрежный, халатно относящийся к делу
43. provided при условии что
The sellers will sign the contract provided the terms suit them.
provide (v) обеспечивать
What other services can you provide?
provide sb with sth
provide sth to sb
provider (n) поставщик, провайдер
Aeroflot is the biggest air transport provider in Russia.
44. responsibility (n) ответственность
They couldn’t share the responsibility for the damage.
responsible (adj) ответственный
Who’s responsible for timely delivery?
45. revenue (n) доход, государственный доход
A revenue officer is a customs officer employed to detect or prevent
smuggling.
46. respond (v) отвечать, реагировать
47. back-haul (n) обратный транзит; обратный груз; пропускная способ-
ность
48. merger (n) слияние, объединение (предприятий, банков и т.п.)
49. target (n) мишень, цель; зд. выявление
The target market has increased.
targeted (adj) запланированный, нацеленный
50. safeguard (n) гарантия; охрана; мера предосторожности

58
51. assets (n pl) активы; имущество
52. condition (n) условие
53. lead (v) (led, led) вести
54. lack (n) отсутствие, нехватка
55. spot (v) определять, находить
56. entity (n) организация, предприятие
57. acquire (v) приобретать
58. fiercely (adv) жестоко
59. adverse (adj) враждебный; неблагоприятный; вредный
60. substantial (adj) значительный, существенный
61. enhance (v) увеличивать, усиливать
62. alliance (n) союз
63. invigorate (v) придавать силу, вливать энергию
64. congestion (n) затор; куча, груда
65. inherent (adj) свойственный, присущий
66. launch (v) запускать, начинать
67. lucrative (adj) прибыльный, доходный, выгодный
68. downward (adv) вниз
69. slop (n) склон
70. urgent (adj) срочный, неотложный
urgency (n) cрочность, безотлагательность
71. fife (n) дудка
72. wage (n) заработная плата (рабочих)
73. involve (v) вовлекать
74. flexibly (adv) гибко
75. mining (n) горное дело, горная промышленность
76. border (n) граница
сross the border пересекать границу
border crossing point погранпереход
77. complicated (adj) сложный
78. temporary (adj) временный
temporarily (adv) временно
79. sign (v) подписывать
80. precedence (n) предшествование
81. apply (v) применять(ся)

59
Unit 3
MARITIME TRANSPORT

INTRODUCING NEW INFORMATION


Ex. 1. A. Read the text and find 2—3 sentences that express the main idea.

SEA TRANSPORT AND THE PORT OF ROTTERDAM


International navigation holds the biggest share of about 90% of the
cargo carriage. After World War II, when the world economy began to boom
and cargo transport increased greatly (which caused serious congestion —
long waiting time of ships), specialized ships were built that could carry
different types of goods and decrease transport costs. They were container
ships, Ro-Ro vessels, barge carriers and general cargo vessels.
The capacity of the general cargo ship ranges from 5,000 to 13,000
DWT. It has four or five holds (space for cargo stowage below deck), usu-
ally one or two tween decks and many derricks (ship’s cranes) arranged
in such a way that each hold can be served by at least two derricks.
The introduction of container ships has been a breakthrough in the re-
duction of the turnaround time of the merchant ships. The use of contain-
ers also reduces damage and pilferage of cargo and packing costs.
The port of Rotterdam has now become the most important container
main port in Europe. About 60% of the containers delivered to or shipped
from Rotterdam are handled by Europe Combined Terminal (ECT), one
of the leading container transhipment companies in the world. The re-
structuring process in the port started 25 years ago. The terminals were
specially equipped for handling automobiles, timber and general cargo.
ECT designed new types of quay cranes, terminal trucks which were like
a train with pneumatic tyres that can shift 10 containers in one go, straddle
carriers equipped with automatic spreaders and other equipment.
In 1993 ECT signed a 20-year contract with Sea-Land whose Delta ter-
minal uses a large number of up-to-date equipment developed by ECT, for
example a robot crane and vehicles for horizontal transport and container
storage.

60
The Rotterdam Municipal Port Management together with ECT are
working on a new project of further development of the port which in-
cludes the construction of a number of ultramodern terminals, extensive
central rail-and-inland shipping terminals and distribution centres where
the whole process of handling a container is computerized.

Notes:
DWT, dwt (deadweight) полная грузоподъемность
turnround time время оборачиваемости судна
restructuring process процесс реконструкции
extensive central крупные железнодорожно-речные
rail-and-inland shipping терминалы
terminals

B. Reread the text and say if the statements below are true or false. Correct
the false statements.
1. International navigation started to boom long before World War II.
2. Congestion is the process of handling transport documentation at
a port.
3. Specialized ships were built to decrease turnround time of a ship.
4. A hold is a space where passengers stay during a voyage.
5. There are many derricks at the port.
6. Sea-Land is the leading transhipment company in the world.
7. Timber is not handled at the port of Rotterdam.
8. Robot cranes and vehicles for horizontal transport do not operate
at the port of Rotterdam.
9. The Rotterdam port is not going to be modernized.
C. Look through the text again and say what was mentioned in the text about
a) the development of international navigation;
b) the structure of a vessel;
c) the port of Rotterdam.

DEVELOPING READING TECHNIQUE


Ex. 2. A. Listen to the text Sea Transport and the Port of Rotterdam and follow
it with your eyes.
B. Listen to the text again and repeat it sentence by sentence.
C. Read the text aloud. Approximate time of reading is 2 min.

61
LEARNING NEW WORDS
Ex. 3. A. Find the words in bold type and try to guess their meaning. Check up
the translation of the words in the Vocabulary (p. 83). Write them out
in your vocabulary.
B. Write down all the words unknown to you in your vocabulary.

Ex. 4. Translate the following phrases within the text:


1) a booming economy;
2) to reduce turnround time of vessels;
3) to be equipped for handling cars;
4) to shift 10 containers in one go;
5) rail-and-inland shipping terminals;
6) to cause damage and pilferage to cargo;
7) Ro-Ro vessels.
Ex. 5. Match these verbs and noun phrases and translate the expressions they
make into Russian:
to cause inland shipping terminals
to decrease stowage of goods
to carry out damage to cargo
to design vehicles
to include congestion
to shift with quay cranes
to equip straddle carriers
to reduce pilferage at terminals
Ex. 6. Fill in the gaps with the words given below.
A.
damage, trucks, transported, insures, transit, insurance, transportation,
covered, shipment
Goods can also be transported by sea, by a shipping company. If the
goods are shipped, then __________ must be arranged from the fac-
tory to the docks (or a quay). This can either be by road in __________
(or lorries) or by rail. The shipment must be insured (covered) against loss
or __________ in transit (while being ________). Sometimes the ex-
porter takes out ____ and sometimes the importer __________ the
__________ depending on the terms of their agreement. If the goods are
damaged in __________ , the company is __________ by the insurance.

62
B.
freight, cargo, shipping, transit, charges/costs, docks
Someone has to  pay for all these things. While goods are in  __________,
they are called freight (or cargo), so the company pays __________ rates
(or __________costs) to the shipping company. The __________ is load-
ed at the __________, and for this the company pays handling charges.
Also the company must pay packaging __________ .
Ex. 7. Complete the sentences choosing the right word and changing its form
if necessary.
1. Their (share, division) in container service is not big.
2. They (divide, share) cash between the participants.
3. The road (divide, share) at this point, and we must take the left
turning.
4. The capital of the company (share, divide) between three people,
and each received his (share, division).
5. I don’t want (share, divide) a room with anyone.
6. We’ll (divide, share) the travelling expenses with you.
7. We are (accept, receive) French forwarders tomorrow, and we have
a good (reason, cause) to be in a hurry.
8. Have they (receive, accept) our prices? — If they haven’t, try to find
out the (cause, reason).
9. They didn’t (accept, receive) our invoice yesterday.
10. The Sellers (receive, accept) FOB terms, and we are going to sign
a contract tomorrow.
Ex. 8. Translate into English using the correct verb.
1. К сожалению, мы не сможем принять ваши условия. (accept,
receive)
2. Какова причина повреждения судна? (reason, cause)
3. Когда я был в Италии, меня прекрасно принимали. (accept,
receive)
4. Он сказал, что сможет разделить ответственность за причи-
ненный ущерб. (share, divide)
5. На складе наш груз разделили на две части, и первую уже от-
правили. (share, divide)
6. Я не вижу причину их отказа. (cause, reason)
7. Друзья все делили пополам. (share, divide)
8. Уверен, что он поделится с тобой последним. (share, divide)

63
9. В чем причина задержки груза на таможне? (cause, reason)
10. Банк не принял счет к оплате. (accept, receive)
Ex. 9. Check yourself. Give the English equivalents of the following Russian
word combinations:
1) снизить транспортные расходы;
2) вызвать повреждение груза;
3) оборудовать для обработки генеральных грузов;
4) перемещать 10 контейнеров за один раз;
5) сконструировать новый тип берегового крана;
6) подписать долгосрочный контракт;
7) большая доля грузовых перевозок;
8) снизить время оборачиваемости судна;
9) место для укладки груза на судне;
10) включить строительство современных терминалов;
11) торговый флот;
12) доставить в речной порт;
13) уменьшить расходы на упаковку.

REVIEWING GRAMMAR
Ex. 10. Study the table.
Participle II
Verb -ed/III форма глагола
produce produced
write written

Ex. 11. Translate the world combinations into Russian paying attention to Par-
ticiple II:
1) the detectors installed last month;
2) the wagon discharged yesterday;
3) the joint venture set up quite recently;
4) the cargo handled at our terminal;
5) the train control system developed by them;
6) the timetable service introduced last month;
7) the railway owned by an American firm;
8) the order placed with a British company;

64
9) the price quoted;
10) the concession made to the new customer;
11) though required immediately;
12) when discovered;
13) unless shared 50 : 50;
14) if caused by congestion;
15) while decreased considerably;
16) though held at the end of the month;
17) if equipped for handling.

Ex. 12. Change the sentences using Participle II as in the model.


Model: containers which were manufactured — containers manufactured /
manufactured containers
1. The containers which were manufactured by the firm are easy
to handle.
2. The deal which was discussed yesterday was not profitable.
3. The discount which the firm offered did not suit us.
4. The container which was delivered yesterday has not yet been un-
loaded.
5. The first consignment which was handled on Friday has not been
dispatched yet.
6. The detectors which were replaced by the manufacturer were defective.
7. The prices which were reduced by the firm will rise again next
month because of inflation.

Ex. 13. Translate the sentences into English.


1. Терминал, построенный в прошлом году, уже не является на-
шей собственностью.
2. Документы, подписанные директором, на столе. Вы можете
взять их.
3. Оборудование, установленное в прошлом месяце, отвечает
новейшим мировым стандартам качества.
4. Совместное предприятие, созданное совсем недавно, работа-
ет очень успешно.
5. Сведения, записанные тобой по телефону, не совсем верны.
6. Сборный груз, доставленный нашей фирмой грузополучате-
лю, прибыл из Германии и Голландии.
7. Запасные части, обещанные вами, так и не были получены.

65
8. Автомобили, выпускаемые этим заводом, отвечают совре-
менным требованиям.
9. Транспортные средства, используемые на этих маршрутах,
устарели.
10. Полуприцепы, ввезенные из Франции, начнут работать
на наших маршрутах в следующем месяце.
11. Хотя груз был отправлен вовремя, он прибыл с опозданием.
12. При своевременном обнаружении неисправности легко ис-
правляются.
13. Если потребуется, запасные части могут быть отправлены не-
медленно.
14. При ограничении финансирования компании трудно рас-
считывать на успех.
15. Ожидается, что рост торговли приведет к более высоким по-
казателям на рынке транспортных услуг.

Ex. 14. Complete the sentences using correct tense and voice forms of the verb.
1. RonCon (manufacture) containers since 1980. Their containers
(use) by many transport operators last year.
2. Our department (develop) robot cranes since we first (see) them at
the exhibition Logistics and Transport-20…
3. Ten containers (shift) in one go at the port of St Petersburg.
4. They (pack) chemicals for 2 hours, I think everything (pack) to-
morrow.
5. Anyone (call) me yesterday? — No, there (be) a fax for you to ar-
range insurance of the consignment for Chicago.
6. The tyres (take) over at the port by our freight forwarders.
7. The warehouse (equip) with up-to-date cranes (design) by the
Dutch manufactures.
8. The delay in delivery of the equipment (cause) by the congestion
in the port.
9. Transport costs (decrease) if port equipment (modernize).
10. You (arrange) unloading? — Certainly, in fact the vessel (unload)
now. It (complete) in three hours.

Ex. 15. Put in prepositions where necessary and translate the sentences into
Russian.
1. The damage occurred _____ transit. The cause _____ damage
is being discussed now.

66
2. He says that the freight forwarders will take _____ the goods _____
the port _____ loading.
3. I don’t share _____ your point _____ view_____ the future devel-
opment _____ transport_____ Russia.
4. There were serious congestions _____ the port _____ Novorossiysk­,
which caused _____ delay_____ discharge.
5. The warehouses are not equipped _____ up-to-date cranes so far,
that is why loading takes much time and causes _____ delays.
6. Who’s arranged _____ their visit _____ the manufacturing plant?
— They arrived _____ the invitation _____ our Board of Directors.
7. The new terminal will be specially equipped _____ handling tim-
ber. The process _____ reconstruction is not completed yet.
8. The transport documentation will be handled _____ the forward-
ers _____ behalf _____ the manufacturers.
9. The cargo was sent _____ the port _____ road.
10. The goods have been packed _____ two containers _____ our
warehouse and sent _____ the port.
Note:
to occur происходить

Ex. 16. Put in articles where necessary and discuss the text.
___ Blue Express Ltd started ___ sea carriage in ___ North Europe
in 1986 when they had only two vessels. Today ___ company operates
four modern vessels in ___ line. ___ latest addition to ___ fleet is ___
6,100 dwt, multipurpose m/v Christina, launched in ___ September this
year. ___ vessel was ___ German-built and flagged and can take 341 con-
tainers and is capable of ___ carrying ___ conventional and ___ Ro-Ro
cargo. ___ service operates every 12/14 days loading in ___ Antwerp and
___Harwich for ___ discharge in ___ Tripoli. ___ new service has recently
been added with ___ monthly vessel calling at ___ Barcelona and Malta
for ___ discharge. ___ company will be pleased to offer ___ advice and
___ assistance to ___ new customers.
Notes:
to launch зд. спускать на воду
to call at зд. заходить в порт

Ex. 17. Translate the sentences into English.


1. Если они не включат транспортные расходы в общую стои-
мость, мы не сможем принять такие условия.

67
2. Судоходство начало развиваться еще в прошлом веке, a бурно
расти после Второй мировой войны.
3. Сейчас пересматриваются многие нормы, сооружаются но-
вые причалы, что дает возможность избегать скопления судов
и вовремя загружать и разгружать их.
4. Новый терминал, оборудованный современной робототехни-
кой, начнет работать в порту в начале следующего года.
5. Использование контейнеров, закупленных у ведущих произ-
водителей в Голландии, снизило время обработки груза.
6. Стрела крана сломалась, что явилось причиной порчи груза.
7. Нам бы хотелось иметь дополнительные копии таможенной
декларации и коносамента, подписанные вами.
8. У нас было слишком много работы, и мы не смогли обрабо-
тать всю документацию, полученную вчера вечером.
9. Я звоню тебе уже полчаса. Вопрос очень срочный. Дело в том,
что в графе, озаглавленной «Вес», опечатка.
10. Они сделали нам уступку: снизили плату за перевозку леса.

Note:
причал berth

LEARNING TO LISTEN AND SPEAK


Ex. 18. A. Listen to the telephone conversation and say which of the shipping
documents Mr Semenov is filling in:
a) Customs Declaration;
b) Certificate of Origin;
c) Bill of Lading;
d) Waybill;
e) Insurance.

EXPORT-IMPORT DOCUMENTATION
Mr Semenov, who works for the Freight Forwarding Agency, is calling
Mr Brockett, General Manager of a tyre factory.

Brockett: Hello, Brockett here.


Semenov: Hello, Mr Brockett. That’s Semenov again.
Brockett: What’s the problem?

68
Semenov: It’s about that consignment of tyres for Briansk. I want to make
sure I’m putting down the correct information on the forms.
I’m looking at the section headed “Number and description
of packages”. Am I right in saying it’s five thousand (5,000)
tyres?
Gross weight…
Brockett: Gross weight is 115 tons. FOB value is $100,000.
Semenov: Thanks, I’ll write that down, and I think you’ll be sending the
goods by road to the Town Docks. They’ll go to the container
freight station. Right?
Brockett: Yes. The Transworld Shipping can take over from there.
Semenov: Let me make a note of that. Place of acceptance of cargo
by Transworld … container freight station, Town Docks.
Transworld will pack the goods into the container and unpack
at destination.
Brocket: I also want Transworld to handle the documentation. They can
prepare the Bills of Lading and Customs Declaration on our be-
half.
Semenov: How about insurance?
Brockett: They can arrange our insurance policy. But try to get a low pre-
mium for us, Mr Semenov. Oh, by the way, remember that we
want extra copies of the Bill of Lading.
Semenov: I’ve already noted that. Now, I’ll let you get back to your work.
Brockett: Thanks. I’m really very busy at the moment. Still call me if you
need me.

Note:
FOB value стоимость груза с учетом условий поставки FOB (free
on board), при которой продавец оплачивает доставку гру-
за в порт и погрузку на судно

B. Listen to the conversation again and say if the statements below are true
or false. Correct the false statements.
1. Mr Semenov is the General Manager of a tyre factory.
2. The tyres for Briansk were sold on CIF terms.
3. Freight forwarders were dealing with the packing of tyres.
4. The consignment of tyres was not insured.
5. The manufacturing plant did not need any copy of the Bill of Lad-
ing.
6. The General Manager was not very busy.

69
C. Say what you remember from the conversation about
a) the sold consignment of goods;
b) the mode of transportation of the tyres;
c) the documents used during the carriage.
D. Listen to the conversation again and repeat it sentence by sentence.

E. Reorder the conversation.


Semenov: It’s about that consignment of tyres for Briansk. I want to make
sure I’m putting down the correct information on the forms. I’m
looking at the section headed “Number and description of pack-
ages”. Am I right in saying it’s 5,000 tyres? Gross weight . . .
Brockett: Yes. The Transworld Shipping can take over from there.
Semenov: Hello, Mr Brockett. That’s Semenov again.
Brockett: What’s the problem?
Semenov: Let me make a note of that. Place of acceptance of cargo
by Transworld . . . container freight station, Town Docks.
Transworld will pack the goods into the container and unpack
at destination.
Brockett: Gross weight is 115 tons. FOB value is $100,000.
Semenov: Thanks, I’ll note that down, and I think you’ll be sending the
goods by road to the Town Docks. They’ll go to the container
freight station. Right?
F. Complete the conversation.
— Brown and Co. Good morning.
_________________________________________________
— What’s the problem?
_________________________________________________
— Are the goods going by truck?
_________________________________________________
— How about insurance?
_________________________________________________
— Who’ll take over the goods at the port?
_________________________________________________
— Could you make us a concession?
_________________________________________________
— What terms of delivery can you offer?
_________________________________________________

70
Ex. 19. Have a conversation with your partner using the information below.
Your company is planning to import some components for Scania
trucks from Sweden. You’ve got an Import Licence for the volume of com-
ponents you require. Contact Forwarding & Logistics (a large Russian
transport and logistics company). Find out what shortest possible time for
delivery of such cargo they can offer and what shipping documents are re-
quired in case you would like to cooperate with them.
Ex. 20. Role-play a conversation with your partner about any of the following
subjects.
1. You want to know why the vessel is arriving at the port of discharge
with delay and what is the cause of delay.
2. You want an extra copy of the Bill of Lading.
3. You want your cargo to be loaded on Friday afternoon.
4. You want to add one more package to the goods to be loaded to-
morrow.
5. You want to have an extra copy of the Insurance Policy.

LEARNING TO WRITE
Ex. 21. A. Your company deals in selling and buying terminal trucks and port
equipment. You receive much e-mail every day. Tell your boss that among
the spam you receive every day you’ve got a letter that may be of interest
to your boss. Tell him what it is about. Ask him if he is interested in tak-
ing part in the exhibition and whether he would like to look through the
letter.

Dear Colleague,
MariChem Worldwide, the 12th International Conference and Exhibi-
tion on Chemical Transport and Storage, will be held at the KolnMesse
Congress Centre in Cologne, Germany on 2—4 December this year. The
meeting will take place in the heartland of Europe’s chemical industry and
will be the world’s leading industry event for all those dealing with the in-
ternational transport and storage of chemicals.
The enclosed Newsletter No. 1 provides comprehensive information
on both the MariChem conference programme and the exhibition, which
once again promises to be one of the largest collections of industry equip-
ment suppliers and service providers ever gathered in one place.

71
The impact of markets on overland transport options will also feature
in the sessions on tank containers, road tankers and rail services, reflecting
the fact that chemical producers are expected to play a greater role at this
year’s event than any previous MariChem.
Please use the enclosed forms to register as a conference delegate or to re-
ceive further information on the exhibition. If you have any specific ques-
tions, do not hesitate to contact us directly. We look forward to seeing you
in Cologne.
Yours sincerely
Howard Phillips
Managing Director

Notes:
to provide обеспечивать
comprehensive обширный; всесторонний
impact воздействие
to register зарегистрироваться

B. Read the letter again and say what the letter says about
a) the exhibition in Cologne;
b) the problems which will be discussed at the conference;
c) the equipment to be on display at the exhibition.
C. Role-play a telephone conversation with Howard Phillips to ask him
to send you a detailed programme of the Conference.

Ex. 22. You represent a manufacturing company which wants to take part in the
exhibition in Frankfurt on 16th — 18th February 20. . . and display ter-
minal trucks you manufacture. Write a letter to the organizers of the ex-
hibition, tell them about your firm and your intention to participate and
order the exhibition space you need. Inquire them if they can provide
accommodation for your personnel who will work at your pavilion.

LEARNING TO READ AND ANALYSE


Ex. 23. A. Read the advertisement and say who it is intended for:
a) companies dealing with transportation;
b) individuals;

72
c) companies importing or exporting goods from Europe;
d) companies importing or exporting goods from Asia;
e) companies importing or exporting goods from America.

ALL THE WAY, EVERY OTHER DAY


Every other day our container vessels sail from Rotterdam, Antwerp,
Southampton, Felixstowe and Le Havre to the Iberian Peninsula and Mo-
rocco and vice versa. Our Iberian destinations are Lisbon, Leixoes and
Vigo. The Morocco destination is Casablanca.
Our experience and up-to-date fleet guarantee a fast and reliable ship-
ping of your 20 ft and 40 ft containers. We take care of your cargo, and you
can count on the utmost care and attention.
HOLLAND MAAS SHIPPING BV
B. Read the advertisement again and answer the questions.
1. What services does the company offer?
2. Where do they carry goods?
3. How often do their vessels sail?
C. You represent Holland Maas Shipping BV. Describe the services of your
company to a potential customer. Your customer would like to take his
cargo to Lisbon. Tell him about your freight rates.

Ex. 24. A. Read the texts and say whether they are
a) advertisements;
b) passages from a textbook;
c) encyclopedia articles;
d) newspaper articles.

RUSSIA WARNS SHIPOWNERS


The Russian government has warned its smaller shipowners that they
will not be able to send their vessels to Western sea ports when new inter-
national sea safety rules are introduced later this year.
“Small lines must spend between US$3 m and US$5 m (£1.9 m —
£3.1 m) to certify each ship and its crew in accordance with the new rules.
It is big money for them,” a Russian Transport Ministry official said.
Another ministry official said that about 70 Russian shipping lines
have a very weak financial position. “In total these companies own a fleet
of 100 vessels, but they have little chance of survival,” he said.

73
Sergei Plekhanov, head of the Ministry’s Maritime Department, said
that most of these lines would go bust.
Big lines are planning to certify their vessels and crews. “Private lines
Novoship and Sovkomflot have already gone through the procedures,”
he said, adding that others were preparing to do it by July 1.

Notes:
to warn предупреждать
safety безопасность
to certify сертифицировать
crew команда судна
survival выживание

RUSSIA SET TO BUILD THREE PORTS IN GULF


by Vikenti Rom in Moscow
Russia is to develop three sea ports in the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic
Sea, with a US$210 m (£124 m) loan from the World Bank.
A government official said these ports will begin to handle cargo in 2012
and that construction was already under way.
Ust-Luga port, being developed at the total cost of US$1.1 bn (£650 m)
will have capacity to handle around 35 m tons of coal, general cargo, tim-
ber and containers annually.
Primorsk port will cost US$604 m (£355 m) and will handle 45 m tons
of petroleum, oil products and natural gas per year.
The third port, Batareyny, will handle petroleum exports.
According to Russia’s Transport Ministry, of the country’s total an-
nual import/export freight of 160 m tons, 70 m tons goes through the ports
of the Baltic Sea and Ukraine.
The experts said that the turnover may increase by 50% by 2010, with
most of the growth at the Baltic Sea ports.

Notes:
the Gulf of Finland Финский залив
loan заем
annual ежегодный
turnover оборот

B. Read the texts again and answer the questions.


1. What safety rules did the Russian government introduce?
2. Why could most small shipowners go bankrupt?
3. How many ports are going to be built in the north of Russia?

74
4. Which of them will handle oil exports?
5. Is it necessary to build new ports in Russia?
C. Say what you remember from the articles about
a) new safety rules introduced by the Russian government;
b) the construction of new ports.
Ex. 25. Get ready to make a presentation at the Annual Conference on Trans-
port and Logistics. Read the following texts in order to determine the
main idea of each of them. Find the text most interesting for you and
prepare a detailed plan of it. Speak on the problems touched upon in the
text you have chosen using your plan.

STEAMSHIP LINES
The U.S. water transportation industry consists of steamship lines
involved in deep sea transportation, as well as services that move cargo
through lakes and inland rivers.
For deep sea transportation, rising trade volumes are expected to lead
to a stronger performance and higher demand. U.S.-owned steamship
lines face competitive pressures from foreign-owned lines, and as a result
have been involved in mergers of strategic alliances. For domestic ship-
ping, long-term improvements will depend on the movement of additional
tonnage that could result from current agricultural subsidy and increased
oil exports. However, declining domestic petroleum production and reli-
ance on pipelines for petroleum movements would have a dampening ef-
fect on the growth of the domestic segment of the industry.
Shippers are always looking for the lowest rate and the most efficient
method of transporting their cargo. The ocean containership industry
has met that challenge by building larger and faster containerships. The
shipper could be the winner, but only if the rest of the transportation and
distribution chain is able to make equally impressive cost-effective chang-
es, particularly at the intermodal connecting points where two or more
modes meet.
Available data on vessels on order demonstrate the trend towards
greater use of larger vessels. A total of 38 post-Panamax (larger than can
use the Panama Canal) vessels are in operation, 54 are on order and the
construction of 27 additional vessels is under consideration. In addition,
60 Panamax size (maximum size that can transit the Canal) containerships
are on order, and 21 more will probably be ordered in the next few years.

75
Unless the entire transportation and distribution system enjoys equal
economies of scale in its operations, the advantages gained from the larger
ships will not be fully realized.
To accommodate the requirements brought on by bigger, faster ships,
some of the largest carriers are building marine terminals that incorpo-
rate the latest in intermodal concepts and technologies. American Pacific
Lines, for example, is constructing an on-deck rail operation designed
to improve the cost efficiency and reliability of intermodal transfer opera-
tion. Other terminal operators, some of whom may or may not be connect-
ed directly to one of the carriers, are developing and operating what could
be considered the so-called “steamless terminal.” These terminals allow
the container to move directly off the ship and out the front gate without
stopping along the way in the terminal, based on pre-clearance of docu-
mentation via EDI (electronic data interchange). This form of just-in-time
(JIT) type of movement parallels very closely what is already becoming the
standard for cargo shipments in other parts of the logistics chain.
Conventional containerships can still take advantage of existing fa-
cilities. Niche carriers, with more traditional-sized vessels (2,000 to 4,000
TEUs), will continue to call at ports that are not capable of handling these
very large containerships. This is especially true on trade routes that need
to cater to consumer requirements for more frequent and smaller-volume
shipments. Meanwhile, the potential exists for faster but smaller container-
ships, such as FASTSHIP, capable of crossing the North Atlantic in three
and a half days. For the shipper, this could mean a reduction in inventory
time and cost, especially important for high-value products such as elec-
tronic components and automobiles.
Containership carriers are also looking at combining or sharing op-
erations and other activities to reduce operating costs through mergers or
the development of consortiums and partnerships. These working agree-
ments include sharing vessels space, marine terminal facilities and equip-
ment, and marketing staffs to reduce duplication of assets and operation
costs. In terms of price, however, they would still have compete with
each other. These consortiums and alliances are in direct competition
with carriers that compete independently or are members of the now-
threatened conference system, that was originally established to stabilize
vessel-use and avoid ruinous competition. For the shipper, these agree-
ments have very little effect on the actual movement of the cargo because
the carrier and the bill of lading that it issues will control the level of ser-
vice and reliability.

76
EXPANSION TO DOUBLE CAPACITY
Interporto Rivalta Scrivia Spa (IRS) is considering doubling its con-
tainer handling capacity through a facility designed for 300,000 teu plus
the ability to handle swap bodies.
The IRS terminal is at Alessandria (between Milan and Genoa in Ita-
ly). For the purpose of expanding its capacity, IRS has set up a joint ven-
ture called “Terminal Europa”, which is 46% owned by IRS, 27% by the
IRS parent company Fajioli group, and 27% Gavio, to build an existing
infrastructure amounting to 750,000 sq.m with eight rail sidings of 900 m,
each equipped with two transfer cranes. The investment planned for the
“Terminal Europa” project is estimated at EUR 50 million.
The start of construction, originally planned for late 2004, was post-
poned to 2005 since IRS was looking for new partners in addition to Gavio,
a renowned logistics operator who has its own main facility just 3 km away
from IRS. IRS would consider both domestic (Italian) and foreign part-
ners, be they in the rail sector or not. The IRS managing director says
that they are not rushing construction since at present the existing con-
tainer terminal has 40% spare capacity and the site where the new facility
is planned is already IRS property, so there will actually be no hindrance
to complete it within about a year or two.
Much depends on the ability of the ports of Genoa to bring IRS the
expected additional container throughput. The new facility will not only
cater for maritime traffic. Considering the ideal geographic position at the
crossroads of the Lisbon—Kiev corridor at the Genoa—Antwerp / Rotter-
dam axis, IRS also aims to become a transhipment node on both the east—
west and north—south routes, benefiting from flourishing trades expected
from the recent EU expansion to 25 members.
Meanwhile, IRS is concentrating on the continued development of its
core business, warehousing and logistics, where it is currently working at
95% capacity.
IRS describes itself as a multipurpose logistics hub, unique in its ca-
pacity to offer integrated logistics solutions thanks to its extensive stor-
age area (2 million sq.m and 300,000 sq.m of closed warehouses) and or-
ganization. IRS can offer complete management of the distribution cycle
through the know-how, specialized plants and state-of-the-art warehouse
management information system with tailored services to match any cli-
ent’s needs.
IRS was established in 1966 with the aim of creating an inland exten-
sion to the port of Genoa to rapidly clear goods discharged on the piers.

77
It is located at the intersection of three motorways as well as the Alessan-
dria—Voghera and Novi—Tortona railways.
The trend to outsource services in logistics allowed the management
to make important decisions such as converting the infrastructure into
a multimodal hub where interport services are integrated with redistribu-
tion of products. Of the original 150,000 sq.m in 1966, IRS has expanded
to double its indoor warehousing area and is looking forward to further
growth.

THE INTERNATIONAL OCEAN TRANSPORT INDUSTRY


IN CRISIS
Assessing the Reasons and Outlook
In the course of the World Bank’s assistance programs for developing
countries fundamental and continuously ongoing changes in the structure
of trade markets and the organization of the related service industries have
been identified. Particularly the sea-trade markets and the international
ocean transport industry seemed to undergo substantial change. Freight
origins and destinations shifted much more rapidly than in the past, types
of cargo and their forms of packaging kept changing. These trends became
more and more pronounced since the beginning of the 1980s. The Bank’s
first assessment of the causes and effects of such development concluded
that considerable changes in international manufacturing and product mar-
keting practices have tended to alter the profile of demand for ocean trans-
port in significant ways. A further conclusion was that technological progress
had enabled shipowners and operators to drastically revamp their service of-
ferings and networks in response to changing ocean transport demand.
Towards the end of 1992 the world merchant fleet had a total carrying
capacity of about 657 million tons (dwt), and almost 69 million dwt were
on order with shipyards in 40 different countries. About 40 % of the ocean
transport activities were in the oil trades, including crude and petroleum
products; another 40 % was serving the key dry bulk trades, including iron
ore, coal, and grain, as well as the minor bulks, such as agricultural and for-
estry products. Only one-fifth of the registered tonnage was engaged in the
general cargo trades, which also comprises the sea carriage of containers.
The consequence of this market structure with preferences to liquid
and dry bulk cargoes was that the majority of vessels was operating either
on a charter or tramp basis, which is common practice in the bulk trades.
In the general cargo trades the conference-based liner segment was much
reduced in comparison with previous years. The phenomenon confirms

78
the earlier recognizable trend toward independent action which has been
increasingly adopted by different carriers, particularly in the container
sector. Under this type of arrangement carriers negotiate (freight) service
contracts directly with shippers. By doing so, they by-pass existing con-
ference rules for specific trade routes. Such service contracts often span
longer periods, i.e. they are usually not limited to one shipment, and are
widely considered to be more advantageous to shipper and carrier alike
than conference regulated ocean transport.
Continuing a trend that could already be observed during the 1980s,
1992 was a further concentration of fleet ownership. Shipowners in five
countries — Greece, Japan, the USA, Norway, and Hong Kong — con-
trolled over 50 % of the world merchant fleet. But the present pattern
of ship registration and “flags flown” does not reflect the true state of own-
ership. Almost half of all merchant ships which were registered in 1992
flew so-called “Flags of Convenience” (FOCs) of countries which provide
shipowners with substantial benefits. These benefits entail tax allowances
or holidays, freedom to crew ship with low-wage labor, regardless of na-
tionality and without the involvement of labor unions, and frequently also
less stringent vessel classification and inspection rules.
The principal countries that offered FOCs in 1992 were Liberia, Cyprus,
and the Bahamas, a situation which remained largely unchanged from earlier
years. Some European countries — notably Germany and Norway — have
established “second national flags”. On the other hand there were some new
development behind these occurrences and that was the rapid outflagging
of vessels from the republics of the former Soviet Union (FSU).
While outflagging is one phenomenon that points to a fundamental
change in the organization of international ocean transport, another one
relates to ship management.
Developments during 1992 demonstrate that more shipowners have
passed the responsibility for asset marketing and operations to professional
ship management organizations. These are usually private companies that
are not involved in ownership but engage in managing vessels on a contrac-
tual basis to secure the best rates of return on their clients’ — the shipown-
ers — investments. A very substantial portion of the international tanker
and dry bulk fleets were managed under such arrangements, basically con-
tinuing a trend which has set in during the 1980s. But these arrangements
are not limited to the bulk sector. Most of these organizations are located
in the world’s principal shipping centers, like London, Hong Kong, New
York, and Singapore. The users of these vessel management services come

79
from all country group, which also include developing nations such as the
FSU republics.
It has thus become difficult to identify the true ownership of, and for
that matter the accountability for many vessels engaged in seatrading. The
flag flown and the port of registration do no any longer reveal conclusively.
In addition to management by third parties, there are usually mortgage banks
involved that have proprietary rights, and ships’ officers and ratings may be
citizen of a variety of countries. It is therefore not unusual to identify sev-
eral parties of different nationalities that are associated with one ship. If any-
thing, ocean transport in the 1990s has become a very complex industry.

SOME BASIC ENGLISH TERMS


distribution and transportation service outsourcing аутсорсинг (передача
услуги по распределению и пере- выполнения непрофильных функций
возке грузов стороннему подрядчику)
economies of scale преимущества multimodal hub центр, узел, пункт
масштаба производства; эконо- мультимодальных перевозок
мия, обусловленная ростом мас- package пакет, упаковка; место
штабов производства груза
EDI (electronic data interchange) to package упаковывать
электронная система обмена дан- packaging тара; грузовое место; упа-
ными ковка
JIT (just-in-time) принцип «точно packing упаковка
в срок», система своевременной merchant fleet торговый флот
доставки грузов carrying capacity грузоподъемность;
niche carriers перевозчики, работа- провозная способность
ющие в определенных нишах DWT, dwt (dead weight) полная гру-
swap body съемный кузов (единица зоподъемность судна
перевозки груза, размеры которой charter чартер (документ, удостове‑
соответствуют габаритам авто‑ ряющий наличие и содержание до‑
транспортного средства и кото‑ говора фрахтования между фрах‑
рая оборудована погрузочно-раз‑ товщиком и фрахтователем)
грузочными средствами) tramp трамповый
merger слияние (компаний) shipment отгрузка, отправка
logistics hub логистический узел, shipping centre крупный морской
центр, пункт порт; транспортный узел
tailored service специальное обслу- mortgage bank ипотечный банк
живание, обслуживание по заказу
to outsource передавать непрофиль-
ные функции стороннему под-
рядчику

80
VOCABULARY
1. navigation (n) судоходство, плавание
Inland navigation usually starts in April.
navigate (v) управлять судном, плавать (на судне)
2. share (n) доля, акция
His share in this business is not big.
share (v) делить, разделять
Could you share your knowledge with us?
3. boom (v) быстро расти, процветать
Trade is booming.
boom (n) бум, быстрый подъем
The great boom in the construction industry started two years ago.
4. cause (v) быть причиной, вызывать что-либо
What caused the delay in delivery?
cause (n) причина
He didn’t know the cause of damage to the delivered goods.
5. decrease (v) уменьшать(ся), снижать(ся)
The temperature has decreased considerably.
decrease (n) уменьшение, снижение, спад
The production decrease started 10 years ago.
6. vessel (n) судно
Ro-Ro vessel судно типа Ro-Ro (с накатной погрузкой-разгрузкой)
general cargo vessel судно, перевозящее генеральный груз
Many vessels were owned by their company.
7. hold (n) трюм
There were four holds in the general cargo vessel.
8. stowage (n) мор. размещение груза в трюме, укладка
Much attention is paid to stowage.
stow (v) укладывать, складировать
Cargo should be stowed carefully.
9. deck (n) палуба
tween deck твиндек (межпалубное пространство)
10. derrick (n) деррик, грузовая стрела
The vessel is equipped with derricks.
11. breakthrough (n) прорыв
12. damage (n) ущерб, вред, повреждение
The damage to the goods occurred in transit.
damages (n pl) возмещение ущерба, убытков
The Surveyor estimated the damages.
agreed and liquidated damages — согласованные (или оговоренные)
и заранее оцененные убытки, неустойка
They claimed agreed and liquidated damages.

