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ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОЕ АГЕНТСТВО ПО ОБРАЗОВАНИЮ

Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение


высшего профессионального образования
«ЮЖНЫЙ ФЕДЕРАЛЬНЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»

Факультет филологии и журналистики


Отделение романских и германских языков
Кафедра английской филологии

Доктор филологических наук, профессор


С.Г. Николаев

СТИЛИСТИКА АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА

Семестровый курс лекций на модульной основе


с диагностико-квалиметрическим обеспечением
для студентов старших курсов филологических факультетов
Специальность 031001 – Филология

Ростов-на-Дону
2008
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АННОТАЦИЯ

Лингвистическая стилистика (лингвостилистика) английского языка


как вполне сложившаяся, автономная лингвистическая дисциплина
представляет собой межуровневый раздел языкознания. Стилистические
явления обнаруживаются на всех без исключения языковых уровнях,
поэтому стилистика вбирает в себя основные данные смежных
языковедческих дисциплин – фонологии, лексикологии, морфологии,
синтаксиса. Лингвостилистика занимается анализом речи и изучением
входящих в ее состав, т.е. составляющих ее, единиц различных языковых
уровней. В рамках стилистики эти единицы, однако, рассматриваются под
качественно иным и новым углом зрения – в плане их функционирования в
процессе речевого общения. Таким образом, курс стилистики основывается
на теоретических знаниях, полученных студентами по курсам теоретической
фонетики, грамматики и лексикологии английского языка. В соответствии с
общей логикой поэтапного освоения теоретического материала на отделении
зарубежной филологии, стилистика должна изучаться по прохождении
названных дисциплин.
Цель курса заключается в кратком изложении современных
представлений об основных положениях стилистической теории и
рассмотрение ее важнейших разделов:
– теории изобразительно-выразительных средств и стилистических
приемов, описывающей стилистические ресурсы разных уровней языка, а
также ресурсы их совокупностей;
– теории функциональных стилей, описывающей функционально-
стилевое варьирование языка, порожденное его употреблением в разных
коммуникативных сферах и ситуациях.
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CONTENTS
Module I. Stylistics as a Separate Branch of Linguistics
Lecture 1.1 General Problems of Style and Stylistics
Lecture 1.2 Modern English from the Viewpoint of Stylistics
Lecture 1.3 The English Vocabulary from the Viewpoint of Stylistics
Lecture 1.4 Stylistic Colouring and Stylistic Neutrality. Neutrality and
Norm in Stylistics. Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic Stylistics
Literature
Progress Check on Module I
Topics for Essays
Topics for Independent Individual Work

Module II. Lexical Stylistic Means and Devices (Figures of Thought)


Lecture 2.1 Types of Meaning in an Utterance. Devices Based
on the Interaction of Logical and Contextual Meanings
Lecture 2.2 Devices Based on the Interaction of Logical and Nominal
Meanings. Devices Based on the Interaction of Logical and
Emotive Meanings
Lecture 2.3 Devices Based on the Interaction of Primary and Derivative
Logical Meanings. Devices Giving Additional
Characteristics to the Objects Described
Lecture 2.4 Stylistic Use of Set Expressions and Allusions. Stylistic Use
of Synonyms
Literature
Progress Check on Module II
Topics for Essays
Topics for Independent Individual Work

Module III. Syntactical Stylistic Means and Devices (Figures of Speech)


Lecture 3.1 Inversion. Detachment. Ellipsis. Aposiopesis. Parallelism.
Chiasmus. Apochoinu
Lecture 3.2 Suspense. Rhetorical Question. Repetitions. Tautological
Subject. Climax. Anticlimax. Antithesis
Lecture 3.3 Stylistic Means of Combining Parts of the Utterance:
Asyndeton, Polysyndeton, Cumulation. Represented
Speech. Inner Monologue. The Stream of Consciousness
Literature
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Progress Check on Module III

Topics for Essays


Topics for Independent Individual Work

Module IV. Phonetic Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices


Lecture 4.1 Euphony. Alliteration. Assonance. Onomatopoeia. Metre.
Rhythm. Rhyme
Literature
Progress Check on Module IV
Topics for Essays
Topics for Independent Individual Work

Module V. Functional Styles of the English Language


Lecture 5.1 The Notion of a Functional Style. Scientific Prose Style. The
Style of Official Documents
Lecture 5.2 Publicistic Style. The Style of Newspapers. Belle-Lettre
Style
Literature
Progress Check on Module V
Topics for Essays
Topics for Independent Individual Work
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Введение к курсу лекций «Стилистика английского языка»

Теоретический курс стилистики английского языка как одна из


дисциплин аспектного языкознания изучается на IV году обучения, в течение
7 семестра, по окончании курса практической фонетики и курса
практической грамматики, а также по окончании курса введения в
языкознание. После завершения курса предусмотрен экзамен.
Комплексная цель курса лекций заключается в кратком изложении
современных представлений об основных положениях теории
лингвостилистики и рассмотрении ее важнейших разделов – теории
экспрессивного высказывания, теории стилеобразующих приемов и теории
функциональных стилей. Данный курс также направлен на подготовку
студентов к прохождению логически следующего за ним семестрового курса
практической стилистики (8 семестр). Наконец, данный курс лекций призван
стимулировать самостоятельную работу студентов по овладению
теоретическим материалом изучаемой дисциплины.
Теоретический курс стилистики английского языка принципиально
построен на модульной основе и складывается из 5 модулей. Каждый модуль
завершается диагностико-квалиметрическими заданиями рубежного
контроля, предполагающими вопросы и ответы на них, что позволит
студентам самостоятельно оценить свои знания и уровень усвоения
материала еще до прохождения семинарских занятий и сдачи экзамена.
Весь курс – и в лекционной, и в семинарской своих составляющих –
проводится на английском языке. По учебному плану на этот курс отведено
34 академических часа (из них 28 часов – лекционные и 6 часов –
семинарские занятия). На лекциях освещаются наиболее важные проблемы
разноуровневой языковой экспрессологии, национальный словарный состав
рассматривается с точки зрения стилистики, поднимаются вопросы
разноуровневой синтагматической и парадигматической стилистики, теории
стилистических фигур (фигуры мысли и фигуры речи), а также теории
функциональных стилей. На семинарских занятиях обсуждаются
проработанные теоретические проблемы. По отдельным проблемам и
положениям курса студенты выступают с рефератами и докладами, пишут
курсовые и дипломные работы. При подготовке к семинарским занятиям
студенты работают над лекционным материалом, читают литературу на
русском и английском языке (работы отечественных и зарубежных
лингвистов), учебники и учебные пособия по стилистике английского языка.
Ряд тем курса отводится для самостоятельной работы.
Основу предлагаемого теоретического курса стилистики английского
языка составляет теория экспрессивного выражения, или экспрессология. В
качестве предмета изучения рассматриваются следующие аспекты
экспрессивной стилистики: разноуровневая парадигматическая стилистика;
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разноуровневая синтагматическая стилистика, или стилистика языковых


единиц. Помимо этого, предпринимается комплексный анализ речи с
выделением стилистических особенностей, образующих в своей
совокупности конкретный функциональный стиль.
Специфика курса обусловлена тем, что он предназначен для
русскоязычных студентов, изучающих английский язык как иностранный.
Соответственно, для русских филологов-англистов важно не просто понять
общие принципы стилистической организации устной и письменной речи, но
и развить и автоматизировать навыки углубленного стилистического анализа
языкового материала, приобрести и закрепить умение выбирать и
употреблять языковые реалии с учетом конкретной прагматической
ситуации. Теоретические аспекты стилистики помогут студентам разобраться
во всем многообразии единиц, их комбинаций и последовательностей,
формирующих тот или иной функциональный стиль, оценить значимость
каждого элемента в речевом функционировании, научиться соотносить
изучаемые единицы с соответствующими единицами других языков, в
первую очередь русского, но также и второго иностранного языка,
изучаемого студентами с IV семестра.

Календарно-тематический план

Тема Тип Индивидуальные Самостоятельная Неделя


занятия/модуль занятий консультации работа
1 2 3 4 5
Модуль № 1. Stylistics as a Separate Branch of Linguistics
Лекции (8 ч.) 2 ч. 8 ч. 1-4
Модуль № 2. Lexical Stylistic Means and Devices (Figures of Thought)
Лекции (8 ч.) 2 ч. 8 ч. 5-8
Модуль № 3. Syntactical Stylistic Means and Devices (Figures of Speech)
Лекции (6 ч.) 1 ч. 6 ч. 9-11
Модуль № 4. Phonetic Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices
Лекция (2 ч.) 0,5 ч. 2 ч. 12
Модуль № 5. Functional Styles of the English Language
Лекции (4 ч.) 0,5 ч. 4 ч. 13-14
ИТОГО: 28 ч. 6 ч. 28 ч. 72 ч.
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Module I. Stylistics as a Separate Branch of Linguistics


