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First Edition

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) NC-1 Alternative - Senior High Delivery
SchoolMode
Alternative Delivery Mode Module 2: Art Forms Found in the Philippines
Module 1: Preparing Weld Materials
First Edition, 2020
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11
Senior High School

Shielded Metal Arc


CONTEMPORARY
Welding (SMAW)
PHILIPPINE NC-1
ARTS FROM
Unit of Competency : Prepare Weld Materials
Module Title
THE REGIONS
: Preparing Weld Materials

Module 2
ART FORMS FOUND IN THE
This instructional materialPHILIPPINES
was collaboratively developed and reviewed by
educators from public and private schools, colleges, and or/universities. We
encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their feedback,
comments, and recommendations to the Department of Education at action@
deped.gov.ph.
This instructional material was collaboratively developed and reviewed by
educators from public and private schools, colleges, and or/universities.
We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their
We value your feedback and recommendations.
feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Department of
Education at action@deped.gov.ph.

We value your feedback and recommendations.

Department of Education. Republic of the Philippines

Department of Education Republic of the Philippines

ii
MODULE 2
ART FORMS FOUND IN THE
PHILIPPINES

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iii
TABLE
Table OF CONTENTS
of Contents
What This Module is About.……………………………….………………………………….….1
Recognition of Prior Learning………………………………………………………….…………1
What I Need
Cover Page to Know…………………………………………….……………………………….2
How to Learn from this Module……………………………………………………………….….2
Copyright
Technical
Inside Terms ………………………………………………………….……………......….….3
Cover
Overview
Icons of this Module……………………………………………………………………………….4 1
Pre-test
What I Know………………………………………………………………………………………..5 2
Lesson 1. Musical Instruments 4
Activity 1
Learning Outcome #1 Set-up Cutting Equipment……………………….……………6 17
Activity 2Experiences/Activities ………………………………………….….………….6
Learning 17
Lesson 2. Literary Works
Information Sheet #1.1.……………………………………………………….….………7 18
Activity 1
Operation Sheet # 1.2………………………………………………………………..….11 20
Activity 2
Self-Check #1.2 …………………………………………………………………...…….18
21
Lesson 3. Musical Compositions 22
Activity 1 28
Learning Outcome
Activity 2 #2 Cut and Prepare Edge of Materials.….……………………19
28
Learning Experiences/Activities
Lesson 4. Choreography …………………………….…………………………19 30
Information
Activity 1 Sheet # 2.1 ………………………………………….…………….……….20 33
Self-Check
Activity 2 #2.1 …………………………………………………….…………………...27 33
LessonOperation
5. VisualSheet 2.1 …………………………………………………………………….28
Design 34
Activity 1 44
Activity
Learning 2
Outcome 45
#3 Prepare Welding Consumables ……….....……….……….29
Lesson 6. Theatrical Performance
Learning Experiences/Activities…………………………………………….………….29 46
Activity 1 Sheet # 3.1 ………………………………………………………...…...….30
Information 48
Activity 2
Self-Check #3.1 ………………………………………………………………………….36 48
Lesson 7. Contemporary Arts 49
Activity 1
Learning Outcome #4 Clean Surfaces and Edges ………………………………….37 50
Activity 2 52
Learning Experiences/Activities ……………………………………………………….37
Posttest 53
Information Sheet # 4.1 ……………………………………………………………..….38
Bibliography 55
Self-Check #4.1 ………………………………………………………….….….…….…40
About the Author 57
Task Sheet #4,1 …………………………………………………………………………41

Learning Outcome #5 Prepare Protective Welding Equipment ………….….….42


Learning Experiences /Activities ………………………………………………………42
Information Sheet # 5.1 …………………………………………………........…….….43
Self-Check #5.1 ……………………………………………………………….………...45

Assessment: (Summative-Test) …………………………………………………….46

Answer Key ………………………………………………………………………………………48


References ……………………………………………………………………………………….49

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Content Understanding of the significant roles of artists from the Region
Standards:
Performance Creates avenues to advocate the art from the different regions
standards:
Learning
Competencies: Classifies various art forms found in the Philippines
CAR11/12IAC-0b-2

Defines contemporary arts in the Philippines


CAR11/12CAP-0b-3

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v
WHAT I NEED TO KNOW?

Amazing day my dear students! Welcome to the second module of the


Contemporary Philippine Arts from the Regions. I know that you are all very excited
to explore what this module all about. With this module you will really appreciate the
various contemporary art forms in the Philippines. So fasten your seatbelt and relax
for we are about to start our journey in knowing the different art forms in the
Philippines

The Philippines has so much to offer in the world in terms of arts. It has a gold
mine of arts. In the current days it is called Contemporary arts. Contemporary art
forms can be classified into choreography, musical instrument, literary and music
composition, visual design and theatrical performance. These are hybrid arts that are
produce today. The contemporary artists tried to create something new out from
what had already existed and they tend to borrow, combine and explore it. They
respond to the call of culturally diverse, technological advancement and globally
influenced. The breed of arts nowadays makes use of a far-reaching of mediums.
And this is now being practiced among the regions in the Philippines at present.

This module will bring you to the world of contemporary arts in the Philippines.
You will be able to explore the different forms of contemporary arts in our country.
The arts that are proudly Filipino made. These arts depict our country’s latest
concerns and reflective to the changing world we live in.

At the end of this module, the learners will be able to:


1. Give his own definition on contemporary art.
2. Classify the various contemporary art forms in the Philippines.
3. Design a creative artwork showing one of the classifications of various art
forms from the regions.
4. Describe the performance arts in the Philippine regions.
5. Appreciate the various forms of art in the Philippines.

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WHAT I KNOW?

Direction: Choose the best answer. Write the letter of your choice on the blank
provided.

B 1. What kind of wooden material an idiophone instrument made of?


a. rattan b. bamboo c. coconut d. narra
C 2. Which of the following animal skin is used as head of the drum?
a. cow b. pig c. goat d. carabao
D 3. It is a large goblet shaped drum used by the Maranao and Maguindanao in
their Kulintang ensembles.
a. Libbit b. Sulibao c. Duwagey d. Dabakan
A 4. It is an aerophone instrument that is use for serenading, courting or merely
to pass the time away.
a. flute b. gong c. guitar d. piano
D 5. This is one of the rondalla ensemble that is pear shaped, with a rounded
back, a round sound hole and a fretted neck.
a. octavina b. bajo de unas c. laud d. banduria
C 6. It ia a prose writing that tells an imaginary story.
a. poetry b. drama c. fiction d. non-fiction
D 7. What type of literature in which words are carefully chosen and
arranged to create certain effects?
a. fiction b. non-fiction c. drama d. poetry
A 8. Which of the following form of literature is performed by actors in front of
an audience?
a. drama b. poetry c. non-fiction d. fiction
C 9. It is a music of lowland Christian Filipinos living in town centers or
Poblacion.
a. music of popular sentiments b. music of concert hall
c. music for mass entertainment d. music for national identity
C 10. These are songs that celebrate or depict our struggles, hopes, and
aspirations toward a Filipino identity and sense of nationhood.
a. music of the Moro b. music of the lowland folk villages
c. music for national identity d. music of concert hall
A 11. Which of the following is an ethnic dance of Maranao?
a. Singkil b. Itik-itik c. Pangalay d. Pandango sa Ilaw
C 12. Which of the following is a theatrical dance?
a. Tango b. Waltz c. Ballet d. Rhumba
C 13. This is an element of dance that refers to the figures and steps in dancing
that enable the dancers to perform in an organized manner.
a. theme b. design c. choreography c. scenery
D 14. An element of dance that conveys the message of a dance.

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a. music b. technique c. movement d. theme
A 15. What kind of visual design that creates a piece of art that is independent
from the way it looks in the real world?
a. 3D b. abstract c. clean and minimalist d. feminine
C 16. A visual style that is characterized by heavy use of straight lines and
shapes.
a. grunge b. illustrated c. geometric d. flat
B 17. It is a design style that is stereotypically appealing to men?
a. feminine b. masculine c. photorealism d. typographic
C 18. Which of the following elements of dramatic theatrical performance refers
to a person who supervises the actors, camera crew and other staff for a
movie, play, television program or similar production?
a. plot b. character c. director d. playwright
A 19. It is a term that refers to existing and happening in the present time
period?
a. contemporary c. traditional c. art d. modern
B 20. This refers to the expression or communication of emotions and ideas.
a. modern b. art c. contemporary d. traditional

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LESSON 1. MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

WHAT IS IT?

The Philippines has a unique history on musical instruments dated back from
pre-colonial period. The early Filipinos played different musical instruments with
distinctive purpose like for courtship, marriage and good harvest.

Present day musicological studies, following the Hornbostel - Sachs


classification, divide instruments into the following categories: idiophones,
aerophones, chordophones, membranophones and electrophones.

Idiophones

Idiophones are classified as Instruments that produce sound from the


substance of the instrument itself (wood or metal). They are subdivided into those
that are struck, scraped, plucked, shaken, or rubbed. There are metal and wooden
(principally bamboo) idiophones in the Philippines

Idiophone Categories
1. Percussion idiophones are hit with sticks, beaters, or clappers (bells, steel
drums).
2. Shaken idiophones are shaken (maracas, eggs, jingle bells).
3. Concussion idiophones are played by clashing two of them together
(castanets, claves, spoons).
4. Friction idiophones are made to vibrate by rubbing them (as when you
make a wine glass ring by rubbing its rim).
5. Scraped idiophones are played by scraping a stick across a set of notches
or corrugations on the instrument (guiro, washboard).
6. Stamping idiophones are stamped on the ground, floor, or hard surface.
(Tap shoes are in this category.)
it is a stamped idiophone,If the main sound is coming from the surface that
is being stamped on,.
7. Plucked idiophones have a thin tongue of metal or bamboo that vibrates
when plucked (jew's harp, mbira or thumb piano).

Metal idiophone has two categories: flat gongs and bossed gongs. Most of the
flat gongs made of bronze, brass, or iron, are found principally in the north among
the Isneg, Tingguian, Kalinga, Bontok, Ibaloi, Kankanai, Gaddang, Ifugao, and
Ilonggot. They are commonly referred to as Gangsa. The gongs vary in size. These
are struck with wooden sticks, padded wooden sticks, or slapped with the palm of
the hand. Gong in Cordillera highlanders is an integral part of peace pact
gatherings, marriages, prestige ceremonies, feasts, or rituals.