81
13. pilferage (n) мелкая кража
What decreases damage and pilferage of cargo?
14. transhipment (n) перегрузка, перевалка
tranship (v) перегружать
The cargo was transhipped at the port.
15. equip (v) оборудовать
equip with оборудовать чем-либо
equip for оборудовать для чего-либо
The terminal was equipped with new cranes.
The vessel was equipped for handling general cargo.
16. timber (n) лес (товар), лесоматериалы
Timber is handled at the new terminal.
ср. wood (n) лес (небольшой массив); дерево, древесина
Furniture is always made of wood, isn’t it?
forest (n) лес (большой лесной массив)
There are big forests in Siberia.
17. design (v) конструировать, разрабатывать
New models of cars are designed in many countries.
design (n) конструкция
The machine is of the latest design.
18. quay (n) причал
A new quay has recently been built.
quay crane береговой кран
19. tyre (n) шина, покрышка
They’ve been producing tyres for 10 years.
20. shift (v) перемещать, передвигать
This crane can shift containers.
shift (n) сдвиг, смена, перемещение
21. up-to-date (adj) современный
They sell up-to-date office equipment.
22. construction (n) строительство
The construction of the quay is not completed.
23. distribution (n) распространение, распределение
distribute (v) распределять, распространять (продавать)
distributor (n) агент по продаже, оптовая фирма
They are distributors of our products in Greece.
24. weight (n) вес
gross weight вес брутто
net weight вес нетто
What’s the weight of this package?
weigh (v) взвешивать; весить
25. note down (v) делать пометки, записывать
She noted down the date of the ship’s arrival.

82
26. take over (v) зд. принимать груз к перевозке
They will take over the cargo at the warehouse.
27. acceptance (n) приемка
The place of acceptance of the cargo is noted down here.
accept (v) принимать
I’m afraid we can’t accept the terms of delivery.
acceptable (adj) приемлемый
Are our terms acceptable to you?
28. Bill of Lading коносамент (накладная на груз при перевозке морем)
Bill of Lading has just been signed by the master of the ship.
29. premium (n) страховая премия (сумма, выплачиваемая страхователю),
страховой взнос
30. extra (adj) дополнительный
There are some extra forms to fill in.
31. steamship (n) пароход, паровое судно
32. face (v) сталкиваться
33. shipping (n) перевозки
34. subsidy (n) субсидия
35. reliance (n) доверие, уверенность
36. pipeline (n) трубопровод
37. dampen (v) смачивать, увлажнять; ослаблять, уменьшать
38. rate (n) ставка
39. challenge (v) вызывать, бросать вызов
40. equally (adv) в равной степени
41. connect (v) соединять
42. order (n) заказ
43. trend (n) тенденция
44. accommodate (v) размещать
45. facility (n) тех. возможность
46. cater (v) cнабжать, обслуживать
47. frequent (adj) частый
48. apparel (n) одежда
49. inventory (n) инвентаризация, опись
50. ruinous (adj) пагубный
51. effect (n) результат; осуществление, выполнение
come into effect вступать в силу
52. issue (v) выдавать, выписывать
53. expand (v) расширять(ся)
54. capacity (n) мощность, производительность
55. postpone (v) откладывать
56. consider (v) рассматривать, считать
57. rush (v) бросаться, кидаться, устремляться
58. hindrance (n) препятствие, помеха

83
59. axis (n) ось
60. node (n) узловой пункт
61. warehousing (n) складирование
62. storage (n) хранение, складирование
63. match (v) отвечать, удовлетворять
64. pier (n) мол, дамба; пирс
65. shipyard (n) верфь
66. crude and petroleum products нефтепродукты
67. ore (n) руда
68. grain (n) зерно
69. majority (n) большинство
70. confirm (v) подтверждать
71. adopt (v) принимать (закон, резолюцию и т.п.)
adoption (n) принятие
72. negotiate (v) вести переговоры
73. observe (v) наблюдать
74. benefit (n) преимущество, благо, польза
benefit (v) получать премущество, пользу
75. allowance (n) налоговое послабление
76. crew (n) экипаж, команда
77. regardless of (adv) независимо от…
78. stringent (adj) строгий
79. secure (v) обеспечивать, гарантировать
80. reveal (v) вскрывать, отражать
81. mortgage (n) залог
82. proprietary (n) собственность
83. ratings (n pl) матросы

84
Unit 4
INTERMODAL TRANSPORT

INTRODUCING NEW INFORMATION


Ex. 1. A. Read the text and find 2—3 sentences that express the main idea.

INTERMODAL TRANSPORT
What is intermodal transport? The definition is given below.
“Intermodal” means movements by cargo containers interchangeably
between transport modes, i.e. motor, water and air carriers, and where the
equipment is compatible within the multiple system.
The term “multimodal transport” was first used during the preparation
for the UN Convention on Multimodal Transport which was held in 1980.
The Convention is not in force as only eight states so far have become con-
tracting parties. Thirty contracting parties are required to bring the Con-
vention into force.
The Convention reads: “International intermodal transport means the
carriage of goods by at least two different modes of transport on the basis
of a multimodal transport contract from a place in one country at which
goods are taken in charge by the multimodal transport operator to a place
designated for delivery.” A contract should be concluded between the ship-
per (consignor) and the multimodal transport operator (carrier), by which
the latter undertakes to carry out an intermodal transport operation him-
self or through other parties.
The international multimodal transport system functions through one
company offering combined or multimodal transport services provided that:
a) the transport operation is international in that it crosses the borders
of two or more countries;
b) the transport operation uses at least two modes of transport;
c) the transport operation is from the exporter’s stores to the consum-
er’s stores;

85
d) the responsibility for the whole transport operation in all stages
is shouldered by the multimodal transport operator.
Multimodalism in many countries is still in an infant stage. Operators
are often faced with heavy bureaucracy, insufficient regulatory framework,
poorly developed infrastructure etc. The acceptance of multimodalism
by a number of countries has been very slow because the shippers and re-
ceivers of cargo are not aware of their potential benefits in terms of gains
in time and costs.

Notes:
compatible совместимый
in an infant stage в зачаточном состоянии
insufficient regulatory недостаточно развитая система контроля
framework

B. Reread the text and say if the statements below are true or false. Correct
the false statements.
1. Intermodal transport means carriage of goods by two or three trans-
port operators.
2. The UN Convention on Multimodal Transport is in force now.
3. In Intermodal transport one operator is responsible for the delivery
of the cargo to the final destination.
4. You have to cross the borders of two or more countries within the
framework of the multimodal transport operation.
5. Multimodalism is well-developed in many countries.
6. Transport operators are faced with heavy bureaucracy, insufficient
regulatory framework etc.
C. Look through the text and say what was mentioned in the text about
a) the UN Convention on Multimodal Transport;
b) the conditions under which the system can function efficiently;
c) difficulties multimodal transport operators are faced with.

DEVELOPING READING TECHNIQUE


Ex. 2. A. Listen to the text Intermodal Transport and follow it with your eyes.
B. Listen to the text again and repeat it sentence by sentence.
C. Read the text aloud. Approximate time of reading is 1.5 min.

86
LEARNING NEW WORDS

Ex. 3. A. Find the words in bold type and try to guess their meaning. Check up
the translation of the words in the Vocabulary (p. 107). Write them out
in your vocabulary.
B. Write down all the words unknown to you in your vocabulary.

Ex. 4. Translate the following phrases within the text:


1) to move containers interchangeably;
2) compatible equipment;
3) to take goods in charge;
4) a place designated for delivery;
5) to undertake to carry out a transport operation;
6) to be in an infant stage;
7) to face heavy bureaucracy;
8) poorly developed transport infrastructure;
9) to gain time and money;
10) to offer multimodal transport services.

Ex. 5. Match these verbs and noun phrases and translate the expressions they
make into Russian:
to conclude combined transport services
to bring with heavy bureaucracy
to shoulder a place for delivery
to be aware a contract with a carrier
to undertake a convention into force
to be faced of potential benefits
to designate responsibility for transport operations
to provide an intermodal transport operation

Ex. 6. Fill in the gaps with the words given below.


infant, provides, subsidizing, imposing, subsidize, grants, controls,
limiting, impose, imported, taxes
One way a country can control its economy is by imposing import re-
strictions (or controls). If an industry is just starting up (when it is called an
_____ industry), the government may help it because it makes the country
richer and _____ employment.

87
The government can help it by _____ it or by ______ import restric-
tions. To ____ an industry means to give it loans or _____ . Import ______
protect it from competition by _____ importation of the goods the infant
industry produces. The government might also _____ taxes on _____
goods. These _____ are called duties or tariffs.

Ex. 7. Complete the sentences choosing the right word.


1. When we started this new service, we didn’t expect (to win, to gain)
much.
2. Who (won, gained) the last match?
3. They were not aware of their (wins, gains).
4. The Blue Berets (won, gained) the battle.
5. He decided to open a bank (invoice, account).
6. The firm didn’t receive our (invoice, account) last week.
7. Many (accounts, invoices) were frozen in August.
8. We should send them our (invoice, account) at the revised price.
9. Our vessel was wrecked on the Chinese (seaside, coast, shore,
bank).
10. The master went (to the bank, to the seaside, ashore, to the coast),
but the crew remained on board.
11. Many people going to the Black (coast, shore, bank, seaside) enjoy
their holiday there.
12. A new terminal has been built on the (shore, bank, coast, seaside)
of the lake.

Ex. 8. Check yourself. Give the English equivalents of the following word com-
binations:
1) ввести соглашение в действие;
2) пересекать границу двух государств;
3) принимать обязательства по перевозке грузов;
4) при условии заключения контракта;
5) развивать мультимодальные перевозки;
6) принимать ответственность за хранение груза;
7) выигрывать во времени;
8) осознавать потенциальные выгоды;
9) смешанные перевозки;
10) доставить на склад заказчика;
11) сталкиваться с трудностями.

88
REVIEWING GRAMMAR
Ex. 9. Study the table.
Ing-forms of the Verbs
Formula V-ing
Form Active Passive
Simple producing being produced
Perfect having produced having been produced

Ex. 10. Translate the world combinations into Russian paying attention to -ing
forms of the verb:
1) after sharing investments;
2) increasing transport costs;
3) the committee arranging the show;
4) trucks operating at the terminal;
5) a letter giving information;
6) having covered the insurance;
7) forwarders handling door-to-door deliveries;
8) derricks shifting containers;
9) new equipment being designed at our department;
10) when working on a new project.
Ex. 11. Change the sentences using Participle I as in the model.
Model: Vehicles which carry containers are not often met here. — Vehicles
carrying containers are not often met here.
1. Vehicles which carry containers were bought last month.
2. They promised to take over even goods which require certain tem-
perature conditions.
3. Rusavto who operate in our market are well known all over the world.
4. The company which offers us spare parts is one of the leading man-
ufacturers of trailers in Europe.
5. A company which develops its control system can increase produc-
tivity.
6. We have just placed a big order with a Dutch company which man-
ufactures refrigerated semi-trailers.
7. Now our company is dealing with the Spanish forwarders who in-
troduced the new service between Barcelona and Madrid.

89
8. The Finnish-Russian joint venture which deals with groupage con-
signments has opened a new office in St Petersburg.
Ex. 12. Complete the sentences using the -ing forms of the verbs in brackets, put
in prepositions where necessary and translate the sentences into Rus-
sian.
1. At the talks our general manager strongly objected ________ (in-
sure) the goods with Ingosstrakh.
2. What’s the purpose ________ (reduce) supplies to our British
partners?
3. These wagons are capable ________ (carry) any cargoes through-
out Europe.
4. I just can’t think ________ (make) even a small concession to them
as they always let us down.
5. It’s worth ________ (deal) with well-known companies though
their prices can be higher.
6. They were interested ________ (open) a new shuttle service
to Warsaw.
7. They are dreaming ________ (raise) productivity by ________
(restructure) the port.
8. We are looking forward ________ (hear) from you as soon as pos-
sible.
9. The new terminal was equipped ________ (handle) general cargo
and timber.
10. He left without ________ (say) a word.
Ex. 13. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Мне кажется, нам не стоит назначать такие высокие цены.
Мы можем потерять выгодных клиентов.
2. Экспедиторская фирма, организующая доставку грузов в ко-
нечный пункт назначения, известна нам как очень надежный
партнер в течение многих лет.
3. Мы открыли еще одну контору с целью улучшить обслужива-
ние, так как объем перевозок постоянно растет.
4. Мы предпочитаем отправить эту партию грузов самолетом,
так как это значительно сократит время доставки.
5. Американский бизнесмен, обсуждающий сделку с нашим ди-
ректором, очень доволен работой нашей фирмы.
6. Число фирм, работающих на рынке транспортных услуг, рез-
ко сократилось.

90
7. Недавно мы закупили новую партию прицепов, способных
перевозить любые грузы.
8. Фирма Toyota, продающая автомобили на российском рынке
в течение многих лет, предлагает отличное послепродажное
обслуживание.
9. Вы видите человека, заполняющего таможенную деклара-
цию? Пожалуйста, передайте ему этот коносамент.
10. С нетерпением ждем вашего ответа.

Ex. 14. Complete the sentences putting the verbs in brackets into the correct
form.
1. The firm (take) the goods in charge at the Russian-Finnish border
(be) our partner for two years.
2. I think you (gain) a lot if you (conclude) a new contract with them.
3. Before (draw up) a new contract the firms (settle up) all previous
debts.
4. Why multimodalism (make) slow progress?
5. The invoice (pay) by (transfer) the money to their bank account at
the end of the month.
6. This forwarding company (undertake) to carry our goods to the
consumer’s warehouses.
7. A negotiable Bill of Lading (issue) when a transport operation (car-
ry out) by two or more transport operators.
8. What difficulties Russian forwarders (face) with when they (come)
into the European market?
9. The Convention on Multimodal Transport (not, bring) into force
yet as there (be) heavy bureaucracy in many countries.
Ex. 15. Put in articles where necessary. Be ready to discuss the text.
VR Cargo’s cooperation with ____ Kombiverker is growing from
____ year to ____ year. ____ cargo can be delivered in ____ same load-
ing unit from ____ Helsinki to ____ Paris for example. ____ intermodal
transport is ____ important area of ____ development in ____ goods
transportation of ____ integrated Europe, and no wonder — ____ roads
are filled with ____ cars, ____ trucks and ____ trailers. One solution
to ____ problem is to switch ____ trailers, ____ containers and vehicle
combinations from ____ road ____ rail. ____ Kombiverker specializes
in ____ intermodal transport and uses ____ German Huckepack trans-
port tubes in which ____ goods are carried in ____ same loading unit

91
from ____ terminal to ____ terminal and finally delivered to ____ con-
signee by ____ trucks.
Italy is one of ____ most important countries in ____ cooperative
venture, as ____ great deal of ____ exports and imports to and from ____
Finland are carried out with ____ semi-trailers and ____ swap bodies. VR
Cargo’s aim is to offer ____ continuos transport link between ____ Fin­
nish and Italian terminals.

Notes:
loading unit весовая единица
swap body съемный кузов (единица перевозки груза, размеры ко‑
торой соответствуют габаритам автотранспорт‑
ного средства и которое оборудовано погрузо-разгру‑
зочными средствами)

Ex. 16. Put in prepositions when necessary.


1. Neither Bill ____ Lading nor Customs Declaration has been filled
____ .
2. I think he’ll make the necessary arrangements ____ placing trucks
____ loading.
3. While the president was ____, I was ____ charge ____ invoicing
customers.
4. The young man came here ____ purpose ____ getting more expe-
rience ____ logistics.
5. The new transport operator was faced ____ bureaucracy ____ the
Customs.
6. Many businessmen are not aware ____ the gains ____ multimodal
transport operations.
7. A multimodal contract should be concluded if the cargo crosses the
borders ____ two or more countries.
8. They settled ____ ____ packing the goods ____ wooden boxes.
9. A negotiable Bill ____ Lading is signed when two or more trans-
port operators carry ____ the transport operation.
10. Stonehaven is a small town ____ the western coast ____ the North
Sea.
Ex. 17. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Мне кажется, довольно трудно дать определение тому, что
такое логистика.
2. Вы отвечаете за все, что будет происходить в мое отсутствие.

92
3. Соглашение вступает в силу с 1 января.
4. К сожалению, контракт все еще не заключен, хотя все про-
блемы были решены на прошлой неделе.
5. Когда и где планируется пересечение границы?
6. При перевозке леса мы столкнулись с большими трудностя-
ми, вызванными отсутствием перегрузочных терминалов.
7. Экспедитор, предложивший нам свои услуги по доставке груза
в конечный пункт, просил дополнительные 5% за срочность.
8. Один из наилучших способов найти делового партнера — это
воспользоваться Интернетом.
9. Мне кажется, этот принцип не сработает. Они не cмогут ор-
ганизовать перевозку к этому времени.
10. В конечном счете выиграют все: и перевозчики, и произво-
дители, и потребители.

LEARNING TO LISTEN AND SPEAK


Ex. 18. Listen to the telephone conversation and say which route (given in the
scheme) is being discussed.

Truck → train Truck → ship → truck


Korea (Seoul) → Moscow Korea (Kesor) → Hamburg → Moscow
a b
Plane
Seoul → Moscow
c

DISCUSSING THE MODE OF TRANSPORTATION


Ell & Co., a Russian company, are buying electronic equipment from
Korea. Mr Somov is calling EuroLog to find out the best way of transport-
ing the goods to Moscow.

Brown: EuroLog. Good morning.


Somov: Good morning. My name’s Oleg Somov of Ell & Co. I’m sending
some electronic equipment from Kesor, Korea to Moscow, and
I’d like to know the best mode of transportation. I think the best
way is to send the goods by sea, is that right?

93
Brown: Just a moment. You see, you can’t send your goods directly from
Kesor to Moscow by sea. Neither Kesor nor Moscow is on the
coast.
Somov: Oh, Kesor is on the coast though, isn’t it?
Brown: It is, but it is not a port. There is a port in Inchon, and you can
send your goods to the port by road or rail. They can travel from
Inchon to one of the European ports, say to Hamburg, and then
by truck to Moscow. Or they can travel from Inchon to Nakhod-
ka by sea and then to Moscow by rail. It’s much cheaper.
Somov: And which of these is the best route?
Brown: It depends on how big your consignment is. It might be better and
cheaper to send the goods by air.
Somov: Which airport do the goods travel from in this case?
Brown: The nearest airport is in Seoul. You’ll have to transport the goods
to Seoul by road or by rail.
Somov: I see. Perhaps I’ll send you the details and you will arrange the
cheapest route. Could you do that?
Brown: Certainly. That’s just what we are here for. We’d be delighted
to help.
B. Listen to the conversation again and say if the statements below are true
or false. Correct the false statements.
1. EuroLog is a big forwarding firm.
2. Mr Somov wanted to export electronic equipment to Korea.
3. The best way of transporting the goods to Moscow is to send them
by rail.
4. Kesor is the biggest Korean port.
5. Mr Somov and Mr Brown settled the problem of transportation.
C. Listen to the conversation and repeat it sentence by sentence.
D. Rearrange the conversation.
Somov: My name’s Oleg Somov of Ell & Co. I’m sending some electronic
equipment from Kesor, Korea to Moscow and I’d like to know
the best mode of transportation.
Brown: Certainly. That’s just what we are here for. We’d be delighted
to help.
Somov: Oh, Kesor is on the coast though, isn’t it?
Brown: Just a moment. You see, you can’t send your goods directly from
Kesor to Moscow by sea. Neither Kesor nor Moscow is on the
coast.

94
Somov: I see. Perhaps I’ll send you the details and you will arrange the
cheapest route. Could you do that?
Brown: It depends on how big your consignment is. It might be better and
cheaper to send the goods by air.
Somov: And which of these is the best route?
Brown: It is, but it is not a port. There is a port in Inchon, and you can
send your goods to the port by road or rail. They can travel from
Inchon to one of the European ports, say to Hamburg, and then
by truck to Moscow. Or they can travel from Inchon to Nakhod-
ka by sea and then to Moscow by rail. It’s much cheaper.
E. Complete the conversation.
Black: _________________________________________________
Ivanov: Good morning. I’d like to send five boxes of spare parts from
St Petersburg to Paris. I think the best way is to send the goods
by rail.
Black: _________________________________________________
Ivanov: What mode could you suggest?
Black: _________________________________________________
Ivanov: And which of these is the best?
Black: _________________________________________________
Ex. 19. Have a conversation with your partner using the information below.
Your company imports mobile telephones from Sweden to your sub-
sidiary in Rostov-on-Don. The goods are to be sent from the Helsinki dis-
tribution centre. The forwarders have two routes to destine the consign-
ment. Discuss these routes with the forwarders and find out the best one.

LEARNING TO WRITE
Ex. 20. A. You work for a transport company carrying goods throughout Eu-
rope. Read the following letter sent to your company, explain to your
boss in Russian what the letter is about and ask him if the informa-
tion is of interest to your company. If yes, enumerate the points that
are most important to you.
Dear Delegate,
Established in 1988, INTERMODAL is now recognized as the annual
conference for the intermodal industry worldwide.

95
If your business is in organizing, shipping or handling consignments in con-
tainers, swap bodies or any other multimodal load units, you will be inter-
ested to learn how to make intermodal transport work to your advantage.
Major issues dealt with this year include ocean shipping deregulation, Eu-
ropean domestic Intermodalism and learning how to share and optimize
limited infrastructure resources. Intermodalism is no longer a European
or American phenomenon. It is fast becoming a reality in China, India
and Latin America and concerns shippers, shipping lines, ports, railways,
freight forwarders and road hauliers.
With over 90 speakers from 20 different countries representing an authori-
tative cross-section of the global spectrum, INTERMODAL is the leading
event of this year’s transport calendar.
I look forward to welcoming you in Amsterdam during “Intermodal Week”
in October.
Yours faithfully
Alex von Stempel
Conference Editor

P.S. Remember INTERMODAL is the only truly international event that


brings together all parties involved in shipping cargo by land and sea.

Notes:
annual ежегодный
haulier = carrier
issue = problem
ocean shipping deregulation сокращение вмешательства государства в регулиро-
вание морскими перевозками

B. Read the letter again and say what the letter says about
1) the main problems for discussion at the Conference;
2) the Conference as the leading transport event of the year;
3) intermodalism.
C. Write a reply to the letter accepting the invitation and asking for further
information about the programme of the Conference (in detail).

Ex. 21. You represent FIATA organizing annual conferences on Intermodal



Transport and Logistics. Write a circular letter to would-be participants

96
informing them of the event which is to take place in Geneva from 7th
to 11th September 20 . . .
Ex. 22. Role-play. You are entrusted with getting in touch with the representa-
tive of your company in Germany. Inform him of the conference and try
to convince him to take part in it though you are aware that he is against
such events as he thinks they are a waste of time and money.

LEARNING TO READ AND ANALYSE


Ex. 23. Read the text and compare the European and American transport infra-
structure. Find as many differences as possible.
The first intermodal service started in 1969 in the USA when fast con-
tainer trains between Chicago and Los Angeles were introduced. Dur-
ing this short period of time (29 years) intermodal transport turned to be
a great success in the USA, medium success in Europe, while in other ar-
eas the progress is only in its initial stages.
The Americans define intermodal move as a haul of sea container
along a distance that is longer than 500 miles usually by rail. The Euro-
pean situation is quite different. In Europe intermodal transport is usu-
ally named “combined transport”. Smaller distances between ports and
inland destinations, many different nations, slow investments in the
transport infrastructure, tough regulations and lack of unified rail sys-
tems eliminated the possibility to build an intermodal transport system
similar to the American one.
Intermodal transport in Europe is first of all the process of container-
ization of general cargo. The forecast to the year 2010 says that more than
two-thirds of the global general cargo trade will move in containers, and
this is good news for intermodal transport.

Notes:
haul перевозка
lack (of) недостаток, нехватка

Ex. 24. A. Read the advertisement and say who it is intended for:
a) companies dealing with transportation;
b) individuals;
c) companies importing or exporting goods from Europe;

97
d) companies importing or exporting goods from Asia;
e) companies importing or exporting goods from America.

MERZARIO
EUROPE
The quality choice for full load door-to-door
services to and from Europe.
Daily departures.
Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Spain
and other European destinations.
Driver-accompanied trailers.
Intermodal services with swap bodies or
containers up to 26 ton payload.
Own offices throughout Europe.
For your Pan European
requirements contact our sales team.
ANDREA MERZARIO LIMITED
44 Broadway, Stratford, London E15
Tel: 0181 534 6380
Fax: 0181 519 0531
B. Read the advertisement again and answer the questions.
1. Where does the company operate?
2. How big is it?
3. What means of transport do they use to carry cargo?
C. You represent Merzario. Describe the services of your company to a po-
tential customer.

Ex. 25. A. Read the text and say whether it is


a) an advertisement;
b) a passage from a textbook;
c) an encyclopedia article;
d) a newspaper article.

EMERY SETS UP NEW MULTIMODAL SERVICE


Emery Worldwide has setup a multimodal transport and logistics ser-
vice facility at Vienna Airport’s International Cargo Centre.

98
It marks the company’s first major presence in Austria after 23 years
operating through agents.
Australian general manager Walter Wildner will oversee operations and
report to Steve Soukup, Emery’s divisional manager for Eastern Europe,
Switzerland and Austria.
Through Emcon, the company’s tracking and tracing system, Emery
can promote its full range of services.
Austria is the tenth country in two years in which Emery has converted
agent operations into wholly-owned company units.

Notes:
to oversee зд. следить
tracking and tracing system система слежения

B. Read the text again and answer the questions.


1. How had the company worked in the Austrian market before they
set up a new office?
2. What will help Emery to promote a full range of services?
3. How big is Emery?
C. Say what you remember from the article about Emery Worldwide and the
services they offer.

D. You are Walter Wildner. Speak about your firm and your future job.

Ex. 26. Read the following texts in order to determine the main idea of each
of them. Find the text most interesting for you and prepare a detailed
plan of it. Speak on the problems touched upon in the text you have cho-
sen using your plan.

TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY RESPONSE TO BUSINESS


REQUIREMENTS
By and large, the transportation needs emphasize reliable, fast freight
transportation service. In all industries, cost is an important component.
Low transportation cost is actually the key requirement for most indus-
tries in all sectors, with the exception of industries producing high-value
and perishable products as well as industries that rely on JIT (just-in-time).
Economies become more service-oriented and more integrated into the
global economy, and as manufacturing processes are increasingly decen-
tralized at the multinational locations, business requirements have then

99
become more complex, requiring transportation from and to a more di-
verse list of origins and destinations. Furthermore, businesses now require
a greater variety of services to meet more specific needs rather than the his-
torical emphasis on similar large volume moves between the same origins
and destinations.
Transportation carriers and other service providers in the transporta-
tion industry are responding to the changing needs of businesses by broad-
ening their service offerings, so that one company can be held accountable
for the overall service and cost.
The transportation industry is broadly defined to include: Railroad
Transportation; Local and Interurban Transit; Trucking and Warehousing;
Water Transportation; Air Transportation; Pipelines; and Transport Ser-
vices. The transportation industry has been growing at an annual rate of 3%
from 1995. The growth of railroad, truck, and air transportation is related
to the increased demand generated by other economic activity, increased
leisure time, economic deregulation (that lowered costs and prices), and
to the increasing importance that users place on speed, reliability, and in-
creased service levels.
As a result of deregulation and other industry trends, modal distinc-
tions are disappearing. Many of the services provided by all transportation
companies now include multimodal movements and/or intermodal con-
nections that cannot be identified separately or disaggregated using the
available international data. For example, the overnight delivery industry
includes both trucking firms, air carriers, as well as integrated carriers that
operate both trucks and aircraft.
At the same time that modal distinctions are becoming less relevant,
the role of carriers, shippers, and middlemen or intermediaries is evolving
and their distinctions are also disappearing. In any freight transportation
move, there have been typically at least two players, the shipper and the car‑
rier. Depending on the size of the shipment, the type of cargo movement,
the origin and destination, whether domestic or international, and other
factors, there might have been several other players involved. These other
participants include additional carriers, and what are typically referred
to as “third-party agents, brokers or middlemen.” In addition, the shipper
can also own a carrier, and in such situations, the department within the
company in need of transportation service is typically required to use the
company-owned or private carrier.
In many industries, transportation had been an integral part of many
companies businesses, e.g. many shippers built their own railroads, or op-

100
erated their own trucks, vessels or airlines. In recent years, the overall
trend then has been towards outsourcing transportation services and re-
lying on one or a limited number of outside carriers and firms to manage
and control transportation costs and services. Even the administrative and
logistics functions are being increasingly outsourced to one or a limited
number of logistics companies.
An increasing number of firms have then contracted the management
of transportation services, including arrangements with travel agencies for
business travel needs, as well as contracting out freight transportation and
logistics services.

PRESSURE MOUNTS AS EXPORTS SLIDE


Cost-efficiency has long been the watch-word for efficient exporters,
but for many Dutch shippers it has become a necessity if they are to survive
the game. A fallback in export volumes to traditional markets last year took
its toll on the country’s manufacturers, with many looking closely at their
total supply chain to see where costs could be saved.
For many years the Netherlands has been in the vanguard of Eu-
rope’s reforming economies, being the model among many of its Euro-
pean neighbours in controlling unemployment. However, this model has
proved less than effective in dealing with the shocks to its exports, notably
to Southeast Asia and Brazil.
According to the Central Planning Bureau, the Dutch government’s
think tank, the economy will grow by just 2.25% this year due to the knock-
on effects of the global slowdown.
In spite of weaker export prospects, the Netherland’s current account
surplus is estimated to have registered 5.8% of GDP last year and is ex-
pected to slip only slightly to 5.7% of GDP this year.
Many exporters were suffering from the after-effects of the Asian crisis,
with exports of waste paper — the traditional Far Eastern import — now
starting to dry up. Shippers have to cut costs if they are to stay operating
in the market. But in re-examining their supply chains, shippers are not
only looking to secure the cheapest transport options possible, but are out-
sourcing more of the physical transport operations to third-party opera-
tors.
Pressures of time and cost in getting cargoes to the market has en-
couraged many companies to consider mixing and matching transport
modes — with short-sea shipping and inland waterway transportation as
obvious choice. If an exporting company can cut its transport costs by us-

101
ing different modes, it will consider it. It is often attractive to avoid expen-
sive warehousing costs by storing cargoes at sea as it is shipped from one
port to another. If a shipper has a choice, he will definitely give shortsea
shipping a chance, mainly because his supply chain is not being interrupt-
ed and also because using short-sea shipping gives out a positive image.
Heavy congestion on the roads is forcing many Dutch shippers to re-
consider alternative modes of transport. Major producers like Heineken
and some of the large chemical companies are heavy users of inland water-
way systems to and from the port of Rotterdam.
The Dutch government has placed such an importance on inland wa-
terways as a transport mode that it, together with its near neighbour Bel-
gium, liberalized the sector at the beginning of December 1998 — two years
ahead of the official deadline. Through liberalization, inland vessel opera-
tion is more organized and potentially more cost-effective for shippers.
Instead of cargo owners waiting for available inland barges, liberaliza-
tion has encouraged inland waterway operators to run more dependable
services offering more service guarantees than before. Improvements are
reflected in the level of freight rates charged.
Inland waterways remain an important transport mode for cargo des-
tined for the two Groningen Seaports of Delfzijl and Emshaven.
The ports, which handled 5.5 m tons of chemicals, timber products and
general cargo last year, mainly serve their local import and export markets.
Groningen Seaports is looking to boost its handling of containers this
year through the construction of a new roll-on, roll-off ramp at the port,
which is due to be completed by May. The drive towards moving freight off
the roads and onto more environmentally friendly modes of transport will
have knock-on effects for hauliers.
According to the project manager at Holland Transport, the association
of Dutch hauliers, growing competition from eastern bloc hauliers is hav-
ing more of a detrimental effect on the earnings of Dutch drivers. Hauliers
from these countries can apply for licences to operate as Dutch companies
to the market, but it is not the same for Dutch truck drivers in the Polish
or Hungarian markets. But these Eastern European drivers are driving for
rates that would hardly cover the cost of the fuel they put in their vehicles.
It is easier for prices to go down than for them to rise. Dutch hauliers need
to have easy entry to Eastern European markets while professional and
educational qualifications for entry the Dutch market should be upgraded.
The problem is not only to do with the amount of available cargo
on the market, but the rates being paid to hauliers.

102
ECONOMIC TRENDS AND MULTIMODAL TRANSPORTATION
REQUIREMENTS
The U.S. economy is being transformed as a result of many global de-
mand and supply forces that affect the competitiveness of U.S. industry.
Recent trends in distribution and logistics, shipper requirements, and busi-
ness location patterns are also revolutionizing the private transportation
industry. These trends also have significant complications for the types
of infrastructure and government-supported transportation programs that
will be required in the future.
Economic forces and free-trade policies that are generating increased
worldwide trade tend to generate transportation demand, as products
move longer distances and regions specialize in products which can be dis-
tributed competitively.
Economic trends and globalization of the economy are also forcing
industries to restructure operations and become more competitive. Indus-
tries restructuring also tends to generate increased transportation demand,
because, for example, businesses tend to disperse their manufacturing
around the world to reduce labor costs, and/or increase transportation re-
quirements by concentrating distribution out of one or a few distribution
centers serving the entire nation. Traditional large-scale manufacturers
have become more competitive over the past decade, partly by institut-
ing just-in-time inventory control systems that reduce their manufactur-
ing, distribution and inventory costs, and increase demand for higher levels
of transportation service. These companies then are not only searching for
ways to reduce transportation costs, but also are purchasing integrated lo-
gistics systems that reduce transit times and improve reliability.
Just-in-time systems are increasingly being used not only by manufac-
turing, but also by retailing and service industries. In general, JIT systems
consume more transportation assets than conventional shipping arrange-
ments. They require more trucks on the road, not to move more freight,
but to move it quicker. The flexibility of U.S. transportation capacity may
be constrained, as highway volumes may increase faster than the cargo ton-
nage that is being carried.
Some of the most competitive sectors of the U.S. economy include the
newer high technology and knowledge-based industries that are generating
changes in the nature of transportation demand, since they rely on shorter
product cycles that can quickly become obsolete, as well as more frequent
shipments of smaller, lighter products.
The competitiveness of American companies is dependent on whether
their products can be transported and delivered reliably at a competitive

103
price from a manufacturing plant or distribution center to a larger hinter-
land, including both domestic and foreign destinations.
Improved reliability of transportation service and the ability of a com-
pany to reduce its product inventory increases the firm’s competitive ad-
vantage, both because of their ability to respond to changing customer
demand faster and to reduce their costs. If enough U.S. manufacturers
improve on their supply chain logistics efficiency, the whole economy
is affected positively. This can be seen most clearly during an economic
slowdown where a less severe downturn is expected than in the past due
to more efficient manufacturers. In the past, inefficiencies in the supply
chain worsened recessions. However, if the supply chain is efficient, there
are not many goods in the pipeline, and as demand falls, production will
increase accordingly, thereby saving business losses from over production
and over inventory. As such, the benefits of increased transportation reli-
ability include contributing to U.S. competitiveness, business profitability,
and overall economic stability.

SOME BASIC ENGLISH TERMS


economic deregulation дерегулирова- congestion чрезмерное скопление
ние (уменьшение государственного (грузов, судов и т.п.); чрезмерная
регулирования экономики) перегрузка (склада, порта и т.п.)
integrated carrier компания, зани- to boost handling of containers уско-
мающаяся перевозкой грузов ав- рять обработку контейнеров
томобильным и авиатранспортом to disperse (the) manufacturing рас-
intermediary посредник средоточение производства (об‑
cost efficiency рентабельность, эф- рабатывающей промышленности)
фективность затрат just-in-time inventory control system
current account текущий платежный система контроля запасов, обес­
баланс; текущий счет печивающая их своевременное
supply chain цепочка поставок пополнение
short-sea shipping морская перевозка hinterland районы экономического
на короткие расстояния (между тяготения, расположенные вдали
европейскими портами, а также от побережья
между ними и портами неевропей‑ to worsen recession усиливать эконо-
ских стран, омываемых морями, по мический спад
которым проходит граница евро‑
пейских стран)
deep sea shipping морское (океаниче‑
ское) судоходство
warehousing cost складские расходы

104
VOCABULARY
1. intermodal (adj) интермодальный
2. definition (n) определение
define (v) определять
I’d like you to define it properly.
3. interchangeably (adv) взаимозаменяемо
4. mode (n) способ
syn. method
transport mode способ транспортировки
mode of payment способ оплаты
There are different modes of transportation.
5. multimodal (adj) мультимодальный
6. bring into force вводить в действие
be in force действовать
The regulation is in force.
7. charge (n) забота, попечение; надзор; хранение
charge (v) взимать сбор, налагать пошлину и т.п.
be in charge of sth отвечать за что-либо
Who will be in charge of the shipment while I’m away?
8. designate (v) предназначать, указывать
9. conclude (v) заключать
conclude a contract
сonclude an agreement
When was this agency agreement concluded?
10. latter (n) последний (из двух названных)
11. function (v) функционировать
The previous transport system didn’t function properly.
12. consumer (n) потребитель
consumer goods потребительские товары
The demand for consumer goods has increased.
consume (v) потреблять
13. shoulder (n) плечо
shoulder (v) принимать на себя
They refused to shoulder responsibility for the damage.
14. be faced with . . . встречаться, сталкиваться
The firm was faced with a lot of difficulties when it started this busi-
ness.
15. insufficient (adj) недостаточный
The information is insufficient.
16. make progress добиваться успеха
You’ve made great progress in learning economics.
17. be aware of . . . понимать, осознавать
be aware that . . .