Lecture 1.1 General Problems of Style and Stylistics

The stylistic knowledge of any natural living language accumulates in itself


the elements of knowledge of all the other branches of linguistics: phonetics,
lexicology, grammar; and it crowns the general course, both theoretical and
practical, of the above said language studies. One cannot apply the stylistic
knowledge in practice before acquiring the knowledge of the so-called lower
language levels – phonetics, word studies and grammar. In stylistics all the
previous knowledge is interlinked, used together, and at times even corrected.
Stylistics is considered to be the most obscure branch among other branches
of general linguistics. The terms style and stylistics originate from Latin stilus that
is a stick once used to write on waxen plates. In Western linguistics the nomination
stylistics is not widely used. The works on this scope of problems undertaken in
the West are named figures of speech, or rhetoric, or rhetorical devices, etc. The
term style is frequently perceived as a list of standard regulations which concern
solely written speech and refer to punctuation, capitalization, orthography,
abbreviations, compound words, numerals, etc. Thus, the terms style and especially
stylistics denoting a definite branch of purely linguistic knowledge was introduced
and is mainly used by Russian, former Soviet, linguists. At the same time this
linguistic branch has already been recognised and accepted by Western scholars as
well.
First, we should differentiate between the basic terms style and stylistics.
Style is a broad notion, as it may be applied to architecture, literature, dress,
manners, etc. The term style may also mean the learning of how to write clearly,
correctly, and emphatically. Besides, it would be rightful to speak about an
individual author’s style meaning by this term the peculiarities of a writer’s
manner of using language means to achieve the desired effect. Proceeding from
this we may say that stylistics can be defined as a special branch of a linguistic
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theory which deals with different stylistic means producing impression and causing
a certain impact upon the reader or listener. The true mechanism of the above said
means should not be evident and is normally hidden. Thus, when referring to the
speaker, style is the controlled choice of linguistic means, whereas when referring
to the reader or listener, style is the variation of conformation of possible
expectations that is the observation and parallel interpretation of linguistic
specifics.
We should further differentiate between linguistic stylistics and literary
stylistics, whose objects of investigation are different.
Thus, for linguistic stylistics these are:
a) styles of the literary language, their development and establishment;
b) the psycholinguistic nature of various stylistic devices: metaphors, epithets,
irony, etc.;
c) two basic manifestations of language: spoken or oral, or colloquial and
written or bookish, as well as their interrelations.
For literary stylistics such objects are:
a) the author’s individual outlook;
b) the well-known literary trends such as classicism, romanticism, realism, etc.;
c) genres of literary works such as fable, novel, play, etc.;
d) composition of literary works.
As stylistics is a sister-science of linguistics, though not concerned with the
elements of language but with the expressive potentiality of such elements, then it
should have the same basic subdivision as general linguistics. So stylistic analysis
should and can be carried out upon the following principal levels of linguistics
which are: phonological, lexical and syntactical levels. Here we approach the
problem of interconnections between stylistics and the above mentioned branches
of linguistics:
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1) stylistics and phonetics > there is a special branch named the stylistics of
sounds, or phonostylistics, which shows how separate sounds, sound
combinations, stress, rhythm, intonation, etc. can serve as expressive means;
2) stylistics and lexicology > lexicological studies embrace the words and the
vocabulary. But words do not only have denotational meanings, they have
connotations as well and are able to express the speaker’s personal attitude,
negative or positive, or evaluation of the object in his speech, so this
emotional and/or evaluative connotation is the realm of stylistics,
lexicological stylistics studies the principles of the usage of words and word
combinations performing their expressive functions;
3) stylistics and grammar > stylistics treats grammatical phenomena as
expressive means, which add specific colouring to the utterance;
4) syntactical stylistics > the expressive values of the sentences, their structure
as well as texts and speech flow.
On the other hand, it should be realised that the whole theory of style can be
divided into two large, yet unequal sections:
a) expressive stylistics > the theory of stylistic devices, or expressology;
b) functional stylistics > the theory of how such devices are embodied in
utterances forming different styles – those of scientific prose, official
documents, publicistic speeches, newspaper articles, fiction.
This subdivision is commonly accepted in the Russian linguistics.
In general, the stylistic theory in its present way is rather a young system of
knowledge which was realised and developed since the middle of the 20 th century.
At the same time the origin of modern stylistics may be traced back to the antique
times. Its beginning is associated with the names of such authors of Ancient
Greece and Rome as Aristotle, Quintilian and others. The problem of expressive
means then named schemata or figures of speech was elaborated in detail in
ancient times and served the practical needs of rhetoric. That problem was given
further attention in Medieval Times and the Renaissance. Out of the newest times
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scholars’ contribution into stylistics was made by such foreign researchers as


Antoine Meillett (France), J.M. Murrey, F.L. Lucas (Great Britain), Samour
Chatman, Richard Lanham (USA) and others. The best-known Russian scholars of
the post-war period concerned with the English stylistics are I.R. Galperin,
I.V. Arnold, Yu.M. Skrebnev, etc. Russian stylistics was studied by prof.
M.N. Kozhina, prof. Th.G. Khazagerov and others.

Lecture 1.2 Modern English from the Viewpoint of Syntagmatic Stylistics


The modern literary English language is a part of a larger unity named the
national language, which in its turn comprises local dialects (or territorial
vernaculars) and social dialects (or jargons). The named dialects stay beyond the
literary language but interact with it constantly. The literary English language is a
historically developed form of the national language serving the state,
administrative and cultural needs of the nation; thus it is used in science, press,
broadcasting, television. But what is more important, the literary language also
serves the needs of everyday communication. The notions of the literary language
and dialects mainly belong to the sphere of social linguistics, but they are also used
in stylistics, functional stylistics first and foremost.
Modern literary English exists in two permanently interacting functional
variants – bookish and colloquial. Though it is commonly thought that the bookish
language is met in a written form only while colloquial is expressed orally, it is not
always true. Novels and stories may contain examples of colloquial speech as their
fragments, plays simply consist of spoken language. On the other hand, a
scientist’s report as well as scientist’s everyday speech has every characteristic of
the bookish language.
The bookish language is basically that of books, newspapers, decrees,
reports, court proceedings, sometimes advertisements, etc. It is chiefly a written
language. It is mostly prepared beforehand and delivered in the form of a
monologue. Its vocabulary is characterised by a large number of abstract nouns,
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international words, specialised terminology. It presupposes a usage of many


complex syntactical constructions, impersonal sentences dominating among them.
From the lexical viewpoint, is noted for the use of special words and combinations
like furthermore, likewise, hereinafter, in connection with, on the contrary, etc.
Colloquial literary English mainly serves the needs of everyday
communication. It is maintained mostly in the form of a dialogue and is a spoken
language. That is why it amply involves those means, which cannot be conveyed in
writing: intonation, facial expressions, gestures, the common life experience of the
interlocutors who have to permanently show mutual understanding. Hence we may
say that the spoken language differs from the written one phoneticly,
morphologically, lexically and syntactically.
Ellipses as a speech characteristics came to the language in each form of its
manifestation from unprepared colloquial speech, the same as contracted
morphological forms like he’d, she’s, we’ve, etc. It has some specific phonetic
peculiarities like occasional dropping of the initial h. Another feature is deeper
emotionality – colloquial language uses much wider the emphatic forms and units
rich in connotations.
Both the bookish and the colloquial English language have much in common
as regards their vocabulary, morphology and syntax. They are used and understood
by all educated English speakers, but what is more important they both make the
single literary English language which gradually and rather slowly changes due to
the operation of certain linguistic laws and interactions between the literary and
non-literary forms. Traced may be some periods in the language development
when the influence of the form upon another becomes stronger. This is in many
cases connected with social, political, ideological changes in the life of the
speaking community. Thus the processes of democratization bring many colloquial
forms into the bookish language. On the other hand, totalitarian tendencies in the
society show a trend towards standardizing the spoken language and giving it the
form of the written one.
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As stylistics treats language phenomena from the point of view of their


expressive function it inevitably deals with some specific notions, which are
indifferent to a purely linguistic treatment of language categories. The mentioned
notions are expressive means and stylistic devices.
Expressive means are phonetic means, morphological forms, means of
word-building, lexical, phraseological and syntactical forms, which function in the
language for emotional or logical intensification of the utterance.
Therefore expressive means are not connected with the figurative, or
transferred, meaning(s) of the word, but are used to enhance the expressive
potentialities of speech and make it more emotional. To the expressive means
belong different types of repetition, parallelism, antithesis, the use of archaisms
and neologisms, etc.
Stylistics is not only concerned with the nature of expressive means, but also
with their ability (or disability) to become a stylistic device, that is a metaphor, a
metonymy, an oxymoron, etc.
So a stylistic device, unlike an expressive means, is a conscious and
intentional literary use of some language phenomena, expressive means included.
If some language fact (or phenomenon) is widely used in the same function, it is
generalised in this function and is turns with the passage of time into a stylistic
device. Most stylistic devices are aimed at further intensification of the emotional
and logical emphasis contained in the corresponding expressive means. But an
expressive means has a greater degree of predictability than a stylistic device,
while the latter usually carries a greater amount of information. Stylistics deals
with both, scrutinizing their nature and functions, possible classifications and
possible interpretation.
Lecture 1.3 The English Vocabulary from the Viewpoint of Stylistics
Stylistics is dividing all the words comprising the vocabulary system of the
modern English language into three principle groups:
o neutral words;
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o literary words;
o colloquial words.
The first group is the largest because here belong the words without any
additional information such as, for example, book, man, speak, walk, etc.
Meanwhile literary and colloquial words besides signifying the
corresponding phenomena always bear in their semantic structure some additional
information concerning the quality, manner, evaluation, emotional attitude to the
object named. Such words being introduced into speech may easily change the
whole colouring of the utterance which is originally neutral. The majority of
literary and colloquial words have corresponding synonyms in the neutral layer of
the vocabulary: child, infant, kid; to go away, to retire, to get out.
Literary words in their turn can be divided into:
1) general literary lexicon;
2) special literary lexicon.
The usage of the general literary words is not limited by stylistic factors in
both sphere of usage or shades of meaning. Special literary words are distinctly
limited in both these ways. Thus special literary words are represented by:
o terms;
o archaisms;
o neologisms;
o barbarisms.
Terms are or rather should be deprived of any emotional colouring. They
are supposed to be used as monosemantic units. They usually do not perform any
stylistic function unless they are used in colloquial speech or metaphorically.
Archaisms can be further subdivided into:
o obsolete words;
o historical words;
o archaisms proper.
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Obsolete words are rarely used units which cannot be understood without
additional explanation. For example, haply (perhaps), anon (at once). Archaisms
proper are words which were in use in the 19th century. They can be understood
now but carry with themselves a strong stylistic effect of the units out of use
currently so they mark the speech which may be regarded as deliberately
constructed to convey some poetic or historical or elevated connotation. Examples
are thee, thou, hither (here), thither (there), etc. Historical words denote objects
out of use now. Their stylistic function is to create a special atmosphere by
describing a certain epoch which belongs to the past.
Neologisms are words and expressions used to denote new phenomena,
objects, processes. To neologisms we also refer nonce words or words coined to
suit one particular occasion. As a rule the process of building neologisms is based
upon commonly accepted rules and patterns of word formation.
Barbarisms are foreign words which enter the English vocabulary and are
reflected in oral and written speech without adaptation to the spelling or phonetic
system of the English language. In the majority of cases barbarisms have
appropriate synonyms in English but are used to give the text or the utterance a
foreign non-English flavour: ciao, adieu.
Within the special literary vocabulary we may also mention poetical words
or highly literary words. This name of the lexical layer suggests that they are
predominately used in poetry. Poetical words in modern English do not represent a
homogeneous group. They include archaic words, sometimes obsolete lexicon, etc.
On the other hand, not all of poetry consist of poetisms which quite natural
because the latter must stay in contrast with the rest part of the literary work that is
neutral, colloquial and common literary words. If we take into consideration the
latest tendencies in modern poetry which means an ample inclusion of non-poetic
words such as terminology, highly literary words, jargon and even vulgarisms, then
the above said contrast will be perceived even better. This contrast creates a
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specific stylistic effect and makes the text of poetry a unique phenomenon
significantly different from both colloquial speech and general bookish language.
Colloquial, or Non-literary Words
It is important that the language medium should offer as little as possible to
the thought current which is attained only when the symbols of language are ones
that convey precisely the same meaning to all who use the language. This thought
first expressed in the book Usage and Abusage by Eric Partridge reflects rather an
ideal situation because the same words used by different society strata and by
different individuals convey not the same but slightly different meanings. So the
language cannot be standardized entirely. It is constantly developing so it needs
permanent re-enforcement on the part of colloquial speech which is characterised
by the greatest degree of linguistic freedom. So the colloquial realm of the
vocabulary comprises slang, jargon, professional words, vulgarisms and dialectal
words.
Slang (or slangy, or slangish) words and expressions gradually penetrate
from the lower to the upper layers of the language system and at last turn into the
literary norm.
Jargonisms are words which stay close to slang. They may be further
subdivided into:
o social jargons;
o professional jargons.
Social jargons are used by particular social strata to conceal the meaning
from the “aliens” or to separate themselves from the people who do not enter their
own social group. This is a special secret code which may be made up of either
ordinary words invested with special or specialised meaning or of distorted words.
Professional jargons are used by professional groups to give new vivid names to
tools, machines and processes connected with the occupation of those people. For
16

example, a sewing machine which denotes a machine-gun comes from the military
jargon.
Vulgarisms are rough, coarse, swear-words and oaths.
Dialectal words should also be viewed as a dynamic vocabulary layer
because many lexical units of the commonly used language are former dialectisms.
For example, lad (a young man, neutral) came from the Scottish dialect.