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Agung Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Kulintang
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

Gongs have a central profusion or knot, hence the term bossed gongs. They are
three of types: first sets of graduated gongs laid in a row called the kulintang; second
larger, deep-rimmed gongs with sides that are turned in called agung, and third
gongs with narrower rims and less prominent bosses called gandingan. These gongs
may be played alone but are often combined with other instruments to form various
types of ensembles in southern Philippines.

Bamboo idiophones abound in the Philippines-xylophones, drums, quill-


shaped tubes, stamping tubes, scrapers, buzzers, and clappers.

In southern Philippines, the bamboo xylophones like gabbang, also Yakan,


Sama, Tausug, and Palawan are found. Xylophone consists of bamboo keys of
graduated lengths mounted on a trapezoidal box. The number of keys usually
ranging from 3 to 22 but varies among the different ethnic groups. among the
Kalinga In northern Luzon, individual xylophone-like blades called patatag are struck
with bamboo sticks.

Gabbang Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla


Patatag
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

The Bukidnon bantula is a bamboo slit drum which is fashioned out of a


bamboo tube closed at both ends with anode with a slit cut out of the tube. Its main
use is to announce important events and this is found among different groups of
people,

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Bantula
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

The Maranao tagutok and the Maguindanao kagul are struck quill-shaped
bamboo tubes with notches etched on the tube, are found only in southern
Philippines such as. In this instrument, the player scrapes the notches with a
bamboo stick.

Tagutok Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla


Kagul
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

Bamboo buzzers are widespread among the Cordillera highlanders,. These


are made from a length of bamboo closed with a node at the bottom, with its top half
shaped so that two tongues face each other. On top half is struck against the palm of
the hand. These are known by different names such as balingbing, pew-pew,
pakkung, bilbil, bungkaka by the various groups.

Balingbing
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

Bamboo clapper, hanger, fashioned from a tubular section of bamboo, split


from one end to approximately half of the tube is common among the Ifugao. To
make it more flexible when the halves are made to flap against each other, each half
of the split portion is shaped to make it narrower in the middle.

A Hanunuo kalutang is consists of a pair of sticks cut from forest trees. This
is a wooden idiophone that include sticks, suspended logs, and log drums. It is
struck against each other and played while hiking through forest and mountain trails.

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Hanunuo kalutang
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

The instrument of Ifugao pattung is a percussion yoke bar made from a


tapered piece of wood and struck with a stick. This is used in ceremonies for the
sick, at rites which entail the offering of sacrificial pigs, or at death rituals.

Pattung
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

In southern Philippines suspended logs are widespread where they are known
by different ethnic names. Maguindanao luntang is consists of several logs with
varying lengths hung in order from longest to shortest. One performer will struck the
pointed playing ends of each log creating a melody against which another performer
beats drone rhythm on one of the logs.

Luntang
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

The Bagobo and Bilaan have similar drums.

Bagobo Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla


Bilaan
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

7
In the Philippines, harps are principally made from bamboo and some are
made of metal. This is a type of mouth resonated instrument consisting of a flexible
tongue fixed at one end to a surrounding frame. The player play this instrument by
placing the free end of the instrument with the hand or by pulling a string attached to
the blade. These instruments have different names among the various ethnic
groups. In the south, it is commonly term is kubing, in the north ulibaw.

Kubing Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla


Ulibaw
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

Aerophones

Flutes, pan-pipes, and reed pipes are among the Philippine bamboo
aerophones. The flutes are the most widespread and numerous which are mostly
end-blown with the air stream directed into the open end of the tube.

Aerophone Categories
1. In whistles, the air is blown at a sharp edge in the instrument (as in
recorders as well as police whistles).
2. In blowhole instruments, the air is blown across the sharp edge at the
blowhole. When the instrument is tube-shaped, the blowhole can be in the
end ("end-blown", as in panpipes), or in the side of the instrument ("side-
blown", as in a fife).
3. In reed instruments, the vibration of a reed or reeds begins the air
vibration. In single reed like saxophone, for example and double reed like
oboe instruments, the one or two reeds are part of the mouthpiece. In
bagpipes and in free-reed instruments such as harmonica and accordion,
the single or double reeds are mounted somewhere inside the instrument

4. and there can be many of them - sometimes a different reed for every
pitch.
5. In cup mouthpiece instruments, the player buzzes the lips against the
mouthpiece, causing a sympathetic vibration in the air inside the
instrument. (bugle, conch shell).
6. The pipes of an organ have a sharp edge like a whistle, but the pipes are
filled with air from something other than a mouth or nose, usually a bellows
of some sort.

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7. Free aerophones (bull-roarers, toy spinning tops), cause vibrations in the
air around them rather than inside them.
In northern and southern Philippines, the lip valley notch flute, so called
because of its mouthpiece which is obliquely cut and curved at a slant to follow the
contour of the player’s lips. These are known by different names among the different
linguistic groups, such as the paldong in the south and the palendag in the north.
These are instruments of leisure and used for serenading, courting, or merely to
pass the time away.

Palendag
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

Another type of end-blown flute is a nose flute. This is found mostly in


northern Philippines where the Kalinga call it tongali, the Bontok kaleleng, and the
Ifugao ungiung. This is also found sporadically in some areas of the south among the
Hanunuo (lantuy), the Batak (lantoy), and the Bukidnon (bulaktob). In Palawan, the
Cuyunin is a gigantic nose flutes with tubes much larger in diameter than those
found in Luzon.

Tongali
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

Suling in southern Philippines is less common flute and a ring type. The
whistle type is called thumpong (Subanun); and the reed is called saunay (Tausug).

Thumpong Saunay
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

9
The saggeypo (Kalinga) and the sagay-op(Bontok) are stopped pipes found in
northern Philippines. This bamboo pipe is closed on one end by a node with the
open end held against the lower lip of the player as he blows directly across the top.
This pipe can be played individually by one person or in ensembles of three or more.

Saggeypo
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

Diwas, diwdiwas, or dew-dew are rarely used today. These are bamboo
panpipes. It consist of a number of bamboo pipes (5-8) strung together.

Diwas
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

Flauta (Ilonggo, Sebuano, Bicol); plawta (Manobo) and palawta (Hanunuo,


Waray) are the most Philippine transverse flutes that are adaptations or imitation of
European versions.

Plawta
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

10
Budyong Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Lungga
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

Some blown instruments are made from shell or carabao horn. They are used
for calling people or sending messages over wide distances. The shell trumpets
include the budyong, lungga, taburi. The Carabao horns are the tambuli (Tagalog)
and kogao (Ifugao).

In modern days these instruments are also aerophones.

Brass Instruments
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

Chordophones

These are bamboo or wood stringed instruments that may be struck, plucked,
or bowed. They included zithers, lutes, and bowed strings.

Chordophone Categories
1. In zithers, the strings are stretched across, over, or inside a resonator, or
between two resonators. The resonator can be a hollow tube, a gourd, a
board, a hollow box, or even a pit in the ground. Some have fingerboards
with or without frets; some have a keyboard with a complex mechanism;
many are simply a multitude of strings strung from one end of the

11
resonator to the other. The strings can be struck (as in a piano) or
plucked (harpsichord).
2. In lutes, the strings stretch across the resonator and up a neck. They may
be plucked (guitar, banjo) or bowed (violin, fiddle)
3. In lyres, the strings leave the resonator at right angles to an edge and run
to a cross bar that is held away from the resonator (as in the classical
Greek lyre that is so often used as a symbol of music).
4. In harps (like the orchestral harp), the strings leave the resonator at a
slant (smaller than a right angle) up to a neck connected to the resonator.
5. In a musical bow, the string or strings are stretched from one end of a
wooden bow to the other. Some have resonators, but many don't. They
can be plucked or bowed (with a second, smaller bow).

The Philippine zithers have resonating bodies that are made from bamboo
tubes or half tubes with strings that run parallel to the length of the tube. In northern
Luzon, Mindanao, and Palawan tube zithers are found. They have two types:
polychordal zithers with several strings that run around the tube, and parallel
stringed zithers which have two strings on one side of the tube.

The Polychordal tube zithers found in the Cordilleras, Mindanao and Palawan
have strings that are etched out of the bamboo body, remaining attached at both
ends. Small wooden frets are inserted beneath the string near the ends. The number
of strings varies from 5 to 8 or 9 and occasionally even 11. Other names by which
this zither is called are: kolitong, kollessing, kulibet, saluray, sigitan, takul, tangke,
togo, and pagang.

Koliton
g D. Morilla
Photo credits: Suzette
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

The parallel stringed tube zithers, two bamboo strands, about 5 cm. apart,
are etched out to the tube to serve as strings. At mid-point of the tube, below the
strings, a small sound hole is bored and covered by a small bamboo plate clipped to
the strings. When played, the strings are struck by a bamboo stick or plucked. In
northern Luzon, Mindoro, Mindanao, and Palawan the instrument with slight
variations, is found where they are known by such names as tambi,
bamban,tabengbeng, kudling, tabobo, thambabok, takumbo, and patigunggung.

12
Tambi
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

The lutes are found only in the south, in Mindanao and Palawan. These
instruments are of the long neck variety, with two stings that run from the neck to the
base of the resonating chamber. One sting plays a drone, the other a melody. The
location and number of frets vary between groups, though all the lutes are fretted.

Kudyapi
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

The Maranao and Maguindanao kudyapi frets are glued to the body of the
resonating chamber, while the frets of the Bilaan fuglung, the Mansaka and Mandaya
kudlong and the Palawan kudyapi are located on the neck of the instrument.

In Mindanao, one stringed bowed lutes (fiddles) of the long neck variety are
found. These intrumentss have a sounding box made from a coconut half shell
covered with a leaf, or a piece of bark or animal skin.

The string is make of abaca fibers, horse hair, and more recently, wire. It is
called duwagey by the Manobo and Bilaan.

Duwagey
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

13
A favorite string ensemble called cumparsa emerged in the later period of the
Spanish regime,. This was an adaptation of similar instrumental groups in Mexico
(murza or murga) and Spain (estudiantina). In the early years of the American
regime, the cumparsa was superceded by the rondalla.

The rondalla ensemble consists of plucked string instruments like bandurria,


the laud, the octavina, the six stringed gitara and the bajo de unas or bass guitar.