105
syn. realize
He wasn’t aware of my presence.
Some time passed before I realized that I was wrong.
18. benefit (n) выгода
Did the company get much benefit from this modernization?
19. gain (v) получать; приобретать; выигрывать
They didn’t gain much when they invested in production of consumer
goods.
gain (n) выигрыш; выгода
20. directly (adv) непосредственно, прямо
It’s better to take the goods directly from the factory.
direct (adj) прямой
21. neither . . . nor (conj) ни ... ни
Neither frozen food nor fruit can be transported in these vans.
22. coast (n) морское побережье
Our ship was going along the coast.
on the coast
ср. shore
on shore
ashore
On Sunday the crew was allowed to go ashore.
seaside
at the seaside
I’d like to spend my holiday at the Baltic seaside.
bank
on the bank
There are a few boarding houses on the bank of the Volga.
23. arrange (v) организовывать, устраивать
arrangement (n) приведение в порядок; договоренность
I think he can easily arrange that.
arrangements (n pl) меры, мероприятия, приготовления
I’d like to make the necessary arrangements first.
24. delighted (adj) восхитительный
to be delighted to do sth с удовольствием делать что-либо
I’d be delighted to join you.
25. by and large (adv) в общем, вообще говоря
26. diverse (adj) различный, отличный, несходный
27. broaden (v) расширять
28. annual (adj) годовой, ежегодный, годичный
29. relate (v) относиться, иметь отношение
30. distinction (n) различие, отличие
31. disaggregated (adj) разрозненный
32. relevant (adj) уместный, относящийся к делу
33. intermediary (n) посредник

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34. integral (adj) неотъемлемый, существенный
35. overall (adj) полный, общий
36. private (adj) частный, личный, приватный
37. survive (v) переживать (современников, славу и т.п.)
38. fallback (n) отступление, отказ
39. toll (n) пошлина, сбор
40. vanguard (n) авангард
41. estimate (n) оценка
42. suffer (v) страдать
43. after-effect, aftereffect (n) последствие (войны и т.п.)
44. dry up (v) пересохнуть, высохнуть; истощиться
45. option (n) выбор, право выбора; опцион
46. encourage (v) поощрять, воодушевлять
47. obvious (adj) очевидный
48. interrupt (v) прерывать, останавливать
49. deadline (n) крайний срок, окончательная дата
50. dependable (adj) зависимый
51. improvement (n) усовершенствование, улучшение
52. reflect (v) отражать
53. destine (v) назначать, предназначать
54. chemicals (n pl) химикаты, продукты химического производства
55. boost (v) поднимать, подпихивать, поддерживать
56. due to (adv) из-за, вследствие, благодаря
57. environment (n) окружающая среда
environmentally (adv) с экологической точки зрения
58. upgrade (v) поднимать качество, ставить на более высокую ступень
59. recent (adj) недавний
60. complication (n) осложнение
61. generate (v) порождать, вызывать
62. disperse (v) рассеивать, распространять
63. entire (adj) целый, весь
64. institute (v) устанавливать, учреждать
65. retailing (n) торговля в розницу
66. constrain (v) принуждать, вынуждать
67. obsolete (adj) устаревший, вышедший из моды
68. hintherland (n) районы, находящиеся в глубине страны, далеко от грани-
цы или прибрежной полосы
69. ability (n) способность
70. severe (adj) серьезный, суровый, строгий
71. worsen (v) ухудшать
72. recession (n) спад, рецессия
73. contribute (v) делать вклад, способствовать
74. profitability (n) прибыльность, доходность

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Unit 5
LOGISTICS

INTRODUCING NEW INFORMATION


Ex. 1. A. Read the text and find 2—3 sentences that express the main idea.

LOGISTICS
The interest in logistics in Russia today is immense, and a lot of inter-
pretations of what logistics is have appeared in the last few years.
There are not so many schools or universities in Russia where one can
be trained to work as logistics manager though the market demand for
these specialists is great.
Transport logistics is the art of organizing the transfer of cargo from
origin to destination. Logistics is now a multibillion-dollar business, and
almost every company wants to have a stake in it.
Marine engineering companies, port authorities and manufacturers
have joined shipping companies, freight forwarders and logistics operators
in providing a service which is referred to as LOGISTICS. Some offer no
more than a warehouse to third parties while others provide everything —
freight forwarding, warehousing, inventory management, stuffing and un-
stuffing of containers, palletizing, packaging and product configuration.
We all see the logistics industry changing fast. Western logistics com-
panies have begun offering new services to totally new markets: Eastern
Europe, Russia and Asia. New transport routes by air, rail, road and sea
are constantly turning up. Mergers, acquisitions and alliances in the logis-
tics industry mean that service chains are more comprehensive than ever
before.
An up-to-date logistics operator is a company which has a big ware-
house and their own fleet of trucks shuttling containers back and forth be-
tween ports, railway hubs or airports and a logistics park. The company will
offer consolidation, deconsolidation, customs clearance on their premises
and other logistics services such as picking and packing, palletizing and
relabelling of goods.

108
Normally in logistics if you can be the first, you have a large chance
of taking the whole market.

Notes:
marine engineering company судостроительная компания
merger слияние
acquisition поглощение
alliance объединение
hub центр, узел, пункт

B. Reread the text and say if the statements below are true or false. Correct
the false statements.
1. Market demand for logistics operators is great all over the world.
2. Transport logistics has nothing to do with the carriage of goods.
3. Very few companies invest in logistics now.
4. Inventory management and warehousing are the same.
5. Acquisition is a forwarding firm.
6. A modern logistics operator is a company which transports danger-
ous goods.
7. Many new routes have appeared in the transport market lately.
C. Look through the text again and say what you remember from the text
about
a) logistics companies;
b) changes in the logistics industry;
c) logistics in Russia.

DEVELOPING READING TECHNIQUE


Ex. 2. A. Listen to the text Logistics and follow it with your eyes.
B. Listen to the text again and repeat it sentence by sentence.
C. Read the text aloud. Approximate time of reading is 1.5 min.

LEARNING NEW WORDS


Ex. 3. A. Find the words in bold type and try to guess their meaning. Check up
the translation of the words in the Vocabulary (p. 132). Write them out
in your vocabulary.
B. Write down all the words unknown to you in your vocabulary.

109
Ex. 4. Explain the meaning of the following phrases within the text:
1) comprehensive service chains;
2) to offer palletizing;
3) a logistic park;
4) to be trained in warehouse management;
5) to turn up constantly;
6) picking and packing containers.
Ex. 5. Match these verbs and noun phrases and translate the expressions they
make into Russian:
to transfer a logistic operator
to refer to containers forth and back
to shuttle boxes and bags
to stuff inventory management
to provide port and warehouse
to offer premises
to invest in palletizing
Ex. 6. Fill in the gaps with the words given below.
packaging, packed, containers, damage, crates, labelled, label, container
When a company exports goods abroad, there are many problems
it must consider, e.g. _____, transportation, insurance, payment. First
of all the goods must be ______ carefully in ______ to protect them from
______ . The containers or _____ must be _____ clearly to show where
they are going. The _____ may also show what the _____ contain.
Ex. 7. Read the text and choose the right word.
The Advance Cargo Information System (ACIS) offers the opportu-
nity of (exchanging, exchanged) information between various parties (in-
volving, involved) in transport and acts as a catalyst to the introduction
of both logistical chains and multimodal logistics. It is a real-time system
(basing, based) on PC network and offers the opportunity for (improving,
improved) resource planning, better equipment utilization through the
(improving, improved) supply of transport data to the users.
ACIS has four compartments, each (tracking, tracked) transport
equipment and cargo on a mode: port, road, rail and lake. They in turn
have main modules (performing, performed) different but (interrelating,
interrelated) functions, especially (referring, referred) to statistics and per-
formance indicators.

110
ACIS is (designing, designed) to change transportation culture by
(promoting, promoted) “business partnership” between those (involving,
involved) with cargo transits. ACIS is necessary to provide information
on the progress of consignments so as to identify and cure the causes of de-
lay and other problems.
Notes:
to interrelate иметь взаимную связь
to involve вовлекать

Ex. 8. Check yourself. Give the English equivalents of the following Russian
word combinations:
1) обучаться на логиста;
2) ссылаться на опыт компании в экспедировании грузов;
3) перемещать контейнеры между портом и железнодорожной
станцией;
4) оказывать складские услуги;
5) слияние и поглощение;
6) перевозить груз от места происхождения до места назначения;
7) обеспечивать упаковку и укладку в палеты;
8) рыночный спрос на специалистов в области логистики;
9) осуществлять растаможивание груза на собственных складах;
10) постоянно появляться на рынке.

REVIEWING GRAMMAR

Ex. 9. Study the table. Note the formal signs of the Complex Object.
Complex Object
Подлежащее + сказуемое + сложное дополнение
The providers want the manager to do sth.
They expect him
He considers them
The operator thinks us
The providers see the manager do sth.
They hear him doing sth.
The operator watches them
He notices us
make do sth.
let

111
Ex. 10. Read the sentences paying attention to the usage of the Complex Object
and translate them into Russian.
1. I want you to make a report at the conference.
2. We expect the company to give us a discount.
3. The carriers would like the cargo to be ready for dispatch to-
morrow.
4. The workers heard the truck arrive at the warehouse.
5. The president believes the contract to be signed next week.
6. The inspector finds the report to be incomplete.
7. The company allowed its customer to make the payment next
week.
8. People watched the ship enter the port.
9. We all know him to be a reliable partner.
10. They’ll make us sign the contract.
11. The driver watched the Customs Official looking through the dec-
laration.

Ex. 11. Make sentences using the Complex Object table.


The manager to want the forwarder to be in charge of the shipment
They to watch the partner to conclude an agency agreement
The president to expect the distributor to arrange delivery of this cargo
We to see the carrier to cross the border on Friday
The workers to notice the truck to share the responsibility for the losses
to load the cargo on the truck
to discharge the vessel

Ex. 12. Combine the sentences using the Complex Object if possible.
1. The production lines of multinational corporations must be trans-
ferred to Asia and Latin America. The corporations want it.
2. Finished products should be delivered everywhere. People expect it.
3. The logistics operator was discussing the new tracking system with
the customer. I heard it.
4. The largest freight forwarders of the country were trying to take the
logistics market. We didn’t want it.
5. The new crane was stuffing containers. A group of new employees
was watching it.
6. The new manager will be in charge of product configuration and
packaging.

112
7. The general manager expects it.
8. Palletizing refers to logistics. I heard about it.
9. The cargo must be dispatched before the weekend. The manager
expects it.
10. The problem of overtime should be solved as soon as possible. The
loaders expect it.
11. The distributors provided very effective service. The manufacturers
thought it was so.

Ex. 13. Translate the sentences into English using the Complex Object if pos-
sible.
1. Они не предполагали, что расходы по складированию так ве-
лики.
2. Я слышал, что вы отвечаете за перегрузку.
3. Я слышал, как они обсуждали счет за разгрузку.
4. Он не видел, как контейнеры передвигали.
5. Нам бы хотелось, чтобы вагон был загружен к 5 часам.
6. Вы считаете, что упаковка должна быть произведена за наш
счет?
7. Я хочу, чтобы мы расcчитались сегодня.
8. Я полагаю, что такой важный момент не может быть упущен.
9. Они и не думали, что мы столкнемся с большими трудностя-
ми в порту.
10. Он не заметил, как стрела сдвинулась с места.

Ex. 14. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form.


At present multinational corporations (transfer) their production lines
to Asia and Latin America. They organize the delivery of components
to the manufacturing sites. They also (arrange) shipment of the finished
products to distribution centres, therefore they (have) a requirement for
repackaging, relabelling, resorting, for inventory control and for final dis-
tribution to the consumers of their products. In short they (need) logistics
service. Today almost every other trucker, freight forwarder, storage com-
pany or short-sea carrier (style) itself as a logistics operator. Very effec-
tive service but only within very restricted market (can, provide) by many
of them, but they (be) not global. On the other end of the scale many large
forwarders who (operate) offices, freight handling systems and Informa-
tion Technology networks (try) to take the logistics market. The director

113
of one smaller forwarder said that although his firm (can, provide) ware-
housing and some other logistics services, it (find) it difficult to compete
with big logistics providers when a customer (require) complex logistics
services. Since these big logistics companies (be) also major forwarders or
container liner operators, the survival of the smaller or medium-size firms
(can, be) in doubt.
Ex. 15. Put in articles where necessary. Say what fully integrated service is and
how it can be achieved.
____ flow ____ of information is very important in ____ integra-
tion of ____ transport with ____ other services such as ____ warehous-
ing, ____ inventory management, ____ packing, ____ insurance, and
____ border documentation. ____ speed of transport operation depends
on ____ speed of ____ transmitting ____ information. ____ logistics
is too complex to be managed by ____ one party. To provide ____ fully
integrated service to ____ users ____ multimodal operators can join ____
distribution specialists and ____ other logistics providers. ____ new tech-
nological applications in ____ logistics are now being used by ____ world
biggest ports and ____ logistics service providers around ____ world. ____
goal is to improve ____ service level and guarantee that goods delivered
to ____ destinations are properly tracked and accounted for.

Notes:
flow поток
to be accounted for зд. быть оформленным, документированным
to track отслеживать

Ex. 16. Fill in the gaps with prepositions where necessary.


1. Many transport companies provide their customers ____ effective
services only ____ a restricted market.
2. The trains started running ____ and forth between the port and the
railway hub.
3. Many logistics information systems are constantly turning ____ .
4. We wanted them to show the Certificate ____ Origin.
5. They referred ____ the telephone conversation we had had two
days before.
6. Our excellent reputation was ____ stake when we started a risky
business ____ customs clearance ____ our warehouse.
7. You can turn ____ the assistant manager ____ help ____ case
____ emergency.

114
8. What services can your company provide us ____?
9. Our small firm has been operating ____ the market ____ a few
months, and we find it difficult to compete ____ specialized logis-
tics companies.
10. ____ reference ____ the above we confirm the dispatch ____ the
consignment ____ 10th of May.
Ex. 17. Translate the text into English. Say whether you would like to subscribe
to the journal Logistics.
Слово «логистика» прочно входит в лексикон российских пред-
принимателей, бизнесменов, экономистов из самых различных сфер
деятельности. Сегодня его активно используют военные и даже по-
литики. Оно стало модным среди деловой молодежи. К сожалению,
его значение далеко не все понимают однозначно. Издатели журна-
ла взяли на себя нелегкие обязанности объединить на его страницах
всех, кто в условиях рыночной экономики aктивно использует эту
современную науку об управлении и оптимизации материалопото-
ков и связанных с ними потоках информации и финансовых средств.
Главная задача нового издания — научить специалистов гово-
рить на одном «логистическом сленге», знакомить их с имеющимся
отечественным и зарубежным опытом применения логистики в про-
изводстве, на транспорте и в торговле. С помощью этого издания мы
надеемся помочь производителям складской, подъемно-транспорт-
ной, торговой техники и логистических услуг найти новых заказчи-
ков, надежных партнеров в России и за рубежом.
Предисловие к журналу «Логистика», январь — март 1998 г.

LEARNING TO LISTEN AND SPEAK


Ex. 18. A. Listen to the telephone conversation and say how the emergency lot
will be dispatched:
a) by truck to Munich;
b) by sea to Kaliningrad;
c) by truck to Kaliningrad.

BUSINESS ROUTINE
Borisov: BNS. Good morning.
Stock: Good morning. I’d like to speak to Mr Borisov.

115
Borisov: Borisov’s here. Is that you, Bob? Hello. I was just about to call
you. It’s about the emergency delivery to Munich we were talking
about yesterday.
Stock: You mean the one they wanted delivered by the 23d?
Borisov: Yes. Right. We’ve got a fax about it this morning. Now they want
us to dispatch it tomorrow. You know, we’re a bit short-handed
on the packing side. We’ve just all been working like slaves on that
Chinese order and haven’t got round to this lot yet.
Stock: Let’s see. It’s Friday tomorrow, isn’t it? That makes it a bit hard.
Borisov: Look. What about offering the boys in dispatch a little overtime
for the weekend? We can put the whole lot into one lorry and get
it straight off to Kaliningrad. It’ll be on the quayside by Monday
morning then.
Stock: Yes, that’s the answer. Why haven’t I thought about it before?
That’s solved then.
Borisov: Well, I must be off now. I’m seeing Goodman and his people
at 2.30. Bye.
Stock: OK. Bye. Keep in touch.
B. Listen to the conversation again and say if the following sentences are
true or false. Correct those which are false.
1. Mr Borisov wanted Mr Stock to send the truck to Kaliningrad.
2. They wanted the truck to be dispatched at 2.30.
3. The Chinese company sent a fax to Mr Borisov about their order.
4. There were not enough loaders in the warehouse.
5. Mr Borisov suggested that the warehouse people should be offered
a little overtime.
6. Mr Stock was having talks at 2.30.
C. Say what you remember from the conversation about
a) business relations between Mr Borisov and Mr Stock and the busi-
ness their company does;
b) the problem they had with the Munich order;
c) the Chinese order.
D. Listen to the conversation and repeat it sentence by sentence.
E. Rearrange the conversation.
Borisov: Look. What about offering the boys in dispatch a little overtime
for the weekend? We can put the whole lot into one lorry and get
it straight off to Kaliningrad. It’ll be on the quayside by Monday
morning then.

116
Stock: You mean the one they wanted delivered by the 23d?
Borisov: Well, I must be off now. I’m seeing Goodman and his people
at 2.30. Bye.
Stock: Let’s see. It’s Friday tomorrow, isn’t it? That makes it a bit hard.
Borisov: Yes. Right. They’ve sent us a fax about it this morning. Now they
want us to dispatch it tomorrow. You know, we’re a bit short-
handed on the packing side. We’ve just all been working like
slaves on that Chinese order and haven’t got round to this lot yet.
Stock: Yes, that’s the answer. Why haven’t I thought about it before?
That’s solved then.
Borisov: Borisov’s here. Is that you, Bob? Hello. I was just about to call
you. It’s about the emergency delivery to Munich we were talking
about yesterday.
Stock: OK. Bye. Keep in touch.
Ex. 19. Complete the conversation.
Stock: Good morning. I’d like to speak to Mr Borisov.
Borisov: _________________________________________________
Stock: Do you mean that urgent delivery we must send in three days?
Borisov: _________________________________________________
Stock: Let’s see. It’s Friday tomorrow, isn’t it? That makes it a bit hard.
Saturday and Sunday are our days off.
Borisov: _________________________________________________
Stock: Yes, that’s the answer. Why haven’t I thought about it before?
That’s solved then.
Ex. 20. Have a conversation with your partner using the information below.
You work for a small forwarding company. Your cargo has arrived at
a warehouse with a two days’ delay because of heavy snow. You want the truck
to be unloaded as soon as possible. Phone the warehouse manager and ask
him if they can arrange unloading today. Offer him an overtime if necessary.

LEARNING TO WRITE
Ex. 21. You work for a big Russian logistics company in the Personnel Depart-
ment. You have put an advertisement in The Inbound Logistics in search
for a logistics manager for your subsidiary in Germany. The CV below
was received yesterday. Study it closely and ask your boss if he wants
Albert Bleker to be invited for an interview.

117
Application for Position in Logistics
in Russia

Curriculum Vitae
Name: Albert Bleker
Address: Hereweg 90, 9725 AH, Groningen
E-mail address: bleker@jonker-veendam.nl
Telephone number: 050-5250172 (private),
0598-657329 (office)
Date of birth: 20 November, 1976
Nationality: Dutch
Education
1988—1994 Higher General Education,
“Kamerringh Onnes” in Groningen,
diploma — July 1989
1994—2000 College of Advanced Technology,
“Vervoersacademie” in Venlo,
field of study: Logistical Management,
diploma — 2000
Knowledge of foreign languages
Excellent command of spoken/written English and German
Russian at the beginner’s level
Plus
Excellent knowledge of PC: Word, Excel
Relevant working experience
December 2000 — present Head of Logistics, Business Unit Warehous-
ing, Veendam B.V.
As head of logistics I am responsible for ex-
ecuting all logistics activities at the office and
in the warehouse (100,000 sq.m storage space)
Tasks:
„„ Managing of the Logistical Department staffed with five employees.
„„ Drawing up reports for the Business Unit Warehousing manager and
the Board.

118
„„ Reporting and analysing financial and quantitative data concerning
the Business Unit Warehousing.
„„ Putting together the budget.
„„ Supervising projects related to the outsourcing of logistical activities
of our (new) clients.
„„ Coaching trainees.

October 1999 — December 2000 Staff employee at the Business Unit


Warehousing responsible for draw-
ing up reports for the Business Unit
Warehousing manager
January — September 2000 Transport planner responsible for the
most optimal performance of trucks
and drivers

Note:
CV — Curriculum Vitae краткие биографические данные, резюме

B. Role-play an interview of Albert Bleker with the Personnel Manager


of a big Russian logistics company.
C. You are looking for a job in the logistics department of a foreign firm.
Send a letter to Transport & Logistics Ltd in reply to their advertise-
ment in The World Transport Journal and enclose your Curriculum Vi-
tae. Use the CV above as a model.

Ex. 22. Read the dialogue and write the letter Mr Zotov and Mr Bobrov are
discussing.
Mr Zotov and Mr Bobrov are members of the Board of a manufac-
turing company who have started exporting their products. Mr Dronov
is a manager of the bank who lent them money for the expansion. They are
discussing Mr Dronov’s letter.

Zotov: What do you think of the letter? I think Dronov’s going too far.
Bobrov: Yes, I thought as much. They want us to merge with Rosmash.
An extremely successful company.
Zotov: Did you know about this?
Bobrov: No, not really. When we started this export business, I guessed
Dronov might suggest something like this to protect bank invest-
ments in us.

119
Zotov: Or more likely to increase the bank’s profit. Dronov has shown
his true colours. And what infuriates me is that Rosmash want
50% control of our company.
Bobrov: Yes. And that means Rosmash would like their managing di-
rector to keep an eye on us. But Dronov goes on . . . “You will
benefit from being associated with Rosmash which has a wide
international network.” We haven’t done very badly so far, but
the problem is we are becoming heavily dependent on borrowing
to finance expansion.
Zotov: But where can we get the money without losing control?
Bobrov: I don’t know. Dronov’s worried that we can’t handle the expan-
sion by ourselves and thinks the bank’s interest would be best
served by linking up with a big company with a lot of marketing
experience.
Zotov: And at the moment it could appear that the bank is in a strong
position to dictate terms.
Bobrov: Absolutely.

Note:
to infuriate приводить в ярость

B. Answer the questions.


1. Why did the bank suggest that the company should merge with
Rosmash?
2. What infuriated Mr Zotov?
3. Was Mr Dronov right suggesting the merger?
4. What do you remember from the conversation about the merger?
5. Who benefits from it?
C. Role-play a telephone talk with Dronov, the bank manager. Tell him you
have discussed his letter and in these circumstances have to agree to the
merger with Rosmash. Inform him of the letter you sent to him yester-
day.

LEARNING TO READ AND ANALYSE


Ex. 23. A. Read and translate the following text. Speak about advantages and
disadvantages of the Internet, LogiMan and other computer systems.

120
Swedish telecom giant Ericsson is a new customer to a new computer
logistics information management system (LogiMan) which will revolu-
tionize supply chain management in Scandinavia’s top manufacturing
companies.
LogiMan process starts working when a shipper sends a consignment
to a customer or even when a customer orders goods through the system.
LogiMan works over the Internet, and it can also accept fax reports where
there is no Internet. All access to the system is restricted by pass word for
total security.
After successful implementation with Ericsson, says the representative
of the LogiMan, we are rolling the program out to the Scandinavian mar-
ket place. We expect the system to be used by many of Scandinavia’s larg-
est manufacturers within a year. We will extend the product globally. There
is no barrier to its use. LogiMan’s main advantage is that it removes the need
to manually check on shipments which run according to the plan. The system
works on the basis that no news is good news, it throws us alerts when things
go wrong. This means that users can concentrate only on the small percentage
of the shipments which do go wrong.
LogiMan is also capable of linking with the user’s existing logistics sys-
tem.

Notes:
access доступ
implementation осуществление, реализация
to throw sb alerts зд. подавать сигнал настороженности
to link соединять, связывать

B. Read the text again and answer the questions.


1. Where was LogiMan developed?
2. What principle does it work on?
3. What do you think of its main advantage?

Ex. 24. A. Read the advertisement and say who it is intended for:
a) companies dealing with transportation;
b) individuals;
c) companies importing or exporting goods from Europe;
d) companies importing or exporting goods from Asia;
e) companies importing or exporting goods from America.

121
BEWESHIP
OFFERS COMPLETE LOGISTICAL SERVICE
BETWEEN EAST AND WEST

Beweship is one of the leading Finnish forwarders trans-


porting to Russia, other CIS countries, the Baltic states, Eu-
rope and overseas. We have daily connections to CIS countries
and the Baltic states for groupage and full loads. Our modern
customs terminal/offices with facilities over 3,000 sq.m is in
Vaalimaa in the Southeastern part of Finland. It is the fastest
growing border crossing point between Finland and Russia.
Beweship offers you complete transit service, transportation,
warehousing, including temperature-controlled and deep-
freeze storage, forwarding and customs clearance. With our
40 years’ experience we are able to handle your shipments
safely anywhere in the world by road, sea and air.
All our services are ISO 9002 Quality certified.

BEWESHIP
Helsinki Finland
Tel.: +358-9-351 661
Fax.: +358-9-351 66 331
Turku Tempere Vaalimaaa Tallinn St Petersburg Moscow

B. Read the advertisement again and answer the questions.


1. What services does the company offer?
2. Are they a big logistics firm?
3. Where is the fastest growing border crossing point?
4. How long have Beweship been operating in the transport market?
Ex. 25. You have a small warehouse and five trucks. Write an advertisement for
the journal Logistics about your company.
Ex. 26. A. Read the text and say whether it is
a) an advertisement;
b) a passage from a textbook;
c) an encyclopedia article;
d) a newspaper article.

122
KEEPING HOLD OF CUSTOMERS
A recent meeting of industry heads highlighted the need for logistics and
marketing to work in synergy if customer satisfaction is to be guaranteed.
If marketing creates the customer, then logistics keeps that custom-
er, according to marketing supremo Steve Cuthbert. Speaking at a meet-
ing organized by Key Communications to discuss the vital link between
marketing and logistics, Mr Cuthbert said: “It is about identifying the cus-
tomer’s needs and anticipating customer preference, and in order to de-
liver that, you need to have world-class logistics. There was a time when
marketing and logistics did not exist and business was simple, people made
things and sold them — it was a case of ‘any colour as long as it is black’.
In fact business should still be that simple, but as the world shrinks, the
supply chain has become longer and more complex.” Harnessing that sup-
ply chain and harmonizing it with other functions, such as marketing, was
the real secret to a business success according to Dr Ian Canadine. “Lo-
gistics is not an industry,” said Mr Canadine, “but logistics services are
an industry. Firms which still provide a personal touch and combine this
with mass production are the most successful because they bring the quality
of the craft approach with the advantages of the mass produced. Logistics
is about changing perceptions and creating that personal touch.”

Notes:
to anticipate предвидеть
to shrink уменьшаться
to harness зд. использовать

B. Read the text again and answer the questions.


1. Why do we need to have world class logistics now?
2. How do you account for “any colour as long as it is black”?
3. What is the secret of good business?
4. What keeps hold of a customer? Why?
C. Role-play an interview with Steve Cuthbert about the work of his com-
pany and his impressions of the meeting on marketing and logistics.

Ex. 27. Get ready to make a presentation at the Annual International Confer-
ence on Transport and Logistics to be held in St Petersburg on the 3rd
of June 20 . . . Read the texts given below and decide what topic of your
presentation will be. Make a plan of your presentation and prepare a re-
port according to the plan.

123
Supply Chain Management — Definition
and Importance of Its Strategies
Definition of Supply Chain Management
If you go to a supermarket and pick up a few items of the shelf from
electronics and white goods or even clothes and look at the labels, chances
are that you will find them having been manufactured in China or Mexico.
The coffee pods you buy to use for your every day use comes from Africa.
Computers have been shipped out of South American factories, and soft
furnishings on the shelves are from India and Hong Kong.
Global markets are expanding beyond borders and redefining the way
demand and supplies are managed. Global companies are driven by mar-
kets across continents. In order to keep the cost of manufacturing down,
they are forced to keep looking to set up production centers where cost
of raw materials and labor is cheap. Sourcing of raw materials and vendors
to supply the right quality, quantity, and at right price calls for dynamic
procurement strategy spanning across countries.
With the above scenario you find companies procuring materials glob-
ally from various vendors to supply raw materials to their factories situated
in different continents. The finished goods out of these different factory lo-
cations then pass through different chains of distribution network involv-
ing warehouses, exports to different countries or local markets, distribu-
tors, retailers, and finally to the end customer.
In simple language, managing all of the above activities in tandem
to manage demand and supply on a global scale is Supply Chain Manage-
ment. As per definition SCM is the management of a network of all busi-
ness processes and activities involving procurement of raw materials, man-
ufacturing and distribution management of finished goods. SCM is also
called the art of management of providing the Right Product, at the Right
Time, Right Place and at the Right Cost to the Customer.

Why SCM Strategy Is Important for an Organization


Supply Chain Strategies are the critical backbone to business organiza-
tions today. Effective market coverage, availability of products at locations
which hold the key to revenue recognition depend upon the effectiveness
of Supply Chain Strategy rolled out. Very simply stated, when a product
is introduced in the market and advertised, the entire market in the coun-
try and all the sales counters need to have the product where the customer
is able to buy and take delivery. Any glitch in product not being available at

124
the right time can result in drop in customer interest and demand, which
can be disastrous. Transportation network design and management assume
importance to support sales and marketing strategy.
Inventory control and inventory visibility are two very critical elements
in any operations for these are the cost drivers and directly impact the bot-
tom lines in the balance sheet. Inventory means value and is an asset of the
company. Every business has a standard for inventory turnaround that
is optimum for the business. Inventory turnaround refers to the number
of times the inventory is sold and replaced in a period of twelve months.
The health of the inventory turn relates to the health of business.
In a global scenario, the finished goods inventory is held at many loca-
tions and distribution centers, managed by third parties. A lot of inventory
would also be in the pipeline in transportation, besides the inventory with
distributors and retail stocking points. Since any loss of inventory anywhere
in the supply chain would result in loss of value, effective control of inven-
tory and visibility of inventory gains importance as a key factor of Supply
Chain Management function.
It is said that the ultimate goal of any effective Supply Chain Manage-
ment system is to reduce inventory (with the assumption that products are
available when needed). As a solution for successful Supply Chain Man-
agement, sophisticated software systems with Web interfaces are competing
with Web-based application service providers (ASP) who promise to pro-
vide part or all of the SCM service for companies who rent their service.
Supply Chain Management flows can be divided into three main flows:
„„ The product flow.
„„ The information flow.
„„ The finances flow.
The product flow includes the movement of goods from a supplier
to a customer, as well as any customer returns or service needs. The in-
formation flow involves transmitting orders and updating the status of de-
livery. The financial flow consists of credit terms, payment schedules, and
consignment and title ownership arrangements.
There are two main types of SCM software: planning applications and
execution applications. Planning applications use advanced algorithms
to determine the best way to fill an order. Execution applications track the
physical status of goods, the management of materials, and financial infor-
mation involving all parties.
Some SCM applications are based on open data models that support
the sharing of data both inside and outside the enterprise (this is called the

125
extended enterprise and includes key suppliers, manufacturers, and end
customers of a specific company). This shared data may reside in diverse
database systems, or data warehouses, at several different sites and com-
panies.
By sharing this data “upstream” (with a company’s suppliers) and
“downstream” (with a company’s clients), SCM applications have the po-
tential to improve the time-to-market of products, reduce costs, and allow
all parties in the supply chain to better manage current resources and plan
for future needs.
Increasing numbers of companies are turning to Web sites and Web-
based applications as part of the SCM solution. A number of major web-
sites offer e-procurement marketplaces where manufacturers can trade and
even make auction bids with suppliers.

LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT
One of the most important trends in manufacturing and trade is em-
phasis by many businesses on “just-in-time” (JIT) delivery. Increasingly,
not only manufacturers, but also wholesalers, retailers and service provid-
ers are carefully scheduling deliveries so that parts or supplies arrive when
needed.
The proliferation of JIT practices by manufacturers and retailers has
led to smaller and more frequent shipments emphasizing reliability. One
consequence of JIT has been additional freight transport demand, par-
ticularly upon highway systems. Shippers/agents requiring reliable deliv-
ery times for their JIT systems have not widely accepted rail intermodal,
despite rail intermodal’s generally perceived cost advantages on long-haul
freight.
Companies providing Logistics Management services currently fit into
one of four categories:
„„ Asset-based Logistics Providers offer dedicated logistics through the
use of their own assets, such as trucks, warehouses or both.
„„ Administrative-based Logistics Companies offer administrative
management services for such things as freight billing, data management,
and auditing.
„„ Integrated Logistics Providers own their own assets such as warehouses
and trucks and use these to satisfy a client’s distribution requirements.
However, these companies also have arrangements with other vendors
to provide whatever service or equipment might be required to meet a client’s
requirement.

126
„„ Management-based Logistics Providers offer consulting services and
database management. They must contract separately for transportation
and/or warehouses as they do not own their own.
The perspectives of the outside logistics manager and the transporta-
tion carrier are different. The logistics manager struggles with a require-
ment to deliver products to customers with ever increasing speed while
cutting costs. The logistics manager decides which mode or carrier can
best meet the delivery schedule. Cost is a secondary consideration in this
decision. The transportation carrier competes with other carrier to provide
the lowest rate. Once the mode operator is chosen on the basis of rate, the
logistics manager will tolerate few, if any, service failures. Each executive
interviewed indicated that low rates win the opportunity to move a compa-
ny’s freight. Schedule frequency, reliability, information flow, and quality
keep a company’s freight returning to a carrier.
A growing number of companies are demanding global coverage from
their transportation providers. They seek a partnership or alliance with
a firm or firms that know or offer the best fares, and can handle routings
and carriers for business travel to all areas of the world. Similarly, compa-
nies are establishing alliances with a firm or firms that can deliver freight
to all the markets they serve either directly or through agreements with
other carriers and modes. Some largest transportation carriers (e.g. CSX-
SeaLand) first responded by mergers and diversification, but then expand-
ed coverage with partnerships and alliances (SeaLand-Maersk).

NO OUTSOURCING WITHOUT CONFIDENCE


Spare parts logistics is among the gemstones in the field of logistics.
The latest event of the Council of Logistics Management (CLM) was de-
voted to this topic: “The less products differ from each other, all the more
frequently does after-sales service determine whether a customer buys the
product again or not.” The spare parts business accounts for 50% to 70%
of the turnover in industry and trade these days and can result in generous
net profits up to 30%, a level hardly to be achieved in other business seg-
ments. Today’s auto trade, for example, makes its profits from repairs and
maintenance as well the supply and installation of spare parts as opposed
to the sale of cars, where there is ruthless competition.
Spare parts logistics is driven by the customer’s desire for immediate
repair of defective equipment. That means that spare parts must practi-
cally be available immediately. Customer demands are also on the rise. In
the communication and electronics-industry supply service contracts de-

127
termine extremely tight time frames, sometimes in the range of hours, by
which the product must be fully operational again. Should a server of IT-
driven machine suddenly fail, there may no longer be a substitute available
to fall back on after the countless cost-saving phases most companies have
been through in recent years, In this situation a customer is probably quite
willing to pay well for a complete maintenance service.
In many companies this insurance aspect of spare parts warehouses
has led to a situation where spare part inventories are still uneconomically
high and inventory times still too long despite the rationalization of sup-
ply chains and distribution. And still many customers complain about an
insufficient availability of spare parts.
Outsourcing of spare parts logistics is on the increase. The service
market is growing. A rich field of activity with high potential growth rates
is therefore the picking of the logistics services industry.
Schanker is one of the companies which has pounced on this field
of activity. Effective optimization can only be achieved if the whole pro-
cess chain is optimized and not just individual parts of a spare parts sup-
ply chain. This requires a high degree of IT expertise on the one hand and,
on the other, deep rooted experience in the appropriate industry including
also a clear understanding of the business processes, priorities and com-
pany culture of the specific customer.
This was the trigger for the establishment of Schenker Industrial Logis-
tics (SIL), a joint venture between Schanker (51%) and Siemens Business
Services (SBS) putting a clear focus on high-tech industries. Apart from
Siemens business, Schanker brought customers such as Daimler-Crysler
and Axcelis (a manufacturer of equipment for microchip production) into
the fold. Additional companies are expected to be acquired soon, in order
to ensure the optimal utilization of the relatively expensive infrastructure
installed. The starting signal fell on 1 September 2003. The aim is to be-
come the leader in this market segment with regard to rates and quality and
expect to grow quickly and profitably.
Siemens SBS had been on the lookout for a partner for its logistics
business, as it would have been able to expand it into a profit-making enti-
ty alone. The management was, however, not willing to opt for a complete
outsourcing or spin-off this business area. Siemens Business Services oper-
ates and maintains computing equipment worldwide, taking care of whole
IT equipment parks for large-sized customers, regardless of whether they
use Fujitsu Siemens or third-party products. Customers of SBS include
airlines, banks, British passport bureaus all over the world and the London

128
water works. Dealers around the globe need to be supplied with Fujitsu
Siemens components and exchange parts, as do over 7,000 of the com-
pany’s own technicians. Contracts technician organizations too need to be
supported with the same speedy and efficient access to telecommunication
and IT replacement or exchange parts.
Following a relatively speedy decision on the part of Siemens in fa-
vour of the joint-venture solution and the creation of a distribution centre
in the immediate proximity of Frankfurt airport to supplement the exist-
ing SBS warehouse in Paderborn, the search for suitable real estate was
started, within six weeks a 9,000 sq.m storage centre leased, the warehous-
ing equipment and IT infrastructure installed and the necessary personnel
engaged. Subsequently the components and spare parts — hitherto stored
with JanssenAuto, Vento (Netherlands) — approximately 100,000 articles
with value of approximatly EUR 50 million were transferred to the new
location on 115 heavy goods vehicles. From here dealers in Europe and
overseas are supplied with spare parts for Fujitsu Siemens equipment with-
in 24 or 48 hours respectively. Here, returns of exchange parts are managed
along with appropriate guarantee and/or complaint handling procedures,
parts are sent for repair and returned to storage. Depending on the destina-
tion and urgency of a consignment, TNT Express, DHL or Nordic Solu-
tions are assigned as carriers.