INTERRELATIONS AMONG DIFFERENT WORD STRATA:

Legend:

1. Nonce-words 6. Professionalism
17

2. Terms 7. Nonce-words
3. Foreign words, barbarisms 8. Vulgarisms
4. Common literary vocabulary 9. Jargon
5. Special colloquial vocabulary 10. Slang

Lecture 1.4 Stylistic Colouring and Stylistic Neutrality. Neutrality and


Norm in Stylistics. Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic Stylistics
The essence of stylistic perception of any utterance or text consists in
mental confrontation of what one hears or reads with what one knows, that is with
one’s previous linguistic experience. To understand a message adequately does not
only mean to decipher the senses of separate linguistic units, such as words,
morphemes and their combinations, and to put these senses together. It also means
to undertake an immediate evaluation of such units from the standpoint of their
belonging to either the neutral sphere or stylistically marked/stylistically coloured
sphere of the language. The stylistic colouring means the knowledge where, i.e. in
what particular type of communication, this or that unit is current. Besides, both
the stylistic colouring and neutrality of units may be viewed as a result of their
distributional capacities. Under the distributional capacities of the units we mean
the possibilities of the given unit to naturally enter combinations with its
immediate environment. For example, the form haven’t has nearly a universal
distribution while the form ain’t belongs to colloquial, uncultivated speech. This
fact is proved by other breaches of well-established rules of grammar such as the
use of several negations in one sentence. For example, I ain’t never done nothing.
Stylistically coloured units can be further subdivided into:
o bookish;
o solemn;
o poetic;
o official.
And, on the other hand:
18

o colloquial;
o rustic;
o dialectal;
o vulgar.
The colouring shows where the unit was coined, where it is being used and
where it should not. Does this mean that unlike stylistically coloured units those
stylistically neutral are devoid of any connotations? The answer should be no.
However the connotations of the stylistically neutral units are innumerable and
manifold because such units are used in practically every sphere of possible
combinations. For example, the words water, land, husband and many others are
stylistically neutral. As a result the connotation of such words becomes indefinite
or neutral.
Neutrality and Norm in Stylistics
A number of scholars conclude that style may also be defined as a
standardized deviation from the lingual norm. Anything stylistically conspicuous,
relevant, coloured is, as they say, a departure from the norm. This is a viewpoint
shared by Riffaterre, E. Supporta, M. Halliday, etc. This way they equalise the
notions of stylistic neutrality and linguistic norm. What is meant by the notion of
the lingual norm? It, of course, implies some pre-established and conventionally
accepted parameters of what is evaluated. Thus the sentence I’ve not ever done
anything satisfies to the modern English literary norm. Another example I ain’t
never done nothing is certainly a deviation from the literary norm named Standard
English but at the same time it fully conforms to the requirements of uncultivated
English because the people who use this type of the language simply have their
own norms of communication. Thus the number of norms is great and stays in
accord with the number of sublanguages within one national language. Otherwise
we would be obliged to consider normal only ABC-books or the texts of the first
lesson for foreigners. Anything else, for example, Shakespeare, Hemingway,
19

Fowls, Joyce, scientific and technical literature, documents, advertisements,


everyday colloquial speech, would be considered abnormal. That’s why the notions
of neutrality and norm should not be confused together. The basic characteristic
feature of norm in language is its plurality because there has never been and cannot
be one universal norm for everybody.

Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic Stylistics


A paradigm is a set of grammar forms of this or that part of speech, each of
such form being naturally selected in the speech process. The notion of a syntagma
is employed in both phonetics and syntax and denotes a combination of words in
speech, a linear sequence of lexical units.
The term paradigmatics, mostly used by Russian linguists, denotes the
totality of units the language has at its disposal. The term syntagmatics also implies
to a totality but this time the sequences or chains of units. Both paradigmatics and
syntagmatics are interconnected in reality supporting each other and representing
necessary condition for each other’s existence. What would a paradigm of units be
without a knowledge of how they are combined in syntagmata? It would be useless
and meaningless. The meaning of a unit is known due to the knowledge of its
distribution. The same way what would a syntagma be without its place in the
paradigm? For stylistics strict delimitation of these both is of principal importance.
Thus when we use the word guy instead of man or the form ain’t instead of
am/is/are not the combination real good instead of really good, the sentence John
here? instead of Is John here? it means one unit used instead of another which
could be but isn’t employed on purpose. It’s what shows the paradigmatic branch
of stylistics: the paradigmatic choice between the stylistically marked and
stylistically neutral units. Another example is the utterance I ask you, I pray, I
beseech. Here it is not the words or their meanings that are of stylistic interest but
the number of their manifestations (3) and the relations between their meanings:
pray is stronger than ask and beseech is the strongest synonym. In combinations
20

like life and death, now or never there is also a definite play of meanings, this time
based upon contrast. There are also examples of contrastive meanings within one
phrase like love and hate, sweet torture, etc. Such correlations between the
meanings of words in single combinations make the object of studies of
syntagmatic stylistics. Thus there is stylistics of units named paradigmatic
stylistics and stylistics of sequences names syntagmatic stylistics. The former
studies separate words, groups, while the latter studies their combinations. That is
stylistic units. Paradigmatic stylistics is concentrated upon the choice between the
stylistically marked and stylistically neutral units. Syntagmatic stylistics is focused
upon the correlations between the meanings of words which stand together.

Literature
1. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. – Moscow, 1991.
2. Skrebnev Yu.M. Fundamentals of English Stylistics. – Moscow, 1994.
3. Enkvist, N.E. Linguistic Stylistics. – The Hague, 1973.
4. Esser, J. English Linguistic Stylistics. – Tübingen, 1993.
5. Wales, K. A Dictionary of Stylistics. – London, 1990.
6. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика современного английского языка
(Стилистика декодирования). – М., 1990.
7. Балли Ш. Французская стилистика. – М., 1961.
8. Стилистический энциклопедический словарь русского языка / Под ред.
М.Н. Кожиной. – М., 2003.

Progress Check on Module I.


To pass this progress check, the student has to give answers to 10 questions.
Each correct answer shall be evaluated in 10 points. The total of all correct
answers shall then make 100 points.
21

Questions:
1. What position does linguostylistics occupy among other branches of
general linguistics?
2. What is the difference between linguistic stylistics and literary stylistics?
3. What is the difference between the bookish literary language and the
colloquial literary language?
4. What is the difference between an expressive means and a stylistic
device?
5. Give the general characteristics of the stylistic diversity of the modern
English vocabulary.
6. What kinds of old words do you know?
7. What is the place and stylistic value of terminology among other lexical
strata?
8. What types of meaning of utterance are considered relevant in stylistics?
9. How can different types of meaning interact within a single utterance?
10. What is the possible result of the above interaction of meanings?

Topics for Essays


1. Development of Stylistics as a Separate Linguistic Branch
2. Schools in Linguostylistics
3. Russian Schools in Linguostylistics
4. Various Theories of Style
5. Syntagmatic and Paradigmatic Stylistics: the Need to Discriminate
between Them

Topics for Independent Individual Work


1. Types of language units stylistics deals with.
2. Sub-branches of general stylistics.
3. Links of linguostylistics with phonetics.
22

4. Links of linguostylistics with lexicology.


5. Links of linguostylistics with syntax.
6. Stylistics and semasiology.
7. Stylistics and onomaseology.
8. Stylistics and sociolinguistics.

Module II. Lexical Expressive Means and Devices (Figures of Thought)


Lecture 2.1 Types of Meaning in an Utterance. Devices Based on the
Interaction of Logical and Contextual Meanings
The word is a language unit that expresses a concept by its form and
meaning. The grammatical form of the word shows its relations to the other words
in the sentence. A concept is an abstract or in other words generalised idea of a
phenomenon. The meaning is the means by which the concept becomes
materialised. In the degree of abstractiveness all concepts differ from each other.
The right, objective or adequate concept of the word can be created and produced
by the interaction of different meanings in this word. The three main meanings in
the word semantic structure are:
o logical
o emotive
o nominal.
The logical meaning, sometimes named referential, or direct, or dictionary
meaning, is the naming of the whole of the concept, that is the naming of the given
phenomenon through one of its qualities. It is a historical category which
constantly changes in the course of time. As a result of this process one word may
denote more than one concept thus acquiring primary and secondary meanings.
Secondary meanings are also called derivative meanings, but in a definite context
words may acquire additional meanings stipulated by this context and named
contextual. The dictionary meaning is materialised in the context. The contextual
meaning is born in the context.
23