Rondalla Instruments
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

Banduria is pear shaped, with a rounded back, a round sound hole and a
fretted neck. This serves as the melody instrument of the ensemble. Octavina and
bandurria are tuned an octave below the laud. These instruments furnish the inner
harmonies and contrapuntal elaboration to the melody. The guitar’s main function is
to supply the arpeggiated or chordal underpinnings of the ensemble while the bajo
de unas is tuned like the contra-bass.

Membranophones

The single and double headed drums are found throughout the Philippines.
These are variously shaped–conical, cylindrical, goblet shaped, barrel shaped. The
animal skins (snake, deer, or goat) is used as head/heads of the drum. These may
be beaten with sticks or by the palm portion of bare hands. The drums are seldom
used alone except to announce tidings over long distances. They are usually played
with other instruments, particularly gongs, to form different kinds of ensembles.

Membranophone Categories
1. Tubular drums are divided into cylindrical, conical, barrel, long, waisted
(hourglass-shaped), goblet (with a stem at the base), and footed (with feet
around the edge of the bottom).
2. Kettledrums or vessel drums have rounded bottoms.
In the frame drums, the membrane is stretched over a frame, usually
making a wide, shallow instrument. (Tambourines are in this category.)
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3. Friction drums come in a variety of shapes. Instead of beating on the
membrane, the player runs a stick through a hole in the membrane.

Sulibao
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

Sulibao and kimbal of the Bontok and Ibaloi people are longitudinal slightly
barrel shaped hollowed out logs with deer skin heads on one end. Taller drum (ca.
80 cm) is called the kimbal; the shorter (ca. 75 cm) is called the sulibaw. Drum head
is small measuring about 6 cm. in diameter. These are played with palms of two
hands. These drums are combined with gongs and other instruments to form
different types of ensembles.

Libbit
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

Ifugao libbit, ludag is a conical drum with a deer or goat skin head. This is
played with a gong during harvest time under the rice granary.

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Dabakan
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCHS

Dabakan is a large goblet shaped drum used by the Maranao and


Maguindanao in their kulintang ensembles.

Electrophones

These are the newest category of instruments. They have only been around
since 20th century. They produce an electronic sound. There are two main families of
electrophones: the electronic instruments and the amplified acoustical instruments.

Electrical Instruments
Photo credits: Suzette D. Morilla
Artist: Renato M. Rufino, Teacher I – LNNCH

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ACTIVITY 1: INSTRUMENT MATCH
Match the following instruments to which category they belong by writing A if
Aerophone, C if Chordophone, M if Membranophone, I if Idiophone and E if
Electrophone.

C 1. Guitar I 6. Agung I 11. Maracas


A 2. Suling M 7. Dabakan C 12. Violin
M 3. Sulibao C 8. Bandurria M 13. Tambourine
E 4. Synthesizer A 9. Paldong E 14.Electronic organ
I 5. Gabbang E 10. Electric drum CA 15. Saxophone

ACTIVITY 2: CLASSIFY THE INSTRUMENTS


Classify the instruments of the orchestra according to how an instrument
vibrates to produce sound (Hornbostel-Sachs system).

Image source: https://www.google.com.ph/search

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LESSON 2. LITERARY WORKS

WHAT IS IT?

Literary works are written works meant to be read or delivered in a play. They
can be written in prose or in poetry form. Literary pieces such as novels, short stories
and epics are the most common bases of other forms like theater and cinema.

Non-Fiction Fiction
Genres of
Literature
Poetry Drama

Fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama are the major genre of literature.
Nonfiction is writing that tells about real people, places, and events. Nonfiction is
mainly written to convey factual information. This includes a wide range of writing;
newspaper articles, letters, essays, biographies, movie reviews, speeches, true-life
adventure stories, advertising, and more. An example of nonfiction is the humor
autobiography book by Roberto Ong also known as “Bob Ong” which was published
on 2001.The details about this book was the childhood memories of the author, back
from his earliest days as a student until his first few years at work. The materials he
used in his book are those familiar to this generation of Filipinos. He uses humor to
point out various absurdities inherent to Filipino culture. This book has a film version
that was released by VIVA FILMS on February 19, 2014 entitled as
“ABNKKBSNPLAko?!” The Movie starred by Andi Eigenmann, Meg Imperial,
Vandolph and Jericho Rosales.

Humor Autobiography
Book published by: Andi Eigenmann, et. al, Image source: https://www.scribd.com/doc/251150865/ABNKKBSNPLAko-Bob-Ong-Book-Review

Fiction is a prose writing that tells an imaginary story. A writer of a short story
or novel might invent all the events and characters or might base parts of the story
on real people and events. There are basic elements of fiction; these are plot,
character, setting, and theme. The different types of fiction include realistic fiction,

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historical fiction, science fiction, mystery, and fantasy. An example of short story
entitled the “Kite of Stars and other stories was written by Dean Francis Alfar and
published on 2007. This kind of book collects sixteen wondrous stories of fantasy,
science fiction, horror and things in between from the imagination of award-winning
fictionist Dean Francis Alfar. Another example is “Bata, Bata..Pa’no Ka Ginawa?”, a
novel written by Lualhati Bautista, one of the foremost Filipino novelists in the history
of contemporary Philippine literature. This novel was written in "Taglish", a mixture of
Tagalog and English, instead of pure Tagalog as a stylistic device for her works. This
novel is about the role of a woman, like its author, with Filipino society wherein the
males were, in the past, assuming more dominant roles in society. This novel
became a film, where the Philippine actress Vilma Santos took the role of the
character Lea in 1998, together with Filipino actor Raymond Bagatsing. The
transformation of this story from novel to film was under the direction of Chito S.
Roño under Star Cinema.

Short Story Novel


Book published by Dean Francis Alfar, Image source https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2102407.The_Kite_of_Stars_and_Other_Stories
Book published by: I Lualhati Bautista, mage source: https://www.revolvy.com/page/Bata%2C-Bata…-Pa%27no-KaGinawa?stype=topics&cmd=list

Poetry is a type of literature in which words are carefully chosen and arranged
to create certain effects. A poet uses a variety of sound devices, imagery, and
figurative language to express emotions and ideas. Love is the most favorite subject
among Filipino poets, regardless of gender. An example of poetry book is Pulotgata:
The Love Poems by Danton Remoto which was published on 2004. According to the
book review written by Ralph Semino Galan of UST and was published in the
Inquirer, “Remoto delves the depths of the human heart through lyrics in both
English and Filipino that sing of the anxiety and the excitement, the agony and the
ecstasy which accompany the act of love”.

Book of Poetry
Book published by: Danton Remoto, Image source: http://dantonremoto2010.blogspot.com/2008/06/review-of-pulotgata-love-poems.html

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Modern Filipino books aren’t far from promoting such cultural values, as
books continue to make use of symbols and allegories to depict the daily struggles of
Filipinos in dealing with family, friends, romantic partners, and society. Whether told
in a comedic or heart-breaking way, contemporary books never fail to surprise
readers and leave an eye-opening realization or two. And because of their impact on
readers, some of these books even made their way to the big screen.

ACTIVITY 1: IDEN-BOOKS
Go to a bookstore or a library find books and identify the genre of literature.
Use the matrix in doing the activity.

Name of the Date of Genre of


Title of the Book
Author Publication Literature
The Catcher in the Rye J.D. Salinger July 16, 1951 Fiction

Things Fall Apart Chinhua Achebe 1958 Non-Fiction


The Sound and the Fury William Faulkner 1929 Fiction

Drama, or play, is a form of literature meant to be performed by actors in front


of an audience. The characters’ dialogue and actions in a drama tell the story. Script
is the written form of a drama. The script usually includes dialogue, a cast of
characters, and stage directions that give instructions about performing the drama.
The person who writes the drama is known as the playwright. One of the dramas in
the Philippine television series on the Kapamilya Gold of ABS-CBN is The Greatest
Love an extraordinary story of a woman’s unconditional, uncompromising, all-
encompassing love for her children. It was an emotional afternoon for viewers with
Gloria finding out that her forgetfulness is caused by Alzheimer’s disease, which
makes it even hard for her to resolve her family’s issues. Niño was a family-oriented
drama series features the heartwarming story of a boy who inspired other people to
remain hopeful in the midst of life's challenges. Niño, as a character and show, did
not only promote good family values but also encourage viewers most especially the
kids to become loving and optimistic at all times.

Greatest Love Niňo


ABS-CBN DRAMA GMA DRAMA
I

mage source: https://www.lionheartv.net/2017/01/the-greatest-love/https://www.gmanetwork.com/news/showbiz/content/361880/gma-network-brings-

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ACTIVITY 2: I CAN BE A WRITER!

Suppose you are a playwright, write a script of a drama you want to


conceptualize in the Philippine television. Make it brief but be sure to give the whole
story of the drama you are going to make. Below is the rubric in rating your output.

Script Writing Rubric

CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
Writing Student devotes a Student devotes Student Student
Process lot of time and sufficient time and devotes some devotes little
effort to the writing effort to the writing time and effort time and
process process to the writing effort to the
(prewriting, (prewriting, process but writing
drafting, reviewing, drafting, reviewing, was not very process.
and editing). Works and editing). thorough. Does Doesn't seem
hard to make the Works and gets enough to get to care.
story wonderful. the job done. by.
Organization The script is very The script is pretty The script is a Ideas and
well organized. well organized. little hard to scenes seem
One idea or scene One idea or scene follow. The to be
follows another in a may seem out of transitions are randomly
logical sequence place. Clear sometimes not arranged.
with clear transitions are clear.
transitions. used.
Spelling and There are no There is one There are 2-3
The final draft
Punctuation spelling or spelling or spelling and
has more
punctuation errors punctuation error punctuationthan 3
in the final draft. in the final draft. errors in the
spelling and
final draft.
punctuation
errors.
Creativity The script contains The script contains The script There is little
many creative a few creative contains a few evidence of
details and/or details and/or creative details creativity in
descriptions that descriptions that and/or the script.
contribute to the contribute to the descriptions,
reader/viewer's reader/viewer's but they distract
enjoyment. enjoyment. from the story.
Dialogue There is an There is too much There is not Dialogue
appropriate amount dialogue in this quite enough does not flow
of dialogue to bring story, but and dialogue in this naturally.
the characters to somewhat flows script, and
life and flows naturally. somewhat
naturally. flows naturally.