SOME BASIC ENGLISH TERMS


supply chain management управление spare parts warehouses склады запас-
цепью поставок ных частей
reefer vessel рефрижераторное судно to spin off the area уходить с занима-
stock costs затраты на хранение емой территории (рынка, области)
wholesale оптовый IT replacement and exchange parts
retail розничный запасные части информационно-
asset-based logistics provider провай- технологического оборудования
дер логистических услуг, имею- suitable real estate зд. подходящее
щий собственную материальную помещение (недвижимость)
базу to lease a storage centre арендовать
to meet the delivery schedule соответ- складскую площадь
ствовать графику поставок complaint handling procedure проце-
to handle routing разрабатывать дура урегулирования претензий
маршрут
turnover in industry товарооборот
в промышленности

129
VOCABULARY

1. logistics (n) логистика


logistics operator логистический оператор; фирма, предоставляющая
логистические услуги
2. transfer (n) перевод
You can pay by a banker’s transfer.
transfer (v) переводить, делать денежный перевод
I’d like the money to be transferred urgently.
3. origin (n) происхождение
Certificate of Origin сертификат происхождения
original (n) оригинал
in the original в оригинале
He reads Italian in the original.
original (adj) оригинальный
Original Bill of Lading оригинал, первый экземпляр коносамента
4. immense (adj) громадный
syn. very big, huge
The market demand for consumer goods is immense.
5. stake (n) cтавка (в карточной игре и т.п.)
be at stake быть поставленным на карту
His excellent reputation is at stake.
6. refer (v) ссылаться на что-либо
We refer to your letter of the 10th July.
reference (n) ссылка
With reference to our telephone conversation . . .
referring (prep) касательно
7. stuff (n) материал, вещество; разг. вещь; это
What’s all that stuff about?
stuff (v) набивать, заполнять
The crate was stuffed with glass.
8. palletize (v) укладывать в палеты
Palletizing is the most convenient way of loading.
pallet (n) палета
There is no pallet at the moment.
9. package (v) укладывать (в ящики, контейнеры)
He is interested in packaging.
ср. pack, packing
The price doesn’t include export packing.
10. configuration (n) конфигурация; очертания, форма
product configuration форма продукта
I think product configuration has something to do with packaging.

130
11. total (adj) весь, целый; общий; полный; абсолютный
He’s a total stranger here.
What’s the total value of the contract?
totally (adv) полностью, абсолютно
Russia is not a totally new market for well-established western compa-
nies.
12. constant (adj) постоянный
сonstantly (adv) постоянно
13. turn up (v) появляться
We’ve been waiting for him for an hour, but he’s never turned up.
14. chain (n) цепь
Gold chains have always been in fashion.
15. comprehensive (adj) всеобъемлющий, исчерпывающий; обширный
The exhibition will give you comprehensive information about logis-
tics.
16. hub (n) центр внимания, интереса или деятельности; зд. большой транс-
портный узел
Moscow is the hub of science and industry of Russia.
17. back and forth туда и обратно
The train runs back and forth every three days.
syn. to and fro
18. premises (n) недвижимость с прилегающими постройками и участком;
помещение, здание
We’ve got a parking lot, a warehouse, an office and other premises.
19. pick (v) зд. сортировать
We’d like you to pick our goods and pack them for transportation.
20. relabel (v) менять этикетку
Relabelling is very important in intermodal transportation of goods.
21. advantage (n) преимущество
The advantages of a good education are very great.
ant. disadvantage
22. emergency (n) непредвиденный случай; крайняя необходимость; чрез-
вычайные обстоятельства
in case of emergency в случае крайней необходимости
Pull here in case of emergency.
23. overtime (n) сверхурочное время
Shall we get extra payment for overtime?
24. solve (v) решать
The price problem was solved at yesterday’s talks.
solution (n) решение
I hope this problem will find a solution soon.
25. suggest (v) предлагать, советовать
We suggest you should transport the goods by rail.
They suggested packing the goods into containers.

131
suggestion (n) предложение, совет
There were so many suggestions that it was difficult to come to terms.
26. lease (v) сдавать в аренду; брать в аренду
The premises will be leased for a year.
lease (n) аренда, договор на аренду
lessor (n) арендодатель
A lessor gets money payment called rent.
lessee (n) арендатор
27. staple (n) скрепка; крюк, скоба
28. repair (n) ремонт
29. headquarters (n pl) штаб, штаб-квартира
30. internal (adj) внутренний
31. sensitive (adj) чувствительный
32. worthwhile (adj) cтоящий
33. slice (n) кусок
34. delete (v) вычеркивать; стирать
35. border-crossing (n) погранпереход
36. boundary (n) граница
37. relic (n) cлед, остаток; пережиток
38. unfamiliar (adj) незнакомый
39. surpass (v) превосходить; превышать
40. pursue (v) преследовать
41. finite (adj) ограниченный, имеющий предел
42. view (n) взгляд
43. avenue (n) путь
44. slash (v) разрезать, полосовать
45. attitude (n) позиция, отношение
46. loose (v) освобождать, развязывать
loose (adj) несвязанный, неупакованный
47. execute (v) выполнять
execution (n) выполнение
executive (n) исполнитель
executive (adj) исполнительный
48. wholesaler (n) оптовый продавец
49. proliferation (n) количественный рост; распространение
50. perceive (v) понимать, осознавать, постигать
51. assets (n) имущество, активы
52. bill (v) выставлять, выписывать счет
53. audit (v) проверять (бухгалтерскую отчетность)
54. vendor (n) продавец
55. separately (adj) отдельно
56. indicate (v) указывать, показывать
indication (n) указание

132
57. tolerate (v) терпеть, терпеливо относиться
58. flow (n) поток, приток
59. coverage (n) охват; зона действия
60. similarly (adv) аналогично, таким же образом
61. establish (v) устанавливать, учреждать
62. gemstone (n) драгоценный камень
63. account for (v) объяснять, отчитываться
64. turnover (n) оборот
65. ruthless (adj) безжалостный, жестокий
66. complain (v) жаловаться
67. pick (v) выбирать, отбирать, подбирать
68. pounce (v) налетать, набрасываться
69. trigger (n) спусковое устройство, курок
70. access (n) доступ
71. favour (n) благосклонность, расположение
72. proximity (n) близость, соседство
73. supplement (n) дополнение, приложение
74. suitable (adj) подходящий, устраивающий
75. engage (v) занимать, ангажировать
76. subsequent (adj) последующий
subsequently (adv) впоследствии
77. respectively (adv) соответственно
78. assign (v) назначать; определять, устанавливать

133
Unit 6
WAREHOUSE TERMINALS
AND CUSTOMS

INTRODUCING NEW INFORMATION


Ex. 1. A. Read the texts and find 2—3 sentences that express the main ideas.

WAREHOUSE
The French logistics provider GEODIS No. 4 in Europe has recently
extended its European Distribution Center (EDC) to Duisburg in Ger-
many. GEODIS has 500 branch offices and 22,500 staff around the world.
The company serves a lot of customers and has a storage area of over 3 mil-
lion sq.m.
The EDC was constructed in 2000 and is operated by the German
GEODIS subsidiary. GEODIS now manages a 15,000 sq.m warehouse
that has been leased from the Duisburger Hafen AG. Some 5,000 sq.m
of this area with 4,000 pallet slots are supposed to have been reserved for
the Japanese cosmetic group Shiseido. This space is expected to be ex-
tended to 7,500 sq.m with 8,000 pallet slots in the near future. Shiseido
Germany is responsible for stock monitoring and the IT side of contract
handling.
Picking and packing is carried out by newly installed automatic pick-
by-light units (from the incoming order through article assembly to weight
checks of groupage deliveries and bag machining). Only a very few process
steps are done manually.
At the moment up to 300 orders per day are dispatched directly to re-
tailers in France and Spain as well as to national warehouses throughout
Europe. The handling capacity amounts to 1,000 orders (that is 3,000 car-
tons) per day in a single 8-hour shift. This volume can be doubled by intro-
ducing a second shift if demand increases.

134
The logistics costs will be optimized and delivery times shortened. For
instance, goods which are destined for France leave the Duisburg ware-
house at 6 in the evening and are already in Paris at 6 o’clock the following
morning. The system seems to work 100% failure-free, and the company
hardly has any complaints.
The Duisburg location was chosen to host the European central ware-
house because of its superior infrastructure. The port of Duisburg is Eu-
rope’s largest inland port. It acts as a logistics hub between the sea ports
of Rotterdam and Antwerp and the European hinterland. Furthermore,
Duisburg has good connections to the European network of trunk roads
and is close to Dusseldorf airport.

Notes:
pallet slot ячейка для палеты
automatic pick-by-light units автоматические отборочные установки
с фотоэлементом­
article assembly компоновка товаров

CUSTOMS
An efficient and effective customs administration is essential to the
welfare of any country. It benefits the national economy by collecting reve-
nue. It assists Government to implement national and international policy.
It protects the country by combating fraud and illegal trafficking of prohib-
ited and restricted goods. Customs administrations also provide statistical
information on foreign trade transactions essential for economic planning
and encourage international trade.
Cooperation between customs administrations and trade operators has
been encouraged by the World Customs Organization (WCO) since 1985
when it initiated the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) programme.
A memorandum of understanding is a voluntary agreement signed by Cus-
toms and the business community in which they agree to work together
to tackle Customs offences.
In September 1987 the International Federation of Freight Forwarders
Associations (FIATA) became the fourth Organization to sign a Memo-
randum of Understanding with the WCO. Under this document both or-
ganizations are to cooperate with a view to combating Customs fraud and
to recommend their members to follow similar cooperative arrangements.
At the local level such arrangements are a valuable mechanism by
which a joint Customs/business approach to combating Customs offences
can be achieved. Customs can obtain information from freight forward-

135
ers for the targeting of high risk consignments. They also provide a frame-
work by which freight forwarders can act as Customs’ “eyes and ears” and
alert Customs to suspicious shipments or circumstances. The increased as-
sistance and information provided by freight forwarders enables Customs
to separate and effectively target high-risk traffic thereby allowing the vast
bulk of innocent traffic to flow freely.

B. Reread the texts and say if the statements below are true or false. Cor-
rect the false statements.
1. The EDC has recently been extended to Barcelona in Spain.
2. GEODIS bought the new warehouse from the Japanese cosmetic
firm Shiseido.
3. Shiseido is responsible for inventory management and contract
handling at the new warehouse.
4. It takes 12 hours to deliver goods from Duisburg to Paris.
5. The Port of Duisburg is the largest European seaport. There is also
a big airport in the city.
6. The Customs benefit the national economy by providing statistical
information on foreign trade transactions.
7. The Memorandum of Understanding is an agreement between the
Russian Customs and business companies.
8. FIATA became the first organization to sign a MOU.
9. The MOU helps to combat Customs offences.
C. Look through the texts again and say what was mentioned in them about
a) GEODIS and Shiseido;
b) automatic pick-by-light units;
c) Duisburg infrastructure;
d) the World Customs Organization;
e) combating Customs offences.

DEVELOPING READING TECHNIQUE


Ex. 2. A. Listen to the texts Warehouse and Customs and follow them with your
eyes.
B. Listen to the texts again and repeat them sentence by sentence.
C. Read the texts aloud. Approximate time of reading is 3 min.

136
LEARNING NEW WORDS

Ex. 3. A. Find the words in bold type and try to guess their meaning. Check up
the translation of the words in the Vocabulary (p. 162). Write them out
in your vocabulary.
B. Write down all the words unknown to you in your vocabulary.

Ex. 4. Translate the following phrases within the text:


1) to operate a subsidiary;
2) to work 100% failure-free;
3) an inland port;
4) to install automatic pick-by-light units;
5) to benefit the national economy;
6) to combat Customs offences.

Ex. 5. Match these verbs and noun phrases and translate the expressions they
make into Russian:
to tackle the central warehouse
to extend pallet slots
to lease fraud and illegal trafficking
to destine a warehouse space
to combat high-risk consignments
to prohibit suspicious shipments
to target effective regulations
to implement for the port terminal
to amount to Customs offences
to host 500 orders per day

Ex. 6. Fill in the gaps with the words given below.


A.
forwarding, transportation, warehouse (2), stored, dispatched

A _______ agent arranges _______ of goods from a factory or a ware-


house to a quay or an airport. Goods are sometimes stored in a _______
until they are _______ to the buyer. When they arrive in the importing
country, they may be _______ a warehouse until the buyer has paid for
them. The _______ charges are called storage costs.

137
B.
controls, apply, selective, temporary, licence, quota
Import _______ may be selective or temporary. If they _______
to certain goods or certain countries, they are _______ . If they only ap-
ply for a limited time, they are _______ . Traders may require a licence
to import goods. A _______ is a certificate which gives permission to do
something. Traders may also be limited to a quota of goods. A _______
is a maximum number.
Ex. 7. Complete the sentences choosing the right word. Change its form if nec-
essary.
A.
cost, charge, fee, price
1. The overall security measures at a port must _______ an enormous
amount of money. Now ports do not impose a security _______,
but shipping companies _______ such a _______ . It’s however
certain that the _______ of security precautions cannot be borne
by ports alone.
2. The 2002 budget envisages customs _______ to reach Rbl 540 bil-
lion.
3. Our banking _______ are not as big as the Central Bank’s.
4. Southern European road carriers bringing in fresh low _______
produce are entering the Norwegian market. This is at the _______
of domestic transport companies which have to demand relatively
high transport rates because of their higher production _______ .
5. The Canadian North Atlantic plans to introduce a _______ of $30
per bill of lading for all containers electronically reported by the
member lines. The _______ will be used to cover the _______
of meeting the new requirements imposed by Canadian Customs
and Revenue Agency.
6. If our lessor cuts the rent, we’ll be able to reduce production
_______ and our _______ could also go down.
7. Frauds and offences at the Customs should be eliminated at all
_______ .
8. With effect from the 1st of January the German forwarding and
warehousing association raised its _______ for groupage runs
by 3.5%. It was possible to avoid _______ rise as administration
_______ and wages increased by 20%.

138
B.
custom, customs, customer
1. Could you describe the range of services provided to your _______?
2. In addition to the real estate division, our logistics department pro-
cesses _______ clearance and import/export transactions.
3. The highly trained and professional staff performs _______ clear-
ance on behalf of our _______ .
4. Social _______ vary in many parts of the world.
5. The officials at the _______ were very polite though they had found
an error in the documents.
Ex. 8. Translate the sentences using the words given below.
cost, price, fee, charge, customs, customer
1. Ввиду высокой цены на нефть стоимость перевозок увеличи-
вается, поэтому цена товара для конечного потребителя по-
стоянно растет.
2. Вне сомнения, что, расширяя бизнес, мы боремся за одних
и тех же заказчиков и грузопотоки.
3. Транспортные компании, работающие на внутреннем рынке,
назначают слишком высокие цены за свои услуги, не учиты-
вая себестоимости услуг.
4. Складские расходы сократились благодаря внедрению новой
технологии размещения грузов на складских площадях.
5. Банк взимает небольшие проценты за перевод денег за гра-
ницу.
6. Цена производителя в значительной степени зависит от цены
сырья.
7. Таможенные сборы должны оплачиваться заранее.
8. Транспортные фирмы стараются сократить стоимость пере-
возок с тем, чтобы привлечь большее число клиентов.
9. Считается, что для успешного ведения дела необходимо знать
обычаи и традиции своих иностранных партнеров.
Ex. 9. Check yourself. Give the English equivalents of the following Russian
word combinations:
1) взять склад в аренду;
2) расширить складские площади;
3) отгружать непосредственно розничным торговцам;
4) сократить время доставки;

139
5) работать бесперебойно;
6) производить вручную;
7) составлять 1000 заказов в день;
8) удвоить объем обработки заказов;
9) сократить число жалоб;
10) бороться с мошенничеством;
11) товары, запрещенные к ввозу в страну;
12) получать сведения таможенных органов;
13) осуществлять борьбу с правонарушениями;
14) предоставлять возможность выделить партию сомнительного
груза;
15) способствовать свободному прохождению беспроблемного
груза.

REVIEWING GRAMMAR
Ex. 10. Study the table. Note the formal signs of using the Complex Subject.
Complex Subject
Подлежащее + Сказуемое + Инфинитив
The forwarder + is known + to deliver the goods to the final destination.
said
considered
The warehouse is thought
The customs are believed to do smth.
They was known to be done
He were
expected
likely
unikely

Ex. 11. Read the sentences paying attention to the usage of the Complex Subject
and translate them into Russian.
Model: The warehouse is expected to be built next year.
Ожидается, что склад построят в следующем году.
1. The volume of cargo transported by road in this area is likely to in-
crease.
2. The Minister of Transport was supposed to make a presentation
on development of logistics in Russia at the conference in Prague.

140
3. Effective customs administration is said to benefit the welfare of the
country.
4. The warehouse costs are believed to be reduced.
5. Electronic bank transfers are reported to increase.
Ex. 12. Combine the two sentences using the Complex Subject if possible.
1. The truck crossed the border on Monday. It was supposed so.
2. Intermodal carriage of goods started to develop in Europe in the
eighties of the last century. Everybody knows about it.
3. International navigation holds the biggest share of cargo transports
in the world. It’s believed so.
4. The process of handling containers in most big ports is computer-
ized. I’m sure of it.
5. Dangerous goods are not usually transported in conventional wag-
ons. It’s reported by the Policy Research Centre.
6. Insurance companies compensate for damage to goods in transit.
I suppose so.
7. Britain fully privatized its railways. It’s considered so.
8. A forwarding firm delivers goods to the final consignee. It’s ex-
pected so.

Ex. 13. Translate into English using the Complex Subject.


1. Считается, что перевозка грузов автомобильным транспор-
том намного дороже, чем железнодорожные и морские пере-
возки.
2. Предполагается, что транспортно-логистические компании
начнут быстро развиваться во время экономического бума.
3. Известно, что впервые термином «мультимодальный» вос-
пользовались в 1980 году.
4. Кажется, что коносамент и товарно-транспортная наклад-
ная — идентичные документы на груз.
5. Известно, что в современной экономике различные трансна-
циональные компании имеют тенденцию роста.

Ex. 14. Translate the following chains of words into Russian:


1) a multimodal transport service;
2) high-quality innovative services;
3) container number verification;
4) an overland transport service provider;

141
5) airfreight forwarding data;
6) long-distance haulage growth;
7) electronic equipment export conditions;
8) a new multimodal service;
9) sufficient growth prospects;
10) the European countries shipbuilding industries;
11) industry-specific logistic services;
12) logistics infrastructure development;
13) an internationally active container terminal operator;
14) the port authority’s administrative council;
15) the marine freight transport industry;
16) regular rail freight services;
17) respective national flag carriers;
18) a future bullish sea-trade market.

Ex. 15. Translate the following chains of words into English:


1) портовый кран;
2) высококачественный продукт;
3) обработка мелкопартионных грузов;
4) быстрая доставка грузов;
5) надежное послепродажное обслуживание;
6) время оборачиваемости прицепа;
7) судостроительная промышленность 12 стран Европы;
8) значительные перспективы роста;
9) владельцы контейнеровозов;
10) новое направление в мyльтимодальных перевозках;
11) контракт на мультимодальные перевозки;
12) поставщики транспортного оборудования и провайдеры
транспортных услуг;
13) логистическая система отслеживания груза;
14) речные и морские порты.

Ex. 16. Put in articles where necessary.


1. DHL has opened ____ new logistics terminal in ____ Lorgo,
in ____ northern Spanish province. ____ new installation, which
is in ____ industrial zone, has____ useable working area of over
____ 3,000 sq.m for ____ logistics and distribution activities ____

142
1,000 sq.m warehouse and more than ____ 720 sq.m of ____ office
space.
2. ____ Portuguese forwarding company Raugel and ____ globally
active logistics enterprise Hellmann Worlwide with ____ head of-
fice in ___ Hague have recently entered ____ strategic partnership.
3. ____ Hams Terminal is now able to receive, by ____ rail, ____
containers from ____ Port of Felixstowe that haven’t been cleared
by ____ Customs.
4. ____ customs warehouses utilization enables us to regulate ____
tax payments. ____ taxes are not imposed on ____ goods stored
in ____bond warehouses. ____ taxes are paid when ____ goods
are released for ____ free circulation.
5. ____ TIR transport may take place between ____Customs office
of ____ departure of ____ countries with which ____ TIR transit
operation can be established and ____ Customs office of ____ des-
tination of ____ another such country.
6. ____ Box Lessor Triton has completed ____ implementation
of ____ data management system which will monitor ____ gate
moves and ____ repair estimates.
7. ____ primary objective today should be ____ creation and ____
implementation of ____ universal customs procedures at all ____
customs checkpoints.
8. In order to improve ____ competitiveness of ____ Russia’s road
carriers in ____ international market ____ Customs laws of ____
Russian Federation should incorporate ____ number of provisions
____ most important of which concern ____ shared responsibility
between ____ carriers, ____ consignors and ____ consignees for
____ breaking ____ Customs laws.

Ex. 17. Complete the sentences putting the verbs in the correct tense and voice.
1. The TIR Convention (revise) 19 times since 1975. The latest
amendments (come) into force in 2002.
2. A number of measures (implement) in Russia at present to reduce
damage to the environment caused by road transport. EURO-2
standards for passenger cars (come) into effect in 2003.
3. The consignment (hold up) at the Customs if you (not, present) all
the necessary documents for the goods.

143
4. The lease (expire) on the 1st of January. If you (not, get on) to the
problem right away, we (can, face) with many difficulties in the fu-
ture.
5. The port (report) a throughput of 1,4 m tons last year. For the years
in progress after the terminal (extend) total volumes (expect, in-
crease) and (reach) 1,7 m tons.
6. IKEA, a home-furnishing retailer, recently (start) using regular
rail freight services to Britain when it (award) a one-year contract
to UK rail operator EWS. From February EWS (begin) moving
imported containers to IKEA’s distribution centres from the ports
of Britain. Over 7,000 containers (move) over the next 12 months.
7. The TIR Convention (come) into force in 1978, and since that time
it (prove) the most successful international Customs transit system
which ever (exist).
8. Italian manufacturer ZV (extend) its significant agreement of coop-
eration with Clark for two yeas. In return, ZV (benefit) from Clark’s
worldwide dealer network by supplying its forklift trucks (FLT).
9. Leasing warehouse trucks (can, be) an alternative to buying them.
However, it (can, apply) as an affordable alternative if the capital
(limit).

Note:
throughput пропускная способность

Ex. 18. Put in prepositions if necessary.


1. Southampton Container Terminals (SCT) has ordered 11 strad-
dle carriers ____ Noell Crane Systems. These twin lift machines
are the first units introduced ____ SCT. The change ____ supplier
results ____ the port’s preference ____ diesel-electric machines
____ diesel-hydraulic ones. The new machines run ____ electri-
cal drives which are more reliable ____ operation and will there-
fore lead ____ reduced operating costs. The new straddle carriers
are part ____ an order ____ 25 units which will be implemented
____ the next few years. ____ addition ____ other advantages the
machines promise ____ a better fuel consumption and ____ lower
emission levels.
2. A new rail traffic management system has been launched ____ the
European market ____ Swiss Federal Railways. The equipment
____ the new system, which includes a radio system, ____ board

144
equipment ____ 59 locomotives, processes and sends instructions
direct ____ the driver’s cab.
3. The TIR system has been devised to facilitate ____ the maximum
extent the international movement ____ goods ____ Customs seals.
The system provides transit countries ____ the required guarantees
to cover ____ the Customs duties ____ risk. The TIR system offers
____ number ____ benefits ____ different stakeholders involved
____ international movement ____ transit cargoes.
4. The TIR Customs Convention, ____ its familiar symbol ____ the
back ___ vehicles, has been known ____ every man who has trav-
elled ____ the highways ____ Europe ____ a few decades. The In-
ternational Transport Union (IRU) is, ____ turn, making impres-
sive efforts to protect the TIR ____ fraud, ____ Customs offences
and international crime.
5. Vehicles handling has moved ____ the fast lane recently ____
opening ____ the UK’s first port-located multideck car terminal.
The port invested £4 mln ____ the construction ____ the facil-
ity. The new terminal and the existing dedicated storage site are
expected to increase ____ car-handling capacity ____ the port
____ 350,000 vehicles ____ a year. The terminal is equipped ____
a recording system that scans ____ cars as they enter ____ the ter-
minal and provides ____ tighter control ____ inventory. The port
strategic objective is to grow ____ this business to meet ____ the
requirements ____ the customers.
Ex. 19. Translate the sentences into English.
1. В соответствии с имеющимися соглашениями на границе
Российской Федерации работают свыше 300 пропускных
пунктов. Еще 10 пунктов пересечения границы планируется
открыть в ближайшие два года.
2. В стране давно назрела потребность в создании и развитии
логистических центров. Транспортно-экспедиторские орга-
низации являются логистическими операторами, осуществ­
ляющими доставку грузов от грузоотправителя до конечного
потребителя по единому транспортному документу.
3. «Карнет TIR» — это документ, который принимается тамо-
женными администрациями стран грузоотправителей, тран-
зита и конечного пункта назначения груза. Его использова-
ние разрешено только надежным транспортным операторам.

145
Таким образом, сокращается количество правонарушений
при пересечении границ, а также время простоев и доставки
груза в целом.
4. Деловые круги России и ЕС заинтересованы в увеличении
инвестиций в реализацию транспортных проектов и модер-
низацию транспортной инфраструктуры.
5. Грузовые документы, представленные на таможне, вызвали
подозрение инспекторов, и таможенная администрация по-
требовала провести досмотр груза.
6. Считается, что таможенные пошлины составляют треть еже-
годных доходов страны.
7. Известно, что иногда гораздо выгоднее взять дорогостоящее
оборудование в аренду, чем его покупать.
8. Вероятно, что одной из серьезных проблем при пересечении
границ транспортными средствами является задержка при
таможенном оформлении грузов, ведущая к простоям и на-
рушению цепи поставок. Тем самым наносится ущерб инте-
ресам экспортеров, импортеров и транспортных компаний.
9. В последние три года компания TGC возобновила свою дея-
тельность в Испании, взяв в долгосрочную аренду складские
помещения на юге страны с девятью погрузо-разгрузочными
площадками и парковкой для 80 грузовиков.

LEARNING TO LISTEN AND SPEAK


Ex. 20. A. Listen to the conversation and say what document has expired:
a) the Import Licence;
b) the Certificate of Origin;
c) the Customs Declaration.

TROUBLE AT THE CUSTOMS


This conversation takes place in an Asian country. Peter Senin, an im-
port agent, talks to his dealer’s office manager Irma Brown.

Senin: I don’t believe it, Irma. I just don’t believe it.


Irma: Trouble? Hope it’s not about those air-conditioning units.
Senin: That’s just what it is about. What are we going to do now?
Irma: They’re not still being held up at the Customs, are they?

146
Senin: Yes, they are. I’ve just had a call from our shipping agent. Cus-
toms have refused to release the goods again. This time the Im-
port Licence for the air-conditioners has expired.
Irma: Out of date? You must be joking.
Senin: I wish I were. The agent says there is a new government regula-
tion — it’s just come into effect. Licences for that category of goods
have to be renewed. The agent didn’t know about it either. He got
a shock when he presented the documents to the Customs.
Irma: So now we’ve got to apply for a new licence. It could take weeks
unless . . . I have a contact in the Department of Commerce.
I might be able to speed things up.
Senin: Please do. If you got that licence fast, we’d have a chance of keep-
ing that contract.
Irma: I’ll get on to it right away.
B. Listen to the conversation again and say if the statements below are true
or false. Correct the false statements.
1. Peter Senin is talking to his shipping agent.
2. The air-conditioners were held up at the Customs because the Cus-
toms duty was not paid.
3. The new government regulation has just come into effect.
4. Applying for a new Import Licence will take a lot of time.
5. Irma can help because she works at the Chamber of Commerce.
C. Listen to the conversation and repeat it sentence by sentence.
D. Rearrange the conversation.
Irma: So now we’ve got to apply for a new licence. It could take weeks
unless . . . I have a contact in the Department of Commerce.
I might be able to speed things up.
Senin: I don’t believe it Irma. I just don’t believe it.
Irma: They’re not still being held up at the Customs, are they?
Senin: I wish I were. The agent says there is a new government regu-
lation — it’s just come into effect. Licences for that category
of goods have to be renewed. The agent didn’t know about it ei-
ther. He got a shock when he presented the documents to the
Customs.
Irma: Trouble? Hope it’s not about those air-conditioning units.
Senin: Please do. If you got that licence fast, we’d have a chance of keep-
ing that contract.

147
Irma: Out of date? You must be joking.
Senin: Yes, they are. I’ve just had a call from our shipping agent. Cus-
toms have refused to release the goods again. This time the Im-
port Licence for the air-conditioners has expired.
Irma: I’ll get on to it right away.
Senin: That’s just what it is about. What are we going to do now?
E. Complete the conversation.
Irma: Hello, Peter. Any trouble today?
Senin: _________________________________________________
Irma: They’re not still being held up at the Customs, are they?
Senin: _________________________________________________
Irma: Out of date? You must be joking.
Senin: _________________________________________________
Irma: So now we’ve got to apply for a new licence. It could take weeks
unless . . . I have a contact in the Department of Commerce.
I might be able to speed things up.
Senin: _________________________________________________
Irma: I’ll get on to it right away.
Ex. 21. Have a conversation with your partner using the information below.
You work for s a small company importing spare parts for BMW cars.
Your truck with spare parts has arrived at the Customs warehouse, but
it is held up there because you failed to pay customs duty on time. Phone
the Customs broker and tell him that you have already paid the duty and
ask him to release the truck.

LEARNING TO WRITE
Ex. 22. You work for a French transport company carrying goods throughout Eu-
rope. Read the following letter sent to your company and explain to your
boss in Russian what the letter is about, tell him The Russian Customs Tar-
iffs Service is, in your opinion, of more practical value to your firm. Give
your reasons. Inform him of the subscription fee and the special offer.
Dear colleagues,
New help for exporters to Russia
If you are involved in the export of goods to Russia, then you know that
their tariff rates, procedures and regulations are in a constant state of flux.

148
To keep up to date, you need to monitor a wide variety of information
sources — local and international newspapers, trade magazines, customs
offices and legal publications. Even then, there is no guarantee that what
you find bears any relation to what happens on the ground in Russia.
Now, a unique information service has been launched to guide you through
Russian Customs and tariffs. It tells you not just the current official rates
and procedures, but also what the practical realities are.
Accurate, up-to-the-minute information on official procedure, tariff rates and
goods classifications
The Russian Customs Tariffs Service is published by CIS Information Pub-
lishing, in conjunction with the Adam Smith Institute and official Russian
government authorities. So you can be certain that the information we supply
you is accurate and current. What’s more, you receive updated pages every
month so the information on your desk is always the most up-to-date avail-
able. You can even choose to receive instant notice of any changes by fax or
e-mail, if you prefer.
Practical expertise and insight into reality of Russian Customs
Every month, Russian Customs News brings you a practical assessment
of the customs regime — news analysis of the regulatory environment, the
advantages and disadvantages of using different customs points, and the
financial issues relevant to moving goods through Russia. The case studies
and the readers’ forum give you real assistance with customs paperwork
and the classification of goods. We also spell out the possible implications
of new procedures and legislation, and point to forthcoming developments
which could impact your business.
Take advantage of our special offer in the next 28 days and save $221/£146
An annual subscription to Russian Customs News is just $595/£395, while
The Russian Customs Tariffs Service is $1,175/£750. A joint subscription
costs you just $1,549/£999 — a saving of $221/£146. However, to qualify
for this rate, you must send in your order within 28 days.
Yours sincerely
Gill Hawkins, Publisher
P.S. The Russian Customs Tariffs Service and Russian Customs News of-
fer you a unique opportunity to get your goods through Russian Customs
smoothly, efficiently and cost-effectively. Subscribe to the complete infor-
mation service within the next 28 days and save $221/£146.

149
B. Say what the letter says about
a) the Russian Customs Regulations;
b) the necessity to have up-to-date information about tariffs;
c) the information service the publisher offers.
C. Write a reply to Gill Hawkins and subscribe to The Russian Customs Tar-
iffs Service.

Ex. 23. A. You work for a big export company dealing with a number of custom-
ers in Europe. You have problems with some of your customers concern-
ing delay in payments. Once you received the letter below, you got inter-
ested in the service offered in the letter. Discuss the contents of the letter
with your colleague.

Notes:
debt collection recovery service услуги по взысканию долга
delinquent customer (Am) клиент, не оплативший услугу
collection attorney поверенный по взысканию долга
intricacy запутанность, сложность
contingent возможный

TO: INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF FREIGHT


FORWARDERS ASSOCIATIONS ORDINARY MEMBERS

COMPLETE PROFESSIONAL
WORLDWIDE DEBT COLLECTION RECOVERY SERVICES

SEAIR CONSULTANTS, INC. represents more than 650 Customs


House Brokers and foreign freight forwarders in the United States and
abroad with reference to debt collection recovery services. While many
of your members may be familiar with our organization, we would like
to take this opportunity to introduce ourselves, again, to you. We are the
only organization in the United States that deals exclusively in your in-
dustry. We have been in business since 1985, and for the past 20 years,
we have been assisting foreign freight forwarders, customs house brokers,
as well as exporters from foreign countries etc. concerning their account
receivable problems.
We offer a full range of debt collection services ranging from assisting with
your slow paying accounts to serious delinquent customers. We maintain

150
a strong network of commercial collection attorneys in the United States
and in most foreign countries whom we have dealt with for many years
and who understand the intricacies of the transactions involved. Our col-
lection commission is contingent upon recovery and, therefore, we only
work on a “no cure — no fee” basis. If an account is forwarded to us and
no recovery is made, there is no charge whatsoever.
We would like, if possible, to have this information distributed to your
membership in the event they should require our services. We will,
of course, respond promptly to any inquiry made. Our complete fee sched-
ule is attached hereto.
Thank you for giving us the opportunity to be of service.
Barry S. Gersten
President

Note:
throughput пропускная способность
B. Say what the letter says about
a) services the company offers;
b) the industry they operate in;
c) how long they have been in business.
C. Say what the author of the letter means when he mentions:
a) slow paying account;
b) delinquent customers;
c) intricacies of transactions;
d) contingent upon recovery;
e) “no cure — no fee” basis.
D. You represent a big freight forwarding company in Russia. You have re-
ceived this letter through a German partner. Write an inquiry to Barry
S. Gersten and ask him whether he could take up recovery collection
of EUR 60,000 from SpeedTrans Ltd in Europe.

Ex. 24. Translate the business letter into English and write a reply.
Всем тем, кого это может касаться
Уважаемые господа!
Наша компания «Центр химической безопасности» работает
на рынке утилизации химических отходов в России уже пять лет.

151
Известно, что количество грузов, перевозимых в контейнерах, по-
стоянно растет и решение задачи по очистке контейнеров становит-
ся одной из важнейших проблем.

В настоящее время мы планируем расширить наши мощности


в связи со строительством нового предприятия по очистке цистерн
недалеко от…

На подготовительной стадии проекта наш отдел по маркетингу


решил донести информацию о наших планах до наших потенциаль-
ных клиентов. Фирмы, заинтересованные в очистке контейнеров
на территории России, будут занесены в нашу базу данных, и им бу-
дет предоставлена информация о продвижении проекта.

Если наша информация представляет интерес для вашей компа-


нии, просьба ответить на следующие вопросы:
1. Какое количество контейнеров вы используете?
2. Какие химические продукты вы перевозите?
3. Сколько контейнеров вы очищаете ежемесячно на территории
России?
4. С какими российскими фирмами вы сотрудничаете?

Заранее благодарим вас за предоставленные сведения, которые


могут помочь нам в составлении технико-экономического обосно-
вания проекта.

Благодарим и надеемся на дальнейшее сотрудничество.


С уважением…

LEARNING TO READ AND ANALYSE


Ex. 25. A. Read the advertisement and say who it is intended for:
a) companies dealing with transportation;
b) individuals;
c) companies importing or exporting goods from Europe;
d) companies importing or exporting goods from Asia;
e) companies importing or exporting goods from America.

152
RELAX PLEASE . . .
THIS IS A BLUE LOGISTICS IN THE CLOUDS WORLDWIDE
SUPPORT!
We are not only perfect in air freight, but also
in land, sea and railway transport

„„ Worldwide import-export
„„ Global network capacity
„„ Customs clearance
„„ Bonded warehousing and distribution
„„ Door-to-door delivery
„„ Express service
„„ Consolidation service
„„ Garments-on-hangers
„„ Hazardous goods transportation
„„ Truck + air service
„„ Own fleet of 230 trailers

LET US EASE YOUR BURDEN

Isanbul/Turkey
Tel.: 0090 216 446 80 20
Fax: 0090 216 446 80 15 ÜNKAR tekkar IATA

B. Read the advertisement again and answer the questions.


1. Is Unkar a big logistic company or a forwarding agent?
2. Do they have their own fleet of airfreighters?
3. What type of goods do they carry?
C. You are Vice President of Unkar. Describe the services of your company
to a potential customer.
D. You would like to work with this firm. Write a letter asking for a vacancy
in a warehouse.
Ex. 26. A. Read the text and say whether it is
a) an advertisement;
b) a passage from a textbook;

153
c) an encyclopedia article;
d) a newspaper article.

Depot Manager Nears 300 Users


International Asset Systems (IAS), a provider of asset management ap-
plications, claims the number of containers and other intermodal facilities
using its Depot Manager system has reached 300 worldwide. IAS, which
is based in Oakland, California, announced the success at the Intermodal
Transport and Logistics conference in Rotterdam in December.
Depot Manager captures, processes, and sends via the Internet gate
events and repair estimate data on in-service and off-hire equipment pass-
ing through facilities. IAS claims its service offers the efficiency savings
and more of electronic data interchange (EDI), benefits of Internet-based
systems that have been heralded over the past year.
EDI has become an essential part of most container lessors’ admin-
istration systems over the past 15 years. EDI has enabled shipping lines
and container leasing companies to achieve substantial cost savings, com-
pared with previous methods, as a system for obtaining information from
container depots on box delivery, status, repair requirements, and the cost
of the repair. EDI has also enabled the companies to make substantial sav-
ings on staff and other administration costs.
On the IAS system’s ability to enhance data provision to operators,
chief technology officer Steve Dowse said: “Depot Manager provides
a flexible method to capture gate moves and repair estimate data from de-
pot and terminal in-house systems and then efficiently process and trans-
mit it to container owners and operators.”
Dowse added: “We also provide a full suite of Internet screens for de-
pots that do not have in-house systems — we got them away from ineffi-
cient fax and expensive private networks.”

B. Reread the text and say if the statements below are true or false. Correct
the false statements.
1. A Depot Manager is a person who works at a warehouse and is in
charge of the proper condition of the goods in stock.
2. In-service and off-hire equipment is equipment owned by logistics
service provider.
3. Container depots are warehouses where containers are stored,
cleaned and repaired.

154
C. Say what you remember from the article about
a) Depot Manager;
b) EDI;
c) IAS.
D. You are Steve Dowse. Speak about the advantages of your system.

Ex. 27. Get ready to make a presentation at the Annual International Confer-
ence on Transport and Logistics. Read the texts given below and decide
what topic of your presentation will be. Make a plan of your presenta-
tion and prepare a report according to the plan.