Emotive meaning expresses feelings and emotions called forth by the


phenomenon denoted. It shows the subjective attitude of the speaker, his or her
evaluation of the phenomenon. In many words both logical and emotive meanings
co-exist: sonny (kingship + emotional attitude), sweet (direct + figurative
meanings), smart, etc. However there are words which bear only strong emotive
meaning. These are interjections, exclamatory words, oaths and many other
intensifiers. For example, awful, terribly, nice, ouch, etc. In a definite context they
may completely lose their logical meaning. “What a bloody thing!” – nothing
connected with the blood in fact. Another example is Jesus! translated as Вот
черт! – a word can completely lose its logical meaning, the emotive one
remaining.
Nominal meaning characterises beings or things. Most proper names with
their nominal meanings have developed from the common names with their logical
meaning: Smith, Hope, Tailor, etc. Sometimes a reverse process may be observed
where a nominal meaning may assume a logical one. For example, boycott was
formed after C.C. Boycott, a British army officer who fell the first victim of this
action; sandwich – the first earl of Sandwich.
All the meanings of the word reflected by a dictionary form the word’s
semantic structure. Still when the word finds itself in the context it may acquire a
new contextual logical or contextual emotive or contextual nominal meaning. Any
contextual meaning of the word is closely connected with such a notion as the shift
of meaning. The shift of meaning is stipulated by the interrelation between the
dictionary and contextual meanings. If such interrelation causes an alteration of the
recognised logical meaning, then we have a stylistic device. The majority of
stylistic devices are based on the interaction of different lexical meanings of the
given word.
Devices Based on the Interaction of Logical and Contextual Meanings
Metaphor. The term is derived rom Greek metaphora meaning transference
(μεταφερω, μεταφορα). Interaction between logical and contextual meanings of
24

words should have some basis without which it can’t be realized. This basis is an
existing likeness between two objects however this likeness may not be existing
but supposed. Metaphor is a shift of meaning based on the association of similarity
or affinity. Metaphors may not only be expressed by nouns, but by any part of
speech. They not only name the object but also characterize it and do it in a vivid
expressive way. Important is that there should be no actual connection between the
two objects in reality like what we have in metonymy. Thus the metaphor filmstar
is based on the identity of features: both are outstanding, conspicuous, seen by
everyone, known to all, placed higher than others. Typically, metaphors with the
course of time lose their original expressiveness and turn into dead metaphors
which may also be called trite metaphors. Such are the teeth of a saw, the head of a
cabbage, the story goes, the foot of the mountain, etc.
A metaphor, to be perceived as such, needs at least a minimum context. 19 th
century prudish ladies of Boston even replaced the metaphor legs of a piano by a
euphemism limb of a piano. And their own legs were called benders, body was
named waist.
The stylistic metaphor, which is always expressive, bright and vivid, is
coined by the fancy of the speaker or writer. Sometimes metaphors may exceed the
boundaries of just one word.
The doctor wrapped himself in a mist of words. (Kipling)
Metaphors can be simple and sustained or prolonged. The latter case is in
fact a number of metaphors connected and associated with one main image.
In November a cold unseen stranger whom the doctors called pneumonia
stoked about the colony, touching one here and one there with icy fingers. (O.
Henry)
Personification. Personification is a variety of metaphor, in which
inanimate objects are shown as if they were human beings with such attributes as
thought, speech, feeling, action.
25

How soon hath Time, the subtle thief of Youth, stolen on his wing my three
and twentieth year. (Milton)
There are certain formal signs of personification, such as:
o the use of he/she pronouns with reference to lifeless objects but with
an exception of the cases habitual (ships, countries)
o direct address to the object as if it is able to perceive the human
speech
Oh, stretch thy reign, fair peace! From shore to shore
till conquest cease and slavery be no more. (A. Pope)
o capitalization of nouns
No sleep till Morn, when Youth and Pleasure meet
To chase the glowing hours with flying feet (Byron)

Metonymy. This term is derived from Greek metonymia meaning changing


of name. Metonymy is another type of interaction between logical and contextual
logical meanings, based on the association between two concepts: the object
implied and the object named. Their combination may take different forms which
are as follows:
1. the result is used to name the cause
Grey hair is not always respected.
2. the cause used for the result
The author lived by his pen only.
3. the symbol for the thing signified
The crown had to yield to the demands of the people.
4. the feature for its bearer
A bonnet and a dress floated down the street.
Watching the skirts you start to flirt.
5. the tool for the action
26

Give every man thy ear, few thy voice.


6. the container for the thing contained, or contrary
The kettle is boiling.
The wood sings.
The gallery applauded.
7. an abstract notion for a concrete one, or contrary
Labor demonstrated in the streets.
8. material for the thing made of it
A shower of lead fell on the trenches.
9. the name of the creator for his creation
Have you ever read Shakespeare in the original?
He’s fond of Byron.
Synecdoche. It is a particular case of metonymy, in which part is used for
the whole or the singular for the plural. Some scholars say that it is the simplest
type of metonymy.
All hands on deck.
Generic singular is the type of synecdoche in which the singular form is used
to denote a class.
The student id expected to know…
The opposite type of synecdoche is the following.
Reading books when I’m talking to you?
Irony. From Greek ειρωνεια meaning hidden mockery. It is another device
based on the simultaneous realization of two logical meanings – dictionary and
contextual. The important difference of irony from metaphor and metonymy is that
here both meanings stand in opposition to each other.
It must be delightful to find yourself in a foreign country without a penny in
the pocket.
The stylistic function of irony is normally criticism, so it mustn’t be
confused with humor, whose main function is not criticism but amusement. The
27

sphere of application of irony are those works, in which some psychological or


social phenomenon is treated. Two principle types of irony are usually singled out:
1. The first one represents utterances in which the ironical sense is
evident to any native speaker. This type is made antiphrasis.
A fine friend you are.
2. The second type is represented by the majority of examples and
here the utterance can be understood both literally and ironically. To make such
cases of irony evident, the author may use inverted commas or italics. In oral
speech we may come across additional means such as intonation, facial expression,
gestures, etc.
He’s a rich man.
On the whole, irony is used for critical evaluation of objects, but there also
exist opposite examples, which are however few.
clever bastard
tough son of a bitch

Lecture 2.2 Devices Based on the Interaction of Logical and Nominal


Meanings. Devices Based on the Interaction of Logical and Emotive Meanings

Antonomasia. From Greek “naming instead”. This device is based on the


simultaneous realization of two lexical meanings, which normally do not overlap
in speech. There are the following types of antonomasia singled out by scholars:
1. name of a famous personality for a characteristic feature
He is the Napoleon of crime
2. name of a place for the event which happened there
Pearl Harbor as a symbol of bitter defeat.
3. name of the establishment for the policy pursued by it
Wall Street, the White House, the Pentagon, Moscow
28

4. geographical names used as common nouns for the denotation of things


originating from there
china, champagne, boston (fabric), astrakhan (каракуль), etc.
5. names after their inventors
ohm, diesel, sandwich, macintosh, etc.
Two other principal types of antonomasia are:
1. cases based on the interaction between the nominal and contextual
logical meanings;
2. those based on the interaction of logical and contextual nominal
meanings.
Number one can be illustrated by those proper nouns used as common ones
(Othello, Don Juan). This type is highly trite as a result of long usage a proper
noun has every reason to become totally common. The fact which prevents this
process may be the use of the same noun in a piece of literature.
Derrick is high tower of an oil-producing device but it was name of an
English hangman of Elizabethan times.
Class two may be illustrated by any common noun used as a proper one.
Mr. Mustard (“Abbey Road” by the Beatles), Rocky Raccoon, etc.
Sometimes antonomasia helps make abstract notions concrete.
You need the help of doctor Rest, doctor Diet and doctor Fresh Air.
Antonomasia may also consist of several words or a complete phrase.
Mr. Know-It-All (г-н Всезнайка)
Mr. What’s-Your-Name Как-Вас-Там?

Devices Based on the Interaction of Logical and Emotive Meanings

Epithet. From Greek addition. This is a device emphasizing some quality of


a person, thing, idea, phenomenon. It reveals the evaluative attitude of the speaker
29

towards the subject of speech. However epithets should not be confused with
logical attributes because the latter so not bear any expressive force.
He is stupid.
Stupid he is.
A monstrous man he is.
Epithets are not considered classical tropes, yet they are placed among other
tropes because we may have metaphorical, metonymical and ironical epithets.
Epithets may be expressed by:
a) adjectives or participle in preposition
His lazy fingers.
b) the same words in postposition
His fingers, weary, worn and lazy.
There is a special type of an English epithet consisting of phrases.
She gave Mrs. Sylborn a you-know-how-men-are look.
There is another specific type of English epithets characterized by an
unusual syntactical structure.
A mute of a woman.
This type stands very close to metaphor or comparison.
We may at times come across of pairs of chains of epithets in fiction, the
whole cluster giving a many-sided description of the object.
He was a masked and muffled man.

Hyperbole. From Greek overstatement. This is exaggeration not meant to be


literally understood. It expresses the emotional attitude of the speaker to the
subject. There is colloquial and stylistic hyperbole, the former due to its lengthy
use is no longer perceived as any exaggeration.
I haven’t seen you for ages.
I’d give worlds to see her.
What on earth do you want from me?!
30

An expressive (stylistic) hyperbole as distinct from the trite one is


exaggeration on a big scale. There must be something illogical in it or unreal, or
impossible that is contrary to common sense and stunning by suddenness.
One after another those people lay down on the ground to laugh and two of
them died. One of the survivors remarked... (M. Twain)
Hyperbole is often combined with metaphor. The latter in such cases
demonstrates a gigantic disproportion between what is named and the
characteristics given to it.
This woman could talk the hind leg off a donkey.

Meiosis (or understatement). This is a logical and psychological opposite


of hyperbole. It is lessening, weakening, reducing of the actual characteristics of
the object of speech. It serves to underline the insignificance of what one speaks
about. A typical meiosis is the following:
It will cost you a pretty penny. Это тебе в копеечку выльется.
Meaning that it will cost somebody too much. Numerous examples of trite
meiosis can be found among English idioms while the British manner of speech is
characterized by frequent use of meiosis and litotes, Americans use more
hyperboles.