21
Sitwasyon sa Gitna ng Pandemya

Eros: Ma! magsisimula na po ang pasukan kailangan daw po namin ng gadget


para sa online learning.

Mama: Anak nagpapagamot pa ang iyong Papa si ate mo pa--

Yanna: Ma! sa isang linggo na ho ang simula ng pasukan wala pa po akong


bayad sa aking matrikula.

Mama: Hindi ba pwedeng ipagpaliban muna iyan gipit na gipit tayo anak,
kakalabas lang sa hospital ng inyong Papa ipaglalaan--

Yvette: Mama kayo daw po ang kukuha ng module ko sa school sa Lunes,


magulang lamang daw po ang papayagan na kumuha noon.

Mama: Anak, checkup yan ng Papa mo, Eros pwede mo ba masaglit sa Lunes iyon?

Eros: Isisingit ko Ma!

Di tumagal ay bumalik na sa sari -sariling kwarto ang magkakapatid at


naghahanda sa darating na pasukan.

Papa: Ma paano kaya iyan? Ipagpaliban na kaya muna natin ang pagbili ng
aking mga gamot, unahin na muna natin pangangailangan ng ating mga anak, sa
isang buwan naman maaari na akong magtrabaho at makabili na ulit noong
reseta ni doc

Mama: Pa di naman pwede yun baka sumpungin ka na an kapag itinigil mo iyan.

Papa: Hayaan mo sa isang araw mag aapply ako ng loan sa aking


pinagtatrabahuhan para may pang tustos na tayo para kay na Eros at sa mga
kapatid niya.

Inay: Magpahinga ka at ako na ang lalakad noon Pa advice ni Doc na magstay


ka muna sa bahay for a month at pwede ka na magwork ulit at hindi mo
ititigil ang gamot mo, hihiram muna ako sa kapatid ko pansamantala.

Papa: Sige

Si Mama ay isang ina na mapagkalinga at mahaba ang pasensiya. Siya ang


gumagawa ng lahat ng trabaho sa bahay, siya ay nagoonline selling din. Ang
Papa naman ay isang manager sa isang bangko na pinagsisilbihan niya ng
mahigit dalawang dekada na. Ang mag-asawa ay mayroon na tatlong anak. Ang
binatang si Eros ay isang 2nd year college sudent na dahil sa pandemya ay
napagdesisyunan na umuwi at sa bahay na mag onlne classes. Si Kaya naman ay
isang Grade 11 student. At ang bunso na si Yvette ay Grade 3 naman. Maayos
ang pamumuhay nila hanggang sa dumating ang pandemya. Ang ama ay biglang
nahimatay sa gitna ng trabaho at napag alaman na kaya ito nangyari ay dahil
siya ay may diabetes. Kaya naman naadmit siya ng isang linggo. Bukod pa
dito nagsabay-sabay ang pangangailangan ng kanilang anak at bayarin sa
bahay, kuryente, at tubig.

Nang maideliver ng Ina ang mga orders nito ay pagod na pagod ito na umuwi
at nakaramdam ng kaunting panghihina at kaunting lagnat.
Yvette: Ma ang init niyo po!!!

Eros: Ma inom ka agad ng gamot at baka masabihan pa nila na covid pa iyan.

Mama: Ang Papa niyo kumain na ba?

Eros: Opo Ma katatapos lang, kayo po kumain na po agad kayo at magpahinga ako na
po magdedeliver nyng ibang orders niyo po hindi pa naman simula ang classes ko.

Mama: Salamat anak, iyon palang mga hinihingi niyo sakin, Eros ito oh ikaw na
ang bumili ng gadget na gagamitin mo sa online classes, Yanna bukas idedeposit
ko na ang bayad sa tuition mo, ikaw Yvette nakuha na ba ni Kuya mo yung modules
mo?

Yvette: Opo Mama nagsasagot na po ako ng kaunti.

Mama: Aba maganda yan anak ipagpatuloy mo iyan.

Papa: Ma sinend ko na kay Doc monitor ng sugar ko, sabi ni Doc medyo umaayos na.

Mama: Salamat sa Diyos, kay buti niya talaga.

(After 1 month)

Eros: Ma! naayos na po namin nina Papa donations natin para sa frontliners at
nangangailangan natin na mga kababayan.

Mama: Sige anak, Yvette! Yanna! ayos na ba mga niluto niyo? Aalis na kami ni
Papa at Kuya niyo, dadalhin na namin itong ayuda na napag ipunan natin ng kaunti.

Yvette/Yanna: Ma ilalagay na lang namin sa plastic at dadalhin na namin diyan.

(Mag-asawang nakaupo habang naghihintay)

Papa: Ma grabe ang pagsubok na dinanas natin noong isang buwan. Ako, nagkasakit
sina Eros naman sumabay pa needs nila sa classes tapos ikaw muntik na maclasify
as covid dahil sa lagnat mo na kaunti. Kay buti talaga ng Diyos ano? Kahit ang
2020 ay puro pagsubok sa karamihan, marami ang nawalan ng mahal sa buhay, marami
din ang nalayo pero kahit papaano may mabuti pa din nangyayari sa buhay natin.

Mama: Oo nga Pa kaya nga nagpumilit ako sa ating paayuda na kahit kakaunti, iyon
bang makatulong tayo kahit sa simpleng paraan. Ito din ay ating pasasalamat sa
pag ayos ng iyong diabetes, kaya ikaw ha iwas iwas muna sa fatty foods, baka
atakahin ka na naman.

Papa: Oo naman mahal, ang sama kaya sa pakiramdam noon.

Mama: Eros! Nasaan ka na, aalis na tayo, ang facemask niyo wag kalilimutan ha.

Eros: Opo Ma!

Papa: Tayo na at tanghali na lalamig na itong mga niluto nina Yanna!

Sa buhay sinusubok tayo at tinitingnan ang kapasidad natin kung kakayanin ba


natin ito o hindi. Katulad ng mag-anak, sila ay sinubok at muling nakabangon.
Kaya tayo ay wag susuko sa mga hamon na dumating sa ating buhay.
LESSON 3. MUSICAL COMPOSITIONS

WHAT IS IT?

Musical compositions are not written but notated (represented by musical


symbols) and these symbols must be learned. According to National Artist Ramon
Santos, PhD, “contemporary music in the Philippines refers to compositions that
have adopted ideas and elements from 20th century art music in the west, as well as
the latest trends and musical styles in the entertainment industry.

Philippine music is rich beyond compare. Most Filipinos, may do not know this
wealth. Our young people love to hear music not only Philippine music but also
music from other parts of the world. There is a pressing need to bring Philippine
music closer to our people that draws strong identification of our own music and truly
one vital factor in bringing our people together or unifying the nation.

Exposing all Filipinos to their own musical traditions is properly the task of the
government, our music educators, musicologists, community leaders, concerned
media practitioners, performing groups, pro-Filipino radio and television stations and
recording companies, heritage centers and libraries, and cultural organizations all
over the country.

A survey of the whole range of authentic Filipino musical expression reveals


at least eight major types according to cultural sources and influences:

I. Music of Indigenous Southeast Asian Filipinos: Harmony with the Creative


Forces of Nature

This type of music is the music of the indigenous, strongly animist, though
nominally Christian, non-Muslim peoples of the highlands of the Cordillera (ex.
Ifugao, Kalinga, Isneg, Ibaloi, Kankanay, Bontoc), Mindoro (ex. Hanunoo, Buhid,
Alangan), Mindanao (ex. T’boli, Mansaka, Tiruray, Bagobo, Manobo, Subanun), and
Palawan (ex. Batak, Tagbanwa). Sometimes these people are called Lumad. Their
music generically may be called by the same name. An example of Lumad music is
that of the Kalinga tongngali (nose flute) or T’boli hegelong (lute).

Our indigenous peoples are the closest to nature. Life to them is an indivisible
whole. The art, myth, ritual, work, and activities of everyday life are all integrated into
one. Spirit and matter, God and nature, the visible and invisible worlds interpenetrate
in many ways.

22
Among all Filipino subcultures, indigenous art is the most integrated with
everyday life, multifunctional and participatory. To the Lumad everything is alive like
rocks, rivers, wind, fire and air, though to lesser degree are permeated by the same
vital energy that animates biological life.

This music of our indigenous peoples traditionally has the widest repertoire of
sounds in the Philippines. Uniqueness of indigenous music has attracted the
proponents of new or experimental music in the West, which is currently fascinated
in exploring the entire universe of aural phenomena.

II. Music of the Moros or Muslim Filipino Cultures: The Courtly Elegance of
Islamic Unity

Islamized Filipinos of Mindanao, Palawan and Sulu namely the Maguindanao,


Maranao, Tausug, Sama, Badjao, Yakan, Sangil, Iranun, Jama Mapun, Palawani,
Molbog, and so on. The music may collectively be referred to as Moro music (ex.
kulintang music).

Almost all urban Filipinos are aware of the so-called OPM (Original Pilipino
Music), but very few among them know much about the true OPM that continues to
be created in the regions. This kind of music is of the highest artistic and technical
excellence, such as the music of our Muslim brethren in Mindanao and Sulu. There
are two outstanding practitioners of Moro music, Samaon Sulaiman of Maguindanao
and Uwang Ahadas of Basilan, have already been awarded by the government the
highest artistic recognition in the Philippines, the National Living Treasures Award or
Gawad sa Manlilikha ng Bayan which is equal to the National Artist Award. The
master in the use of the kulintang and kutyapi of the Maguindanaons is Samaon
Sulaiman. His extensive repertoire of dinaladay, linapu, minuna, and binalig has
demonstrated not only his own skills but their culture. Uwang Ahadas made it his
life's work to preserve and promote Yakan culture through the traditional music and
instruments of his tribe. He has mastered tha gabbang, the agung, the kwintangan
kayu, and others.

Among the most creative in the arts are the Muslim Filipinos. Their religion
cultivates a mystical surrender to God’s will. The music of Muslim Filipinos in
Mindanao, Sulu, and Palawan, blends West Asian mysticism with indigenous
Southeast Asian animism.

III. Music of the Lowland Folk Villages: The Way of the Fiesta

The music of the so-called Hispanized lowland Christian and village peoples
of Luzon, Visayas, Mindoro, and Palawan.