GATE TERMINAL
Networks of import cargo are known to get more and more complex,
so storage, handling and distribution for commodities have to be provided
in an efficient way.
Big logistics companies optimize for their clients the entire logis-
tic chain from a supplier in the Far East to the final consignee anywhere
in Europe and offer the following services: supply chain and transport
management, customs management, warehouse management, and pan-
European distribution.
With terminals coming under pressure from the ever-increasing num-
ber of containers passing through them, every second wasted is starting
to count. Terminal automation, as a whole, is something that the industry
is taking a keen interest in. Words, paragraphs, pages, speeches, and con-
ferences have been devoted to the subject of terminal software, automatic-
guided vehicles, GPS-based monitoring and tracking systems — anything,
in fact, which could save time. Automation is something that affects every
aspect, every physical inch of a terminal. On-land entrance/exit point
of a terminal has long been considered insignificant. The past few years
have seen terminal automation and companies dealing with optical and
visual software across the industry introducing systems which are gradu-
ally removing the human element from the gate — beginning the process
of removing the men with the clipboards and replacing them with the latest
visual and computer technology.
The idea behind the automated gate systems themselves is simple: point
a camera at a vehicle as it leaves or arrives at a terminal and take a picture
of it. The first step is that the system sensors detect the vehicle as it ap-

155
proaches the gate identifying its characteristics, whether it is a 20 or 40 ft
container, for example. The second stage sees the picture of the vehicle
and container being taken. The optical character recognition (OCR) soft-
ware in these systems then, in the third step, identifies and recognizes the
ISO number on the container, or the license plate, before the fourth step
of processing the result into a terminal’s database or other relevant piece
of software.
Visual gate systems on the markets are processing containers and ve-
hicles in less than a second. Manual container number verification is be-
lieved to be a thing of the past with accuracy rates nearing 100% for both
ISO containers and Intermodal trailers. The high quality of the pictures
that have to be taken by the systems, means that the quality of the pictures
can be used for several other purposes. In these high-quality pictures, not
only is the number or code seen, but the whole container itself as well.
What can we expect from the future? The logical answer is that perhaps
the cameras and the systems installed on the quay side cranes will be devel-
oped to include the damage inspection systems to make a financial saving
in reducing cost claims.

TIR CONVENTION
Anyone who has ever traveled on European roads will recognize the
familiar blue and white TIR plate borne by thousands of lorries and semi-
trailers using the TIR Customs transit system.
Traditionally when goods crossed the territory of one or more States
in the course of international carriage of goods by road, the Customs au-
thorities in each State applied national controls and procedures. These
varied from State to State, but frequently involved the inspection of the
load at each national frontier and the imposition of national security re-
quirements (guarantee, bond, deposit of duty etc.) to cover the potential
duty and taxes at risk while the goods were in transit through each terri-
tory. These measures, applied in each country of transit, led to consider-
able expenses, delays, and interferences with international transport. In an
attempt to reduce these difficulties experienced by transport operators and,
at the same time, to offer Customs administrations an international system
of control, the TIR system was introduced.
Now goods may travel across national frontiers with a minimum of in-
terference by Customs administrations because only seals are checked
instead of inspecting the cargo, which was both expensive and time-con-

156
suming. It reduces delays in transit, enables significant economies in trans-
port costs to be made, and allows exporters to select more easily the form
of transport most suitable for their needs. In addition, advantages for
Customs administrations arise from the fact that the international transit
operation is covered by a single transit document, the TIR Carnet, which
reduces the risk of presenting inaccurate information to Customs admin-
istrations.
Work on the TIR transit system started soon after the Second World War
under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Eu-
rope (UN/ECE). The first TIR Agreement was drawn up in 1949 between
a small number of European countries. The success of this limited scheme
led to the negotiations of a TIR Convention, which was adopted in 1959 by
the UN/ECE Inland Transport Committee and entered into force in 1960.
This first TIR Convention was revised in 1975 to take account of practical
experience in operating the system and give effect to technical advances and
changing Customs and transportation requirements. Nearly 25 years after
its revision in 1975 the TIR Convention has proved to be one of the most ef-
fective international instruments with participation of 64 Contracting Par-
ties, including the European Union (EU), the United States of America,
Canada, and some other countries. The success of the TIR system may also
be judged by the number of TIR Carnets issued every year. In 1952 only
a little over 3,000 TIR Carnets were issued, in 1998 their number reached
2,7 m. The tremendous increase in the use of TIR Carnets can be explained
by the special features of the TIR regime, which offers transport operators
and Customs authorities a simple, cost-effective, and safe regime for the
international transport of goods across frontiers.
With the rapid increase of East-West European traffic and with the
emergence of many newly independent countries in Central and Eastern
Europe, the TIR system is today facing a new challenge.
Paper-based systems, such as the present TIR Carnet, are a very inef-
ficient medium for data capture and data authentication. SAFE TIR de-
veloped and operated by the IRU cannot substitute the required national
Customs transit procedures, however it can be used in any future electron-
ic TIR system.

EUROPEAN DISTRIBUTION STARTS IN THE NETHERLANDS


Holland International Distribution Council (HIDC) gives free tailored
advice to foreign companies wishing to enter the European market or ex-
pand or improve their existing European logistics activities.

157
At the same time HIDC does its best to maintain and strengthen Hol-
land’s logistical position within Europe by means such as initiating innova-
tive logistical concepts. This is done in close cooperation with the coun-
cil’s 500 members from the business community, government and other
organizations.
Over 800 multinationals supply their customers in Europe, Africa and
the Middle East from the Netherlands. Companies such as Nike, Boeing,
Adidas, Cisco, NEC, Sumsung and John Deere take advantage of Dutch
expertise in logistics. The Netherlands is even home to the majority
of EDCs, distribution centres that supply the entire European market.
With the opening of the borders within the European Union in 1992
many international companies started to look for new opportunities for
optimizing their European logistical structure. It was no longer necessary
to hold stocks in each country to achieve fast delivery times. Establishing
one central European distribution centre (EDC) can achieve substantial
cost savings, e.g. through economies of scale, maintaining lower stock lev-
els, and consolidating inbound freight. In addition, the centralized concept
makes for greater flexibility and better management of logistics activities.
As far as customers are concerned, all of this means a bigger range of prod-
ucts and faster deliveries.
The Netherlands has always had a powerful attraction for companies
wanting to set up an EDC. At the present time over 50% of the European
distribution centres based in Europe are located in the Netherlands. The
Netherlands has invested a lot of money in maintaining and improving the
existing infrastructure of roads, railways, inland waterways and pipelines.
In addition, the country has a central location within Europe, among the
most important markets and business centres: there are over 170 million
consumers within a 500 kilometre radius. The Netherlands also has ex-
cellent port and airport facilities. From the Netherlands, companies have
rapid access to Europe’s principal economic regions, including Paris,
Frankfurt, London and Berlin. The country’s specific qualities, such as its
internationally oriented economy, its stable political climate, its mature fi-
nancial sector and its multilingual workforce, play an important part in this
regard.
There are many top-quality logistics service providers in the Nether-
lands, ranging from small family businesses to global players, such as DHL,
Exel, TNT, UPS and Schenker. In addition, to storage, order picking and
transport, logistics service providers are also geared to adding value, i.e. by
assembling components and custom-packing products. Activities such as

158
customer service, call centres and order administration are also increas-
ingly carried by the logistics service provider on behalf of the customers.
Through the transfer and sharing of knowledge between the business com-
munity, government and knowledge institutions, work continues on opti-
mizing this add-on service.
The removal of trade barriers and new technological developments have
made transporting goods easier and cheaper and the concept of a world
economy is becoming a reality. The whole world has become the market,
but at the same time, it has also become the competitor. In order to con-
tinue to compete in this dynamic market, it is essential for companies to be
able to react quickly to changes and keep looking for most efficient way
of running a business.
In May 2003 the European Union (EU) gained ten member states all
at once (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Estonia,
Latvia, Lithuania, Malta and Cyprus), when the internal market increased
from 350 to 425 million consumers. This shifted the economic centre
of the EU substantially to the East. However, research carried out by Hol-
land International Distribution Council (HIDC) shows that, despite low
labour and start-up costs, the establishment of a European distribution
centre (EDC) in Eastern Europe is not an attractive prospect for many
companies at the present time.
In the first place the markets within the greatest purchasing power are
still in Western Europe. What is more, the total logistical costs for an EDC
in Eastern Europe are considerably higher than for an EDC in Western
Europe. For example, the reliability and service in respect of transport be-
tween Eastern and Western Europe are deteriorating. The lower labour and
business start-up costs in Eastern Europe are often insufficient to compen-
sate for the higher transport costs and lower level of service.
In addition, the cost advantages in Eastern Europe are only tempo-
rary. Labour and start-up costs are expected to rise to near Western Eu-
ropean levels over the next 10 to 15 years. The real low-wage economies
are situated further to the east, in countries such as Thailand, India and
China. The majority of Japanese, Korean and Taiwanese companies have
now moved their production to China. If these products are then to be dis-
tributed in Europe, it will still be attractive from a cost and service point
of view to choose the Netherlands for the EDC, in view of its favourable
location in relation to the market and its expertise in the area of interna-
tional logistics flows.

159
SOME BASIC ENGLISH TERMS
terminal software программа обслу- to consolidate inbound freight консо-
живания терминала лидировать (комплектовать) груз,
ISO number номер ИСО (междуна‑ предназначенный для доставки
родный стандарт качества) по назначению внутри страны
TIR Carnet «ТИР Карнет» (доку‑ order picking выбор заказов
мент, позволяющий транспорт‑ add-on service дополнительное об-
ному средству пересекать границу служивание
без прохождения таможенной value-added service услуги с добав-
очистки) ленной стоимостью
purchasing power покупательная
способность
guaranteed bonds гарантированные
облигации

VOCABULARY
1. extend (v) протягивать, расширять, распространять
The road was extended last year.
extension (n) удлинение, расширение, продление
The extension of Japanese influence in Asia is great.
2. subsidiary (n) филиал
They have a lot of subsidiaries throughout the world.
3. retailer (n) розничный торговец
retail (adj) розничный
retail trade розничная торговля
Retail prices are rising.
4. destine (v) назначать, направлять
The ship was destined for Greece.
5. furthermore (adv) кроме того, более того, к тому же
6. welfare (n) благосостояние, благополучие
All his life he worked for the welfare of the nation.
7. combat (v) бороться
combat (n) борьба
To combat unemployment is a matter of first priority.
8. fraud (n) обман, мошенничество
fraudulent (adj) мошеннический
Much advertised products are often frauds.
9. prohibit (v) запрещать
The sale of alcoholic drinks was prohibited in the USA in the early
thirties of the last century.
prohibition (n) запрет

160
10. tackle (v) решать (задачу), заниматься (проблемой)
It took him two weeks to tackle the matter.
11. offence (n) преступление, правонарушение
The most effective defence is offence.
offend (v) наносить обиду, оскорблять
She was offended with (by) her boss.
12. suspicious (adj) подозрительный, сомнительный
There were some suspicious items in the consignment.
suspicion (n) подозрение
He is under suspicion for smuggling.
suspect (v) подозревать
Why do you suspect him?
13. alert (v) предупреждать об опасности, объявлять тревогу
be on alert быть начеку
14. hold up (v) останавливать, задерживать
15. release (v) освобождать, выпускать
16. expire (v) оканчиваться, истекать (о сроке)
The contract expires in a few months.
expiration (n) окончание, истечение
What is the expiration date of the agreement?
17. renew (v) возобновлять
The driving licence must be renewed.
18. present (v) представлять
ср. introduce
The documents presented at the court were found irrelevant.
A new product has just been introduced into the market.
19. apply (v) обращаться с просьбой
When did you apply for visa?
20. get on (to) (v) приступать к чему-либо, заняться чем-либо
21. revise (v) пересматривать; повторять
When did they revise the prices?
revision (n) пересмотр; повторение
There won’t be any revision of this document in the near future.
22. complex (adj) cложный
23. keen (adj) острый
24. tracking (adj) следящий, прослеживающий
25. gradually (adv) постепенно
26. licence plate номерной знак
27. manual (adj) ручной
28. verification (n) проверка, контроль
29. claim (n) жалоба, претензия
make a claim on sb предъявлять претензию
submit a claim (to) подавать жалобу

161
сlaim (v) требовать
claimant (n) истец
30. bear (v) (bore, borne) нести
bear a risk рисковать
bear responsibility нести ответственность
31. authority (n) полномочие
authorities (n pl) официальные органы, власть
32. frontier (n) граница, рубеж
33. imposition (n) наложение, возложение
34. tax (n) налог
35. measure (n) мера, мероприятие
36. expense (n) расход
at sb’s expense за чей-либо счет
at the expense of  за счет чего-либо
37. attempt (n) попытка
38. interference (n) вмешательство; помеха
39. seal (n) печать; пломба
40. time-consuming (adj) требующий много времени
41. auspices (n pl) покровительство
42. negotiations (n pl) переговоры
43. judge (n) судья
judge (v) судить
44. tremendous (adj) грандиозный
45. emergence (n) появление, возникновение
46. medium (n) средство, способ
47. capture (n) плен; удержание, сохранение
capture (v) задерживать, удерживать
48. concerned (adj) имеющий отношение; связанный, заинтересованный
49. mature (adj) зрелый
50. regard (n) внимание, забота
in this regard в этом отношении
51. gear (v) приспосабливать; ставить в зависимость
52. assemble (v) созывать; собирать
53. removal (n) удаление, устранение
54. deteriorate (v) ухудшаться
55. favourable (adj) благоприятный

162
UNIT 7
CONTRACTS

INTRODUCING NEW INFORMATION


Ex. 1. A. Read the extracts of the agreement and say what they are about.
A contract is a most important document signed by business partners
where their rights and obligations are specified.
Below are some extracts from an Agency Agreement (Contract) con-
cluded between two transport firms.

AGENCY AGREEMENT
The present agreement has been concluded between Russtrans, Rus-
sia, hereinafter referred to as RTR on the one hand and FSU Freight Ltd,
Hong Kong, hereinafter referred to as FSU on the other hand concerning
the following.
Article 1
1.2. The Parties shall jointly work out a technology of container trans-
portation of cargoes from Hong Kong to Russia and vice versa by way
of multimodal transportation “by sea + by road” or “by sea + by rail + by
road” via sea ports or railway terminals of Finland.
Article 2
2.1. RTR appoints FSU as its sole agent in Hong Kong to represent the
interests of RTR on Hong Kong territory and act as agent and forwarder
in transportation of cargoes between Hong Kong and Russia.
Article 3
3.2. RTR undertakes to ensure delivery of loaded containers from
Fin­nish ports or railway terminals to the final consignee in Russia and
return of the empty containers to Finland at the dates agreed upon by the
Parties.

163
3.3. In case of backloading from Russia to Hong Kong RTR arranges
loading and delivery of loaded containers as far as Finnish ports or railway
terminals.

Article 4
The Parties shall agree by a separate Protocol upon through freight
rates for container transportation from Hong Kong to Russia and back as
well as return of empty/loaded containers to Finland.

Article 6
All disputes that may arise between the Parties when executing the
present Agreement are to be settled amicably by talks and correspondence.
If it is impossible to settle a dispute in an amicable way, it is to be referred
to Arbitration court at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the
Russian Federation in Moscow.
The award of Arbitration is final and binding upon both Parties.

Article 7
The present Agreement enters into effect on the date of signing and
is valid for 12 months till ______ June 2000 whereupon it will be revised
by the Parties.
Each of the Parties has the right to cancel the Agreement without indi-
cating the reasons by written notification of the other Party 60 days before
the cancellation, whereupon the Agreement is automatically terminated.
The date of receipt is regarded as date of notification.

Article 8

The legal addresses of the Parties:

Russtrans FSU Freight Ltd

______________ ______________

Notes:
hereinafter в дальнейшем
vice versa обратно
via через
through freight rates сквозные фрахтовые ставки

164
B. Reread the extracts and say if the statements below are true or false.
Correct the false statements.
1. Russtrans are to work out a new technology of container transpor-
tation from Hong Kong to Russia and vice versa.
2. Containers will be shifted via Russian ports.
3. Empty containers should not be returned to the consignor.
4. Russtrans are to arrange backloading.
5. Both parties will settle all disputes in a friendly way.
6. Russtrans will have to publish advertising material for their ac-
count.
7. Each Party has the right to cancel this Agreement before the date
of expiry.
C. Look through the extracts again and say what was mentioned there about
a) responsibilities of the parties under the present agreement;
b) settlement of disputes;
c) freight rates for container transportation;
d) validity of the agreement.
D. Say which of the following clauses you can find in the Agency Agreement.
1. Subject of the Contract.
2. Terms of Payment.
3. Terms of Delivery.
4. Settlement of Disputes.
5. Validity of the Contract.
6. Insurance.

DEVELOPING READING TECHNIQUE


Ex. 2. A. Listen to the text Agency Agreement and follow it with your eyes.
B. Listen to the text again and repeat it sentence by sentence.
C. Read the text aloud. Approximate time of reading is 2.5 min.

LEARNING NEW WORDS


Ex. 3. A. Find the words in bold type and try to guess their meaning. Check up
the translation of the words in the Vocabulary (p. 191). Write them out
in your vocabulary.
B. Write down all the words unknown to you in your vocabulary.

165
Ex. 4. Explain the meaning of the following phrases within the text:
1) to appoint a sole agent;
2) to ensure backloading of containers;
3) to cancel an agreement without indicating the reasons;
4) to settle a dispute in an amicable way;
5) to specify the obligations of the parties;
6) to be valid for a year;
7) to terminate automatically.
Ex. 5. Match these verbs and noun phrases and translate the expressions they
make into Russian:
to specify from the date of signing
to appoint backloading of containers
to ensure the performance of the order
to arrange obligations of the parties
to revise a sole agent
to terminate the Agency Agreement
to be valid amicable settlement of disputes
to cancel from the date of notification
to execute through freight rates
to enter into effect terms of an agreement
Ex. 6. Fill in the gaps with the words given below.
A.
certificate, originally, travelled, origin, exporting, agreements, duties,
concludes, partners, trade, taxes, quotas
The certificate of origin is a _____ which shows where the goods come
from _____ (this is necessary if they have _____ through another coun-
try). It can be important to show the _____ of the goods when the im-
porting and the _____ countries have special trade _____, because traders
may pay less. A government often _____ trade agreements with its trading
_____ (countries with which it trades regularly). Under _____ agreements
certain goods from certain countries may be exempted from (they do not
have to pay) some of the _____ or may be allowed bigger _____.
B.
acting, representing, arranging (2), exported, forwarding (2), importing,
quay, Lading, functions, signed, shipping, proving
An agent is a company (or a person) _____ on behalf of or ____ an-
other company. There is a lot of documentation (paperwork) involved

166
in ____ the transportation of _____ goods. An agent who handles the
documentation and transportation is called an import or a _____ agent.
He is responsible for ____ the dispatch of the goods from their point of ar-
rival in the country (the ____ or the airport) to the buyer and for arranging
the documentation.
The Bill of _____ has three main _____:
1) a receipt for the goods _____ by the shipping company;
2) a contract between the _____ company and the _____ agent;
3) the title document ______ the ownership of the goods.

Note:
involved зд. имеющий отношение к...

Ex. 7. Choose the best word to fill each gap.


cost, costs, expense, expenses
1. Transport _______ have been very heavy for the last few years.
2. The manufacturing _______ have increased greatly.
3. One of the meanings of the word “freight” is _________ of trans-
port.
4. They promised to pay advertising __________.
5. We’ll have to bear warehousing __________.
6. At whose _________ must the defects be corrected?
7. It _______ a lot to build a new terminal.
8. The company had to (raise, arise, rise) the prices for their products
because the production _______ had increased.

Notes:
to cost стоить
cost = expense стоимость, трата
costs = expenses расходы, издержки

B. Complete the sentences by writing in the gap the correct form of the
verbs given below.
rise, raise, arise
1. They have _______ prices for consumer goods beginning from the
1st of August.
2. If you don’t spell it properly, misunderstanding may _________.
3. There was a price _______ for oil last month, and the company
gained big profits.
4. _______ your hand if you want to say something.

167
5. — When does the sun _______ in summer?
— It _________ very early.
6. At the talks we’ll have to ________ the question of freight rate.
7. He first ________ his head and then ________ from the table
to greet me.
8. The miners demand that their wages should be __________.
Notes:
to rise (rose, risen) подниматься
to raise поднимать
to arise (arose, arisen) возникать

Ex. 9. Check yourself. Give the English equivalents of the following Russian
word combinations:
1) назначить единственного агента;
2) уточнить обязанности сторон;
3) вступать в действие со дня подписания;
4) прекратить действие договора;
5) быть окончательным и обязательным для обеих сторон;
6) согласовать сквозные фрахтовые ставки;
7) обеспечить возврат пустых контейнеров;
8) урегулировать спорные вопросы дружеским путем;
9) действовать в течение пяти лет;
10) возникать между сторонами в период подписания соглашения;
11) без указания причин;
12) передавать дело в арбитраж;
13) заключить договор о нижеследующем.

REVIEWING GRAMMAR
Ex. 10. Study the table. Mind the formal signs of using the Modal Verbs.
Modal Verbs and Their Equivalents
Modal Verbs Simple Infinitive Perfect Infinitive
can (could)
may (might)
must
be to do sth have done sth
should
shall
have to

168
Ex. 11. Read the sentences and translate them into Russian.
A.
1. Our company could transport any kind of cargo.
2. You can take my pen. — He said I could take his pen.
3. Could it be a misprint?
B.
1. It cannot be so.
2. They cannot (could not) have given us such a reply.
3. Can (could) they have given us such a reply?
C.
1. Our company might transport this cargo within two weeks.
2. You may do it the way you like. — He said you might do it the way
you like.
3. The truck may cross this distance in three days.
4. That may have been a mistake.
5. He might have helped her to solve the task.
D.
1. We must do our best to fulfil this order.
2. People must earn money to live on.
3. You must not smoke too much.
4. The truck must have arrived at the point of destination.
5. You must have worked too much. You look run down.
E.
1. The parties shall agree by a separate Protocol on through freight rates.
2. Shall I read?
F.
1. You should consult a doctor if you feel bad.
2. The parties should study the draft contract before signing.
3. I should have married long ago.
G.
1. He was to meet a delegation on Sunday.
2. The truck is (was) to arrive on Friday at 11 am.
3. The truck was to have arrived on Friday at 11 am.
H.
1. I have to get up at 6 every day.
2. The company had to accept payment by L/C.
3. We shall have to come to an agreement if we want to work together.

169
Ex. 12. Put in the right modal verb.
1. You (may, have to, shall) load your truck with computers in St Pe-
tersburg because we don’t have any cargo from Narva.
2. They (can, be to, should) transfer the money to our account in the
Russian Credit Bank.
3. In the circumstances we (be to, have to, might) share warehouse
expenses.
4. Their company (have to, can, might) provide customs clearance at
their premises.
5. According to the terms of our contract you (could, should, be to)
deliver the whole consignment to the port and load it on board the
chartered vessel.
6. I’m sorry I (can, should, have to, must) be off. I’ve got an appoint-
ment at 12.
7. We know that we (be to, should, shall) handle this box with extra
care.
8. The wagon (be to, might, could) be discharged by 3 o’clock today.
9. A new contract (must, might, can) be concluded if we solve this
problem.
10. Very good specialists (should, can, shall) be trained at the newly-
built Business Centre of the city.

Ex. 13. Change the Simple Infinitive into the Perfect Infinitive, make necessary
changes in the sentences and translate them.
1. Transport costs might increase.
2. The terminal should be equipped for handling containers.
3. The truck cannot cross the border two hours after the loading.
4. We may gain something if we give in.
5. Ingosstrakh must arrange your insurance cover.
6. The consignor cannot dispatch the goods on time.
7. The Bill of Lading should be signed by the ship’s master.
8. The cheapest route should be offered.
9. It might be better to send the goods by air.
10. We could not buy the tools from another company.

Ex. 14. Translate the sentences into English.


1. Bell & Co. — небольшая компания. Они могли бы слиться
с MultiNational Ltd. Обе фирмы только выиграют.

170
2. Тебе не нужно раздражаться по пустякам.
3. На этом месте нужно будет построить большой транспорт-
ный узел.
4. В соответствии с договором они обеспечивают подачу ваго-
нов под загрузку три раза в неделю.
5. Ты должен был решать вопрос непосредственно с управлени-
ем порта.
6. Вы могли бы сослаться на телефонный разговор с вице-пре-
зидентом фирмы.
7. Мне кажется, мы не сможем взять кредит в банке. Нам при-
дется самим финансировать расширение бизнеса.
8. В любом случае мы могли бы оплатить сверхурочные.
9. Это срочная поставка. Согласно пункту 5 она должна быть
отправлена немедленно.
10. Мы можем загрузить судно к концу дня, хотя это будет не-
легко. По пятницам мы заканчиваем раньше.

Ex. 15. Put in the Simple or Perfect Infinitive with one of the modal verbs (can,
could, must, may, might, should, have to, be to) and translate the sen-
tences.
1. The agreement (draw up) yesterday, but it is still not ready.
2. Under the contract our agents (invoice) customers and (send) us
their statement every quarter.
3. The contract (come into effect) from the 1st of January and is valid
for three years.
4. As our agent you (bear) the risk if the customers do not pay.
5. During the execution of the contract many disputes (arise), which,
if possible, (settle) amicably.
6. We are sorry to advise you that due to inflation we (revise) our
prices.
7. If you want to cancel the agreement, you (indicate) the reason
clearly.
8. Our partners (ensure) backloading because the volume of transport
(decrease) considerably.
9. According to point 5.1 the German forwarders (handle) all our
consignments and (send) us a statement every month.
10. — Who (pay) warehousing expenses?

171
— Under the agreement these expenses (share) between us.
We (bear) office expenses.
Ex. 16. Use modal verbs in the text below where necessary. Put the infinitives
given in brackets in the correct tense and voice and translate the text.
This Agreement (enter) into force 30 days after the Contracting Par-
ties (inform) each other in writing that the measures necessary (give) effect
to the Agreement (take).
The Agreement (remain) effective for the period of one year after its
entry into force. Thereafter it (continue) in force unless it (terminate) by
one Contracting Party by (give) a six months’ notice thereof in writing
to the other Contracting Party.

Note:
effective действующий, имеющий силу

Ex. 17. A. Put in articles where necessary.


Dear Sir,
We are writing to you to specify _____ points in _____ Protocol signed
between _____Volvo Parts and _____ Russtrans as _____ result of _____
talks held in November. _____ parties have agreed on _____ following:
1. To set up _____ consignment stock in _____ St Petersburg for _____
Volvo trucks spare parts and to work out _____ terms of _____ Agreement.
_____ Agreement may be signed after _____ arrangements of _____ nec-
essary formalities in _____ Russia.
2. To equip _____ provided storage premises in St Petersburg _____ firm
shall deliver free of _____ charge _____ necessary warehouse equipment
as well as _____ office equipment in _____ accordance with _____ speci-
fication agreed upon by _____ parties.
3. _____ Volvo spare parts stored at _____ present time at _____ Russtrans
will be taken on _____ consignment at _____ prices which will be fixed
additionally.
We will write to you as soon as _____ contracting parties come to _____
terms about _____ price and _____ time limits for _____ execution
of _____ future agreement.
Yours faithfully
J. Anderson
Vice President

172
B. Read the letter above again and answer the following questions.
1. What is a consignment stock?
2. Has the contract between Russtrans and Volvo Parts been signed
already?
3. When are they going to sign it?
4. Why are the partners going to set up a consignment stock?
C. Write a reply with an invitation to come to Moscow for further talks and
the signing of the Agreement.
D. You are Volvo managers. Before writing a reply to the letter go over the
points of the Protocol again.

Ex. 18. Put in prepositions where necessary.


1. LLP hereinafter referred _____ as Customer _____ the one hand
and TUST hereinafter referred _____ as Performer _____ the oth-
er hand have agreed _____ the following.
2. According _____ the Agreement any _____ the Partners is obliged
to compensate _____ the other Partner _____ the damages caused
_____ him.
3. _____ case _____ termination _____ present Agreement _____
any reason, all documents are to be returned _____ the Board
_____ 90 days _____ the date _____ termination _____ the
Agreement.
4. When it is impossible to settle the dispute _____ an amicable way,
both parties have the right to refer it _____ the Arbitration Court
the award _____ which is final and binding _____ both parties.
5. This Contract is valid _____ 1 year and may be extended _____
mutual agreement _____ a definite or an indefinite period _____
time.
6. _____ the last talks we missed _____ the point _____ our com-
mission. Let’s discuss _____ it now.
7. I think he should bear full responsibility _____ placing the vessel
_____ loading _____ a 12 hours’ delay.
8. What’s my commission based _____?
x. 19. Translate into English.
E
А.
1. Будучи нашим агентом, вы несете ответственность за предо-
ставление информации о состоянии дел на рынке.

173
2. Они обязаны оплатить наши расходы по дополнительной ре-
кламе.
3. Вы смогли бы обеспечить обратную загрузку из Барселоны?
4. Оригиналы счетов и отчет за сентябрь должны быть высланы
не позднее 10 октября отдельным пакетом.
5. Мы могли бы поднять вопрос о пересмотре цен с 1 апреля, но
для этого нужны веские причины.
6. Этот вопрос можно было бы решить дружеским путем, и тог-
да нам не пришлось бы выплачивать штраф (fine).
7. Я хочу заблокировать свою кредитную карточку. Дело в том,
что она утеряна.
8. Если у вас возникнут трудности с транспортом, обращайтесь
в нашу фирму. Наши ставки гораздо ниже, чем у наших кон-
курентов.
9. Я уверен, что мои рекомендации могут повысить репутацию
вашей фирмы.
10. В последнее время цены на потребительские товары во всем
мире постоянно растут.
11. Как вы считаете, когда возник конфликт?
12. Рекламные расходы пойдут за ваш счет.
13. Как вы объясните повышение складских расходов?
14. На сколько процентов возросли транспортные расходы?
15. Нам нужно будет повысить цены, так как наши расходы воз-
росли.
В.
Уважаемые господа!
Кас.: Чартер-партия от 12.03.20...
По вашей просьбе прилагаем копию вышеуказанного договора,
подписанного обеими сторонами. Просим извинить нас за задерж-
ку, которая произошла не по нашей вине.
Просим вас обратить внимание на пункт 8, который гласит:
«Фрахтователь предоставляет капитану право подписать в пункте
погрузки только штурманскую расписку о приеме груза (Mate’s
Receipt). В этом случае коносамент оформляется и подписывается
в Гамбурге фирмой Getling GmbH, корабельным брокером, после
отправки его по факсу владельцу судна для получения разрешения
на его подписание».

174
Просим подтвердить пункт 8 по факсу.
С уважением,
_______________
Ex. 20. A. Translate the text into English and say what important information
about the agent’s work you have found in it.

Деятельность агента по организации


погрузки/разгрузки судна
Когда наше судно прибыло в порт, наш агент сообщил, что
разгрузкa на двух причалах уже ведется. На первом причале мы
должны были разгрузить крупногабаритный груз, так как там рабо-
тает 50-тонный кран. После этого судно должно было пойти на дру-
гой причал для разгрузки генерального груза. Агент еще не сообщил
в администрацию порта и получателям груза о нашем прибытии. Он
сам съездил в порт, чтобы сделать это и уточнить детали разгрузки.
Он организовал работу бригады стивидоров, которые должны были
работать в каждом трюме. Он сказал, что они будут работать с 6 утра
до 12 дня и каждый трюм будет обслуживаться 10-тонным краном.
Капитан хотел, чтобы при разгрузке присутствовал сюрвеер, так
как он боялся, что груз мог быть поврежден в пути. По коносамен-
ту оставалось получить еще кое-какую плату, и капитан попросил
агента собрать все причитающиеся им деньги.
B. Read the English text and compare it with your variant. How different
is the information?

THE AGENT’S ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE DISCHARGING


AND LOADING OF THE SHIP
When we arrived at that port, our agent was there to meet us. He said
he had made arrangements for discharging at two berths. At the first berth
we were to unload extra weights because there was a 50-ton crane there.
Then we were to shift to the other berth to discharge general cargo. The
agent had advised the port authorities and the receivers of the ship’s arrival.
He came aboard to fix up some details of discharging the cargo. He ar-
ranged a separate stevedore gang to work at each hold. He said they would
work in two shifts, from 6 am to midnight. A 10-ton crane would operate
for each hold. The captain wanted a surveyor to be invited as he feared that
some damage to the goods might have happened during the voyage. There

175
was some freight to be collected on the Bills of Lading, and he informed
the captain that he had collected nearly all the money due to the ship.

LEARNING TO LISTEN AND SPEAK


Ex. 21. A. Listen to the telephone conversation and say whether the partners are
discussing
a) office expenses;
b) outstanding invoices;
c) the length of the contract;
d) agency commission;
e) warehousing costs;
f) disputes that can arise;
g) future risks;
h) the sole agency agreement;
i) the award of Arbitration.

DISCUSSING AN AGENCY CONTRACT


Mark Fedorov, general director of a Russian forwarding company,
wants his firm to be an agent of ASL in Russia. He is discussing an agency
contract with Clint Larsen who is President of ASL, a big European trans-
port company.

Larsen: Before drawing up this agreement I’d like to go over the contract
terms once more, Mark.
Fedorov: I’ve no objections to that. Even when you take notes as we did,
it’s easy to miss something out.
Larsen: As I understand it, you’ll be our agent for the whole of Russia and
you’ll be handling all our transport operations.
Fedorov: Agreed.
Larsen: Now the next point was . . . the length of the contract. It’ll be
three years, won’t it?
Fedorov: Yes, and renegotiable, provided we are both happy with the agree-
ment.
Larsen: I’m sure it’ll work out all right. Let’s see what the next point we
discussed was. Ah yes, whether you wanted a sole and exclusive
agency.

176
Fedorov: Yes, that’s right, exclusive agency. And let me remind you that
I also receive extra 5% for invoicing customers.
Larsen: Ah yes, you’re bearing the risk if customers don’t pay. I’d forgot-
ten that.
Fedorov: We’ll also be responsible for invoicing customers and for credit
control. We’ll be sending you copies of all invoices for your re-
cords.
Larsen: We must have those because we’ll be sending you a statement
every three months. Your commission will be based on it. We’ll
settle up by transferring the money to your account in Moscow.
The Russian Credit Bank. Right?
Fedorov: Yes.
Larsen: The rest’s fairly simple. Advertising will be shared between us.
Warehousing costs — we’ll pay those, but you’ll have to bear all
office expenses.
Fedorov: That’s no problem.
B. Read the conversation above and say if the statements below are true or
false. Correct the false statements.
1. Mr Larsen and Mr Fedorov signed the agency contract without go-
ing over the terms for a second time.
2. The contract was made for two years.
3. A sole agent doesn’t receive an extra commission.
4. The agent was not responsible for invoicing customers.
5. Mr Larsen was going to pay advertising, warehousing and office ex-
penses.
C. Listen to the conversation again and say what you remember about
a) types of agency contracts;
b) the responsibilities of the Contracting Parties;
c) the extra commission of the agent.
D. Listen to the conversation and repeat it sentence by sentence.
E. Rearrange the conversation.
Larsen: I’m sure it’ll work out all right. Let’s see, what the next point we
discussed was. Ah yes, whether you wanted a sole and exclusive
agency.
Fedorov: Agreed.
Larsen: Now the next point was . . . the length of the contract. It’ll be
three years, won’t it?

177
Fedorov: Yes, that’s right, exclusive agency. And let me remind you that
I also receive extra 5% for invoicing customers.
Larsen: As I understand it, you’ll be our agent for the whole of Russia and
you’ll be handling all our transport operations.
Fedorov: Yes, and renegotiable, provided we are both happy with the agree-
ment.
Larsen: We must have those because we’ll be sending you a statement
every three months. Your commission will be based on it.
Fedorov: We’ll also be responsible for invoicing customers and for credit
control. We’ll be sending you copies of all invoices for your re-
cords.
Larsen: Ah yes, you’re bearing the risk if customers don’t pay. I’d forgot-
ten that.
F. Complete the conversation.
Larsen: Before drawing up this agreement I’d like to go over the contract
terms once more, Mark.
Fedorov: _________________________________________________
Larsen: As I understand it, you’ll be our agent for the whole of Russia and
you’ll be handling all our transport operations.
Fedorov: _________________________________________________
Larsen: Let’s see what the next point we discussed was. Ah yes, whether
you wanted a sole and exclusive agency.
Fedorov: _________________________________________________
Larsen: The rest’s fairly simple. Advertising will be shared between us.
Warehousing costs — we’ll pay those, but you’ll have to bear all
office expenses.
Fedorov: _________________________________________________
G. You want to renegotiate the Agency Contract with Mr Larsen. Choose
one of the problems from the list below you would like to discuss, contact
Mr Larsen and discuss the problem you have chosen:
1) your commission;
2) the length of the contract;
3) advertising expenses;
4) invoicing the customers;
5) terms of payment;
6) warehousing costs;
7) office expenses.

178
Ex. 22. Have a conversation with your partner using the information below.
You work for a big Russian company. You have more than 10 years expe-
rience in delivering different kinds of goods to various consignees in Russia.
You intend to expand your business and act as a forwarding agent to Schen-
ker in Russia. Discuss the terms of your future agreement including your in-
herent power (собственные полномочия или компетенции) as a repre-
sentative of Schenker. You would like to work on a 15% commission.

LEARNING TO WRITE
Ex. 23. A. You work for Russtrans Ltd. with head office in Moscow. Read the
following letter sent to your company and explain to your boss in Rus-
sian what the letter is about and ask him to what department in your
company you should hand over this letter as you do not deal with cor-
respondence with the Spanish partners.
Russtrans Ltd
Moscow
June 12, 20 . . .
Dear Sirs,
We refer to the meeting we had with your Mr Nizov during his stay in Spain
in May this year.
It has been agreed that we might be appointed your second agent in Spain
to deal with traffic to third countries as well as with backloading, customs
clearance and other formalities.
Enclosed please find a draft agreement that we have prepared for your con-
sideration. If you have any comments, we are ready to discuss them any
time convenient to you.
We realize that Mr Nizov who was at first the person in charge of the ne-
gotiations with our company does not deal with this matter now. We would
appreciate it if you will give us the name of the person or people for further
contacts because we are having difficulties in receiving prompt answers
to urgent matters, which causes us considerable inconveniences.
Looking forward to your soonest reply.
Yours sincerely
Fernando Rouge
Traffic Manager

179
B. Answer the questions.
1. What document is enclosed with the letter?
2. Where did the partners meet first?
3. Why did Fernando Rouge ask the Russian company to give him the
name of the person to keep in touch with?
C. Phone the Spanish firm and introduce yourself as a person who is in
charge of business with them. Tell them you have sent them a fax mes-
sage with your comments on the future agency agreement.
D. What conversation did Mr Nizov have when he was in Spain? Role-play
it with your partner.
E. Write a reply to the letter on behalf of Mr Sedov, a new manager, who
is in charge of this business now.