Litotes. It is believed to be a specific form of meiosis and not an


independent trope. It expresses an idea by negating the opposite idea. Thus,
wishing to say with his help we may say not without his help.
The result is double negation which generally is avoided in English and
becomes highly affirmative. At the same time the general meaning of the utterance
is weakened.
The negation may be doubled in different ways. For example, by means of
two negative prefixes (unintellectual). It may also be a negation plus the antonym
of the idea expressed (not bad).
31

Oxymoron. From Greek oxys meaning sharp and moros meaning foolish.
This is a device presenting two contrasting ideas. Here one element presents an
objectively existing feature or quality, while the other conveys the speaker’s
attitude towards it. This way a new meaning is being developed.
The classical scheme of an oxymoron is Adverb + Adjective (falsely true) or
Adjective + Noun (sweet pain).
Very often oxymorons become set expressions or even clichés.
a wise fool, an honorable villain, sweet sorrow
A genuine or stylistic oxymoron is a free combination of words. Once
created by an author it is practically never used in other contexts. However, the
English language contains many colloquial traditional combinations such as:
awfully well, pretty bad, mighty small
They do not reveal the contradicting nature of phenomenon described
because the left component is nothing but a synonym for very.
In Russian we have: тихий ужас, красные чернила (утратило сему,
связанную с черным цветом).
Oh, brawling love! Oh, loving hate!
Oh, anything of nothing first create.
Oh, heavy lightness, serious vanity
Misshaping chaos of well-seeming forms
(“Romeo and Juliet”, W. Shakespeare)

Lecture 2.3 Devices Based on the Interaction of Primary and Derivative


Logical Meanings. Devices Giving Additional Characteristics to the Objects
Described
32

Zeugma. From Greek zeugian meaning to connect. This is the use of two
polysemantic words referring to two adjacent notions in the context but in different
semantic relations.
Zeugma is a kind of a play upon words, because the basic word of the device
enters one combination in one meaning and another combination in another
meaning. The first is usually literal, while the second metaphorical.
He paid a visit and a fee.
Петя любил Машу, английский язык и чай с лимоном по вечерам.
There are three types of zeugma:
1. a combination of a set expression and a free phrase
2. a combination of an adverbial prepositional phrase and a prepositional
object or attribute
3. where the spheres of usage of two or more units are different (stylistic
zeugma)

Pun. In pun we have one and the same word repeated. The term is derived
from Italian word pundiglio meaning a fine point. Pun is based on simultaneous
realization of a primary and derivative meaning within one context. The distinction
between zeugma and pun is that in pun the word upon which the effect is based is
repeated twice.
Did you hit a woman with a child? Вы что ей ребенка оставили?
No, Sir. I hit her with a stick (в прямом значении).
The main stylistic function of both devices is based on the interplay between
the primary and secondary meanings of one word. As a result achieved is the
humorous and satirical effect. And the listener is actively involved in the process
of creative work of the author.
Pun is normally considered to be a play upon words because it is usually
based either on polysemy or homonymy.
33

The general formula for pun is as follows: A=B + C, which is a result of a


mistakable transformation or shortening of the two statements: A = B and A = C.
It, however, turns out that the A of the first statement not only appears to be
identical to the A of the second statement. As a result, we obtain not three (A, B,
C) members but four of them, which are: A, A1, B and C. Hence, A is unequal to
A1.
Have you been seeing spirits? Or taken some? (Ch. Dickens)
There comes a period in every man’s life, but she was just a semicolon in
his.
Pun may be realized as polysemy, reflected in one utterance, word or a word
combination which has two meanings so that a recipient chooses one or two
utterances similar in form, their constituents having different meanings.
Is life worth living? It depends on the liver.
It is not my principle to pay the interest, and it is not my interest to pay the
principle (A – B, B – A is a chiasmus, syntactical device).
A mistreatment of a word and its sense may be manifested by the speaker
himself, but it may also be done by the interlocutor (the second type of pun is more
frequent).
Sam gave Tom a hug and said: “Jesus, you really had us scared”. Tom
grinned and said: “You don’t have to call me Jesus when we are alone”.

Devices Giving Additional Characteristics to the Objects Described

Simile. This type draws a comparison between two different objects having
some common characteristics. This comparison should be however imaginative.
Stylistic simile should not be confused with ordinary comparison because the
former is based on juxtaposition of objects belonging to entirely different classes
of things.
And people were like rats to each other.
34

Still on the other hand simile should not be confused with metaphor because
these two are of different linguistic nature and belong to different groups of
devices.
A simile makes a description more concrete and vivid, similes also give rise
to new perception and understanding to the object or both objects compared.
Similes have different structures. Most often they are introduced by
conjunctions as, like, as if, as though, etc. or by means of words denoting
comparison to resemble, to remind, to suggest, to seem, etc.
As a result of long usage similes loose their original expressiveness and
become trite and even clichéd.
As bold as a lion, to jump about like a cat on hot bricks, as gay as a bee.
Such trite similes readily turned into set expressions.
Simile is an explicit statement of partial identity of two objects, being such it
differs from metaphor, which is implicit in its essence. Using a metaphor we as
though pretend to believe that the thing named is the thing referred to. In case of
simile the speaker always knows that one object only looks like or acts like another
object. Metaphor is renaming, that is using one word instead of another. In similes
two names are exposed and employed.
In trite similes alliteration is often involved.
As dead as a doornail, as bright as a button, as cool as a cucumber, as blind
as a bat.
But there are also some without any play of sound.
To fit like a glove, to smoke like a chimney, as drunk as a lord.
Similes may be expressed through sentence structures.
She was like a tigress ready to jump at me. She looked at him as
uncomprehendingly as a mouse might look at a gravestone.
Similes may consist of one word only though compound.
Dog-like, hungry-looking.
Like extended or sustained metaphors there may also be sustained similes.
35

They eased me through a door as if I were a millionaire invalid with four


days to live who haven’t as yet paid his doctor’s bill.
Periphrasis. From Greek verb periphrasian that means to speak in a
roundabout way. This is a phrase used instead of one word to denote one
phenomenon.
Great globules of water were running down his cheeks.
Periphrasis is a stylistic device used to name a notion which in most cases
can be easily understood in the given context. Those periphrasis cases which can
be perceived without difficulty are usually traditional ones. Through frequent use
they become synonymous expressions for the generally used words and are called
periphrastic synonyms.
Cap and gown* – the student (*out of use today), gentleman in a long robe –
a lawyer, the fair sex – women, my better half – a spouse.
Stylistic periphrasis may be logical and figurative. The former is based on a
certain prominent feature of the object described.
Instruments of destruction meaning arms.
Figurative periphrasis is based either on metaphors or metonymies, the result
being metaphorical or metonymical periphrasis.
To tie the knot meaning to marry (metaphorical periphrasis).
Periphrasis stands close to tropes yet what helps differentiate them is that
periphrasis can never be expressed in one word. Thus calling a book a thriller the
speaker uses trite metonymy, calling the same book “200 pages of blood-freezing
narrative” he uses periphrasis.
Periphrasis is more characteristic for the writings of the past epochs because
it is always redundancy of lingual elements. Thus Dickens called lies told by one
of his characters “alterations and improvements on the truth”. In the 20 th century
prose periphrasis often carried a humorous load.
36

A disturber of the piano keys – a bad pianist (O’Henry). The minutest coin
and himself were absolute stranger – lack of money in somebody’s pocket
(O’Henry).
Euphemism. From Greek euphemio – I speak politely. In some scholars’
opinion, classical euphemism is a variety of periphrasis, sometimes named
euphemistic periphrasis which substitutes an inoffensive word or expression for a
harsh or just unpleasant one. As a rule, a euphemism calls up in readers’ mind the
word it stands for.
To die – to be gone, to pass away, to expire, to be no more, to depart, to join
the silent majority, to go the way of all the flesh, to go West, etc.
Euphemisms were traditionally used to substitute words forbidden for
pronunciation (taboo words). Thus in England in the puritan times the following
euphemisms were born and became traditional.
God was replaced by heaven, jove, goodness, lord; devil – duce, old nick,
old harry, etc.
According to the sphere of their application euphemisms can be divided into
religious, moral (alcohol, drugs, sex, etc.), parliamentary, medical, etc. Medical
euphemisms is traditional type of euphemistic expressions. It is called cryptolaly.
Many of them turn into clichés and become the only possible variants of
nomination. They are established in language and are recorded in dictionaries.

Lecture 2.4 Stylistic Use of Set Expressions and Allusions. Stylistic Use
Of Synonyms
The notion of set expressions will be treated in a broad sense here as any
combination of words in which some elements are used in their figurative sense.
Hence within this notion included will be proverbs, set expressions, epigrams and
idioms. Like separate words every set expression may also be stylistically neutral
37

or elevated or degraded (subneutral). Of special interest to stylistics are those two


classes which differ from the norm.
The groups of elevated idioms traditionally singled out by linguists are:
a) Archaisms
The iron in one’s soul meaning permanent imbitterment.
b) Bookish lexicon
To go to Canossa – to submit something.
c) Foreign words
Mot juste – the exact word.
The subneutral layer may be further divided into:
a) Colloquial
Alive and kicking – safe and sound.
Small fry – unimportant people.
b) Jargon
A loss leader – a commodity sold below cost to attract customer.
c) Old slang
To be nuts about something – to be overfond of something.
To shoot one’s grandmother – to say something commonplace.
To keep in the pin – to abstain from drinking.
A very important category for stylistics is the frequency of use of idioms.
While their complete absence makes speech poor, excessive use of idioms
may also make it unnatural. Both ways of usage of idioms characterise the so
called foreigners’ English.
One of the brightest ways to use set expressions and show their stylistic
value is their decomposition. This device is based on the fact that the components
of a phraseological unit have no meaning of their own. They make up the meaning
only when they are manifested in mutual combinations. Decomposition revives the
original meaning of the word with the result that the whole phrase get a fresh
significance. Here set expression may be used with definite modifications.
38

He was reported to have the finger in all…


Here the idiom “to have a finger in one’s pie” is first split and then
prolonged.
In a decomposed unit two meanings may be realised simultaneously.
It was raining cats and dogs. And two kittens and a puppy landed on my
window-sill.
Decomposition may be manifested as:
1) Replacement of words in an idiom
Fact forbid – God forbid.
The gilded age – the gold age.
2) Literal understanding of words
Soams bit his lips. “God knows”, – he said. But he knew better than God.
(Golsworthy)
3) Both replacement and literal understanding
Too true to be good. (B. Shaw)
4) Sound likeness of the words employed
The other side of the metal – advertisement in reference to the inner part of
a car based on “the other side of the medal”.
Our love is blinds – love is blind.

Stylistic use of Proverbs and Sayings

Both proverbs and sayings are laconic and witty expressions characterised
by a greater volume of thought than what they usually manifest by a mere sum or
total of their elements. The stylistic value of sayings may also be viewed in the fact
that they are elliptical in their structure. Both of them are in many cases
rhythmically organised and sometimes rhymically.
No sweet without sweat.
39

Epigrams. Epigrams are witty statements, often satirical, normally created


by men of letters. In a laconic and expressive form epigrams convey some
generalised idea. Some of them are later converted into proverbs as a result of
constant reiteration. Poetry is considered to be epigrammatic in its nature. Often
the last two lines of English sonnets may be further used as an epigram
(Shakespeare’s sonnets, for example).