23
The culture is essentially Southeast Asian, fused with a strong animistic core,
though with elements of Latin culture (Mexican, Italian or Hispanic). Lowland folk are
composed mostly of farmers, fishermen, artisans, vendors and traders, and common
folk. They also have a deep faith in God and they serve with utmost devotion. They
have the key celebration which is the fiesta, which revolves around the Sto. Niño,
Virgin Mary, Jesus Christ or a patron saint.

The devotional orientation of the lowland folk is a valuable resource for


creative yet painstaking and repetitive tasks that require great patience like weaving,
embroidery, carving, and metalwork. The music that are often referred to as folk
music examples are pasyon, balitaw, daigon.

Some common examples of Filipino folk music are Putungan, a Marinduque


traditional ritual for welcoming important guests, Pamulinawen, a favorite Ilocano
song in polka form about a hardhearted woman’s deafness to a lover’s supplications,
an Ilonggo-Kiniray-a song medley and Rosas Pandan, a Cebuano balitaw which
celebrates the beauty and charm of a village maiden.

We may also observe carefully the intriguing contrasts between the


expressive forms of the Ilocano and the Visayan, as manifested in their folk music
and dances. The Ilocanos like their music notes close to each other. Visayan music
notes are quite far apart. While Ilocanos love closed, inward movement, the
Visayans cherish open, outward movement, as seen in the hand and arm gestures of
the dances.

IV. Music of Popular Sentiments: The Sanctity of the Home

This is the music of lowland Christian Filipinos living in town centers or


Poblacions. The beginning of what we may consider Western type of music in the
Philippines began in lowland Christian town centers, probably around the late 18th
century. Instead of being extemporaneous and oral, music creation is now done on
paper by an individual author whose name appears on manuscripts or printed music
sheets. The music may be individually authored but community opinion matters.
Typical examples of this are Constancio de Guzman’s Tangi Kong Pag-ibig
and Babalik Ka Rin (both danzas) or Santiago Suarez’ Bakya Mo Neneng (balitaw)
and Dungawin Mo Hirang (danza), where the supposedly climactic second to the last
note of their melodies hardly creates any tension and quite unsatisfying to musicians
used to the powerful climaxes of 19th century Romantic music. Nowadays singers
tend to raise this note and prolong it to heighten its dramatic impact and call attention
to the singer’s vocal and technical skills.

24
The culture of the Poblacion, which is not quite rural yet not quite urban, is the
wellspring of this cultural heritage. At present, the Poblacion dweller is the dominant
majority in this country. Thus, his culture may be considered the popular culture of
the Philippines.

Some enduring legacy of songs composed in the 1940s or earlier yet continue
to appeal to the popular sensibility, whether old or young, such as Constancio de
Guzman’s Maalaala Mo Kaya and Pamaypay ng Maynila, Mike Velarde’s Dahil sa
Iyo and Ikaw, Santiago Suarez’ Bakya Mo Neneng and Sa Libis ng Nayon, Josefino
Cenizal’s Hindi Kita Malimot, and Juan Silos’ Bingwit ng Pag-ibig. The same melodic
style and emotional content have attracted Filipinos after the 1950s, like Matud Nila,
Usahay, Saan Ka Man Naroroon, Gaano Kita Kamahal, Dahil Sa Isang Bulaklak, and
Lagi Kitang Naaalala.

Most of these songs are of a sentimental nature since they emanate from a
culture centered on social connections. Filipino popular culture retains the devotional
orientation of folk culture but being more secular, the object of devotion is now the
family and one’s social network of friends and acquaintances and sanctity of the
home.

In social gatherings that foster friendships, camaraderie, fellowships and


community unity, however, the tango as a ballroom dance together with the waltz,
slow drag, swing, cha cha and other social rituals like the rigodon de honor and
cotillion continue to function as an important part of this subculture.

V. Music of the Concert Hall: The Autonomy of Music

This type of music is the music of highly individualized composers who are
formally trained in Western-style conservatories or colleges of music. This music is
also known as “serious or classical music” examples are Nicanor Abelardo’s Mutya
ng Pasig, Francisco Santiago’s Taga-ilog Symphony, Lucresia Kasilag’s
Divertissement for Piano and Orchestra).

Most Filipino intellectuals usually come from the academe. And it is the
academe that largely sustains a Filipino culture of reflection or one devoted to the
cultivation of the intellect. Higher institutions of learning such as the University of Sto.
Tomas, the University of the Philippines, University of San Agustin, St. Scholastica’s
College, Sta. Isabel College and others, train composers and musicians dedicated to
the creation and performance of what is known as serious, concert or classical
music. Music becomes autonomous, independent of other human concerns or
aspects of everyday life, and is valued almost solely for its aesthetic qualities.

25
Concert music is appreciated for its own sake. Music is always part of
everyday life, like putting a baby to sleep, work, healing or rituals. It is cultivated as a
separate human activity and has its own space like concert hall, opera house, etc.
and is performed in its own time. Listening to music becomes a reflective,
contemplative or intellectual activity.

VI. Music for Mass Entertainment: The Consumerist Lifestyle

This is the music of highly urbanized and industrialized towns and cities. This
type of music is produced mainly for mass entertainment and it is what we know as
“pop” music. When we talk of the music industry in this country, it refers mainly to
this type of music examples are Ryan Cayabyab’s Kay Ganda ng Ating Musika,
George Canseco’s Ngayon at Kailanman, and many others called OPM by their
producers.

Pop music needs no introduction. It was inculcated in us by the American


music industry through radio, television, movies, and other electronic media. Its most
energetic adherents are the highly urbanized youth. Though it is called OPM,
Philippine popular music is mostly American in form and style and only its words are
in Filipino. This music is the least indigenized or “Filipinized” of all the foreign-
influenced music traditions in the country. It is more accurate to call it music with
OPL (Original Pilipino Lyrics). Notable exceptions are the works of songwriters who
have, to a certain degree, Filipinized the pop music idiom, like Freddie Aguilar’s
Anak, Florante’s Handog, Gary Granada’s Salamat Musika, and Louie Ocampo’s
Ikaw.

Pop music’s origins are traced from the North American culture of
entertainment and cultivation of instant pleasures. This music is variously called pop,
mass media, entertainment and commercial music. Pop culture is the culture of the
3Ms – Mickey Mouse, McDonald and Madonna. Pop music is also a culture of
celebrities and superstars, its hype leading to the adulation of pop icons and the
proliferation of clones.

VII. Music of Social Concern and Cultural Freedom: A Force for Social
Transformation

This is the music for social criticism and cultural liberation and is variously
termed alternative, protest, progressive or people’s music examples are Joey Ayala’s
Wala Nang Tao Sa Santa Filomena and Heber Bartolome’s Tagulaylay.

The music of this genre has always been in the process of experimentation,
change, and growth, since the American period when socialistic ideas began to

26
emerge in Filipino society. It is being actively shaped today by socially committed
poet-musicians who are consciously using songs as a force for social liberation,

advocacy of social justice, and in the struggle for human rights. It harnesses music
as an instrument of social criticism and change, taking up the issues of injustice and
oppression, neocolonialism, cultural erosion due to globalization, plight of indigenous
peoples, and other social causes.

Music is used as an instrument for social criticism and change, and a vehicle
of proposals for more humane attitudes and values, an equitable social order,
cultural creativity and diversity, sustainable development, a heightened ecological
awareness, and alternative ideas and lifestyles. Some of the well-known artists who
have creatively contributed to this tradition are Asin, Patatag, Inang Laya, Heber
Bartolome, Joey Ayala at ang Bagong Lumad, Grace Nono, Kontragapi, Pinikpikan,
Buklod, and recently, the Makiling Ensemble.

Nicanor Abelardo was one of the earliest musicians to compose music for
social criticism in the song Kenkoy, with words by Romualdo Ramos. Kenkoy was
composed in the 1930s to satirize the first generation of Filipinos who began aping
American ways in superficial and ridiculous ways, often at the expense of their self-
respect and dignity. It was inspired by Kenkoy, a whacky character created by Tony
Velasquez in 1926, who is a colorful embodiment of “veneration without
understanding.”

VIII. Music for National Identity: Being Filipino

These are songs that celebrate or depict our struggles, hopes, and aspirations
toward a Filipino identity and sense of nationhood. The Filipino struggle for freedom
identity and dignity has a long and continuous history since the 16th century when
Spanish colonization began. The Filipinos were the very first Asian peoples to wage
and win a war in 1898 against Western colonialism in Asia. We were also the first
Constitutional Republic in Asia. A commitment to one’s country and pride in being
Filipino, though only discernible among a minority and is as alive today as it was in
the past, and this devotion has always been well-served by the musical expressions
of the nation, particularly the kundiman, a song of devotion to a selfless and noble
cause. It is the kundiman that has always embodied the Filipinos’ intense and lofty
patriotism, as in the songs Bayan Ko, Jocelyn ang Baliwag, and Sariling Bayan.

The kundiman is a tenderly lyrical song in moderately slow triple meter with
melodic phrases often ending in quarter and half note values. It is mainly a song of
selfless devotion to a loved one, the motherland, a spiritual figure, an infant, a lofty
cause or an object of compassion. These Filipino music cultures are not only alive
and contemporaneous they are distinct from each other in terms of concept, form,
and style. Each represents a way of life that is uniquely Filipino and is expressive of

27
a subculture’s experiences. Through understanding these music cultures enables us
to understand ourselves better.

We can divide our music cultures into two groups, the first three types of
expressions belong to one group and the last four types to another, with the third
type straddling the two groups. Though possessing unique characteristics, those
musical expressions grouped together have many things in common.

ACTIVITY 1. IDEN-MUSIC

Identify the following music which among the 8 eight major types of music
according to cultural sources and influences it belongs. Write the Roman
Numeral only on the blank.
I. Music of Indigenous Southeast Asian Filipinos
II. Music of the Moros or Muslim Filipino Cultures
III. Music of the Lowland Folk Villages
IV. Music of Popular Sentiments
V. Music of the Concert Hall
VI. Music for Mass Entertainment
VII. Music of Social Concern and Cultural Freedom
VIII. Music for National Identity

VI 1. Kay Ganda ng Ating Musika II 6. Kulintang Music


VIII 2. Sariling Bayan III 7. Pamulinawen
VII 3. Tagulaylay VI 8. Anak
III 4. Rosas Pandan I 9. Lumad Music
V 5. Mutya ng Pasig IV 10. Tangi Kong Pag-ibig

ACTIVITY 2. I CAN WRITE A SONG

Compose a song and make your own melody of that song composition. You
can use accompaniment for arranging the melody of your song. Your output will be
rated based on the following rubric.