Ex. 24. A. Put in prepositions in the following letter, read and translate it into
Russian.
Dear Sirs,
We are pleased to learn _____ your company and your activities _____
Denmark.
As you know, we have been dealing _____ cargo transport _____ Russia
_____ Denmark and vice versa _____ _____ 10 years.
_____ your guidance, the handling _____ our vehicles is executed _____
T.D.E., who are acting as our sole agents _____ a contract basis.
However, we would be glad to get _____ your company orders _____
backloading _____ Denmark _____ Russia. _____ receipt _____ your
consent _____ principle we shall send you our tariffs.
We are looking _____ _____ hearing _____ you.
Yours faithfully
_______________

Note:
for your guidance к вашему сведению

B. Find in the letter the English equivalents for the following word combina-
tions:
1) заниматься грузовыми перевозками;
2) получать от вашей фирмы заказы на обратную загрузку;

180
3) о вашей деятельности в Дании;
4) в качестве нашего единственного агента на контрактной ос-
нове;
5) по получении вашего согласия;
6) с нетерпением ждем ответа.
C. Write a reply to the firm and offer to be their second agent in Europe.

LEARNING TO READ AND ANALYSE


Ex. 25. A. Read the text without a dictionary and say whether it is intended for
a) sea carriers;
b) individuals;
c) road carriers;
d) customs authorities;
e) logistic service providers.

Extracts from the CMR


The contracting parties have agreed as follows:
Article 2
The Contract of Carriage shall be confirmed by making out of consign-
ment note. The consignment note shall be made out in 3 original copies
signed by the sender and by the carrier. These signatures may be printed or
replaced by stamps of the sender and the carrier if the law of the country
in which the consignment note has been made out so permits. The first
copy shall be handed to the sender, the second shall accompany the goods
and the third shall be retained by the carrier.
Article 11
For the purposes of Customs and other formalities which have to be
completed before delivery of the goods, the sender shall attach the necessary
documents to the consignment note or place them at the disposal of the car-
rier and shall furnish him with all the information which he requires.
B. Read the text again, translate it into Russian and answer the questions.
1. What is a consignment note?
2. Are Bill of Lading and Consignment Note the same or different?
3. In what case can a consignment note be stamped?

181
Ex. 26. A. Read the text and say whether it is
a) an advertisement;
b) a passage from a textbook;
c) an encyclopedia article;
d) a newspaper article.

Bolero: A Step to the 21st Century


A system for electronic transmission of bills of lading is set for commercial
launch next year, writes our Sydney correspondent

“Bolero will change our lives in the same way that containerization
changed the lives of our predecessors,” according to the Through Trans-
port (TT) Club’s David Martin-Clark.
Designed to allow the secure electronic transmission of bills of lading
and other freight documents, the Bolero project is a joint venture between
the TT Club and Swift, an association of 6,000 banks that handles inter-
bank money transfers.
The TT Club was approached as a partner because of its neutral sta-
tus as a mutual transport insurer owned by its members, said Mr Martin-
Clark, who unveiled the system at the International Federation of Freight
Forwarder Associations (FIATA) conference in Sydney last month.
Swift already handles $3,5 tm of transactions a day, “and has not lost
a cent in 20 years,” said Mr Martin-Clark. “It finds it laughable that the
freight industry thinks that paper documents are more secure.”
Mr Martin-Clark said that Bolero would be at the full testing stage
by November. “We have taken a step-by-step approach because we want
to launch a perfect product onto the market,” he said.
“There is no way back into the past. To be successful we must embrace
change and not be frightened of the future. Bolero represents a big change.
It requires many of us to put aside our attitudes towards the way that busi-
ness has been transacted for generations. It demands a global view and the
vision to appreciate the potential of the future.
“But, finally, a word of warning, Bolero will happen. It will not go away.
The focus of the initiative has so far been on the larger operators in industry,
and in the banking and logistics service providers that support them,” said
Mr Martin-Clark. “Already a significant number of multinational organi-
zations are taking note and preparing themselves for the commercial launch
next November. It could be that the growth in Bolero acceptance will be
very high and its usage very quickly adopted around the world. Bolero can

182
be implemented to support the simplest or the most sophisticated of users
and will not disadvantage the smaller operator. In fact, in many ways, the
Bolero system will level the playing field. Bolero will bring within the reach
of all freight forwarder operators the capabilities for enhanced services,
which previously were available for the larger companies.
“Do not be left out.”

Notes:
predecessors предшественник
to embrace зд. пойти на что-либо
to appreciate оценивать

B. Read the text again and answer the questions.


1. What is Bolero based on and how will it “change our lives”?
2. Which is safer to send documents, by air mail or e-mail?
3. How many companies handle their documents through Bolero?
What ensures its successful operation?

Ex. 27. Get ready to make a presentation at the Annual International Confer-
ence on Transport and Logistics. Read the texts given below and decide
what topic of your presentation will be. Make a plan of your presenta-
tion and prepare a report according to the plan.

PREVENTION IS BETTER THAN CURE


In recent years at least ten big container ships have been seriously
damaged by major fires or explosions. Apart from the loss of life and injury
to seafarers, each accident caused millions of dollars of damage. Experts
attribute most of these incidents to hazardous materials that were loaded
into containers but not declared to the carriers.
Acting under the provisions of the 1974 International Convention for
Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), the International Marine Organization has
made regulations requiring all signatory states to give the IMDG code the
force of national law by January 1, 2004, and subsequent amendments as
they come into force.
Up to the beginning of this year, compliance has only been manda-
tory under national laws or regulations of some countries — although,
of course, all responsible shippers and carriers have taken care to make
sure their movements of hazardous goods are packed, loaded, marked and
declared in accordance with the code. Now these goods practice guidelines
have been given statutory force.

183
The IMO reports that cover 95% of hazardous and noxious substances
(HNS) being carried by the world’s ships are in accordance with the IMDG
code. Unfortunately, this probably does not take into account the fact that
some shippers are still prepared to put seafarers’ lives at risk and endanger
others in the transport chain, by failing to properly pack, secure, stow, label
or declare hazardous cargoes in accordance with the regulations.
If the shipper does not tell the carrier what has been loaded, the car-
rier will not be able to take the appropriate precautions in stowing the
box properly. The consequences are obvious: a ship at sea cannot jettison
a burning container if it is located deep down in the stow.
Worse still, cargoes in other containers stowed nearby can also catch
fire and, if they also happen to be undeclared hazardous material, the
consequences can be very serious indeed. One such catastrophe occurred
on the vessel Hanjin Pennsylvania in November 2002. Besides enormous
damage to the ship, two people lost their lives.
Companies that offer transport insurance such as the British TT Club
are aware of many consignments that have been undeclared or misde-
clared, including:
„„ gas lighters which were not only undeclared but also badly made,
so they leaked explosive gases in the container;
„„ fireworks being declared as “children toys” and so on.
With highly flammable cargoes like these being loaded carelessly be-
low deck it is extremely fortunate that there have not been more major
ship casualties. If undeclared HNS creates a problem, the vessel opera-
tor is likely to hold its customer responsible as the latter is under a strict
legal duty to warrant that cargo is fit for carriage. If an NVOC is the ship-
per of record, it is no defence for him to say that it was his client’s fault; as
far as the shipowner is concerned, the contractual liability stops with the
NVOC. It will then be down to the NVOC to try to recover the costs from
the consignor who was ultimately responsible.
Unfortunately, if the shipper is the sort of company willing to save
money by hiding the hazardous nature of its products, it is also unlikely
to have any third-party liability cover. All of which rather leaves the NVOC
exposed to a potential multimillion dollar claim. One hopes that he has ar-
ranged sufficient cover with an understanding liability insurer.
Even if undeclared HNS reach their destination port without accident,
they could still cause complications. In today’s increased state of alarm
about the potential for terrorists to misuse ordinary commercial container
traffic the arrival of an undeclared (and therefore also unidentified) con-

184
signment of hazardous material could well trigger a major alert. If the ship
and its containers are consequently delayed for rigorous searches by the
enforcement authorities, who will pay for the costs incurred?
All transport operators should be alert to the possibility that both FCL
and LCL shipments may contain hazardous materials, and that the ship-
per may either deliberately, mistakenly or even innocently mask the true
nature, identity and condition of the contents.
Some have suggested that the ocean carriers could do more to en-
courage compliance with the IMDG code. If hazardous cargo is declared
properly, it will often be subject to a freight surcharge: there is therefore an
incentive for unscrupulous shippers, anxious to achieve the lowest freight
rate possible, to avoid the surcharge by not declaring the true nature of the
cargo. For a forwarder, shipping a small consignment of hazardous mate-
rial as part of a consolidation container, the lumpsum surcharge can often
be disproportionate to the freight earned on the consignment. Removing
the surcharge, it is argued, would mean that there was no longer any finan-
cial incentive to misdeclare cargo.
To minimize the likelihood of a disaster everybody in the transport
chain must exercise their best endeavours to ensure proper adherence
to the IMDG requirements within their own operation. They should also
promote the observance of the code and national safety standards by their
clients. This can never be achieved without continually remaining alert
to the possibility of non-declaration, emphasis on supervision and staff
training; and a good system to check and appraise clients.

MOROCCO MODERNIZES
Freight transport has been on the agenda of the Euro-Mediterranean
cooperation since 1995 Barcelona Conference. Since that date, the Mo-
roccan government and the European Commission signed a financing
agreement for a program under which Morocco is to receive EUR 96 mil-
lion of financial aid for the reform of its transport sector.
One of the main objectives of the Euro-Mediterranean partnership
is the creation of an area of stability and prosperity around the Mediterra-
nean, which includes establishing a Free Trade Area (FTA). The transport
sector is pivotal in this sector, as the former’s efficiency and costs (reflected
in the price of imports and exports) have an immediate impact on a coun-
try’s competitiveness and attractiveness for foreign investment.
For instance, the decision where to locate a manufacturing plant
is heavily influenced by transport costs and competition from Eastern Eu-

185
ropean countries. Thus the quality of the available logistics is often deci-
sive.
The EU is Morocco’s most important trading partner. In 2001, almost
two thirds of Morocco’s foreign trade was with the EU member states
(72.4% of imports). Thus the importance of transport reform in Moroc-
co is reflected in the EU-Morocco Association Agreement which came
into force on March 1, 2000. The Agreement calls for restructuring and
modernizing Morocco’s transport infrastructure; defining and applying
operating standards comparable to those in the EU; bringing transport in-
frastructure and equipment up to EU standards, particularly where multi-
modal transport, containerization and transhipment are concerned; and
gradually improving road, maritime and multimodal transit and the man-
agement of ports, airports, sea and air traffic and railways.
Road haulage in Morocco used to be heavily regulated. Administra-
tive barriers limited access to the industry and a public entity, the Office
National des Transports (ONT), held the monopoly on the freight con-
tracting. This situation prevented free market exchanges of road transport
services. All transactions were carried out through the costly and inefficient
mediacy of the ONT.
In 1999, the Moroccan parliament passed a new law providing for
the abolition of the ONT’s monopoly and the liberalization of the sector.
However, much remains to be done to improve export regulations. The
EU Program provides the Moroccan authorities with technical assistance
during the preparatory phase. It also spells out the steps to be completed
in order to a successful conclusion.
The road sector reforms entail the transformation of the former mo-
nopolist ONT into a state-owned limited liability company, the Société
Nationale des Transpots et de la Logistique (SNTL). The latter will com-
pete in a liberalized market on an equal footing with private operators, and
could itself be privatized in the medium to long term.
Part of the program will also deal with road safety — a sensitive is-
sue in Morocco. The Moroccan government has to finalize the draft law
to modernize the national highway code. It also has to implement the in-
ternational convention on the transportation of hazardous materials (ADR
Convention) to which it is a signatory.
Making transport efficient also requires public and private investment
in infrastructure and operations. The Commission recently stressed that
to strengthen the political, economic and social links between the two
shores of the Mediterranean, it is essential to develop a Euro-Mediterra-

186
nean transport network, both in a south-south perspective (connections
among Mediterranean countries themselves) and north-south (connec-
tions with the trans-European transport network). While this aid program
is not designed to directly finance transport-related infrastructure or pri-
vate sector development projects, other instruments are available to fi-
nance such projects in Morocco and elsewhere in the region. However, by
improving the business environment, the reforms supported by this pro-
gram pave the way for private and public participation in transport infra-
structure financing and management.

INTERNATIONAL CARRIAGE OF GOODS


FOR REWARD/CMR CONVENTION
CMR regulations automatically apply to every contract for the inter-
national carriage of goods by road in vehicles for reward even when the
vehicle containing the goods is carried over part of its journey by sea, rail
or inland waterway and a CMR type consignment note must be completed.
Even where a haulier is not aware that the load being moved is on an inter-
national journey or aware of the conditions and implications of CMR, the
provisions still apply.
Under the terms of the carriage contract the carrier taking over the
goods must check the accuracy of the statements in the consignment note
as to the number of packages, their marks and numbers, the apparent con-
dition of the goods and their packing. Under these regulations the carrier
is responsible for loss, damage or delay from the time of taking over the
goods until the time of their delivery.
If goods are handled by a number of carriers on an overseas journey,
provisions are contained in CMR to apportion the liability for loss or dam-
age between all the carriers because of the difficulties which may arise
in pinpointing the exact time and place when the damage occurred.
It is not practical for own-account operators to undertake the carriage
of return loads for hire or reward — despite their freedom to do so in the
UK under their operators’ licence — because such operators are not cov-
ered by CMR regulations and to do so can present problems which out-
weigh the reward obtained. This does not apply if the operator obtains re-
turn loads from associate companies on the Continent.

CMR Consignment Note


Operators carrying goods for hire and reward on overseas journeys
within the provisions of the Convention on the Contract for the International

187
Carriage of Goods by Road (CMR) as described above must complete spe-
cial CMR consignment notes to be carried on the vehicle. The details re-
quired on consignment notes, which must be made out in triplicate and
signed by the sender and the carrier, are as follows:
Box 1. Sender (name, address, country).
Box 2. Customs references/status.
Box 3. Sender’s/agent’s reference.
Box 4. Consignee (name, address, country).
Box 5. Carrier (name, address/country).
Box 6. Place and date of taking over the goods.
Box 7. Successive carriers.
Box 8. Place designated for delivery of goods.
Box 9. Marks and numbers; number and kind of packages; descrip-
tion of goods.
Box 10. Gross weight (kg).
Box 11. Volume (m3).
Box 12. Carriage charges.
Box 13. Sender’s instructions for Customs.
Box 14. Reservations.
Box 15. Documents attached.
Box 16. Special arrangements.
Box 17. Goods received.
Box 18. Signature of carrier.
Box 19. Company completing the note.
Box 20. Place, date, signature.
Box 21. Copies to:
(i) Sender;
(ii) Consignee;
(iii) Carrier.

Documents to be Carried


The vehicle regulation documents (i.e. the original, not a copy) should
always be carried on the vehicle when it is travelling on international jour-
neys. The driver should also have written authority from his employer
on the company’s letter-headed paper showing that he is the authorized
driver of the vehicle.
If a hired or borrowed vehicle is taken abroad (or any vehicle not reg-
istered in the operator’s name), the driver must carry written authority
from the owner permitting his use of the vehicle together with the vehicle

188
registration document. Alternatively, a special regulation certificate can be
obtained from the motoring organizations, in which case there will be no
need for the registration document to be carried.
On all journeys abroad British vehicles must display a valid vehicle ex-
cise disc. It should be noted that operating without an excise licence disc,
non-payment of duty or payment at less than the full rate of duty (e.g.
heavy vehicle taxed at the private/light goods vehicle rate) is an offence
which can result in heavy penalties and claims for payment of back duty.

SOME BASIC ENGLISH TERMS


IMDG (International Movement containerization and transhipment
of Dangerous Goods) Международ- контейнеризация и перегрузка
ные правила перевозки опасных (перевалка)
грузов freight contracting заключение до-
IMO (International Marine Organi- говоров на перевозку грузов
zation) Международная морская CMR (Convention on the Contract for
организация the International Carriage of Goods
seafarer моряк by Road) Конвенция о договоре
enforcement authorities правоохрани- международной перевозки грузов
тельные органы; силовые струк- CMR consignment note транспортная
туры накладная CMR
FCL (full container load) полная кон- company’s letter-headed paper доку-
тейнерная отправка мент на бланке компании
LCL (less than container load) менее
чем контейнерная отправка (вме-
стимость контейнера)
freight surcharge дополнительная
плата за доставку груза
forwarder экспедитор
forwarding company экспедиторская
компания

VOCABULARY
1. obligation (n) обязанность, обязательство
oblige (v) обязывать
Our partners failed to fulfil their obligations under the contract.
obliged (adj) обязанный; признательный
The agreement obliges the carriers to follow the customer’s instruc-
tions.
We would be obliged if you will send us your catalogues.
2. specify (v) предусматривать; уточнять
The obligations of the parties are specified in Clause 5.

189
specification (n) cпецификация
They wanted us to send them our specification immediately.
3. sole (adj) единственный
They are sole exporters of oil in our country.
сp. only
She was the only child in the family.
4. empty (adj) пустой, порожний
We ask you to return empty containers.
сp. vacant
Have you got a vacant room?
5. backloading (n) обратная загрузка
In some cases backloading is difficult to arrange.
backload (v) обеспечить обратную загрузку, загрузить обратным грузом
They promised to backload our trailer.
6. separate (adj) отдельный
They packed the goods in separate bags.
separate (v) отделять; расходиться
Her parents aren’t divorced, they separated a year ago.
7. arise (v) (arose, arisen) возникать
A lot of difficulties can arise when fulfilling a contract.
сp. rise (rose, risen) подниматься
The prices are rising.
raise поднимать
What problems were raised at the talks?
8. amicably (adv) дружески
amicable (adj) дружеский
in an amicable way дружеским путем
There’s always an amicable way of solving disputes.
syn. friendly
in a friendly way
They failed to settle the matter amicably.
9. court (n) суд
Arbitration Court арбитраж, арбитражный суд
There are low courts and high courts in every country.
10. award (n) решение арбитражного суда; награда, вознаграждение
The award was final.
award (v) награждать
He’s never been awarded anything.
11. binding зд. обязательный
The award was final and binding upon both parties.
12. enter (v) входить, вступать
When does the new regulation enter into effect?
enter into effect вступать в силу

190
entrance (n) вход
Entrance is opposite to exit.
13. valid (adj) действующий
The agreement is valid one year.
be valid действовать, иметь силу
validity (n) cрок действия
What’s the validity of this document?
14. cancel (v) отменять, аннулировать
I’d like to cancel my credit card.
cancellation (n) отмена
Such a violation of the contract may result in cancellation.
15. terminate (v) прекращать действие (о договоре и т.п.)
termination (n) прекращение действия
The agreement will terminate in three years.
16. legal (adj) юридический; законный
The legal obligations of the parties are specified in Clause 7.
legal adviser юрисконсульт
There’s a legal adviser in any firm.
17. agent (n) агент, посредник
sole agent
This company is our sole agent in Europe.
exclusive agent
agency (n) агентство, посредничество
18. draw up (v) составлять
19. contract terms условия контракта
May I have a look at the contract terms?
20. miss out (v) упускать
At the last talks we missed out the insurance problem.
21. length (n) длина; зд. срок
What is the length of the contract?
22. renegotiable (adj) пересматриваемый
Point 8 specifies that the agreement is renegotiable.
23. commission (n) вознаграждение, комиссионные
They insisted on a 10% commission.
24. record (v) записывать, протоколировать
The current data on spare parts have just been recorded.
record (n) запись
records (n pl) документация, учетно-отчетные материалы
You will need copies of all invoices for your records.
25. statement (n) заявление; зд. бухгалтерская выписка
We shall send you our statement every month.
26. base (v) основываться
What is this statement based on?

191
27. settle (v) решать, урегулировать
That will settle the price problem.
settle up рассчитываться
Have Brown & Co settled up for the last shipment?
settlement (n) урегулирование
settlement of accounts порядок расчетов
28. fairly (adv) довольно
The weather is fairly good for this season.
ср. rather
The weather is rather cold today.
29. cure (n) лечение
30. explosion (n) взрыв
31. seafarer (n) моряк, мореплаватель
32. accident (n) несчастный случай
33. attribute (v) относить на счет кого-либо, приписывать
34. incident (n) случай; инцидент
35. declare (v) декларировать, объявлять, заявлять
36. regulation (n) правило
37. code (n) кодекс, свод правил
38. amendment (n) поправка
39. compliance (n) соответствие
40. mandatory (adj) обязательный, принудительный
41. statutory ( adj) установленный законом, соответствующий закону
42. noxious (adj) вредный, пагубный; ядовитый
43. endanger (v) подвергать опасности
44. precaution (n) предосторожность
45. jettison (v) выбрасывать груз при угрозе аварии
46. flammable (adj) воспламеняющийся
47. inadvertently (adv) небрежно, неосторожно
48. casualty (n) несчастный случай; катастрофа; авария
49. warrant (v) ручаться, гарантировать, подтверждать
50. fit (adj) подходящий
51. recover (v) получать обратно, возвращать себе
52. expose (v) выставлять, подвергать
53. alarm (n) тревога
54. enforcement authorities правоохранительные органы; силовые структуры
55. deliberately (adv) намеренно, сознательно
deliberate (adj) намеренный, осознанный
56. innocently (adv) невинно, наивно
57. incur (n) навлекать на себя; повлечь за собой
58. lump sum (n) паушальная, общая сумма; единовременно выплачиваемая
сумма
59. endeavour (n) попытка, стремление, усилие

192
60. disaster (n) бедствие, несчастье
61. adherence (n) приверженность, верность
62. apprise (v) оценивать
63. impact (n) удар
64. decisive (adj) решающий
65. mediacy (n) посредничество
66. pass (v) принимать (закон, резолюцию и т.п.)
67. law (n) закон
68. abolition (n) отмена, аннулирование
69. spell out (v) объяснять точно и обстоятельно
70. privatize (v) приватизировать
71. strengthen (v) усиливать, укреплять
72. pave the way прокладывать дорогу
73. reward (n) награда, вознаграждение
74. consignment note (n) накладная
75. apparent condition внешний вид
76. aportion (v) распределять, разделять
77. liability (n) ответственность, обязанность
be liable for быть ответственным, нести финансовую ответственность
78. pinpoint (v) точно определять или указывать
79. outweigh (v) быть тяжелее; превосходить в весе, перевешивать
80. triplicate (n) в трех экземплярах
81. successive (adj) последующий
82. motoring organization автопредприятие
83. valid (adj) действующий, имеющий силу
84. excise (n) акциз
85. penalty (n) штраф

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UNIT 8
TRANSPORT AND LAW

INTRODUCING NEW INFORMATION


Ex. 1. A. Read the text and find 2—3 sentences that express the main idea.

SOME LEGAL PROBLEMS OF TRANSPORTATION


When executing contracts of transportation of cargo from manufactur-
er to consumer, disputes may arise as a result of carelessness or negligence,
and as a rule they are settled amicably. But when it is impossible to settle
a matter in an amicable way, it is referred to Arbitration or other courts.
Below is an extract from the Award of the Maritime Arbitration Commis-
sion of January 15, 20 . . . in: "Aviaimport v. Ingosstrakh”.

Case No. 11/20 . . .)


FACTS: Four crates of aviation equipment were transported by s/s
Neva from St Petersburg to Cuba under Bill of Lading No. 265 of February
19, 20… The cargo was insured with “Ingosstrakh”. In the port of discharge
it was discovered that one crate was missing.
Ingosstrakh rejected the claim of the Cuban firm Aviaimport because
it was presented after the expiration of one year since the unloading of the
vessel, which denied Ingosstakh the right to submit a claim to the carrier
responsible for the damage, which in turn exempts the carrier from the ob-
ligation to pay damages under Paragraph 22 of the Transportation Insur-
ance Rules. Aviaimport submitted its claim to Ingosstrakh for $1,000 for
reimbursement caused by the shortage.
In the reply the defendant recognized that the maximum sum which
they could claim from the carrier was equal to $250, the limit of the car-
rier’s liability for one crate, though they were prepared to compensate the
claimant to the amount of the real cost of the missing goods, if they pre-
sented documented proof of the amount of the claim.

194
In the Seller’s price list presented by Aviaimport the cost of one lad-
der (which according to the claimant was in the missing crate) was equal
to $7,000. At the last hearing, when asked to present the proof as to what goods
were in the missing crate, the claimant stated that he did not possess any proof.
REASONS FOR AWARD: Having considered the circumstances
of the case and listened to the explanations of the parties’ representatives,
the Maritime Arbitration Commission declared that under Item 3 of Para-
graph 17 of the Transportation Insurance Rules the insurant is obliged
to document the amount of his claim.
From the materials of the case it is impossible to determine the con-
tents of the missing crate and, therefore, its price. The supplier’s invoices
only stated that the total weight of the crates was 493 kg and that they were
shipped “free of charge”.
Although the claimant was invited to present proof which would make
it possible to identify the contents of the missing crate, such proof was not
produced.
In the circumstances the Maritime Arbitration Commission has de-
cided that the claim cannot be awarded in accordance with Item 3 of Para-
graph 17 of the Transportation Insurance Rules.

Notes:
the Marine Arbitration Commission морская арбитражная комиссия
v. = versus против

B. Reread the text and say if the statements below are true or false. Correct
the false statements.
1. All disputes in business are settled friendly.
2. The cargo is always insured against all risks, so the buyer never loses
his money.
3. Ingosstrakh couldn’t reject the claim of Aviaimport.
4. The amount of the claim was equal to $7,000.
5. The defendant presented to the court the required proof.
6. The contents of the missing crate were determined.
7. The claimant received the reimbursement.
C. Look through the text again and say what was mentioned in the text about
a) the way of settling claims;
b) the contents of the claim;
c) the reasons for the Award.

195
D. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following word combina-
tions:
1) в результате небрежности;
2) в порту разгрузки обнаружилось;
3) спустя год после разгрузки судна;
4) который, в свою очередь...;
5) вызванную недопоставкой;
6) на последнем заседании по слушанию дела;
7) предоставить документы, подтверждающие сумму иска;
8) с помощью которых можно было бы определить содержимое
утерянного места (ящика);
9) претензия не может быть удовлетворена.
E. Say what would’ve happened if:
1) Aviaimport had made a claim on the Russian company just after
they discovered that one crate was missing;
2) Aviaimport could have presented the documented proof of the
amount of the claim;
3) Ingosstrakh hadn’t rejected Aviaimport’s claim.

DEVELOPING READING TECHNIQUE


Ex. 2. A. Listen to the text Some Legal Problems of Transportation and follow
it with your eyes.
B. Listen to the text again and repeat it sentence by sentence.
C. Read the text aloud. Approximate time of reading is 2.5 min.

LEARNING NEW WORDS


Ex. 3. A. Find the words in bold type and try to guess their meaning. Check up
the translation of the words in the Vocabulary (p. 220). Write them out
in your vocabulary.
B. Write down all the words unknown to you in your vocabulary.
Ex. 4. Explain the meaning of the following phrases within the text:
1) to reject the carrier’s liability for one crate;

196
2) to present the documents required;
3) to submit a claim to the carrier;
4) due to negligence;
5) to exempt the carrier from the obligation;
6) to deny that damage occurred.
Ex. 5. Match these verbs and noun phrases and translate the expressions they
make into Russian:
to reject examination
to submit proofs
to determine claim
to execute amount of damages
to speed up obligations under contracts
to present from the obligation
to claim contents of crates
to deny the claimant
to exempt liability
to settle supplier’s invoice

Ex. 6. Fill in the gaps with the words given below.

A.
restrictions, customs, declares, taxes, Customs, certified, exporting,
invoice, certificate, separate
Trade _____ are enforced by Customs and Excise Department. Im-
porters have to fill out a ______ Declaration form which _______ the val-
ue of the goods, so that the customs officials can calculate the _____ they
must pay. To make the job of the _____ office easier, the invoice for goods
is sometimes _____ as accurate by the Consulate of the importing country
before the goods leave the _____ country. The _____ is then called a con-
sular invoice and is also used as a _____ of origin (although this may be
a _____ document).

B.
control, imposing, provides, subsidizing, imposing, loans, competition,
limiting, produces, impose
One way a country can _____ its economy is by ____ import restric-
tions (or controls). If an industry is just starting up, the government may
help it because it makes the country richer and _____ employment. The

197
government can help this industry by _____ it or by ______ import re-
strictions. To subsidize an industry means to give it grants or _____ . Im-
port controls can protect it from _____ by stopping or ______ the import
goods which this industry _____. The government might also _____ taxes
on imported goods, which are called duties or tariffs.

C. Say what information the text gives about


a) providing employment;
b) subsidizing an industry;
c) imposing restrictions;
d) giving grants;
e) filling out a Customs Declaration;
f) protecting from competition.

Notes:
to enforce вводить в действие
to impose restrictions вводить ограничения
excise акциз
loan заем

Ex. 7. A. Fill in the gaps choosing the right word.

reject, refuse, give up, turn down


1. Why did they ________ to place the vessel under loading yester-
day?
2. I’m afraid we’ll have to ________ the whole consignment because
the quality of the goods doesn’t conform to the specifications.
3. I talked with the sales manager yesterday, and he ________ your
suggestion on cooperation.
4. You should ________ taking this medicine, it does you a lot
of harm.

B. Translate the sentences into English using the words given above.
1. Они отказались оплатить неустойку, и мы передали дело в ар-
битраж.
2. Мне кажется, тебе нужно отказаться от курения.
3. Почему вы отказываетесь от такого выгодного контракта?
4. Они отказались от суммы, предложенной нами в качестве
компенсации.

198
Ex. 8. A. Fill in the gaps choosing the right word.
affair, case, business
1. The Department of Home _____ looks after the ____ of the State
at home.
2. In Great Britain criminal _____ are heard at the Crown courts.
3. This logistics company has been doing very good _____ for a num-
ber of years.
4. 4 If this ____ had not been heard at the Arbitration Сourt, we
would never have been reimbursed for the losses.
5. When he tried to impose his advice on me, I told him to mind his
own _____.

B. Translate the sentences into English using the words given above.
1. Это мое дело. Я не хочу, чтобы ты вмешивался.
2. Его дело не будет слушаться в суде.
3. Министр иностранных дел Великобритании прибудет с визи-
том в нашу страну на следующей неделе.

Ex. 9. Check yourself. Give the English equivalents of the following Russian
word combinations:
1) возникать в результате небрежности;
2) отклонить претензию;
3) предъявить претензию страховой компании на $20 000;
4) быть предъявленным после истечения одного года со дня
нанесения ущерба;
5) компенсировать истцу ущерб в размере…;
6) решить вопрос дружеским путем;
7) требовать возмещения ущерба от перевозчика груза;
8) ограничить ответственность одной из сторон;
9) представить доказательства повреждения ящика во время
разгрузки;
10) освободить от обязательства;
11) определить сумму ущерба;
12) отрицать факт недопоставки;
13) выполнять обязательства по контракту;
14) застраховать в «Ингосстрахе»;
15) сумма иска в размере $7000.

199
REVIEWING GRAMMAR
Ex. 10. Study the table. Note the three types of Conditional Sentences.
Conditional Sentences
I If he pays in cash, he will get a 10% Если он заплатит наличными,
discount он получит 10%-ную скидку
II If he paid in cash, he would get a 10% Если бы он заплатил наличными,
discount он получил бы 10%-ную скидку
(сегодня, завтра)
III If he had paid in cash, he would have Если бы он заплатил наличными,
got a 10% discount он получил бы 10%-ную скидку
(вчера)

Ex. 11. Complete the sentences using the prompts in brackets.


1. If the charterer didn’t give the ship’s master the right to sign the
Mate’s Receipt, (difficulties, to arise, at the port of loading).
2. If the UN Convention of Intermodal Transport had been signed
10 years ago, (to reduce transport costs and increase efficiency
of transportation).
3. If there were not so many transport documents, (to be easier to de-
liver the goods to the consumer).
4. If they had transferred the money due to us, (to cause delay in plac-
ing the vessel under loading).
5. If it were not for the emergency delivery to Novorossiysk, (to dis-
patch your consignment of furniture on time).
6. If it were not for the Internet, (to take much more time to keep
in touch with business partners).
7. If the charter party hadn’t been negotiated carefully, (to arise, big-
ger problems).
8. If the truck had been cleared on Friday, (to deliver the goods to the
customers on time).
9. If there were more investments in transport infrastructure, (the in-
dustry, to start booming).
10. If there hadn’t been a congestion at the port, (to carry out dis-
charge without delay).
Ex. 12. Say what you would do in these circumstances.
1. Your partner fails to return empty containers at the agreed dates.
2. The transport company raises freight rates without giving notice.

200
3. You want to cancel an agreement before it expires.
4. You want to take up сustoms clearance at your new warehouse.
5. You want to specify some points of your future Charter Party.
Ex. 13. Say what would’ve happened (it didn’t really happen) if
1) you hadn’t invoiced the customer in time;
2) you hadn’t sent the principals your statement at the required dates;
3) you hadn’t offered overtime to the warehouse people working dur-
ing the weekend;
4) being a western logistics company, you hadn’t offered your ser-
vices to the FSU and other developing markets;
5) the Russian government hadn’t invested in public transport last
year.
Ex. 14. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Если бы мы заключили соглашение два месяца назад, мы бы
не потеряли столько времени и денег.
2. Если бы в стране было несколько крупных транспортно-ло-
гистических фирм, можно было бы говорить о возможности
резкого роста рынка транспортных услуг.
3. Конвенция по интермодальным перевозкам вступила бы
в силу, если бы к ней присоединилось свыше 30 стран.
4. Если бы железнодорожная колея во всех европейских стра-
нах и России была одинаковой, объем грузов, перевозимых
по железной дороге, был бы значительно больше.
5. Если бы ящики были правильно уложены в трюме, груз
не был бы поврежден.
6. Если бы все бригады грузчиков работали в две смены, суда
разгружались бы быстрее.
7. Если бы все коносаменты и другие транспортные документы
передaвались по факсу, процесс доставки груза в пункт на-
значения значительно ускорился бы.
8. Если бы автомобильный транспорт был экологически более
безопасным, в Европе не было бы ограничений на грузовые
автоперевозки.
9. Если бы грузы перевозились только в контейнерах, время
на их обработку было бы сокращено.
10. Если бы в порту не было большого скопления судов, груз был
бы доставлен без задержки.

201
Ex. 15. Put in prepositions where necessary. Say if all these sentences can be
used in business letters of complaint.
1. We have to inform you that the damage _____ the machines deliv-
ered _____ Contract 42/03 occurred _____ transit.
2. The amount of the claim equal _____ $550 is to be remitted _____
our account no later than 15th December.
3. We consider that you are liable _____ the losses we have suffered.
4. Unfortunately we rejected _____ the consignment as the tools
proved to be substandard.
5. They promised to speed _____ loading if we offered overtime.
6. Hereby we are making a claim _____ you _____ connection _____
delay _____ discharging _____ our vessel and ask you to reimburse
us _____ the losses we have suffered.
7. There are not many goods that are exempt _____ customs duties
in Russia.
8. If you want to make a claim _____ your business partner, you
should have a Surveyor’s Report properly issued and signed.
9. If the box hadn’t been badly damaged, we wouldn’t have written
it _____ .
10. The sellers promised to supply us _____ spare parts to the engine
_____ the end _____ the month.

Ex. 16. Put the articles where necessary and discuss the text. Say what would
have happened if the early markets had not been allowed to set up their
own tribunals.

Law Merchant
_____ early common law courts were concerned largely with problems
of land tenure and gave _____ little attention to _____ growing number of
_____ business transactions and _____ disputes arising therefrom. _____
procedure in _____ common law courts was slow, and _____ merchants
needed _____ quick decisions, therefore many markets were allowed to set
up _____ own special tribunals. There were various types of _____ rules
administered in _____ courts which were based upon mercantile customs,
and later they became known as law merchant. Some of _____ customs
were internationally recognized and became laws. _____ common law
courts realized _____ importance of _____ work______ tribunals were
doing and took it over. _____ various types of _____ commercial docu-

202
ments and procedures were recognized in _____ legal decisions, thereby
forming _____ precedents and becoming _____ part of _____ common
law itself. At _____ same time, _____ modern law of _____ contract was
developed. Today _____ ordinary courts will often take account of _____
business practice in reading _____ decision, and this still plays _____ im-
portant part in _____ evolution of _____ English law.

Notes:
common law courts суды общей юрисдикции
land tenure землевладение
to administer a rule применять правило
mercantile коммерческий; торговый
custom обычай, традиция
to take account of  учитывать
tribunal суд, орган правосудия

Ex. 17. A. Read and translate the facsimile message. Complete the sentences
putting the verbs in the correct tense and voice.

FACSIMILE MESSAGE
To: DFDS Transport, Denmark
Attn: Thomas Nielsen
Nos of pages (incl. this) 1. Pls advise if this fax is incorrectly transmitted.
Your ref.: _______ Our ref.: _______ Date: __________
Re: Trailer VY 3237 HOK

The above trailer (arrive) in Moscow on the 16th October at 9.00. Since that
time it (be) in our parking place because the consignee (have) no money
for customs clearance. The consignee (promise) to inform us in time when
they (be ready) to clear the goods. The driver (visit) our office several times
a day to get some news. He (be) at the office at 5 pm yesterday. And we
(tell) him that the consignee (may, not to turn up) till the 10th November
as today (be) a short working day in Russia. But today the client (phone)
our office at 12.30 and (ask) us to deliver the trailer to the Customs. As the
driver (be) not there, we (fail) to do that.
Moreover, the client (inform) us that he (take) the documents from the
driver on the day of his arrival in Moscow knowing that it (be) strictly pro-
hibited.

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We (ask) you to advise the shipper of the above and charge the consignee
fully for the demurrage.
Yours truly
Larsen
DFDS Moscow
Note:
demurrage простой

B. Answer the questions.


1. When was the fax message sent?
2. How long did the trailer stand at the parking place of DFDS
in Moscow and why?
3. Who is responsible for the demurrage?
4. Would the trailer have been cleared on the 6th November if the
driver had been at the office?
5. How could this dispute be settled?
C. You are the consignee. Phone DFDS Moscow office and tell them you
want to come to their office to have the trailer cleared.
D. You are Larsen. Phone your head office in Denmark and tell them that
the consignee considers you responsible for the demurrage.

Ex. 18. A. Translate the text into English.