Allegory. Allegory is often used in proverbs, sayings and epigrams but


allegory is more a form of literature and art theory than linguistics. The only
branch of linguistics regularly observing allegory is stylistics. Allegories express
abstract ideas through concrete pictures. Allegory can be easily represented in
complete texts. As for shorter context these are usually proverbs.
Make hey while the sun shines – implies advice which has nothing in
common with hey-making or sun shine and means to make use of favourable
situations.
All is not gold that glitters.
Every cloud has its silver lining.
No rose without a thorn.
In this respect highly allegorical proverbs should not be confused with
maxims which are not metaphorical utterances.
Better late than never.

Allusion. To allude means to mention, hence allusion is a reference to


something presumably known to the listener or reader, frequently coming from
history, literature, religion. When allusion is manifested by a quotation such a
quotation should not be exact.
“No”, - he said wistfully, - “I suppose not. It’s time to dress”. To dress – to
dine, and if to dine, to sleep – to sleep, to dream. And then what dreams might
come? (Golsworthy)
40

The stylistic effect of allusions can only be achieved if the utterance alluded
is well-known to the reader. Referring to the well-known fact, allusion enables the
writer to be more explicit without expanding on the subject too much. Galperin
stated that allusions are based on the accumulated experience and knowledge of the
writer who presupposes a similar experience and knowledge in the reader.

Stylistic Use of Synonyms


Synonyms in one synonymic group may differ from each other in their
stylistic colouring (compare to steal and to pinch) and in emotional evaluative
nuances (compare timid and coward). Those synonyms which differ not so much
in meaning or in their emotional colouring and which belong to different stylistic
types are called stylistic synonyms. Of greatest stylistic value are contextual
synonyms which has not been registered as synonyms in any dictionary, which are
born as such in a context only. Context saturates a word with such emotional and
evaluative nuances and to such a degree that a word loses its logical or dictionary
meaning thus becoming a contextual (temporary) synonym. Contextual synonyms
help avoid repetition and monotony of speech. They give some additional
information thus adding to the preciseness and expressiveness of the utterance. At
the same time they reflect a deeply subjective author’s attitude of what he depicts.
Synonyms are realised in the context in different ways. Especially peculiar
to the English language are pairs of synonyms whose stylistic function is to
intensify the impression.
To run and rule.
To mask and muffle.
To meek and humble.
Such pairs may be rhythmically organised and alliterated.
The stylistic use of synonyms may not be restricted to synonymical pairs
only but can extend to synonymical groups. This device may be regarded as a
semantical repetition and is named semantical amplification.
41

He closed, locked and bolted all the doors and windows.


Synonyms may also be realised through synonimical variations. These
variations show their meaning which is rather close in different manifestations
within one context or text. This way they help avoid repetition and define a notion
from different sides or supplies it with definite colouring of emotions.
The words intelligence and mind and intellect may be used substituting each
other. The same as the words stories, legends, narrations, sagas, tales, etc.
Being non synonyms, if regarded as literary terms, turn into such in a special
text.
The use of synonyms is recommended to create a better style of writing but
only within those functional styles which show a definite imaginative character of
the author. Fiction, publicistic style, partially newspaper style, but not scientific or
style of the official documents.
The English language is especially rich in synonyms. The ability of the
writer or speaker to pick out the appropriate word from a series of synonyms gives
him a possibility to express his ideas with the utmost precision and emotionally
adequately.

Literature
1. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. – Moscow, 1991.
2. Skrebnev Yu.M. Fundamentals of English Stylistics. – Moscow, 1994.
3. Enkvist, N.E. Linguistic Stylistics. – The Hague, 1973.
4. Esser, J. English Linguistic Stylistics. – Tübingen, 1993.
5. Wales, K. A Dictionary of Stylistics. – London, 1990.
6. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика современного английского языка
(Стилистика декодирования). – М., 1990.
7. Балли Ш. Французская стилистика. – М., 1961.
8. Стилистический энциклопедический словарь русского языка / Под ред.
М.Н. Кожиной. – М., 2003.
42

9. Москвин В.П. Выразительные средства современной русской речи:


тропы и фигуры. Терминологический словарь-справочник. М., 2004.

Progress Check on Module II.


To pass this progress check, the student has to give answers to 10 questions.
Each correct answer shall be evaluated in 10 points. The total of all correct
answers shall then make 100 points.
Questions:
1. What is the principal difference between metaphor and metonymy?
2. Can you give examples of metaphorical and metonymical transfer of
meaning within one utterance?
3. What is the difference between a case of metaphor and a metaphorical
epithet, a case of metonymy and a metonymical epithet?
4. Can you name at least 4 types of antonomasia?
5. What types of epithets can be distinguished?
6. What is the principal difference between litotes and hyperbole?
7. What is the principle bringing together oxymoron, zeugma and pun?
8. What is the inner and outer difference between simile and metaphor?
9. How can set expressions be used for stylistic purposes?
10. How can synonyms be used for stylistic purposes?

Topics for Essays


1. The Theory Of Trope in Modern Semiotics
2. Trope, Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication
3. Re-nomination and the Language Sign
4. Re-nomination As A Deliberate Device In Human Verbal
Communication
5. Terminology Naming Tropes: Its Genesis and Modern State
43

Topics for Independent Individual Work


1. Metaphor, metonymy, irony, epithet in everyday communication
2. Simile as a device and way of thought
3. Euphemism and its varieties in speech
4. Decomposition of set expressions: the stylistic potentialities of the device

Module III. Syntactical Stylistic Means and Devices (Figures of Speech)

Lecture 3.1 Inversion. Detachment. Ellipsis. Aposiopesis. Parallelism.


Chiasmus. Apochoinu
Syntax is not so showy a means of expression as the lexicon. In spite of this,
syntax is known to be rather a powerful element of style which fact is especially
important if we speak about written speech.
Stylistically marked syntactical patterns, as I.R. Galperin defines them, are
making a special system presented by the peculiarities of the structural design of
utterances which bear some emotional colouring. This means that such utterances
are stylistic in the organization of their relevance and therefore non-neutral.
Stylistic syntactical patterns may be viewed as the variants of general
syntactical models characterizing the language.
Syntactical stylistic devices are based on the syntactical arrangement of the
elements of a sentence or a larger unit like one text, on the particular use of the
lexical meanings of stylistic patterns and on the particular ways of combining
separate parts of the utterance.
Inversion. The most evident stylistic device in English is inversion (from
Latin inversio meaning displacement).
It is common knowledge that the word order of the English sentence is
strictly fixed for the sake of showing the syntactical function of each word in a
sentence. The most general pattern is Subject + Predicate + Object. Any violation
44

of this pattern which doesn’t alter the meaning of the sentence but only adds
logical stress and emotional colouring is known to be stylistic inversion.
The most typical patterns of inversion in English are as follows:
a) the predicate placed before the subject
Indolent, willful and pretty was her aspect. (Sh. Bronte)
b) both the adverbial modifier and the predicate precede the subject
Against the wall stood a broken oar.
c) the object placed at the head of the sentence
Little change had they undergone in those years.
d) the attribute following the word it modifies
And a fighting machine with its legs contracted, crumple and abbreviated
stood across the corner of the pit. (H. G. Wells)
e) the adverbial modifier placed at the beginning of a sentence
Slowly I thrust myself out through the red weed. (H. G. Wells)
All the above structures are known as emphatic, which means that they place
a definite emphasis on the element of the sentence which is marked by its inverted
position.
Detachment. This is separating a secondary part of the sentence with the
main aim of emphasizing it. This separation usually leads to a logical break
between the main and a secondary parts of the sentence. As a result, the detached
element acquires an unexpected degree of independence.
Detachment may also be regarded as a kind of inversion as the same is its
aim to make some word or words more prominent. Yet evident also is the
difference between detachment and inversion.
The detached element stands in artificial isolation from the member of the
sentence it belongs to. The separation marks may be a dash or brackets or a comma
or even a full stop.
The most common type of detachment is that in which an attribute or an
adverbial modifier is isolated from the words it refers to.
45

A silver tray was brought in – with German plums.


Another variety of detachment is parenthesis or insertion. It not only
emphasizes but also provides additional explanation and specifies the utterance.
Parenthesis is usually an additional sentence inserted within another sentence.
I listened – I was deaf! – but everything was still.
Ellipsis. From Greek – defect. This is a deliberate omission of some part of
an utterance manifested by one word or more words for a definite stylistic purpose.
This device best of all manifests itself in the written speech because the omission
of some parts of a sentence in oral speech may be regarded a norm.
Ellipsis in fiction is in most cases used in the characters’ speech to give it the
characteristics of vitality or naturality. Ellipsis enables the author to convey the
emotional state of his mood, for example, astonishment, surprise, perplexity, etc.
Then suddenly he was struck. By nothing at all.
Hence we should differentiate stylistic ellipsis from the non-stylistic cases.
Ellipsis is sometimes used in parallel constructions. The most important
thing is that the lost element in ellipsis should be easy to reconstruct, it should be
neatly presupposed.
The sky was dark and gloomy, the air damp and raw, the streets wet and
floppy. (Dickens)
Aposiopesis. From Greek – to be silent. The difference between ellipsis and
aposiopesis is in the fact that in the latter case the lost element is not so easy to
reconstruct. Sometimes reconstruction is impossible. Aposiopesis is a sudden
break in speech as if the speaker was unable or unwilling to express what is on his
mind. Occurring in oral speech aposiopesis is often accompanied by gestures,
mimics, special intonation of the remaining elements which all help supply the
missing words.
Parallelism. Syntactical parallelism is a similarity of structures of several
successive clauses, sentences or even paragraphs. Parallelism is a kind of repetition
creating rhythm in the utterance. The elements do not have to be literary repeated
46

but parallelism is always better perceived when it is based on some element of the
structure which is repeated literary.
He talked of war, he talked of death and destruction, he told of all the ugly
things he came across.
1) complete parallelism (balance) is full copying of syntactical structures
The warm Sun is failing
The bleak wind is wailing
The bare boughs are sighing
The pale flowers are dying. (Shelly)
2) partial parallelism unlike balance is the coincidence of successive
structures in their perhaps important parts
I stared incredulously,
I gave an articulate cry.
I gripped his arm.
Antithesis is often used in parallel constructions which is done with the aim
of bringing forth both similarity and difference in the compared objects.
It was not like the beginning of a journey, it was like the beginning of a
dream.
Parallel constructions often employ syntactical repetition. Sometimes
combined with climax or anticlimax.
Chiasmus. From the Greek letter X [chi] meaning a cross. Chiasmus is also
named reversed parallelism and is in fact an example of parallel constructions in
which the word order of the first unit be at sentence or word combination is
inverted in the second one.
He said that with a smile that was like a frown, and with a frown that was
like a smile.
Polished in courts and hardened in the field, renowned for conquest and in
council skilled.
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Apochoinu. From Greek apo – from, choinu – general. This is a blend of


two clauses in which one utterance performs two syntactical functions at a time,
for example, the predicate or the object of the first clause simultaneously serves as
the subject of the second one. Most widely this construction which is known to be
typically English was used in the Old English and Middle English. In modern
English it usually testifies to careless or highly colloquial speech of uneducated
people.
Give me a moment. It is my hand resists, my flash shrinks back from the
accursed thing. (Stivenson)
There are lots of vulgar people live in Grosvenor Square.