28
Rubric for Song Composition

Criteria 5 4 3 2 1
Accuracy All facts are Facts are Facts are The song The song
accurate. accurate accurate contains at contains
with no with no least one more than
more than more than error or three two major
one minor two minor minor errors errors or
error. errors. more than
three minor
errors.
Organizat All information Information Information Information Information
ion is well is well is well is poorly is
organized in a organized organized organized disorganized
logical order. with no with no with more and difficult
more than more than than three for the
one minor two errors. errors. audience to
error. follow.
Message The message The The The No message
to the viewers message message message is is given to
is clear and to the to the unclear or the listener.
strong. It would viewer is viewer is impossible
have been clear. The clear. Most for the
easy for the listeners listeners listener to
listener to would would follow.
understand. have have
understood understood
the the
message. message.
Presentat The student The The The student The student
ion presented the student student did not did not
song in a clear presented presented communicate communicate
voice. He/she the song in the song clearly. Little clearly. Eye
made a clear with a eye contact contact was
consistent eye voice. clear was made not made
contact with Some eye voice. Little with the with the
the audience. contact eye audience. audience.
was made contact
with the was made
audience. with the
audience.

29
LESSON 4. CHOREOGRAPHY

WHAT IS IT?

Humans have been dancing to express themselves and there are many types
of dance we know today. Each form of dance has its own style, but all of them are
united by their common goal of artistic expression and the celebration of the human
body. Choreography is an art of dancing that is composed of series of dance steps
and movements to create story. It is integrated with both dance and music. The
choreographer is one who creates choreographies by practicing the art of
choreography, a process known as choreographing. Choreography is used in a
variety of fields, including musical theater, cheerleading, cinematography,
gymnastics, fashion shows, ice skating, marching band, show choir, theatre,
synchronized swimming, artistry, video game production and animated art.
choreography applies to human movement and form. Choreography is also known
as dance choreography or dance composition in dance,
In the regions, there is a minimal number of contemporary dances because
the traditional dances are still widely practiced. However, the choreography of these
traditional dances have varied through generations. Modifications are done to adapt
to contemporary times. Contemporary choreography are mostly seen in the
productions of street dancing for regional and municipal festivals.

3 Types of Dances

1. Folk Dance/Ethnic Dance – are social dances that portray the beliefs,
interests, habits, customs and practices of the native. Examples are Singkil of
Maranao and Pangalay of Tausug - Dances from Mindanao, Pandango sa
Ilaw and Itik-itik.

Singkil Dance of Pangalay Dance


Maranao of Tausug
Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/

30
Pandango sa Ilaw Itik-itik
Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/

2. Ballroom Dances – are dances of public entertainment usually performed in


pairs in ballrooms, nightclubs, auditoriums or in public places. Examples are
foxtrot, cha cha, boogie, tango, rhumba and waltz.

Foxtrot Dance Cha cha Dance Pasa Doble(Boogie Dance)


Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/

Tango Dance Rumba Dance Waltz Dance


Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/

3. Theatrical Dances – are performed for the entertainment of the audience in a


theater. Examples are Ballet, Modern dance, Musical comedy dance and Tap
dance.
31
Ballet Modern Dance Musical Comedy Dance
Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/

Tap Dance
Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/

What is Contemporary Dance?


Contemporary Dance is a performing art that involves rhythmic body
movement within a given space, choreographed based on musical beat. It is
performed either in front of an audience or by everyone on a dance floor.

Elements of Dance

Design

Elements of
Music
Tech-
nique

Dance

32
graphy
Choreo-

32
1. Theme – is most basic element of a dance. It conveys the message of a
dance.
2. Design – is a pattern of movement in time and space.
3. Movement – the bodily actions of the dancer that include his steps.
4. Technique – the skill of movement executed by the dancer.
5. Music – the auditory background to which a dancer moves.
6. Costume & body paraphernalia – properties worn by the dancer that help
reflect the message, customs and beliefs.
7. Choreography – the figures and steps in dancing that enable the dancers to
perform in an organized manner.
8. Scenery – the background or setting where the dance is performed to make
it more realistic and enriching.

ACTIVITY 1: MDV (MY DANCE VIDEO)

Choose from the 3 types of dance and make your own dance video. Create your
own choreography. You will be rated using the following criteria.

Rubric for Dance Video

Category Score Comments


Choreography (10pts.)
Musicality (10pts.)
Technique (10pts.)
Staging/spacing (10pts.)
Showmanship (10pts.)
Total: 50pts.

ACTIVITY 2: INVES-DANCE

Investigate the history of hip hop. Compare hip hop with other dance styles
popular with teenagers in other periods (for example, the twist, rock 'n' roll).
Discuss how hip hop reflects today's teenage society.

33
Activity 2: Inves-Dance
Hip-hop was born in the early 1970s. It started when DJs
and MCs produce and experimented composed music of poetry over
instrumental tracks or dubbed versions of music records. One of the
very first DJs/MCs was DJ Kool Herc, a native of Kingston, Jamaica
who brought this form of music to Bronx, N.Y. As hip-hop began to
catch on, different artists began to develop their own style and
“hip-hop dance” emerged. Today, there are multiple types of hip-hop
dance, but it all began with just three: popping, locking, and
breaking. People began to form dance crews to show off their moves
and to battle other crews. It was through these battles and the
collaboration of the three types of hip-hip dance, that new dance
forms and techniques were created and became an integral part of
hip-hop culture. Hip-hop dance allows people to express themselves
without barriers though “freestyle” dance or through more
structured choreography, where dancers have the opportunity to
practice style and technique. After perfecting the fundamentals of
hip-hop dance, dancers have an easier time learning and creating
new techniques, dance styles, and routines.

The Hip Hop dance style involves locking, popping, breakin, house


and more recently krumping, which are all stand alone individual 
forms in themselves while street dance accompanies into other dance 
styles such as Jazz, Contemporary and more making it more
accessible to everyone. Hip Hop is originated to express sentiments
in politics, society, and poverty while rock mainly started to
develop with the creation of rhythm and melodies produced by
instruments. Rock started earlier than Hip Hop.
Hip hop dancing reduces stress levels. Which can be a big help for
teenagers who feels the pressure within this kind of pandemic and
with their peers. By increasing those levels of endorphins also
lightens mood swings and sends more oxygen to the brain. As a
teenager it also helps us to show what talents we got with this
kind of hip hop dancing.
LESSON 5. VISUAL DESIGN

WHAT IS IT?

A visual design is a composition or layout of lines, shapes and color to form


patterns on paper, textile, or any piece for that matter. It can be found in either two-
dimensional works like painting and drawing or three dimensional works like
installation and sculpture. Integration of arts in visual design happens in several
hybrid art forms like installation videos and the like.

Visual Design Styles

1. 3D

This three-dimensional artwork gives the opposite illusion of a flat design. This
is also characterized by the illusion of volume and mass, therefore looking like it
occupies space. It is commonly used to create skeuomorphic designs, the idea of
creating something to resemble a real-life object.

Characteristics

 Illusion of depth / volume


 Employs lighting effect
 Employs shades of one color

Combines well with:


Abstract, fun and playful, grunge, illustrated, masculine

by 3dRadianc
Image source: https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

34
2. Abstract

An abstract is the style of creating a piece of art that is independent from the
way it looks in the real world. Abstract design style is achieved by a combined
composition of colors and shapes usually based on the individual interpretation of
the designer, the client or both.

Characteristics
 Ambiguous representation of an object / concept
 Invites individual interpretation

Combines well with:


3D, clean and minimalist, fun and playful, geometric, organic and natural,
professional / corporate

by cecece
Image source: https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

3. Clean and minimalist

Minimalism is a style or technique that is characterized by sparseness and


simplicity. It is the opposite to lavish and highly-decorative styles and leaving its most
basic form to communicate the message.

Characteristics

 Uses small number of colors


 May be achieved by using fluid or straight lines (line art)
 The opposite of abstract

Combines well with:


Abstract, feminine, flat, geometric, professional/ corporate, luxurious

35
by amio
Image source: https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

4. Conceptual art

A conceptual art is a sub-category of illustration, and is a metaphorical


depiction of a visual idea. This is considered as the fictional section of illustration, as
it doesn't necessarily feature likeness to the real object it models after.

Characteristics

 May contain some elements of reality


 Features designer's own interpretation of the object it models after

Combines well with:


All styles

by pmo
I mage source: https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

5. Feminine

This is basically the opposite of masculine design, feminine style is usually


characterized by details that stereotypically attract female attention such as soft color
palettes, florals and cursive writing.

Characteristics

 May employ cursive, fluid fonts


 May incorporate pastel colors and/or shades of red (eg. pink, purple, orange)

36
 May feature a woman's face, flowers and fashion components (eg. lipstick,
shoes)

Combines well with:


Clean and minimalist, flat, illustrated, luxurious, organic and natural,
typographic

by MWart
Image source: https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

6. Flat

This type of style could be considered as a subcategory of the minimalist look:


it employs minimal use of colors and shading for a visually-pleasing aesthetic.

Characteristics

 Uses small number of colors


 No realistic shadow effect

Combines well with:


Clean and minimalist, feminine, geometric, luxurious, typographic, vintage /
retro

by thisisremedey
Image source: https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

7. Fun and playful

This is a design style that inspires fun and usually gives off an informal, rather
than rigid, impression. Commonly used to create cartoons, it can be non-realistic or
semi-

37
realistic artistic style of drawing.

Characteristics

 May feature caricaturized person / animal


 Colorful
 May contain elements of fantasy

Combines well with:


3D, abstract, illustrated, organic and natural, typographic, vintage / retro

by Sava Stoic
Image source: https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

8. Geometric

This style derived from the idea of geometry, this style is characterized by
heavy use of straight lines and shapes. The typical geometric design can comprise
of rectangles, squares and triangles.

Characteristics

 Incorporates straight lines


 Features symmetry

Combines well with:


Abstract, clean and minimalist, flat, professional / corporate

by shaka88
Image source: https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

38
9. Grunge

This is sometimes considered as a subcategory of the vintage style, grunge


evokes the darker, gritty and cool style of the 1990s. It is typically characterized by
distressed/rough or torn appearance to its designs. Grunge is also commonly
associated with punk and gothic styles.