Агент может доверить разгрузку судна стивидорской фирме или
организовать доставку самостоятельно. Стивидоры либо разгружают
судно и помещают груз на собственном складе с тем, чтобы доста-
вить его грузополучателю, либо совместно с агентом передают груз
грузополучателю непосредственно на причале. Груз доставляется по
коносаменту, при этом получатель груза обязательно расписывается
на обратной стороне документа.
Коносамент может передаваться, продаваться и перепродаваться
третьей стороне. Агент (брокер) должен следить за тем, чтобы все
формальности, предусмотренные законом, выполнялись и чтобы
груз был доставлен законному держателю коносамента.
Капитан обычно просит агента (брокера) подписать такой коно-
самент. Подпись брокера означает, что фрахт им уже получен. Если
фрахт не оплачен, капитан может воспользоваться правом удержа-
ния имущества и распорядиться грузом по своему усмотрению.

204
B. Say if these statements are true or false. Correct the false ones.
1. A stevedoring company has nothing to do with discharge of vessels
arriving at a port.
2. Stevedors have always got their own warehouses.
3. A Bill of Lading is not a negotiable document.
4. A consignee doesn’t have to sign Bill of Lading.
5. The master of a vessel always has an agent at the port of discharge.
6. The master has no right to exercise a lien upon the goods.

These English phrases can help you:


to entrust discharge
to discharge the cargo into their own warehouse
to arrange direct delivery of the cargo to the owners alongside the ship
to sign his name on the back of the document
a negotiable document which may be resold to other people
the legitimate holder of the Bill of Lading
the freight has been duly collected by him
to exercise a lien upon the goods

LEARNING TO LISTEN AND SPEAK

Ex. 19. A. Listen to the telephone conversation and decide what organization Mr
Nikitin is making the call to:
a) the insurance company;
b) the consignee;
c) the consignor.

MAKING A COMPLAINT
A Russian importer Mr Nikitin telephones Mr Simons, manager
of a British firm supplying computers.

Simons: Hello. CMS here.


Nikitin: Hello. This is Nikitin of Moscow Export. I’m calling about the
consignment of computer components, Order No. 256-AT.
Simons: Just a moment, I’ll find your order. Well . . . , here it is. What’s the
problem?

205
Nikitin: I’m afraid the whole consignment is a complete write-off. We can’t
save anything.
Simons: Really? What’s happened?
Nikitin: We’re not sure. When we received it, the case was badly crushed.
All the components were damaged beyond repair.
Simons: It sounds as if something heavy fell on it. You’d better get the sur-
veyor to inspect the case.
Nikitin: I’ve already done it. It didn’t take him long to carry out investiga-
tion.
Simons: Would you mind sending the surveyor’s report to me, please? To-
gether with your claim. I’ll take the matter up with our insurers.
Nikitin: It’s going to be a pretty big claim. I think over . . .
Simons: I realize that, but we’ll try to speed the things up for you. You
must be compensated without delay.
Nikitin: OK. I’ll send you the documents by fax this afternoon. Goodbye,
Mr Simons.
Simons: Bye.
B. Listen to the conversation again and say if the statements below are true
or false. Correct the false statements.
1. The consignment of computer components was badly damaged.
2. The damage to the components was caused by negligent stowage
of the crates.
3. The surveyor didn’t inspect the crates.
4. The suppliers rejected the buyer’s claim.
5. The buyers should refer the matter to Arbitration to speed up the
solution of the problem.
C. Listen to the conversation again and repeat it sentence by sentence.
D. Rearrange the conversation.
Nikitin: Hello. This is Nikitin of Moscow Export. I’m calling about the
consignment of computer components, Order No. 256-AT.
Simons: It sounds as if something heavy fell on it. You’d better get the sur-
veyor to inspect the case.
Nikitin: I’m afraid the whole consignment is a complete write-off. We
can’t save anything.
Simons: Would you mind sending the surveyor’s report to me, please?
Together with your claim. I’ll take the matter up with our in-
surers.

206
Nikitin: We’re not sure. When we received it, the case was badly crushed.
All the components were damaged beyond repair.
Simons: Just a moment, I’ll find your order. Well . . . , here it is. What’s the
problem?
Nikitin: It’s going to be a pretty big claim. I think over . . .
Simons: Really? What’s happened?
Nikitin: I’ve already done it. It didn’t take him long to carry out investiga-
tion.
Simons: I realize that, but we’ll try to speed the things up for you. You
must be compensated without delay.
Simons: Hello. CMS here.
Nikitin: OK. I’ll send you the documents by fax this afternoon. Goodbye,
Mr Simons.
Simons: Bye.
E. Complete the conversation.
Simons: Hello. CMS here.
Nikitin: _________________________________________________
Simons: Just a moment, I’ll find your order. Well . . . , here it is. What’s the
problem?
Nikitin: _________________________________________________
Simons: It sounds as if something heavy fell on it. You’d better get the sur-
veyor to inspect the case.
Nikitin: _________________________________________________
Simons: Would you mind sending the surveyor’s report to me, please? To-
gether with your claim. I’ll take the matter up with our insurers.
Nikitin: _________________________________________________
Simons: I realize that, but we’ll try to speed the things up for you. You
must be compensated without delay.
Nikitin: _________________________________________________
F. What would you say to your partner if
1) the consignment you’d ordered didn’t arrive on time;
2) one crate in the consignment was damaged (missing);
3) the goods arrived damaged and you want the replacement urgently;
4) you want to make a claim on your suppliers for delay in delivery?
G. Write the letter of complaint which Mr Simons asked Mr Nikitin to send.
Say what other documents are required to take the matter up with the in-
surers.

207
Ex. 20. Have a conversation with your partner using the information below.
You have just arrived at a warehouse to collect the spare parts stored
there for two days and found one box damaged. Phone the insurance com-
pany and ask them to send the surveyor to the warehouse as soon as pos-
sible. Tell them that you need the Inspection Report today. Explain the
reasons.

LEARNING TO WRITE
Ex. 21. A. You work for a medium-size company with a small fleet of 10 trucks,
only five of which are new trucks. You have been operating in the Euro-
pean market for five years, and your partners consider you reliable. Read
the letter below and prepare a polite reply to it admitting your fault. Try
to convince your partners that the situation will never repeat in future
again.

Rustransit
Attn.: Mr Ivanov
Our ref. FA. 960/79 GAG/RAK 27th March 20 . . .

Dear Sirs,
Re: TRAILER No. MB 7651 — WAYBILL No. 111311 000 2M SEW-
ING MACHINE HEADS AND 1 CASE SPARES EX RAZNO
EXPORT FOR JONES SEWING MACHINE CO. LTD, MAN-
CHESTER — 16.03.20 . . .

With reference to the above and further to our fax notification reference
1345/20.3.20 . . . hereby we advise you that the consignment was delivered
wet and damaged. We now attach Xerox copies of the following documen-
tation substantiating the claim of Razno Export.
1. Their letter of 16.03.20 . . . initially indicating potential claim.
2. Invoice 209.
3. Waybill 111311 bearing reservation that the trailer body had many
holes and 272 machines were wet-damaged.
4. The surveyor’s report dated 20.03.20 . . . confirming that the cause
of damage was poor condition of the tilt and establishing the extent
of the claim which amounts to $1,667.

208
As Razno Export has lodged this claim with the relevant cargo insurers, you
will in due course receive from them their subrogated claim for settlement.
Should you require any further information, we are at your disposal.
Yours faithfully,
M & S SHIPPING LIMITED

Notes:
to substantiate доказывать, приводить достаточные основания
reservation оговорка
tilt тент
to lodge a claim = предъявлять претензию
= to make a claim
subrogated claim зд. претензия, переадресованная страховой компа-
нией на перевозчика

B. Think and answer.


1. Would the carrier have reimbursed the damages if the waybill had
been clean?
2. Would the cargo insurer had sent their subrogated claim to the car-
rier if the Surveyor’s Report hadn’t confirmed that the goods were
damaged due to the poor condition of the tilt?
3. Would there be any damage to the sewing machines if the tilt had
been in good condition?
4. What would you do if this letter were addressed to you?

Ex. 22. Translate the letter into English.

Уважаемые господа !
Подтверждаем получение вашего письма от 12.03.20… касатель-
но повреждения груза, доставленного т/х «Москва» по коносаменту
№ ___.
В своем письме вы указываете, что ящики не были уложены
в трюме как полагается, что, по вашему мнению, и явилось при-
чиной повреждения груза. Груз размещался в трюме в присутствии
вашего представителя, и в момент загрузки с его стороны не было
никаких замечаний. Следовательно, груз был закреплен должным
образом.

209
Кроме того, повреждение груза не подтверждено Актом сюрвей-
ера, что является необходимым условием при передаче претензии
в страховую компанию с целью получения возмещения ущерба.
С уважением,
______________

Ex. 23. A. Read the letter of attorney below and say what power Russtrans grants
M & S Freight Ltd.

LETTER OF ATTORNEY
Hereby RUSSTRANS, Moscow represented by its President Mr Vladimir
Zhukov acting in accordance with the Charter, grants M & S FREIGHT
LTD, London the Power of Attorney and authorizes them to represent its
interests in the United Kingdom and to settle claims connected with com-
pensation in respect of loss and damage to Goods or Equipment belonging
to or carried by RUSSTRANS to and from the United Kingdom.
M & S FREIGHT LTD are also authorized to appoint Surveyors/Loss
Adjusters to assess the cause and compensation liable for any claim over
$300 and, if required, are further authorized to appoint legal representa-
tion.
M & S FREIGHT LTD should then advise any legal representation in ac-
cordance with the instruction of RUSSTRANS.
This Power of Attorney is valid till July, 1st 20 . . .
Zhukov
President
RUSSTRANS

Notes:
attorney доверенное лицо
Letter of Attorney доверенность
Power of Attorney доверенность; полномочия
to adjust регулировать, устанавливать
to assess определять сумму (штрафа и т.п.)

B. Answer the questions.


1. Why do Russtrans grant a Power of Attorney to M & S Freight?
2. Are there any contracts of cooperation between them?

210
3. How could claims under £300 be settled between the partners?
4. What do Russtrans mean when they say that M & S Freight “are
authorized to appoint legal representation”?
5. In what other cases can a letter of attorney be granted to a com-
pany?

LEARNING TO READ AND ANALYSE

Ex. 24. A. Read this part of the lecture and say who it is intended for:
a) students of Marine Academy;
b) sailors and masters;
c) students of Law University;
d) transport operators.

Over the last five months I have tried to illustrate the nature of claims.
Generally, the risks are insured and there will be no personal loss.
If a mistake has been made, it might blight the individual’s career pros-
pects but should go no further. However, there are a number of statutes
relating to operational matters which provide for custodial sentences. Act
1987 provides that where a vessel enters the safety zone around an offshore
structure without consent, then: “Its owner and its master shall be guilty
of an offence and liable on conviction on indictment to imprisonment for
a term not exceeding two years or a fine or both.”
Here is what actually happened in the North Sea last year.
A forest product carrier ran into a rig in the North Sea in June. The
second mate who should have been on watch, was in his bunk for reasons
which he could not explain, and the bridge was unmanned. The case was
heard in the Crown Court . . .

B. What do you think the verdict was?


C. Give the English equivalents for the following words within the text:
1) разрушить карьеру человека;
2) вопросы эксплуатации (судна);
3) заключение под стражу;
4) виновный;
5) правонарушение;
6) тюремное заключение;

211
7) штраф;
8) столкнуться с буровой.
D. Explain the following.
1. Risks are insured, and there is no personal loss.
2. Some operational matters provide for custodial sentences.
3. The owner and the master are liable to imprisonment or fine or both.
4. The vessel ran into a rig.
5. The bridge was unmanned.
E. You are the judge at the Crown Court. Try to solve this case. There are
some particulars of the case. You know that the owners of the vessel are
residents abroad. The second mate did not feel very well, that is why he
was in his bunk. What’s your verdict?
F. Here is the verdict.
“ . . . the second mate is sentenced to 6 months imprisonment and the
master to 3 months, subsequently reduced on appeal to one month.”
G. You are the judge at the Court of Appeal. The master of the ship and the
second mate wanted their case to be reviewed by you. What is your ver-
dict?

Ex. 25. A. Read the text and say whether it is


a) an advertisement;
b) a passage from a textbook;
c) an encyclopedia article;
d) a newspaper article.

SAME LAW FOR ALL IN EU TRANSPORT, SAYS UNION


The International Road Transport Union (IRU) has called for a har-
monization of European transport law.
The Geneva-based body, which groups together national haulage asso-
ciations from around the world, has pinpointed two problem areas in trans-
port law: driving hours and liability in intermodal transport.
According to the IRU, there is too much divergence between the vari-
ous countries when it comes to enforcing truck driving hours regulations.
It also believes that some countries discriminate against foreign drivers,
penalizing them harder than their own truckers.
In international transport, variations in national law mean that it is of-
ten unclear who is legally liable for consignments which move from road

212
to rail and country to country. The IRU is pressing European Union bod-
ies to clarify and harmonize the law across Europe.
Speaking at an IRU symposium on transport law in Brussels, IRU sec-
retary general said: “It cannot be denied that transport law must be mod-
ernized. This calls for common legal vision.”
The IRU has published a list of lawyers across Europe who claim to be
experts in transport law.

Notes:
to call for призывать; требовать
divergence зд. различие
to enforce вводить в действие

B. Say what you have learned from the article about the IRU and its activi-
ties in Europe.

Ex. 26. Get ready to make a presentation at the Annual International Confer-
ence on Transport and Logistics. Read the texts given below and decide
what topic of your presentation will be. Make a plan of your presenta-
tion and prepare a report according to the plan.

DACHSER’S COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOLING


Almost instinctively when we get into our cars, we fasten our seat belts
and make sure that our front-seat passengers and any children in the car do
the same. After all it is a question of safety — apart from the threat of hefty
fines. In fact “belting up” is a form of load securing which we take for
granted.
We ought to follow the same principle with the goods on the beds
of our trucks, after all load securing measures are a contribution to road
safety and to an increase in the quality of the transport service provided.
The present legal position is that the consignor may well bear the same
degree of liability as the logistics provider, the driver and those who actu-
ally load the vehicle. The annual compensation for damage in Germany
alone caused by inadequately lashed loads totals around EUR 500 million.
Acceleration, curves and braking all effect the load, which is often
composed of many small units, typically with a total weight of several
tones. Every time a load works loose braking and centripetal forces are
given a free hand. When these forces act in the direction of motion, they
can be so strong that they are equivalent to 80% of the load’s total weight.

213
If a load has not been stowed or lashed correctly individual items may work
loose, be damaged and, sooner or later, fall off the truck onto the road or
the forwarder’s or the client’s yard. This is more than frustrating. It is ex-
pensive and dangerous. Those responsible may well face prosecution re-
sulting in fines, jail sentences and the loss of insurance cover.
Over and above the speed, flexibility and reliability with which trans-
port contracts are fulfilled, the security of a load is thus gaining importance
as a quality benchmark used in assessing a logistics enterprise. Dachser,
a private sector forwarder and logistics provider, realized the vital impor-
tance of this issue some time ago. Therefore, the company attaches partic-
ular importance not only to the development and consistent use of lashing
equipment such as slip resistant matting, arresting rods, damming sacks
and interwall locking, but also increasingly to thorough training of all of its
staff who are directly concerned with securing loads. Thus last year pro-
duction heads warehouse personnel, sales and scheduling managers from
over 42 Dachser branches in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Hungary,
Belgium and the Netherlands participated in three-day practical training
sessions covering all aspects of secure load lashing. Correct packing of con-
signments which starts with the customer, is just as important as optimum
distribution of the load on the vehicle and taking into account frictional
forces. And all these factors influence the choice of lashing. Safety advisers
from each branch also took part. In future, they will take charge of provid-
ing coaching at the local level, that is integrated into routine business, and
will be responsible for maintaining a high degree of awareness among em-
ployees. By the end of 2004 Dachser had replaced 650 curtain-sided trail-
ers with modern steel box-bodies as an additional contribution to safety.
Another advantage is that the new trailers can be loaded on two levels.

CARGO THEFT MUST BE COUNTERED


The theft of trucks and their cargo is increasing by 5% per year in the
EU. Criminals target over 200,000 commercial vehicles per year today.
Eurowatch is attempting to combat this trend by improving the reporting
and tracing of stolen goods. The company recently organized a seminar
in London for shippers and transport companies to raise awareness of the
issue. The event focussed on topics such as modern methods of crime pre-
vention, electronic load protection and other security methods. In the UK
alone freight crime involves 7—8 vehicles a day representing losses of GBP
18—20 million per year.

214
In many cases the cost of indirect losses can be much higher than the
direct ones. A Rand study carried out for 95 top high-tech industries in the
USA a few years ago illustrated the magnitude of the problem. It found
that the ratio of indirect losses compared with direct losses was as much as
five to one. Indirect losses comprise such factors as supply chain disrup-
tion, client relations, branding, gray and black market and theft-reduction
costs.
The fact that owners and logistics service providers are now spend-
ing a greater proportion of their budgets on combating crime does not
compensate for factors such as negligent drivers — who for example leave
a vehicle unattended with the key in the ignition. In addition there are
numerous cases of theft which are not reported to the police. Accord-
ing to a security adviser for a leading pharmaceutical company the main
weakness are the drivers themselves. Drivers can be targets of crime or ac-
tual accomplices. And ex-Scotland Yard man Tom Glendinning — who
is now employed by the consulting institute Cargo Solutions — claimed
that 80% of all crimes associated with freight pilferage is employee col-
lusion.
Striking the right balance between establishing the threat of loss and
its cost may not always be easy. Technology alone is not enough. How-
ever, some drivers may resent being monitored around the clock day in,
day out. Thus, more widespread adoption of telematic solutions in con-
junction with mobile phones and recognized police reporting system could
help curb future crime whilst offering greater protection to honest drivers.
An increasing number of manufacturers who produce high value goods are
setting specific standards for their transport suppliers.
Telematic solutions have taken longer than expected to be adopted by
the commercial vehicle sector. This is due to the fact that the market is still
too fragmented. System costs are still too high and will remain so as market
consolidation is unlikely to occur in the next two to three years.
Of the 25—26 million vehicles in Europe only 1% are equipped with
tracking/positioning systems. However, as electronic toll collect tech-
nology is gradually being adopted, this will have positive knock-on ef-
fects in the vehicle telematics sector. At present some 10 to 12 million
vehicles are to be equipped with the corresponding technology. By the
year 2010, around 50 million trucks are expected to be fitted with reading
devices.
In the meantime Eurowatch provides a technologically neutral solu-
tion. A driver who becomes the victim of a crime can transfer his exact

215
location by either GPS or mobile phone. Eurowatch which is now recog-
nized in 29 countries, then establishes a direct contact with the local police
force. Only one single telephone number is needed and every driver is able
to communicate in his own language. The earlier the crime is reported the
greater the chances of success fully catching the criminals and protecting
the cargo.
Joining Eurowatch costs EUR 250 per year per vehicle. The compa-
ny will be offering its services in Russia in the near future and is currently
holding negotiations with the Russian authorities. In the start-up phase the
system will only be adopted in the western (European) part of Russia.

TRUST IS GOOD, CONTROL IS BETTER


Containers go missing almost every day. In most cases the loss is not
physical but caused by incorrect data entry in a container inventory. Such
inventory or temporary losses may be difficult to identify, but at some
point, the missing container number will be entered into the control system
as having been physically located and the system will then start to account
for that unit again.
Far more difficult to control is the calculated and deliberate physi-
cal theft of containers by well organized gangs. Theft continues to occur
in large or small ways all over the world and often the container owners
feel that it is impossible to combat. It is only when there is a concentration
of container theft in a particular area that a need is perceived to do some-
thing about it.
As with inventory control, when matters will not correct themselves,
some checks and balances need to be put in place to help reduce the oc-
currence of theft. It is most likely that theft will occur prior to the export
of a consignment as the boxes are empty and there is no cargo to account
for.
The following items set out by the British transport insurer TT Club
are not exhaustive but may be of some use in combating container theft.
A genuine customer should not object to these checks. The following
measures should be taken when marking cargo export bookings:
„„ Perform industry or financial checks on new customers.
„„ If customer checks have been performed or the customer is well known
to you but the haulier is not, then contact the customer for verification of the
haulier. A combination of new customer and unknown haulier should be
treated with suspicion.

216
„„ Treat large bookings for multiple containers, especially refrigerated
units, with suspicion.
Where multiple containers are requested, logistics departments should
not arrange the dispatch of more than one container at a time, and the
subsequent units should be held until the earlier units have been returned
loaded.
„„ Change for any unusual extension of delivery period (free time), or
be prepared to refuse extension.
„„ Be aware of customers who suddenly change their normal trade
patterns. This may indicate a long-term fraudulent set up. If such a change
is made, then carry out the check items above.
The following points should be taken into account when delivering im-
port freight:
„„ Where a through bill of lading has been issued there are some options
to ensure return of the container. The carrier should have control over the
transport that can be used for the inland delivery, either owned or contracted.
„„ Containers should not be off-loaded from the vehicle at customer’s
premises without special permission.
„„ Particular care should be taken when contents the of a container are
destined for more than one delivery address.
Besides observing these security measures, all container numbers
should be properly recorded in logistics system and the haulier and con-
signee details shown against the container for reference. In the case of non-
return of the container, this will provide the authorities with a sensitive
starting point for their inquiries. Computer system audit trails are essential
to combat container theft.
Theft should be simple to identify but what then is “mysterious disap-
pearance”? As far as the TT Club is concerned it is something for which
there is no explanation. The most usual example is a shortfall found
on taking inventory: something which according to stock-lists should be
there but simply is not. There is no record of the item having been removed
from stock and there has been no occurrence, such as a break-in, which
could explain the loss.
The TT Club is one of the international transport and logistics indus-
try’s leading providers of insurance and related risk management services.
Established in 1968, the Club’s membership comprises ship operators,
ports and terminals, road, rail and airfreight operators, logistics companies
and container lessors.

217
SOME BASIC ENGLISH TERMS
to bear liability нести ответствен- through bill of lading сквозной коно-
ность самент
to lash load увязывать, закреплять container lessors компания, сдающая
груз в аренду контейнеры
quality bench mark отметка качества feeder shipping служба доставки
(метод изучения уровня качества (судоходство по внутренним путям
продукции конкурентов) с доставкой грузов в морские
slip resistant matting нескользящие порты)
маты trumps трамповые суда
curtain-sided trailers прицепы, кры-
тые брезентом
electronic toll collect technology
электронная технология сбора
пошлины (платы)

VOCABULARY
1. dispute (n) спор
A lot of disputes arise from wrong interpretation of laws.
2. case (n) случай; дело (в суде)
Who’s investigated the case?
3. reject (v) отвергать, отклонять
The carrier rejected the offer for unknown reasons.
cр. refuse
They refused to pay storage expenses.
give up
You should give up this bad habit.
turn down
The firm turned down the proposal of signing such an agreement.
rejection (n) отклонение, неприятие
4. deny (v) отрицать; отказываться
Justice mustn’t be denied to anyone.
He was so poor that he had to deny himself many of the comforts of life.
5. exempt (adj) освобожденный; свободный; изъятый
The whole consignment was exempt from import duties.
6. reimbursement (n) оплата; возмещение
They claimed reimbursement.
reimburse (v) возвращать, возмещать, оплачивать
Who’ll reimburse us for our expenses?
7. defendant (n) ответчик
The trial was put off because the defendant didn’t arrive.

218
8. equal (adj) равный
The reimbursement was equal to $750.
9. amount (n) cумма ; количество
They didn’t reimburse the whole amount immediately.
amount to (v) достигать, составлять (в сумме)
10. proof (n) доказательство
There was no proof of his being guilty.
prove (v) доказывать
His guilt was clearly proved.
11. ladder (n) лестница
12. determine (v) определять; решать, принимать решение
They wanted us to determine the amount of the claim.
determination (n) определение; решимость, намерение
The determination of the damages didn’t take long.
13. contents (n pl) содержимое; содержание
Why was it difficult to determine the contents of the case?
14. write off (v) списывать
Is it possible to write off our debts?
write-off (n) списание
15. crush (v) давить, дробить
The case was crushed, and we had to write off the contents.
16. survey (v) осматривать, делать обзор
surveyor (n) оценщик страхового общества (сюрвейер)
The surveyor was not present, therefore the damage could not be substan-
tiated by survey report.
17. investigate (v) расследовать
investigation (n) расследование
The investigation of the case could have been completed last month.
18. speed up (v) ускорять
If you want to speed up delivery, the contract should be signed now.
19. threat (n) угроза
20. hefty (adj) разг. большой, здоровенный
21. grant (n) дар, пожалование; грант
take for granted принимать как само собой разумеющееся
22. lash (v) связывать, привязывать, закреплять
23. curve (n) изгиб, поворот дороги; вираж
24. braking (n) торможение
25. compose (v) составлять (предложение и т.п.)
be composed of  cостоять из…
26. frustrate (v) расстраивать; срывать, нарушать
27. jail (n) тюрьма
28. attach (n) прикреплять; прилагать
29. slip-resistant (adj) противоскользящий

219
30. sack (n) мешок
31. frictional (adj) фрикционный
32. awareness (n) осведомленность
33. curtain-sided (adj) зашторенный по бокам, крытый
34. criminal (n) преступник
crime (n) преступление
35. prevention (n) предотвращение, предупреждение
36. magnitude (n) величина; размеры
37. ratio (n) отношение, коэффициент; пропорция; соотношение
38. disruption (n) подрыв, срыв
39. unattended (adj) оставленный без присмотра
40. ignition (n) зажигание, замок зажигания
41. accomplice (n) соучастник
42. collusion (n) тайный сговор
43. resent (v) негодовать, возмущаться
44. conjunction (n) соединение, связь
45. curb (v) обуздывать, сдерживать
46. whilst (adv) в то время как
47. fragmented (adj) разрозненный
48. fit with (v) оборудовать, снабжать
49. device (n) приспособление, устройство
50. victim (n) жертва
51. gang (n) банда
52. occurrence (n) случай, происшествие
53. exhaustive (adj) исчерпывающий
54. genuine (adj) истинный, подлинный
55. object (v) возражать
56. inquiry (n) наведение справок; запрос

220
English-Russian
DICTIONARY
English-Russian Dictionary
A
ability (n) [ə�biliti] (4) способность
abolition (n) [��bəυ�liʃ(ə)n] (7) отмена, аннулирование
accept (v) [ək�sept] (3) принимать
acceptable (adj) [ək�septəbl] (3) приемлемый
acceptance (n) [ək�septəns] (3) приемка
access (n) [��kses] (5) доступ
accident (n) [��ksid(ə)nt] (7) несчастный случай
accommodate (v) [ə�kɒmədeit] (3) размещать
accomplice (n) [ə�kɒmplis] (8) соучастник
account for (v) [ə�kaυnt f�] (5) объяснять, отчитываться
acquire (v) [ə�kwaiə] (2) приобретать
add (v) [�d] (2) добавлять
addition (n) [ə�diʃ(ə)n] (2) добавление, дополнение
in addition to (2) в дополнение к
additional (adj) [ə�diʃ(ə)nl] (2) дополнительный
adherence (n) [əd�hiər(ə)ns] (7) приверженность, верность
adjust (v) [ə���st] (1) приводить в порядок, улаживать; приспосабливать
adopt (v) [ə�dɒpt] (3) принимать (закон, резолюцию и т.п.)
adoption (n) [ə�dɒpʃ(ə)n] (3) принятие
advantage (n) [əd�v�nti�] (5) преимущество
adverse (adj) [��dv�:s] (2) враждебный, неблагоприятный; вредный
after-effect, aftereffect [��ftəri�fekt] (4) последствие (войны и т.п.)
agency (n) [�ei�(ə)nsi] (7) агентство, посредничество
agent (n) [�ei�(ə)nt] (7) агент, посредник
alarm (n) [ə�l�m] (7) тревога
alert (v) [ə�l�:t] (6) предупреждать об опасности, объявлять
be on alert (6) быть начеку
alliance (n) [ə�laiəns] (2) союз, альянс
allowance (n) [ə�laυəns] (3) налоговое обложение
amendment (n) [ə�mendmənt] (7) поправка
amicable (adj) [��mikəbl] (7) дружеский
in an amicable way (7) дружеским путем
amicably (adv) [��mikəbli] (7) дружески
amount (n) [ə�maυnt] (8) сумма; количество
amount to (v) [ə�maυnt tə] (8) достигать, составлять (в сумме)
annual (adj) [��njuəl] (4) годовой, ежегодный, годичный
apparel (n) [ə�p�r(ə)l] (3) одежда
apparent condition [ə�p�r(ə)nt kən�diʃ(ə)n] (7) внешний вид
appeal (v) [ə�p�l] (1) взывать к кому-либо, апеллировать
apply (v) [ə�plai] (2) обращаться с просьбой, применяться к,
распространяться на, применять, относиться
apportion (v) [ə�pɔ:ʃ(ə)n] (7) распределять, разделять

221
apprise (v) [ə�praiz] (7) оценивать
approach (n) [ə�prəυ�] (1) подход
approach (v) [ə�prəυ�] (1) приближаться
appropriate (adj) [ə�prəυpriit] (1) соответствующий, уместный
arise (v) [ə�raiz] (arose, arisen) (7) возникать
raise (v) (7) поднимать
rise (v) (rose, risen) (7) подниматься
arrange (v) [ə�rein�] (4) организовывать, устраивать
arrangement (n) [ə�rein�mənt] (4) договоренность, приведение в порядок
arrangements (pl n) (4) меры, мероприятия, приготовления
ascertain (v) [��sə�tein] (1) устанавливать, выяснять
assemble (v) [ə�sembl] (6) созывать; собирать
asset (n) [��set] (2) имущество; актив
assign (v) [ə�sain] (5) назначать; определять, устанавливать
assure (v) [ə�ʃυə] (1) уверять, заверять
attach (v) [ə�t��] (8) прикреплять; прилагать
attempt (n) [ə�tempt] (6) попытка
attitude (n) [��titj�d] (5) позиция, отношение
attribute (v) [��tribj�t] (7) относить на счет кого-либо, приписывать
audit (v) [��dit] (5) проверять (бухгалтерскую отчетность)
auspices (n) [��spis�z] (6) покровительство
authority (n) [��θɒriti] (6) полномочие
authorities (n pl) (6) официальные органы, власть
avenue (n) [��vinj�] (5) путь
avoid (v) [ə�vɔid] (1) избегать, уклоняться
avoidance (n) [ə�vɔid(ə)ns] (4) избежание, уклонение
award (n) [ə�w�d] (7) решение (арбитражного суда)
award (v) [ə�w�d] (7) награждать, присуждать; выносить решение
(арбитражного суда)
awareness (n) [ə�w�nəs] (8) осведомленность
axis (n) [��ksis] (3) ось

B
back and forth [�b�k ənd �f�θ] (5) туда и обратно
backhaul (n) [�b�kh�l] (2) обратный транзит, обратный груз
backload (v) [�b�kləυd] (7) обеспечивать обратную загрузку, загружать обратным
грузом
backloading (n) [�b�kləυdiŋ] (7) обратная загрузка
base (v) [beis] (7) основываться
be aware of . . . [�bi ə�weər əv] (4) понимать, осознавать
be faced with . . . (4) встречаться, сталкиваться
bear (v) [beə] (bore, borne) (6) нести
bear a risk (6) рисковать
bear responsibility (6) нести ответственность
benefit (n) [�benifit] (3) преимущество, благо, польза, прибыль, льгота
benefit (v) [�benifit] (3) приносить выгоду, пользу, прибыль

222
bill (v) [bil] (5) выставлять, выписывать счет
Bill of Lading (3) коносамент (накладная на груз при перевозке морем)
binding (n) [�baindiŋ] (7) обязательный
boom (n) [b�m] (3) бум, быстрый подъем
boom (v) [b�m] (3) быстро расти, процветать
boost (v) [b�st] (4) поднимать, подпихивать, поддерживать
border (n) [�b�də] (2) граница
border-crossing point (2) погранпереход
cross the border (2) пересекать границу
bottleneck (n) [�bɒtlnek] (1) узкий проход, проезд, место
boundary (n) [�baυnd(ə)ri] (5) граница
bow (v) [baυ] (1) кланяться
break down (v) [�breik �daυn] (1) ломаться
break-down (n) [�breikdaυn] (1) поломка
braking (n) [�breikiŋ] (8) торможение
breakthrough (n) [�breikθr�] (3) прорыв
bring into force [�briŋ intə �f�s] (4) вводить в действие
be in force (4) действовать
broaden (v) [�b�dn] (4) расширять
by and large (adv) [�bai ənd �l��] (4) в общем, вообще говоря

C
call for (v) [�k�l fə] призывать
cancel (v) [�k�ns(ə)l] (7) отменять, аннулировать
cancellation (n) [�k�nsə�leiʃ(ə)n] (7) отмена
capable (adj) [�keipəbl] (1) способный
capacity (n) [kə�p�səti] (3) мощность, производительность
capture (n) [�k�p�ə] (6) плен; удержание, сохранение
capture (v) [�k�p�ə] (6) захватывать (в плен); удерживать, сохранять
cargo (n) [�k�gəυ] (1) груз
groupage cargo (1) сборный груз
cargo (v) [�k�gəυ] (1) грузить
carriage (n) [�k�ri�] (1) перевозка
carrier (n) [�k�riə] (1) перевозчик
road carrier (1) автомобильный перевозчик
rail carrier (1) железнодорожный перевозчик
air carrier (1) авиаперевозчик
sea carrier (1) морской перевозчик
carry (v) [�k�ri] (1) перевозить
carry by road (1) перевозить автомобильным транспортом
carry by rail (1) перевозить железнодорожным транспортом
carry by air (1) перевозить воздушным транспортом
carry by sea (1) перевозить морским транспортом
carry out (v) [�k�ri �aυt](1) выполнять
carrying capacity (1) грузоподъемность
case (n) [keis] (8) случай; дело (в суде)

223
casualty (n) [�k��juəlti] (7) несчастный случай; катастрофа; авария
cater (v) [�keitə] (3) снабжать, обслуживать
cause (n) [k�z] (3) причина
cause (v) [k�z] (3) быть причиной, вызывать что-либо
chain (n) [�ein] (5) цепь
challenge (v) [���lin�] (3) вызывать, бросать вызов
charge (n) [���] (4) сбор; забота, попечение; надзор; хранение
be in charge of sth (4) отвечать за что-либо
charge (v) [���] (4) взимать сбор, налагать пошлину и т.п.
chemicals (n pl) [�kemik(ə)lz] (4) химикаты, продукты химпроизводства
claim (n) [kleim] (6) претензия
make a claim on sb (6) предъявлять претензию кому-либо
submit a claim (to) (6) подавать жалобу
claim (v) (6) требовать
claimant [�kleimənt] (6) истец
clear (v) [kliə] (1) зд. растаможивать
coast (n) [kəυst] (4) морское побережье
code (n) [kəυd] (7) кодекс, свод правил
collusion (n) [kə�l��(ə)n] (8) тайный сговор
combat (n) [�kɒmb�t] (5) борьба
combat (v) [�kɒmb�t] (5) бороться
commission (n) [kə�miʃ(ə)n] (7) вознаграждение, комиссионные
compete (v) [kəm�p�t] (1) конкурировать, соревноваться
competition (n) [�kɒmpə�tiʃ(ə)n] (1) конкуренция
competitive (adj) [kəm�petitiv] (1) конкурентоспособный
competitor (n) [kəm�petitə] (1) конкурент
complain (v) [kəm�plein] (5) жаловаться
complex (adj) [�kɒmpleks] (6) сложный
compliance (n) [kəm�plaiəns] (7) соответствие
complicated (adj) [�kɒmplikeitid] (2) сложный
complication (n) [�kɒmplikeiʃ(ə)n] (4) осложнение
compose (v) [kəm�pəυz] (8) составлять (предложение и т.п.)
be composed of (8) состоять из
comprehensive (adj) [�kɒmpri�hensiv] (5) всеобъемлющий, исчерпывающий; обширный
comprise (v) [kəm�praiz] (1) включать, заключать в себе, составлять
concede (v) [kən�s�d] (1) уступать
concerned (adj) [kən's�:nd] (6) имеющий отношение; связанный, заинтересованный
concession (n) [kən�seʃ(ə)n] (2) уступка
conclude (v) [kən�kl�d] (4) заключать
condition (n) [kən�diʃ(ə)n] (2) условие
configuration (n) [kən�figə�reiʃ(ə)n] (5) конфигурация; очертания; форма
product configuration (5) форма продукта
confirm (v) [kən�f�:m] (3) подтверждать
congestion (n) [kən��es�(ə)n] (2) затор; куча, груда, скопление (судов), пробка
(в уличном движении)
conjunction (n) [kən���ŋkʃən] (8) соединение, связь

224
connect (v) [kə�nekt] (3) соединять
consequence (n) [�kɒnsikwəns] (1) последствие
consider (v) [kən�sidə] (3) рассматривать, считать
considerably (adv) [kən�sid(ə)rəbli] (1) значительно
consignee (n) [kən�sai�n�] (1) грузополучатель
consignment (n) [kən�sainmənt] (1) партия груза
consignment note (n) (7) накладная
consignor (n) [kən�sainə] (1) грузоотправитель
constant (adj) [�kɒnstənt] (5) постоянный
constantly (adv) [�kɒnstəntli] (5) постоянно
constrain (v) [kən�strein] (4) принуждать, вынуждать
construction (n) [kən�str�kʃ(ə)n] (3) строительство
consume (v) [kən�sj�m] (4) потреблять
consumer (n) [kən�sj�mə] (4) потребитель
consumer goods (4) потребительские товары
contents (n) [�kɒntents] (8) содержимое; содержание
contract terms [�kɒntr�kt �t�:mz] (7) условия контракта
contribute (v) [kən�tribjut] (4) делать вклад, способствовать
conventional (adj) [kən�venʃ(ə)nəl] (2) обычный, традиционный
court (n) [k�t] (7) суд
Arbitration Court (7) арбитраж, арбитражный суд
coverage (n) [�k�v(ə)ri�] (5) охват; зона действия
crew (n) [kr�] (3) экипаж, команда
crime (n) [kraim] (8) преступление
criminal (n) [�krimin(ə)l] (8) преступник
crude and petroleum products (3) нефтепродукты
crush (v) [kr�ʃ] (8) давить, дробить
curb (v) [k�:b] (8) обуздывать, сдерживать
cure (n) [kjuə] (7) лечение
curtain (n) [�k�:t(ə)n] (1) занавес
curtain-sided (adj) [�k�:t(ə)n��saidid] (8) зашторенный по бокам
curve (n) [k�:v] (8) изгиб, поворот дороги; вираж
customer (n) [�k�stəmə] (1) заказчик
customs clearance [�k�stəmz �kliərəns] (1) таможенная очистка
customs declaration[�k�stəmz �deklə�reiʃ(ə)n] (1) таможенная декларация