Lecture 3.2 Suspense. Rhetorical Question. Suspense. Rhetorical Question.


Repetitions. Tautological Subject. Climax. Anticlimax. Antithesis

Suspense. This is a deliberate postponing of the completion of the principal


thought until the end of a lengthy utterance. Sentences with suspense are called
periods. One period may exceed one sentence and cover a paragraph or even a
number of paragraphs in fiction.
Suspense shows a state of uncertainty and on the readers’ part expectations
as to what the possible conclusion may be. This way it produces a certain
psychological effect. Suspense is often used in oratorical speech. Sometimes the
succession of inserted phrases, clauses, words is all aimed at preparing the listener
for the only possible logical outcome of the above arguments.
Examples of suspense are rather lengthy hence difficult to be shown in the
lecture. Hemingway is the master of suspense.
Rhetorical question. This is known to be a statement in the form of a
question requiring no answer. The origin of rhetorical questions should be
sought/traced back to public speeches which were made in ancient times.
Rhetorical question are this days widely used in different styles of speech.
48

Rhetorical question have to awaken a certain reaction, at least inner


psychological reaction of the reader or listener, yet answered such questions are
usually by the speaker or writer, they may be of different emotional colouring.
His mood underwent a complete revulsion. What had he expected?
Forgiveness, in the best fictional tradition? Condemnation? (Croning)
By form such questions may also be imaginative.
Have I no reason to lament
What man has made of man (Wordsworth)
As said rhetorical questions are characteristic of the publicistic style and
spoken language in general. They may open important speeches to make the
audience think and tune them on the basic topic.
Due to frequent usage some of them have become traditional clichés.
Why not?
Really?
What’s the hell?
The affirmative essence of the rhetorical question is reflected in the fact that
the question mark at its end is often replaced by the exclamation mark or even
sometimes a full stop.

Repetitions. Repeated in a sentence may be a single word without any


grammatical changes of its form or a root in a number of words, or a word
combination or a certain syntactical pattern, a phrase. Important is that repeated
elements should be placed close enough within one utterance, so that the device is
clearly perceived. There are definite limits as to the distance between the repeated
elements. When such elements stay close together and do not permit any
intermediaries, the device is named contact repetition. On the other hand, the
distance between the repeated elements may become as long as one paragraph. In
this case, the device is named distant repetition.
49

Depending on the position of the repeated element within the utterance,


different types of repetition can be singled out:
1. Anaphora (from Greek meaning carrying back) – reiteration of the initial
parts of the successive clauses.
To think on death, it is a misery.
To think on life, it is a vanity.
To think on the world, verily it is.
To think that here man hath no perfect bliss.
2. Epiphora, or epistropha – repetition of the final element.
I wake up and I’m alone,
Walk round valley and I’m alone again.
And I talk with people and I’m alone.
While anaphorical repetition is usually associated with some optimistic
mood and feelings, epiphora hints on the pessimistic absence of any way out. This
is the psychological basis of traditional use of these kinds of repetition.
3. Anadiplosis (стык) – the repetition of the last element which starts the
next clause.
For I have loved long, I crave reward,
Reward me not unkindly, think of kindness,
Kindness becometh those of high regard,
Regard with clemency a poor man’s blindness.
The above example is a succession of anadiplosis cases, which is chain
repetition.
4. Framing or ring repetition is reiteration of the initial element at the very
end of the utterance.
He ran away from the battle. He was an ordinary human being, who didn’t
want to kill or be killed. So he ran away from the battle.
5. Synonymical repetition also named amplification or repetition of senses.
Here senses concluded in different word shapes are repeated.
50

I was in trouble.
I was ruined.
I was frustrated.
Important is that the repeated elements shouldn’t demonstrate gradation,
which will turn them into climax, but be piled up seemingly chaotically.
Another feature of amplification is that it employs contextual synonyms or
turns words into such within a definite context. Synonymical repetition is
sometimes named tautology or pleonasmus, which are negatively evaluated by
stylists and recommended for avoidance.
6. Morphological repetition, as said above, repeated may be some points of
words, like suffixes, prefixes and other morphemes less important than roots.
It was always wailing and laughing, sobbing and groaning and over and
again it shouted.

Tautological subject. This is a regular repetition of the subject of the


sentence expressed by a noun in the form of a pronoun.
Little miss Muffet, she set on a tuffet.
This kind of structures is peculiar to the speech of uneducated people and
mostly found in direct speech as a device of speech characteristic.
Repetition used for the sake of logical and emotional emphasis shouldn’t be
confused with classical pleonasmus (from Greek redundancy).
Pleonasmus is an overfullness of words due to the fault of style. It discloses
the author’s or character’s inability to express an idea clearly, precisely, shortly.
Pleonasmus is rarely used on purpose with an exception of those cases which
characterize personages through their speech.
Doolittle: I’ll tell you, governor, if you only let me get a word in. I’m willing
to tell you. I’m wanting to tell you. I’m waiting to tell you.
51

Climax. From Greek ladder, gradation. This is a syntactical structure in


which every successive unit is stronger either semantically or emotionally or both
than the preceding one. There are three main types of climax:
1. Logical climax in which every next concept is logically more
important than the previous one.
A hundred diseases, all the fevers and contagions of human life,
consumptions, cancers, tumors and such morbidities never enter the scheme of
their life.
2. Emotional climax is a chain of synonyms often only contextual, with
emotive meanings gradually increasing the tension of the utterance.
In their consequence these events have terrified, tortured, destroyed me.
3. Quantitative climax is an increase in the volume, size, number of each
next concept.
They looked at hundreds of houses, they climbed thousands of stairs, they
inspected innumerable kitchens.
Anticlimax. This is representation of a set of notions arranged in an
ascending scale of significance, but suddenly broken at the highest point as
something opposite to what was expected. Anticlimax is often used as a humorous
means, a kind of logical paradox.
Early to rise, early to bed makes a man healthy, wealthy and dead.
Antithesis. From Greek opposition. It’s an opposition of two ideas, often
uses antonymy and is aimed at emphasizing the difference in the nature of the
things described.
Too brief for our passion,
Too long for our piece
Were these hours—
Can their joy and their bitterness cease? (Byron)
Antithetic constructions often use parallelisms together with other syntactic
devices (see the rhetorical question in the above example). Antithesis may perform
52

different stylistic functions, it may compare things by opposing them to each other.
Meanwhile it may show the actual inner unity of those things by juxtaposing
different phenomena antithesis shows them as incomparable yet belonging to the
same semantic field.
He is a man like myself. Indeed, there’s but this difference between us – that
he wears fine clothes, while I go in rags, and that while I’m weak from hunger, he
suffers not a little from overfeeding.
Antithesis often creates rhythm.

Lecture 3.3 Stylistic Means of Combining Parts of the Utterance:


Asyndeton, Polysyndeton, Cumulation. Represented Speech. Inner
Monologue. The Stream of Consciousness

Asyndeton. From Greek a- meaning not, syndetos meaning connected. It is


a deliberate omission of syntactical connective elements with the pauses between
the connected parts of the utterance.
The night sprang to flickering daylight, the Earth trembled with a shock, the
air roared and screamed with death and heroe. (Oldington, “Death of a Heroe”)
Asyndeton creates a certain rhythm and balance of the utterance. It
determines a definite intonational pattern of speech.
Polysyndeton. From Greek poly meaning many. It is the connection of
sentences, clauses, phrases or words by means of the same repeated connective
element before each unit.
Polysyndeton may express:
1. The idea of uniformity of the notions described
And then there were books, and there was music, and she had found a
wonderful little dressmaker, and they were going abroad in the summer, and their
new cook made superb omelets.
2. Simultaneousness of a number of notions
53

And in the sky the stars are met,


And on the wave is deeper blue,
And on the leaf a browner hew,
And in the heaven that clear obscure… (Byron)
3. Sequence of actions
The tent is soaked and heavy, and it flops about, and tumbles down on you,
and clings round your head, and makes you mad.
The repetition of conjunctions always creates rhythm and is especially
resorted to in poetry.
Cumulation. From Latin cumulare meaning heap up. This is a particular
type of combining seemingly independent statements, this independence being
both grammatical and semantical. Cumulation still shows superlinear ties between
such statements.
I had turned my face to look at Caver and thrust out my hand in front of me
as I did so. And my hand met nothing, plunged suddenly into a bottomless hole. (H.
Wells)
Cumulation as in the above case, often expresses surprise and
unexpectedness. It may use conjunctions, different connectives. Cumulation is
more characteristic of a spoken language. It is natural in conversations.

Represented speech. This is a stylistic device in which the features of both


direct and indirect speech are combined. Like in direct speech the statements here
are syntactically independent. Like in indirect speech the third person is usually
used here and the rule of sequence of tenses observed.
Represented speech may be of two types:
o uttered
o inner
54

Represented uttered speech shows a shift from the author’s narrative to the
character’s utterance.
Angela, who was talking in every detail of Eugene’s old friend, replied in
what seemed an affected tone that no, she wasn’t used to studio life: she was just
from the country, you know – a regular farmergirl – Blackwood, Wisconsin, no
less. (T. Driser)
Represented Inner Speech usually renders the character’s inner thoughts and
ideas. This type is more often used by writers. It discloses the inner work of human
mind. It produces a greater impact upon the reader as it seems to objectively
convey the psychological state of the character, his feelings and emotions and it
shows the events through the character’s perception.
- Ms. Fleur is walking up, sir. – Walking all those miles? Walking up! And
that fellow's grin! The boy! He turned abruptly from the window. He couldn’t spy
on her. (“The Forsyte Saga”, John Galsworthy).)

Inner monologue shows no elements of author’s speech. Sometimes all the


narration is written down in the form of a monologue. Such stories are written in
the first person as if the author and protagonist was one and the same person.

The Stream of Consciousness Method. This method appeared in the early


20th century in England and America and is represented by “Ulysses” (J. Joyce),
some works by H. James, V. Wolf, W. Folkner, etc.
The method itself is based on the conception of the prevalence of the
subconscious in the human mind, on the philosophy and practice of
psychoanalysis.
o long paragraphs
o absence of punctuation marks
o syncretic (combines different levels)
55

In Russian literature: Валерия Нарбикова, Саша Соколов, etc.