Characteristics

 Generally uses dark colors and monochromatic color scheme


 Generally invokes the feeling of darkness and danger

Combines well with:


3D, illustrated, masculine, typographic, vintage / retro

by Marrieta
Image source: https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

10. Illustrated

This illustration style is derived from the interpretation or visual explanation of


a text, concept or process.

There are plenty of subcategories under illustration, among them conceptual


art and photorealism, which are also explained on this page.

Characteristics

 Generally has 'raw', hand-drawn look


 Look dependent on designers' drawing style

Combines well with:


3D, feminine, fun and playful, grunge, masculine, organic and natural,
typographic, vintage / retro

39
by ultrastjarna
Image source: https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

11. Luxurious

A luxurious design style evokes the idea of indulging in extra comforts or


pleasures additional to the necessary standard of well-being. The use of rich colors
such as gold helps achieve this idea of luxury.

Characteristics

 Often uses the colors black, gold and bronze


 Achieves the idea the brand is impactful on its own by employing simple,
minimalist designs
 Uses either old-style fonts or simple and modern fonts

Combines well with:


Clean and minimalist, feminine, flat, masculine, vintage / retro

by Brace
Image source: https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

12. Masculine

The masculine design style is stereotypically appealing to men. Details in


masculine design may include simple lines, monochromatic theme (black and white)
and "rugged" texture.

Characteristics

 May employ hard-edged, thick-stroke fonts

40
 May incorporate rugged and gritty images
 May feature blue or darker colors

Combines well with:


3D, grunge, illustrated, luxurious, professional / corporate, vintage / retro

by Executo
Image source: https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

13. Organic and natural

Organic design is a style which takes the flowing natural forms of a


reality and characterized by continuous lines and dynamic curves. Organic style can
also feel rustic by adding weathered and texturized effects.

Characteristics

 Generally incorporates natural elements like leaves, flowers and fresh


produce
 May be combined with illustrated look for the raw, organic look

Combines well with:


Abstract, feminine, fun and playful, illustrated, typographic, vintage / retro

by lamadesign
Image source: https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

41
14. Photorealism

A photorealism is a form of illustration where the designer closely matches it


to the original image or photo as much as possible.

Characteristics

 Features refined details to emulate the original image as much as possible


 Usually achieved by, but not limited to, pencil sketches

Combines well with:


3D, feminine, grunge, masculine, organic, vintage

by 3dRadiance
Image source: https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

15. Professional / corporate

This professional design style is usually characterized by muted colors, and


minimal details to represent conservative ideas. This style is typically employed by
organizations who want to make formal impressions on their target audience.

Characteristics

 Employs straight, classic font types


 Generally incorporates simple shapes or objects
 May invoke formal impressions with use of negative space and line art

Combines well with:


Abstract, clean and minimalist, geometric, masculine

byTRYBY
Image source: https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

42
16. Typographic

A typographic style utilizes the modification of fonts. It is the design of the


written words to evoke response in its target audience. For logo, fonts need to be
uniquely modified.Characteristics

 Font style is generally the focus of the design


 Typographic design may incorporate objects, but the text usually conveys the
main message

Combines well with:


Feminine, flat, fun and playful, grunge, illustrated, organic and natural, vintage
/ retro

by stevenmink
Image source: https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

17. Vintage / retro

This vintage or retro (short for "retrospective") is a style that is derivative of


trends from the recent past. Some popular vintage styles include Victoriana (inspired
by decorative styles of the Victorian era), steam punk (an ode to the industrial
revolution of the late 19th century) and Bauhaus (the minimalist style movement
between the 1920s and the 1930s).

Characteristics

 May incorporate rustic, nostalgic elements to invoke the past


 May use illustrated ornate ribbons and wreaths reminiscent of the 19th
century
 May incorporate visual clues such as old letterpress, hand-drawn typefaces
and elaborate decorative arts

Combines well with:


Flat, fun and playful, grunge, illustrated, luxurious, masculine, organic and
natural, typographic

43
by Evillitimm
Image source: https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

ACTIVITY 1: I AM A VISUAL ARTIST!

Choose a style of visual design you like and make your own style of visual
design. You are free to use any materials suitable to your style.
Provide a screenshots or proof of doing your visual design.
Rubric for Visual Design

Category 25 20 15 10
Content Work exceeds Work meets Work fulfills Work fulfills
ALL criteria most criteria some criteria few of the
and shows and shows a but could criteria and
exceptional basic use of benefit from shows little use
use of variety variety, more use of of variety,
of line, use of repetition and variety, repetition and
repetition and pattern. repetition and pattern.
pattern pattern.
Design / Work exceeds Work meets Work fulfills Work fulfills
Creativity ALL criteria by most criteria some criteria. few of the
showing by evidence of Work is slightly criteria and
superior some unique unique. shows no
degree of ideas and original ideas.
originality. originality.
Craftsmanship Work exceeds Work meets Work fulfills Work fulfills
/Technique ALL criteria by most criteria some criteria few of the
showing skillful by showing by showing criteria by
use of media proficiency in basic skill in demonstrating
and materials. use of media use of media. below average
Ideas are and technique application of
effectively to express techniques.
conveyed ideas
through
execution of
techniques.

44
Visual Art
ACTIVITY 2: MY COMPILATION OF VISUAL DESIGN

Look some examples of styles of visual design in the internet, books,


newspapers or magazines. Print or cut the pictures and paste it in a long bond
paper. Compile it in a display book.

45
LESSON 6. THEATRICAL PERFORMANCE

WHAT IS IT?

Theatrical performance is the staging and execution of a production like


drama, opera, festivals, and the like. This pertains to a public presentation of a
dramatic or musical entertainment. It involves a lot of teamwork that includes the
producer, the director, the cast, and crew of workers. Technology whether traditional,
digital, multi-media, innovative or alternative is a vital part of any performance.

Contemporary theatrical performance is experimental, innovative and


interdisciplinary, going beyond theater and other art forms like puppetry, cinema and
sculpture. It also goes out to other disciplines like psychology and the social and
political sciences. PETA’s Rak of Aegis, is one specific example of contemporary
theatrical performance. This is a musical tribute to the Filipino 90’s band, Aegis. It
used the integration of music, theater and dance to create a hybrid piece of art.

PETA’S Rak of Aegis


Image source: /www.google.com.ph/search?q=PETA’s+Rak+of+Aegis&source

The performing arts may include dance, music, opera, theatre and musical
theatre, magic, illusion, mime, spoken word, puppetry, circus arts, performance art,
recitation and public speaking. It is a specialized form of fine art, in which the artists
perform their work live to an audience.

Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers,
typically actors or actresses to present the experience of a real or imagined event
before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.

46
The elements of dramatic theatrical performance are:

1. Plot – is the main events of a play, novel, movie, or similar work, devised and
presented by the writer as an interrelated sequence.
2. Character – is a person in a novel, play, or movie.
3. Thought – is the action or process of thinking.
4. Language or diction – refers to the writer's or the speaker's distinctive
vocabulary choices and style of expression in a poem or story. Language
definition, a body of words and the systems for their use common to a people
who are of the same community or nation, the same geographical
5. Song or Music – refers to the speaking, dancing and singing part in the
performance.
6. Spectacle – is an event or scene regarded in terms of its visual impact.
7. Director – is a person who supervises the actors, camera crew, and other
staff for a movie, play, television program, or similar production
8. Playwright – is also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes plays.
9. Theater Space - (with a focus on Proscenium, Thrust Stage, Theatre in the
Round, Black Box Theater)

The Four basic theatre stages are the following:

1. Proscenium –is the Proscenium Arch was the most common form of theatre
building in the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. The “Arch” acts like a picture
frame through which the action can be seen.
2. Arena or circle stage - in theatre and performing arts, the stage is a
designated space for the performance, the audience is located on all four
sides of the stage.
3. Thrust Stage – is a stage that extends into the auditorium so that the
audience is seated around three sides.
4. Created and Found – is a stage can also be improvised where ever a
suitable space can be found. Examples may include staging a performance in
a non-traditional space such as a basement of a building, a side of a hill or, in
the case of a busking troupe, the street. In a similar manner, a makeshift
stage can be created by modifying an environment.
According to Nicanor Tiangson, most of the Original plays of today were
written for literary contests or evolved through workshops or created for semi-
professional companies, student drama organizations and numerous community
theatre groups all over the country.

47
ACTIVITY 1: PANTOMIME

Write a very simple story, or choose a piece of instrumental music. Use your
imagination to show the story without words.

Pantomime Rubric

Advanced Proficient Basic Below Basic


Gesture Gestures or Gestures or Gestures or Gestures or
(Movement) body body body body
movements are movements are movements to movements do
clear and sufficient to depict the not depict the
exaggerated. depict character are character
character. not clear. without
assistance.

Facial Facial Facial Facial Facial


Expression expressions are expressions expressions to expressions do
clear and are sufficient to depict not depict the
exaggerated. depict the character are character.
character and not clear.
how they are
feeling.

Character The audience The audience The audience Audience


Portrayal can quickly can identify the has difficulty cannot identify
identify the character after identifying the character.
character thinking or a character.
single incorrect
answer.

ACTIVITY 2 THEATER WATCH

Watch a Contemporary theatrical performance on YouTube and try to


identify the 9 elements of dramatic theatrical performance.

48
Activity 2
Theater Watch

Romeo and Juliet

-Pun
-Prologue Act
-Foreshadowing
-Comic Relief
-Aside
-Foil
-Irony
-Soliloquy
-Props
-Drama
-Monologue
-Dialogue
LESSON 7. CONTEMPORARY ARTS

WHAT IS IT?

CONTEMPORARY AND ART

To fully understand about contemporary art, let us first define contemporary


and art. Contemporary is existing or happening in the present time period. It is also a
fluid term and its use can change depending on the contexts. Art is a highly diverse
range of human activities engaged in creating visual, auditory, or performed artifacts
or artworks that express the author’s imaginative or technical skill, and intended to
be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. Art is also an expression or
communication of emotions and ideas, exploration and appreciation of formal
elements for their own sake, or to serve as representation. It can be situated in
historical, stylistic and cultural terms. Art, at its simplest, is an act of expressing
feelings, thoughts, and observations. Art is always examined through the interaction
of the principles and elements of art. Principles of art include movement, unity,
harmony, variety, balance, contrast, proportion and pattern. Elements include
texture, form, space, shape, color, value and line. The various interactions between
the elements and principles of art help artists to organize amazingly pleasing works
of art while also giving viewers a framework within which to analyze and discuss
aesthetic ideas.