D
damage (n) [�d�mi�] (3) повреждение, ущерб
damage (v) [�d�mi�] (3) повреждать
dampen (v) [�d�mpən] (3) смачивать, увлажнять; ослаблять, уменьшать
deadline (n) [�dedlain] (4) крайний срок, окончательная дата
deal (n) [d�l] (1) сделка
deal with (v) (1) вести дело, заниматься; ведать, рассматривать вопрос
decisive (adj) [di�saisiv] (7) решающий
deck (n) [dek] (3) палуба
tween deck (n) (3) твиндек (межпалубное пространство)

225
declare (v) [di�kleə] (7) декларировать, объявлять, заявлять
decrease (n) [�d�kr�s] (3) уменьшение, снижение, спад
decrease (v) [di�kr�s] (3) уменьшать(ся), снижать(ся)
defendant (n) [di�fendənt] (8) ответчик
deficiency (n) [di�fiʃ(ə)nsi] (1) нехватка, дефицит
define (v) [di�fain] (4) определять, давать определение
definition (n) [�defi�niʃ(ə)n] (4) определение
delete (v) [di�l�t] (5) вычеркивать, стирать
deliberate (adj) [di�lib(ə)rət] (7) намеренный, осознанный
deliberately (adv) [di�lib(ə)rətli] (7) намеренно, сознательно
delight (adj) [di�lait] (4) восхитительный
to be delighted to do sth (4) с удовольствием делать что-либо
dependable (adj) [di�pendəbl] (4) зависимый
derrick (n) [�derik] (3) деррик, грузовая стрела
design (n) [di�zain] (3) конструкция
design (v) [di�zain] (3) конструировать, разрабатывать
designate (v) [�dezigneit] (4) предназначать, указывать
destination (n) [�desti�neiʃ(ə)n] (1) место назначения, пункт назначения
final destination (1) конечный пункт назначения
destine (v) [�destin] (4) назначать, направлять
deteriorate (v) [di�tiəri(ə)reit] (6) ухудшаться
determine (v) [di�t�:min] (8) определять, решать, принимать решение
determination (n) [di�t�:mi�neiʃ(ə)n] (8) определение; решимость, намерение
device (n) [di�vais] (8) приспособление, устройство
direct (adj) [di�rekt] (4) прямой
directly (adv) [di�rektli] (4) непосредственно, прямо
disaggregated (adj) [dis��grigeitid] (4) разрозненный
disaster (n) [di�z�stə] (7) бедствие, несчастье
discharge (n) [�dis���] (2) разгрузка
discharge (v) [�dis���] (2) разгружать
discount (n) [�diskaυnt] (2) скидка
give a discount (2) предоставлять скидку
ask for a discount (2) просить о предоставлении скидки
discount off (on) the price (2) скидка с цены
dispatch (n) [di�sp��] (1) отправка
dispatch (v) [di�sp��] (1) отправлять
disperse (v) [di�sp�:s] (4) рассеивать, распространять
dispute (n) [di�spj�t] (8) спор
disruption (n) [dis�r�pʃ(ə)n] (8) подрыв, срыв
distinction (n) [dis�tiŋkʃ(ə)n] (4) различие, отличие
distribution (n) [�distri�bj�ʃ(ə)n] (3) распространение, распределение
distribute (v) [dis�tribj�t] (3) распределять, распространять (продавать)
distributor (n) [dis�tribjətə] (3) агент по продаже, оптовая фирма
diverse (adj) [dai�v�:s] (4) различный, отличный, несходный
downward (adv) [�daυnwəd] (2) вниз
draw up (v) [�dr� ��p] (7) составлять

226
dry up (v) [�drai ��p] (4) пересохнуть, высохнуть; истощиться
due to (adv) [�dj� t�] (4) из-за, вследствие, благодаря

E
effect (n) [i�fekt] (3) результат, воздействие, осуществление, выполнение
come into effect (3) входить в силу
efficiently (adv) [i�fiʃəntli] (1) эффективно
effort (n) [�efət] (2) усилие
cooperative efforts(2) совместные усилия
elaborate (v) [i�l�b(ə)rit] (1) детально, тщательно разрабатывать
emergence (n) [i�m�:�(ə)ns] (6) появление, возникновение
emergency (n) [i�m�:�(ə)nsi] (1) непредвиденный случай; крайняя необходимость;
чрезвычайные обстоятельства
in case of emergency (5) в случае крайней необходимости
emission (n) [i�miʃ(ə)n] (5) выделение (тепла, газов)
emit (v) [i�mit] (5) выделять (тепло, газы)
emphasize (v) [�emfəsaiz] (1) подчеркивать
empty (adj) [�empti] (7) пустой, порожний
encourage (v) [i�k�ri�] (4) поощрять, воодушевлять
endanger (v) [in�dein�ə] (7) подвергать опасности
endeavour (n) [in�devə] (7) попытка, стремление, усилие
enforcement authorities [in�f�smənt ��θ�ritiz] (7) правоохранительные органы; силовые структуры
engage (v) [in�gei�] (5) занимать, ангажировать
enhance (v) [in�h�ns] (2) увеличивать, усиливать
ensure (v) [in�ʃυə] (1) обеспечивать, гарантировать
entail (v) [in�teil] (1) влечь за собой; вызывать
enter (v) [�entə] (7) входить
enter into effect (7) вступать в силу
entrance (n) [�entrəns] (7) вход
enterprise (n) [�entəpraiz] (1) предприятие
entire (adj) [in�taiə] (4) целый, весь
entity (n) [�entiti] (2) организация, предприятие
environment (n) [in�vaiər(ə)nmənt] (4) окружающая среда
environmentally (adj) [in�vaiər(ə)n�ment(ə)li] (4) с экологической точки зрения
equal (adj) [��kwəl] (8) равный
equally (adv) [��kwəli] (3) в равной степени
equip (v) [i�kwip] (3) оборудовать
equip with (3) оборудовать что-либо
equip for (3) оборудовать для чего-либо
establish (v) [is�t�bliʃ] (5) устанавливать, учреждать
estimate (n) [�estimit] (4) оценка
excise (n) [ek�saiz] (7) акциз
exclusively (adv) [iks�kl�sivli] (1) исключительно
execute (v) [�eksikj�t] (5) выполнять, исполнять
execution (n) [�eksi�kj�ʃ(ə)n] (5) выполнение
executive (n) [ig�zekjutiv] (5) исполнитель

227
executive (adj) [ig�zekjutiv] (5) исполнительный
exempt (adj) [ig�zempt] (8) освобожденный; свободный; изъятый
exhaustive (adj) [g�z�stiv] (8) исчерпывающий
expand (v) [ik�sp�nd] (3) расширять
expense (n) [ik�spens] (6) расход
at sb’s expense (6) за чей-либо счет
at the expense of (6) за счет чего-либо
expire (v) [ik�spaiə] (6) оканчиваться, истекать (о сроке)
expiration (n) [�ekspi�reiʃ(ə)n] (6) окончание, истечение
explosion (n) [ik�spləυ�(ə)n] (7) взрыв
expose (v) [ik�spəυz] (7) выставлять, подвергать
extend (v) [ik�stend] (5) протягивать, расширять, распространять
extension (n) [ik�stenʃ(ə)n] (5) удлинение, расширение, продление
extra (adj) [�ekstrə] (3) дополнительный

F
face (v) [feis] (3) сталкиваться
facility (n) [fə�siləti] (3) техн. возможность
fair (adj) [feə] (2) справедливый
fairly (adv) [�feəli] (7) довольно
fallback (n) [�f�lb�k] (4) отступление, отказ
favour (n) [�feivə] (5) благосклонность, расположение
favourable (adj) [�feiv(ə)rəbl] (6) благоприятный
fiercely (adv) [�fiəsli] (2) жестоко
fife (n) [faif] (2) дудка
finite (adj) [�fainait] (5) ограниченный, имеющий предел
firm (adj) [f�:m] (2) твердый
fit (adj) [fit] (7) подходящий
fit with (v) (8) оборудовать, снабжать
flammable (adj) [�fl�məbl] (7) воспламеняющийся
fleet (n) [fl�t] (1) парк, флотилия
fleet of vehicles (1) парк транспортных средств
fleet of trucks (1) парк грузовых автомобилей
fleet of vessels (1) флот
flexibly (adv) [�fleksibl] (2) гибко
flow (n) [fləυ] (5) поток, приток
forbid (v) [fə�bid] (forbade, forbidden) (1) запрещать
forwarding (adj) [�f�wədiŋ] (1) экспедиторский
forwarding company (1) экспедиторская компания, фирма-экспедитор
fragmented (adj) [fr�g�mentid] (8) разрозненный
fraudulent (adj) [�fr�djələnt] (5) обманный, мошеннический
freight (n) [freit] (2) груз; фрахт (плата за перевозку), грузовые перевозки
rail freight (2) железнодорожный грузовые перевозки
road freight (2) автомобильные грузовые перевозки
sea freight (2) морские грузовые перевозки
frequent (adj) [�fr�kwənt] (3) частый

228
frictional (adj) [�frikʃənəl] (8) фрикционный
frontier (n) [fr�n�tiə] (6) граница, рубеж
frustrate (v) [fr�s�treit] (8) расстраивать; срывать, нарушать
function (v) [�f�ŋkʃ(ə)n] (4) функционировать
furthermore (adv) [�f�:ðə�m�] (5) кроме того, более того, к тому же

G
gain (n) [gein] (4) выигрыш; выгода
gain (v) [gein] (4) получать; приобретать; выигрывать
gang (n) [g�ŋ] (8) банда
gear (v) [giə] (6) приспосабливать
gemstone (n) [��emstəυn] (5) драгоценный камень
generate (v) [��en(ə)reit] (4) порождать, вызывать
genuine (adj) [��enjuin] (8) истинный, подлинный
get on (to) (v) [�get �ɒn] (6) приступать к чему-либо, заняться чем-либо
go into operation (2) входить в эксплуатацию
goal (n) [gəυl] (2) задача, цель
gradually (adv) [�gr�djuəli] (6) постепенно
grain (n) [grein] (3) зерно
grant (n) [gr�nt] (8) дар, пожалование; грант
take for granted (8) принимать как само собой разумеющееся
guide (v) [gaid] (1) направлять

H
handle (v) [�h�ndl] (1) обрабатывать (груз)
handling (n) [�h�ndliŋ] (1) обработка
hazardous (adj) [�h�zədəs] (1) рискованный, опасный
headquarters (n) [�hed�kw�təz] (5) штаб, штаб-квартира
hefty (adj) [�hefti] (8) большой, здоровенный
hinterland (n) [�hintəl�nd] (4) районы, находящиеся в глубине страны, далеко от
границы или прибрежной полосы
hold (n) [həυld] (3) трюм
hold up (v) [�həυld ��p] (6) останавливать, задерживать
hub (n) [h�b] (5) центр внимания, интереса или деятельности; большой
транспортный узел

I
identify (v) [ai�dentifai] (2) определять, устанавливать (подлинность)
identification (n) [ai�dentifi�keiʃ(ə)n] (2) распознавание, установление
identification (identity) card (2) удостоверение личности
ignition (n) [ig�niʃ(ə)n] (8) зажигание, замок зажиганий
immediately (adv) [i�m�diətli] (1) немедленно
immense (adj) [i�mens] (5) громадный
impact (n) [�imp�kt] (7) удар
implement (v) [�implimənt] (1) осуществлять, выполнять
implementation (n) [�implimen�teiʃ(ə)n] (1) осуществление, выполнение

229
imposition (n) [�impə�ziʃ(ə)n] (6) наложение, возложение
improvement (n) [im�pr�vmənt] (4) усовершенствование, улучшение
inadvertently (adv) [�inəd�v�:t(ə)ntli] (7) небрежно, неосторожно
incident (n) [�insi�d(ə)nt] (7) случай; инцидент
include (v) [in�kl�d] (1) включать
inconsistency (n) [�inkən�sist(ə)nsi] (1) несовместимость, несоответствие
increase (n) [�inkris] (1) увеличение
increase (v) [iŋ�kr�z] (1) увеличивать, увеличиваться
a 5% increase (1) увеличение на 5%
incur (n) [in�k�:] (7) навлекать на себя; повлечь за собой
indicate (v) [�indikeit] (5) указывать, показывать
indication (n) [�indi�keiʃ(ə)n] (5) указание
inherent (adj) [in�her(ə)nt] (2) свойственный, присущий
innocently (adv) [�inɒsentli] (7) невинно, наивно
inquiry (n) [in�kwaiəri] (8) наведение справок; запрос
install (v) [in�st�l] (2) устанавливать, монтировать
installation (n) [�instə�leiʃ(ə)n] (2) установка
institute (v) [�institj�t] (4) устанавливать, учреждать
insufficient (adj) [�insə�fiʃ(ə)nt] (4) недостаточный
insurance (n) [in�ʃuər(ə)ns] (2) страхование
insurance policy (2) страховой полис
insurant (n) [in�ʃuər(ə)nt] (2) страхователь
insure (v) [in�ʃuə] (2) страховать
insurer (n) [in�ʃuərə] (2) страховщик
integral (adj) [�intigr(ə)l] (4) неотъемлемый, существенный
interchangeably (adv) [�intə��ein�əbli] (4) взаимозаменяемо
interference (n) [�intə�fiər(ə)ns] (6) вмешательство; помеха
intermediary (n) [�intə�m�diəri] (4) посредник
intermodal (adj) [�intə�məυd(ə)l] (4) интермодальный
internal (adj) [in�t�:n(ə)l] (5) внутренний
interrupt (v) [�intə�r�pt] (4) прерывать, останавливать
introduce (v) [�intrə�dj�s] (2) вводить, представлять
introduction (n) [�intrə�d�kʃ(ə)n] (2) введение, представление
inventory (n) [�inv(ə)nt(ə)ri] (3) инвентаризация, опись; складские запасы
investigate (v) [in�vestigeit] (8) расследовать
investigation (n) [in�vesti�geiʃ(ə)n] (8) расследование
invigorate (v) [in�vig(ə)reit] (2) придавать силу, вливать энергию
invoice (n) [�invɔis] (2) счет-фактура
invoice (v) [�invɔis] (2) выписывать счет-фактуру
involve (v) [in�vɒlv] (2) вовлекать
issue (v) [�isj�] (3) выдавать, выписывать

J
jail (n) [�eil] (8) тюрьма
jettison (v) [��etis(ə)n] (7) выбрасывать груз при угрозе аварии
joint venture [��ɔint �ven�ə] (2) совместное предприятие

230
judge (n) [���] (6) судья
judge (v) [���] (6) судить
justify (v) [���stifai] (1) оправдывать

K
keen (adj) [k�n] (6) острый

L
lack (n) [l�k] (2) отсутствие, нехватка
ladder (n) [�l�də] (8) лестница
lash (v) [�ʃ] (8) связывать, привязывать, закреплять
latter (n) [�l�tə] (4) последний (из двух названных)
laud (v) [l�d] (1) хвалить, восхвалять, прославлять
launch (v) [l�n�] (2) запускать, начинать
law (n) [l�] (7) закон
lead (v) [l�d] (led, led) (2) вести
lease (v) [l�s] (5) брать в аренду; сдавать в аренду
length (n) [leŋθ] (7) длина, зд. срок
lessee (n) [le�s�] (5) арендатор
lessor (n) [le�s�] (5) арендодатель
legal (adj) [�l�g(ə)l] (7) юридический; законный
legal adviser [�l�g(ə)l əd�vaizə] (7) юрисконсульт
level out (v) [�lev(ə)l �aυt] (1) растянуть на какой-либо поверхности
levy (v) [�levi] (1) взимать сбор, налог
liability (n) [�laiə�biləti] (7) ответственность (финансовая); обязанность
be liable for (n) (7) быть ответственным, нести финансовую
ответственность
licence plate [�laisəns �pleit] (6) номерной знак
lobbying (n) [�lɒbiŋ] (1) лоббирование
logistics (n) [lə��istiks] (5) логистика
logistics operator [lə��istiks �ɒp(ə)reitə] (5) логистический оператор; фирма, предоставляющая
логистические услуги
loose (adj) [l�s] (5) несвязанный, неупакованный
loose (v) [l�s] (5) освобождать, развязывать
lucrative (adj) [�l�krətiv] (2) прибыльный, доходный, выгодный
lump sum (n) [�l�mp �s�m] (7) паушальная, общая сумма; единовременно
выплачиваемая сумма

M
magnitude (n) [�m�gnitj�d] (8) величина, размеры
majority (n) [mə��ɒriti] (3) большинство
make progress (4) добиваться успеха
mandatory (adj) [�m�ndət(ə)ri] (7) обязательный, принудительный
manual (n) [�m�njuəl] (1) руководство, справочник
manual (adj) [�m�njuəl] (6) ручной
service manual [�s�:vis �m�njuəl] (1) руководство по обслуживанию

231
match (v) [m��] отвечать, удовлетворять, соответствовать
mature (adj) [mə��uə] (6) зрелый
measure (n) [�me�ə] (6) мера, мероприятие
mediacy (n) [�m�diəsi] (7) посредничество
medium (n) [�m�diəm] (6) средство, способ
merger (n) [�m�:�ə] (2) слияние, объединение (предприятий, банков)
mind (v) [maind] (2) возражать
mining (n) [�mainiŋ] (2) горное дело, горная промышленность
miss out (v) [�mis �aυt] (7) упускать
mode (n) [məυd] (4) способ
motoring organization автопредприятие
[�məυt(ə)riŋ ��g(ə)nai�zeiʃ(ə)n] (7)
multimodal (adj) [�m�lti�məυdl] (4) мультимодальный

N
navigate (v) [�n�vigeit] (3) управлять судном, плавать (на судне)
navigation (n) [�n�vi�geiʃ(ə)n] (3) судоходство, плавание
neglect (v) [ni�glekt] (2) пренебрегать; упускать
negligence (n) [�negli�əns] (2) небрежность, невнимание; халатность
negligent (adj) [�negli�ənt] (2) небрежный, халатно относящийся к делу
negotiate (v) [ni�gəυʃieit] (3) вести переговоры
negotiations (n) [ni�gəυʃi�eiʃ(ə)nz] (6) переговоры
neither . . . nor (conj) [�naiðə . . . n�] (4) ни …, ни …
node (n) [nəυd] (3) узловой пункт
note down (v) [�nəυt �daυn] (3) делать пометки, записывать
noxious (adj) [�nɒkʃəs] (7) вредный, пагубный; ядовитый

O
object (v) [əb��ekt] (8) возражать
obligation (n) [�ɒbli�geiʃ(ə)n] (7) обязанность, обязательство
oblige (v) [ə�blai�] (7) обязывать
obliged (adj) [ə�blai�d] (7) обязанный, признательный
observe (v) [əb�z�:v] (3) наблюдать, соблюдать
obsolete (adj) [�ɒbs(ə)l�t] (4) устаревший, вышедший из моды
obvious (adj) [�ɒbviəs] (4) очевидный
occurrence (n) [ə�k�r(ə)ns] (8) случай, происшествие
offence (n) [ə�fens] (6) преступление, правонарушение
offend (v) [ə�fend] (6) наносить обиду, оскорблять
operate (v) [�ɒp(ə)reit] (1) работать, действовать
operation (n) [�ɒp(ə)�reiʃ(ə)n] (1) работа, эксплуатация (машин и оборудования)
operation instruction инструкция по эксплуатации и уходу
[�ɒp(ə)�reiʃ(ə)n in�str�kʃ(ə)n] (1)
option (n) [�ɒpʃ(ə)n] (4) выбор, право выбора; опцион
order (n) [��də] (3) ордер
ore (n) [�] (3) руда
origin (n) [�ɒri�in] (5) происхождение

232
Certificate of Origin (5) сертификат происхождения
original (adj) [ə�ri�(ə)n(ə)l] (5) оригинальный
original (n) [ə�ri�(ə)n(ə)l] (5) оригинал
in the original (5) в оригинале
Original Bill of Lading (5) оригинал, первый экземпляр коносамента
outweigh (v) [�aυt�wei] (7) быть тяжелее; превосходить в весе, перевешивать
overall (adj) [�əυv(ə)r�l] (4) полный, общий
overtime (n) [�əυv(ə)taim] (5) сверхурочное время
own (v) [əυn] (2) владеть, иметь в собственности
owner (n) [�əυnə] (2) владелец, собственник
ownership (n) [�əυnəʃip] (2) собственность, право собственности

P
package (n) [�p�ki�] (1) пакет, упаковка, тюк, кипа
complete package (1) полный пакет
package (v) [�p�ki�] (5) укладывать (в ящики, контейнеры)
pallet (n) [�p�lit] (5) палета
palletize (v) [�p�lətaiz] (5) укладывать в палеты
pass (v) [p�s] (7) принимать (закон, резолюцию и т.п.)
pave the way [�peiv ðə �wei] (7) прокладывать дорогу
penalty (n) [�penlti] (7) штраф
per axle [�pər ��ksl] (2) на одну ось
perceive (v) [pə�s�v] (5) понимать, осознавать, постигать
perhaps (adv) [pə�h�ps] (2) возможно
pick (v) [pik] (5) сортировать, выбирать, отбирать, подбирать
pier (n) [piə] (3) мол, дамба; пирс
pilferage (n) [�pilfəri�] (3) мелкая кража
pinpoint (v) [�pinpɔint] (7) точно определять или указывать
pipeline (n) [�paiplain] (3) трубопровод
place (v) [pleis] (1) помещать, размещать
place under loading (1) подавать под погрузку
postpone (v) [pəυst�pəυn] (3) откладывать
pounce (v) [paυns] (5) налетать, набрасываться
precaution (n) [pri�k�ʃ(ə)n] (7) предосторожность
precedence (n) [�presəd(ə)ns] (2) предшествование
prefer (v) [pri�f�:] (2) предпочитать
preference (n) [�pref(ə)rəns] (2) предпочтение
premises (n) [�premisiz] (5) недвижимость с прилегающими постройками
и участком; помещение, здание
premium (n) [�pr�mjəm] (3) страховая премия (сумма, выплачиваемая
страхователю), страховой взнос
present (v) [pri�zent] (6) представлять
prevail (v) [pri�vel] (1) превалировать
prevention (n) [pri�venʃ(ə)n] (8) предотвращение, предупреждение
private (adj) [�praivit] (4) частный, личный, приватный
privatize (v) [�praivətaiz] (7) приватизировать

233
productivity (n) [�prɒd�k�tiviti] (2) производительность
labour productivity (2) производительность труда
profitability (n) [�prɒfitə�biliti] (4) прибыльность, доходность
prohibit (v) [prə�hibit] (6) запрещать
prohibition (n) [�prəυi�biʃ(ə)n] (6) запрет
proliferation (n) [prəυ�lifə�reiʃ(ə)n] (5) количественный рост; распространение
proof (n) [pr�f] (8) доказательство
prove (v) [pr�v] (8) доказывать
proponent (n) [prə�pəυnənt] (1) защитник (политики, определенных мер)
provide (v) [prə�vaid] (2) обеспечивать
provide sb with sth (2)
provide sth to sb (2)
provided [prə�vaidid] (2) при условии
provider (n) [prə�vaidə] (2) поставщик, провайдер
proximity (n) [prɒk�simiti] (5) близость, соседство
purpose (n) [�p�:pəs] (2) цель
syn. aim
on purpose (2) намеренно
with the purpose of (2) с целью…
pursue (v) [pə�sj�] (5) преследовать

Q
quality (n) [�kwɒliti] (1) качество
high quality (1) высокое качество
low quality (1) низкое качество
be of high (low) quality (1) высокого (низкого) качества
quay (n) [k�] (3) причал
quay crane (3) береговой кран
quotation (n) [kwəυ�teiʃ(ə)n] (2) котировка
quote (v) [kwəυt] (2) назначать цену

R
rail (n) [reil] (2) железная дорога; рельс
railway (n) [�reilwei] (2) железная дорога
raise (v) [reiz] (2) поднимать
raise the axle load (2) поднимать нагрузку на ось
range (n) [rein�] (1) ассортимент; размах
rapid (adj) [�r�pid] (2) быстрый, скоростной
rate (n) [reit] (3) ставка, размер
ratio (n) [�reiʃiəυ] (8) отношение, коэффициент; пропорция; соотношение
realize (v) [�riəlaiz] (2) понимать, осознавать
reasonable (adj) [�r�znəbl] (2) обоснованный
recent (adj) [�r�snt] (4) недавний
recession (n) [ri�seʃ(ə)n] (4) спад, рецессия
record (n) [�rek�d] (7) запись; документация, учетно-отчетные материалы
record (v) [�r�k�d] (7) записывать, протоколировать

234
recover (v) [ri�k�və] (7) получать обратно, возвращать себе
reduce (v) [ri�dj�s] (2) снижать
reduce journey time (2) сократить время в пути
reduce prices (2) снижать цены
reduction (n) [ri�d�kʃ(ə)n] (2) сокращение
refer (v) [ri�f�:] (5) ссылаться на что-либо
reference (n) [�refr(ə)ns] (5) ссылка
referring (prep) [ri�f�:riŋ] (5) касательно
reflect (v) [ri�flekt] (4) отражать
regard (n) [ri�g�d] (6) внимание, забота
in this regard (6) в этом отношении
regardless of (adv) [ri�g�dlis əv] (3) независимо от
regulation (n) [�regju�leiʃ(ə)n] (1) постановление, распоряжение
regulate (v) [�regju�leit] (1) регулировать, контролировать
reimburse (v) [�r�i�b�:s] (8) возвращать, возмещать, оплачивать
reimbursement (n) [�r�i�b�:smənt] (8) оплата; возмещение
reject (v) [�r��ekt] (8) отвергать, отклонять
rejection (n) [ri��ekʃ(ə)n] (8) отклонение, неприятие
relabel (v) [r��leib(ə)l] (5) менять этикетку
relate (v) [ri�leit] (4) относиться, иметь отношение
release (v) [ri�l�s] (6) освобождать, выпускать
relevant (adj) [�relivənt] (4) уместный, относящийся к делу
reliable (adj) [ri�laiəbl] (1) надежный
reliability (n) [ri�laiə�biliti] (1) надежность
reliance (n) [ri�laiəns] (3) доверие, уверенность
relic (adj) [�relik] (5) след, остаток; пережиток
removal (n) [ri�m�v(ə)l] (6) удаление, устранение
renegotiable (adj) [�rini�gɒʃieibl] пересматриваемый
renew (v) [ri�nj�] возобновлять
repair (n) [ri�peə] (5) ремонт
replace (v) [ri�pleis] (2) заменять
replacement (n) [ri�pleismənt] (2) замена; новая деталь взамен вышедшей из строя
require(v) [ri�kwaiə] (1) требовать
requirement (n) [ri�kwaiəmənt] (1) требование
to meet (satisfy) the requirements (1) отвечать требованиям
resent (v) [ri�zent] (8) негодовать, возмущаться
respectively (adv) [ris�pektivli] (5) соответственно
respond (v) [ris�pɒnd] (2) отвечать, реагировать
responsibility (n) [ris�pɒnsə�biliti] (2) ответственность
responsible (adj) [ris�pɒnsəbl] (2) ответственный
retail trade [�r�teil �treid] (6) розничная торговля
retailer (n) [r��teilə] (6) розничный торговец
retailing (n) [r��teiliŋ] (4) торговля в розницу
retraction (n) [ri�tr�kʃ(ə)n] (1) отказ, отмена
revenue (n) [�revinj�] (2) доход, государственный доход
revise (v) [ri�vaiz] (6) пересматривать; повторять

235
revision (n) [ri�vi�(ə)n] (6) пересмотр; повторение
reward (n) [ri�w�d] (7) награда, вознаграждение
route (n) [r�t] (1) маршрут
ruinous (adj) [�ruinəs] (3) пагубный
run (v) [r�n] (run, run) (1) вести (дело)
rush (v) [r�ʃ] (3) бросаться, кидаться, устремляться
ruthless (adj) [�r�θləs] (5) безжалостный, жестокий

S
sack (n) [s�k] (8) мешок
safe (adj) [seif] (1) безопасный
safeguard (n) [�seifg�d] (2) гарантия, охрана; мера предосторожности
safety (n) [�seifti] (1) сохранность; безопасность
schedule (n) [�ʃedj�l] (2) расписание, график
schedule (v) [�ʃedj�l] (2) составлять график, план
scheduled (n) [�ʃedj�ld] (2) по расписанию, по графику
seafarer (n) [�s��feərə] (7) моряк, мореплаватель
seal (n) [s�l] (6) печать; пломба
secure (v) [si�kjuə] (3) обеспечивать, заполучать; гарантировать
sensitive (adj) [�sensitiv] (5) чувствительный
separate (adj) [�seprit] (7) отдельный
separate (v) [�sepəreit] (7) отделять
separately (adj) [�sepritli] (5) отдельно
set up (v) [�set ��p] (1) основывать, учреждать, организовывать
set up a visit (1) договориться о встрече
settle (v) [�setl] (7) решать, урегулировать
settle up (v) [�setl ��p] (7) рассчитываться
settlement (n) [�setlmənt] (7) урегулирование
settlement of accounts (7) порядок расчетов
severe (adj) [si�viə] (4) серьезный, суровый, строгий
share (n) [ʃeə] (3) доля, акция
share (v) [ʃeə] (3) делить, разделять
shift (n) [ʃift] (3) сдвиг, смена, перемещение
shift (v) [ʃift] (3) перемещать, передвигать
ship (v) [ʃip] (2) отгружать
shipping (n) [�ʃipiŋ] (3) перевозки
shipyard (n) [�ʃipj�d] (3) верфь
shortfall (n) [�ʃ�tf�l] (1) дефицит, недостача
shoulder (n) [�ʃəυldə] (4) плечо
shoulder (v) [�ʃəυldə] (4) принимать на себя
shuttle service (n) [�ʃ�tl �s�:vis] (2) регулярное движение между двумя пунктами;
челночное сообщение
sign (v) [sain] (2) подписывать
similarly (adv) [�similəli] (5) аналогично, таким же образом
size cargo [�saiz �k�gəυ] (1) крупногабаритный груз
slash (v) [sl�ʃ] (5) разрезать, полосовать

236
slice (n) [slais] (5) ломать, кусок
slip-resistant (adj) [�slipri�zist(ə)nt] (8) противоскользящий
slop (n) [slɒp] (2) склон
sole (adj) [səυl] (7) единственный
solution (n) [sə�l�ʃ(ə)n] (5) решение
solve (v) [sɒlv] (5) решать
sophisticated (adj) [sə�fistikeitid] (1) сложный, усложненный
spare (adj) [speə] (1) запасной, свободный, дополнительный
spare parts (1) запасные части
specify (v) [�spesifai] (7) предусматривать; уточнять
specification (n) [�spesifi�keiʃ(ə)n] (7) спецификация
speed up (v) [�sp�d ��p] (8) ускорять
spell out (v) [�spel �aυt] (7) объяснять точно и обстоятельно
spot (v) [spɒt] (2) определять, находить
stake (n) [steik] (5) ставка (в картах и т.п.)
be at stake (5) быть поставленным на карту
staple (n) [�steipl] (5) скрепка; крюк, скоба
statement (n) [�steitmənt] (7) заявление; бухгалтерская выписка
statutory (adj) [�st�tjut(ə)ri] (7) установленный законом, соответствующий закону
steamship (n) [�st�mʃip] (3) пароход, паровое судно
stock (n) [stɒk] (1) наличие (продукция, имеющаяся на складе), запас,
фонд
have in stock (1) иметь в наличие
store (v) [st�] (1) хранить, складировать
storage (n) [�st�ri�] (1) складирование, хранение
stow (v) [stəυ] (3) укладывать, складировать
stowage (n) [�stəυi�] (3) морск. размещение груза в трюме, укладка
strengthen (v) [�streŋθ(ə)n] (7) усиливать, укреплять
stringent (adj) [�strin�(ə)nt] (3) строгий
strive (v) [straiv] (strove, striven) (1) стараться, прилагать усилия
stuff (n) [st�f] (5) материал, вещество
stuff (v) [st�f] (5) набивать, заполнять
subsequent (adj) [�s�bsikwənt] (5) последующий
subsequently (adv) [�s�bsikwəntli] (5) впоследствии
subsidiary (n) [səb�sidiəri] (6) филиал
subsidy (n) [�s�bsdi] (3) cубсидия
substantial (adj) [səb�st�nʃ(ə)l] (2) значительный, существенный
successive (adj) [sək�sesiv] (2) последующий
suffer (v) [�s�fə] (4) страдать
suggest (v) [sə��est] (5) предлагать, советовать
suggestion (n) [sə��es�(ə)n] (5) предложение, совет
suitable (adj) [�sj�təbl] (5) подходящий, устраивающий
supplement (n) [�s�plimənt] (5) дополнение, приложение
supplier (n) [sə�plaiə] (1) поставщик
supply (v) [sə�plai] (1) снабжать, поставлять
surcharge (n) [�s�:���] (1) доплата, дополнительный сбор

237
surpass (v) [sə�p�s] (5) превосходить; превышать
survey (v) [�s�:vei] (8) осматривать, делать обзор
surveyor (n) [sə�veiə] (8) оценщик страхового общества (сюрвейер)
survive (v) [sə�vaiv] (4) переживать (современников, славу и т.п.)
suspect (v) [sə�spekt] (6) подозревать
suspicion (n) [sə�spiʃ(ə)n] (6) подозрение
suspicious (adj) [sə�spiʃəs] (6) подозрительный, сомнительный

T
tackle (v) [�t�kl] (6) решать (задачу), заниматься (проблемой)
take over (v) [�teik �əυvə] (3) принимать груз к перевозке
target (n) [�t�git] (2) мишень, цель, зд.: выявление
targeted (adj) [�t�gitid] (2) запланированный, нацеленный
tax (n) [t�ks] (6) налог
temporarily (adv) [�temp(ə)rərili] (2) временно
temporary (adj) [�temp(ə)rəri] (2) временный
terminate (v) [�t�:mineit] (7) прекращать действие (о договоре и т.п.)
termination (n) [�t�:mi�neiʃ(ə)n] (7) прекращение действия
threat (n) [θret] (8) угроза
throughout (prep) [θr��aυt] (2) через, по всей площади
throughput (n) [�θr�pυt] (2) пропускная способность
timber (n) [�timbə] (3) лес (товар), лесоматериалы
time-consuming (adj) [�taimkən�sjumiŋ] (6) требующий много времени
time-tabled (adj) [�taim�teibld] (2) идущий по графику
tolerate (v) [�tɒləreit] (5) терпеть, терпеливо относиться
toll (n) [təυl] (4) пошлина, сбор
total (adj) [�təυtl] (5) весь, целый; общий; полный; абсолютный
totally (adv) [�təυtəli] (5) полностью, абсолютно
tracking (adj) [�tr�kiŋ] (6) следящий, прослеживающий
traffic (n) [�tr�fik] (2) движение (транспорта); перевозки
intermodal traffic интермодальные (смешанные) перевозки
[�intə�məυdəl �tr�fik] (2)
road traffic [�rəυd �tr�fik] (2) автомобильные перевозки; дорожное движение
rail traffic [�reil �tr�fik] (2) железнодорожные перевозки
trailer (n) [�treilə] (1) прицеп
semi-treiler [�semi�treilə] (1) полуприцеп
transfer (n) [�tr�nsf�:] (5) перевод
transfer (v) [tr�ns�f�:] (5) переводить, делать денежный перевод
tranship (v) [tr�n�ʃip] (3) перегружать
transhipment (n) [tr�n�ʃipmənt] (3) перегрузка, перевалка
tremendous (adj) [tri�mendəs] (6) грандиозный
trigger (n) [�trigə] (5) спусковое устройство, курок
triplicate (n) [�triplikit] (7) в трех экземплярах
truck (n) [tr�k] (1) тягач
trucking (n) [�tr�kiŋ] (1) автомобильные перевозки
turn up (v) [�t�:n ��p] (5) появляться

238
turnover (n) [�t�:n�əυvə] (5) оборот
tyre (n) [�taiə] (3) шина, покрышка

U
ultimately (adv) [��ltimitli] (1) в конце концов, в конечном итоге
unattended (adj) [��nə�tendid] (8) оставленный без присмотра
undertake (v) [��ndə�teik] (1) предпринимать, принимать обязательства,
предпринимать
unfamiliar (adj) [��nfə�miljə] (5) незнакомый
upgrade (v) [��p�greid] (4) поднимать качество, ставить на более высокую
ступень
up-to-date (adj) [��ptə�deit] (3) современный
urgency (n) [��:�(ə)nsi] (5) срочность, безотлагательность
urgent (adj) [��:�(ə)nt] (2) срочный, неотложный

V
valid (adj) [�v�lid] (7) действующий
be valid (7) действовать, иметь силу
validity (n) [və�liditi] (7) срок действия
vanguard (n) [�v�ng�d] (4) авангард
vehicle (n) [�v�ikl] (1) автотранспортное средство; колесное транспортное
средство
vendor (n) [�vend�] (5) продавец
verification (n) [�verifi�keiʃ(ə)n] (6) проверка, контроль
vessel (n) [�vesl] (3) судно
Ro-Ro vessel (3) судно типа Ro-Ro (с накатной погрузкой-разгрузкой)
general cargo vessel (3) судно, перевозящее генеральный груз
victim (n) [�viktim] (8) жертва
view (n) [vj�] (5) взгляд

W
wage (n) [wei�] (2) заработная плата рабочих
wagon (n) [�w�gən] (2) товарный вагон
wagonload (n) [�w�gənləυd] (2) вагон (как весовая единица)
warehouse (n) [�weəhaυs] (1) склад, пакгауз
warehousing (n) [�weəhaυziŋ] (3) складирование
warrant (v)[�wɒr(ə)nt] (7) ручаться, гарантировать, подтверждать
weigh (v) [wei] (3) взвешивать; весить
weight (n) [weit] (3) вес
gross weight [�grəυs �weit] (3) вес брутто
net weight [�net �weit] (3) вес нетто
whilst (adv) [wailst] (8) в то время как
wholesaler (n) [�həυlseilə] (5) оптовый продавец
worsen (v) [�w�:sn] (4) ухудшать
worth (adj) [w�:θ] (2) стоящий
be worth (2) стоить

239
worthwhile (adj) [�w�:θwail] (5) стоящий
write off (v) (wrote, written) [�rait �ɒf] (8) списывать
write-off (n) [�raitɒf] (8) списание

Тематическая подборка издательства «КНОРУС»

Гуманова Ю.Л. Just English. The State of Britain. Английский для юристов
и политологов. Углубленный курс : учеб. пособие. М. : КНОРУС, 2010.
Гуманова Ю.Л. Just English. Английский для юристов. Базовый курс : учеб.
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