WHAT IS CONTEMPORARY ART?

There are plenty of definitions given to the term “contemporary art”.

Figure 1: Graphic organizer on the different definition of Contemporary art.

the art that springs produced by the 21st


out the present-day century artists living
events and passions in the postmodern
of the society age

art made and


mirrors present
produced by artists
culture and society
living today

the art of today


Contemporary never fixed but open
art to many possibilities

49
CONTEMPORARY ART AGAINST MODERN ART

The difference of Contemporary Art and Modern Art can be traced in history.
Sometimes these two terms are confusing since being modern is equated with being
contemporary. The terms modern and contemporary refer to greatly different
periods. Modern art is not the same with contemporary art. Today Modern Art is
considered as “traditional” compared to Contemporary Art. Contemporary Art is the
art of present that continuously processing. The difference between modern art and
contemporary art is the time period in which they have existed. Modern art exist in
1800s and continue to grow for more or less a century. It slow waned in the middle to
late 20th century when postmodernism came to light. The postmodernism then gave
birth to what we know now as contemporary art. Many people believe that
contemporary art is more socially conscious than modern art because social issues
have been realized in the recent decades like the popular subjects of feminism,
globalization, migration and environmental issues. The distinction of the two terms
could also be a matter of perception and reception depending on the contexts.

ACTIVITY 1: COLLAGE MAKING

Make a collage showing the difference of Contemporary Art and Modern Art.

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Activity 1
Collage Making
Collage Rubric

CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
Creativity All of the Most of the Only a few None of the
graphics or graphics or graphics or graphics or
objects used in objects used in objects reflect objects reflects
the collage the collage student student
reflect a degree reflect student creativity, but the creativity.
of student creativity in their ideas were
creativity in their display. typical rather
display. than creative.
Design Graphics are cut 1-2 graphics are 3-4 graphics are Graphics are not
to an appropriate lacking in design lacking in design an appropriate
size, shape and or placement. or placement. size shape. Glue
are arranged There may be a Too much marks evident.
neatly. Care has few smudges or background is Most of the
been taken to glue marks. showing. There background is
balance the are noticeable showing. It
pictures across smudges or glue appears little
the area. Items marks. attention was
are glued neatly given to
and securely. designing the
collage.
Time and Effort Much time and Class time was Class time was Class time was
effort went into used wisely. not always used not used wisely
the planning and Student could wisely. and the student
design of the have put in more put in no
collage. It is time and effort. additional effort.
clear the student
used class time
efficiently.
Presentation The student The student The student The student does
speaks clearly, speaks clearly, somewhat not speak
with confidence with confidence speaks clearly, clearly, without
and poise. and poise. with confidence confidence and
Completely Reasonably and poise. poise. Does not
conveys conveys Somewhat convey message
message of message of conveys of collage as it
collage as it collage as it message of relates to
relates to relates to collage as it personal style
personal style personal style relates to choices
choices. choices. personal style
choices

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ACTIVITY 2: MY ARTWORK

Create your own artwork in any medium you prefer like poetry, painting, photo
fiction, dance, music or photo essay. Show them in the class through a small
presentation.

Artwork Rubric

Category Score Comments


Creativity/Originality (20 pts.)
Effort/Perseverance (10pts.)
Craftsmanship/Skill/Consistency
(10pts.)
Presentation (10pts.)
TOTAL (50pts.)

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WHAT I KNOW?

Direction: Choose the best answer. Write the letter of your choice on the blank
provided.

1. What kind of wooden material an idiophone instrument made of?


a. rattan b. bamboo c. coconut d. narra
2. Which of the following animal skin is used as head of the drum?
a. cow b. pig c. goat d. carabao
3. It is a large goblet shaped drum used by the Maranao and Maguindanao in
their Kulintang ensembles.
a. Libbit b. Sulibao c. Duwagey d. Dabakan
4. It is an aerophone instrument that is use for serenading, courting or merely
to pass the time away.
a. flute b. gong c. guitar d. piano
5. This is one of the rondalla ensemble that is pear shaped, with a rounded
back, a round sound hole and a fretted neck.
a. octavina b. bajo de unas c. laud d. banduria
6. It ia a prose writing that tells an imaginary story.
a. poetry b. drama c. fiction d. non-fiction
7. What type of literature in which words are carefully chosen and
arranged to create certain effects?
a. fiction b. non-fiction c. drama d. poetry
8. Which of the following form of literature is performed by actors in front of
an audience?
a. drama b. poetry c. non-fiction d. fiction
9. It is a music of lowland Christian Filipinos living in town centers or
Poblacion.
a. music of popular sentiments b. music of concert hall
c. music for mass entertainment d. music for national identity
10. These are songs that celebrate or depict our struggles, hopes, and
aspirations toward a Filipino identity and sense of nationhood.
a. music of the Moro b. music of the lowland folk villages
c. music for national identity d. music of concert hall
11. Which of the following is an ethnic dance of Maranao?
a. Singkil b. Itik-itik c. Pangalay d. Pandango sa Ilaw
12. Which of the following is a theatrical dance?
a. Tango b. Waltz c. Ballet d. Rhumba
13. This is an element of dance that refers to the figures and steps in dancing
that enable the dancers to perform in an organized manner.
a. theme b. design c. choreography d. scenery
14. An element of dance that conveys the message of a dance.

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a. music b. technique c. movement d. theme
15. What kind of visual design that creates a piece of art that is independent
from the way it looks in the real world?
a. 3D b. abstract c. clean and minimalist d. feminine
16. A visual style that is characterized by heavy use of straight lines and
shapes.
a. grunge b. illustrated c. geometric d. flat
17. It is a design style that is stereotypically appealing to men?
a. feminine b. masculine c. photorealism d. typographic
18. Which of the following elements of dramatic theatrical performance refers
to a person who supervises the actors, camera crew and other staff for a
movie, play, television program or similar production?
a. plot b. character c. director d. playwright
19. It is a term that refers to existing and happening in the present time
period?
a. contemporary c. traditional c. art d. modern
20. This refers to the expression or communication of emotions and ideas.
a. modern b. art c. contemporary d. traditional

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BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Books

Benavides-Perez, Angelita. Philippine Contemporary Arts: Expressions and


Experimentations. Brilliant Creations Publishing, Inc., 2016.

Datuin, Faudette May et. al. Contemporary Philippine Arts from the Regions. Rex
Book Store, Inc,, 2016.

Artist

Rufino, Renato M. Teacher I, Lanao del Norte National Comprehensive High School

Web

http://ncca.gov.ph/about-ncca-3/subcommissions/subcommission-on-the-arts-
sca/music/philippine-music-formscomposition/

https://creativecommons.org

https://www.google.com.ph/search?q=orchestra+instrument+pictures&rlz=1C1RLNS
_enPH797PH797&tbm=isch&source=iu&ictx=1&fir=pdr0aHYA5brDCM%253A%252
C9Xr9jwQXwtDPMM%252C_&usg=AI4_kRneIQVftlSvEHdUzNSzHGPJMwZSg&sa=
X&ved=2ahUKEwilwLfjwMTeAhXRFYgKHTphBvcQ9QEwC3oECAQQGg#imgrc=kU
mL_EcxZhg6nM:

https://www.google.com.ph/search?rlz=1C1RLNS_enPH797PH797&tbm=isch&sa=1
&ei=ATkW_7SEYbI8wWztaygCg&q=electrophones+instruments+pictures&oq=el&gs
_l=img.1.0.35i39k1l2j0i67k1l8.198330.200830.0.204537.30.9.0.0.0.0.475.1355.2-
2j0j2.4.0....0...1c.1.64.img..27.3.1138.0..0.0.NFGqeF95rtQ#imgrc=loDkX_4MlAcZ1 :

https://www.google.com.ph/search?q=rondalla+instruments+pictures&rlz=1C1RLNS
_enPH797PH797&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjLjYOQwsTeAhVa
Zt4KHc4TCeYQ_AUIDigB&biw=1422&bih=678#imgrc=y6beD2nN6ESVIM:

http://www.himig.com.ph/features/1-the-diversity-of-philippine-music-cultures

https://www.revolvy.com/page/Bata%2C-Bata…-Pa%27no-Ka-
Ginawa?stype=topics&cmd=list

https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/2102407.The_Kite_of_Stars_and_Other_Sto
ries

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/251150865/ABNKKBSNPLAko-Bob-Ong-Book-Review

http://dantonremoto2010.blogspot.com/2008/06/review-of-pulotgata-love-poems.html

https://www.lionheartv.net/2017/01/the-greatest-love/

https://www.gmanetwork.com/news/showbiz/content/361880/gma- network-
brings-

https://www.slideshare.net/jomarigingo/dance-14908246

https://www.slideshare.net/OphelynnCano/4-q4-contemporary-dance

https://99designs.com/designer-resource-center/visual-design-styles

https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-arthistory/chapter/what-is-art/

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PRE-TEST AND POSTTEST ANSWER KEY

1. B 6. C 11. A 16. C
2. C 7. D 12. C 17. B
3. D 8. A 13. C 18. C
4. A 9. A 14. D 19. A
5. D 10. C 15. B 20. B

LESSON 1: ACTIVITY 1

1. C 6. I 11. I
2. A 7. M 12. C
3. M 8. C 13. M
4. E 9. A 14. E
5. I 10. E 15. A

LESSON 1: ACTIVITY 2

In an orchestra
All the strings are bowed lutes (except for the harp - a harp - and the piano - a
struck zither).
Flutes and piccolos are blow hole aerophones.
Clarinets are single reed aerophones.
Oboes and bassoons are double reed aerophones.
All the brass are cup mouthpiece aerophones.
Timpani are vessel membranophones.
The other drums are cylindrical tubular membranophones.
Melody percussion are percussion idiophones.
Cymbals and gongs are concussion idiophones.
Tambourines are frame drum idiophones.
Triangles and some bells are percussion idiophones.
Maracas, eggs, and some bells are shaken idiophones.

LESSON 2: ACTIVITY 1 ANSWER KEY

1. Who wrote the novel of “Bata, Bata..Pa’no Ka Ginawa”?


Answer: Lualhati Bautista
2.What kind of literary work is “ABNKKBSNPLAko!”?
Answer: Nonfiction - Humor autobiography

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