Literature
1. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. – Moscow, 1991.
2. Skrebnev Yu.M. Fundamentals of English Stylistics. – Moscow, 1994.
3. Enkvist, N.E. Linguistic Stylistics. – The Hague, 1973.
4. Esser, J. English Linguistic Stylistics. – Tübingen, 1993.
5. Wales, K. A Dictionary of Stylistics. – London, 1990.
6. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика современного английского языка
(Стилистика декодирования). – М., 1990.
7. Балли Ш. Французская стилистика. – М., 1961.
8. Стилистический энциклопедический словарь русского языка / Под ред.
М.Н. Кожиной. – М., 2003.
9. Москвин В.П. Выразительные средства современной русской речи:
тропы и фигуры. Терминологический словарь-справочник. М., 2004.

Progress Check on Module III.


To pass this progress check, the student has to give answers to 10 questions.
Each correct answer shall be evaluated in 10 points. The total of all correct
answers shall then make 100 points.
Questions:
1. What is the principal difference between figures of thought and figures of
speech?
2. Why is inversion more stylistically relevant in English that it is in
Russian?
3. What are the reasons of use of detachment in speech?
4. What is the principal difference between ellipsis and aposiopesis?
5. What types of syntactical parallelism can you name?
6. What types of repetition can you name?
56

7. What is the principal difference between climax and anticlimax?


8. What is the principal difference between asyndeton and polysyndeton?
9. What types of represented speech can you name?
10. Where can we come across inner monologues?

Topics for Essays


1. Stylistic Figures of Syntactical Replacement
2. The Semantic Value of the Stylistically Elliptiсised Episode
3. The Semantic Value of the Stylistically Detached Episode
4. The Semantic Value of the Stylistically Repeated Episode
5. The Newest Syntactical Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices

Topics for Independent Individual Work


1. The stylistic element in the works on syntax
2. Style and syntax in various types of speech
3. The notion of expressive syntax
4. Expressive syntax in Modern English, Modern Russian and other modern
European languages

Module IV. Phonetic Expressive Means and Stylistic Devices


Lecture 4.1 Euphony. Alliteration. Assonance. Onomatopoeia. Onomatopoeia.
Metre. Rhythm. Rhyme

Euphony. From Greek eu- meaning well and phone meaning sound. This is
a special sound organisation of speech, capable of producing a pleasing acoustic
effects. Euphony is achieved by alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia, rhythm,
rhyme.
57

Alliteration. From Greek all meaning two and litera meaning letter. This is
a repetition of the same consonant sound at the beginning of successive words or
accented syllables. Alliteration is deeply rooted in the tradition of English folklore.
It may be found in folk songs, proverbs, traditional pairs of words.
safe and sound, live and learn
It may be used to imitate the sounds of nature or to create an emphatic
effect.
There are 12 months in all the year,
As I hear many men say.
But the merriest month in all the year
Is the merry month of May.
Alliteration is traditionally used in poetry, headlines, slogans, titles of books.
“Pride and Prejudice”, work of wages - slogan, the school of scandal
(Sheridan)

Assonance. From Latin assonere meaning to respond. This is a repetition of


vowels often connected with rhyme and rhythm.

Onomatopoeia. From Greek making. This is the use of sound-imitating


words.
There are two variants of it:
o direct (buzz, bang, drip, hiss, clap)
o indirect (by means of repeated sounds which imitate some natural
phenomena)
Snow is so snowy when it’s snowing. I’m sorry it’s slushy when it’s going.
(American poet Nash)
58

Rhythm. Rhythm is a regular alternation of similar or equal units of speech.


When applied to poetry it means the alteration of accented and unaccented
syllables. When applied to prose, it means a measured flow of words and phrases.
In poetry the notion of rhythm is closely connected with verse and metre.
Verse is the form of literary composition in which rhythms are rendered
regularly and systematically

Metre. From Greek metron meaning measure. In English verse it is a


systematization of rhythm determined by the relationship between accented and
unaccented syllables. The smallest unit of metre is called the foot. In English
poetry there are five basic meters, two disyllabic and three trisyllabic.
Disyllabic feet:
o iambus -/
o trochee /-
Trisyllabic feet:
o dactyl /--
o anapaest --/
o amphibrach -/-

Rhyme. Rhyme is a characteristic feature of only poetry. Rhyme is the


repetition of identical final sounds of words.
Alliteration and assonance, especially when combined together, may also be
regarded as types of rhyme. But, strictly speaking, the notion of rhyme may only
be applied to the endings.
There are three basic functions of rhyme in poetry:
1) rhythmical, as rhyme is marking the ends of each line, the latter being
regular periods in poetry
2) mnemonic (relation to memory), to remember better
59

3) showing the hidden connection (sometimes based on contrast,


sometimes on affinity of the notions falling under the rhymed words rather denoted
by the rhymed words)
There are two main types of rhyme with regard to similarity of the terminal
sounds:
1) full rhymes, where we have the likeness of both vowels (arms –
harms)
2) imperfect rhymes:
a) vowel rhyme shows identity of vowels but difference of the preceding
consonants (peach – reach, bread – creed)
b) consonant rhyme shows similarity of consonants upon the background of
different vowels (fir – four, turn – tone) *most common for West European verses
c) ‘eye’ rhyme shows the identity of spelling without likeness in
pronunciation (brood – flood, scarf – wharf, hay – quay) *this is specifically
English
According to their structure rhymes can be masculine (single), feminine
(double) and dactylic (triple).
Masculine rhyme is an agreement in sound of one final accented syllable
(surmount – discount).
Feminine rhyme is the same agreement of two final syllables with the first
one being accented (delightful – brightful, ashes – flashes).
Dactylic rhyme is coincidence in the sounds of the last three syllables with
the first one accented (regretfully – forgetfully).
Rhymes in verses may be organized in different schemes:
1) couplet rhymes (a – a), when two neighboring rhymes are bound
together with same rhyme
Shed to tear! Oh, shed to tear!
The flower will bloom another year. (Kits)
2) crossed rhyme (a – b – a – b)
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3) framing, ring rhyme (a – b –b – a)


4) inner rhyme which breaks by itself a longer line in verse into a
number of shorter rhymed periods
The chill rain is falling, the night warm crawling,
The rivers are swelling, the thunder is knelling. (Shelly)
Literature
1. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. – Moscow, 1991.
2. Skrebnev Yu.M. Fundamentals of English Stylistics. – Moscow, 1994.
3. Enkvist, N.E. Linguistic Stylistics. – The Hague, 1973.
4. Esser, J. English Linguistic Stylistics. – Tübingen, 1993.
5. Wales, K. A Dictionary of Stylistics. – London, 1990.
6. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика современного английского языка
(Стилистика декодирования). – М., 1990.
7. Балли Ш. Французская стилистика. – М., 1961.
8. Стилистический энциклопедический словарь русского языка / Под ред.
М.Н. Кожиной. – М., 2003.
9. Москвин В.П. Выразительные средства современной русской речи:
тропы и фигуры. Терминологический словарь-справочник. М., 2004.

Progress Check on Module IV.


To pass this progress check, the student has to give answers to 5 questions.
Each correct answer shall be evaluated in 20 points. The total of all correct
answers shall then make 100 points.
Questions:
1. What does the notion of euphony include?
2. What is the principal difference between alliteration and assonance?
3. Can you characterize all types of rhythm in English verse?
4. Can you characterize all types of rhyme in English verse?
5. What is the stylistic value of onomatopoea?
61

Topics for Essays


1. Phonetics, Graphics and Style
2. Euphony, Rhythm and Rhyme as Style-Forming Devices
Topics for Individual Independent Work
1. A typical phono-stylistic analysis of a (poetical) utterance
2. A typical grapho-stylistic analysis of a (poetical) utterance

Module V. Functional Styles of the English Language


Lecture 5.1 The Notion of a Functional Style. Scientific Prose Style. The Style
of Official Documents
It is a well established and commonly accepted fact that one and the same
idea can be expressed differently from the viewpoint of the language means
employed. This means that words may differ not only in their stylistic reference
but also in the sphere or situation of their application. Thus, we here come to
another use of the term style, which is viewed this time from the purely functional
standpoint.
Functional styles are historically developed and evidently distinct functional
variants of the bookish literary language, whose peculiarities are determined by the
needs of communication in this or that human activity. A functional style can be
defined as a viable system of expressive means and definite vocabulary, which
both serve the definite aim of communication.
The English bookish literary language comprises the following functional
styles, five in number:
1. the scientific prose style
2. the style of official documents
3. the publicistic style
4. the newspaper style
5. the belles-lettres style
62

Though each style presents a separate system, they all in general frequently
interact and overlap each other. Certain words and grammatical forms peculiar to a
given style may suddenly occur in another one. For example, terms in a scientific
work are supposed to be used in their primary logical meaning, but when used in
fiction their function becomes different, that is indirect, emotive, and they are used
to characterize a person, place, scene, etc. Some styles stand especially close to
each other, like, for example, the publicistic and newspaper styles, because the
latter bodied from the former. The style of official documents is considered to be
the most isolated one in the English language. Meanwhile, the belles-lettres style
may permit some elements from all the rest of styles for the sake of objectivity,
parody, comic effect, satire, etc.
We shouldn’t consider the above classification to be final because some
scholars do not separate between publicistic and belles-lettres style, but at the same
time point out one other style which is colloquial.
However, colloquial is not regarded as a separate style in our course,
because it stands beyond the boundaries of the bookish literary language. Anyway,
the problem of functional styles has not yet been solved in modern linguistics.

Scientific Prose Style


From the lexical point of view, the most conspicuous feature here is the
obligatory use of terms, specific for this or that branch of science. Naturally, a
purely scientific utterance also includes words of the general vocabulary, but
always in their direct logical meaning. This tendency is stipulated by the
requirement to avoid any ambiguity in both expression and perception of the
utterance. Scientific prose is characterized by a complete absence of dialectal
words. We may find here selective usage of personal pronouns (first person plural
is preferred to first person singular and second person is hardly ever used).
In syntax scientific prose is governed by logical reasoning, hence
characterized by a strictly logical sequence of sentences and clauses and
63

consequently by a developed system of connective elements such as so, thus,


hence, therefore, firstly, secondly, etc. Impersonal passive constructions are
considered more appropriate in the scientific style because it tends to be absolutely
objective, precise, devoid of any individuality. It aims at the most generalized form
of expression. Common are such structures as: it should be noted that, it is
commonly recognized that, it is common knowledge that, it should be pointed out,
it has to be assumed, to summarize briefly, as indicated above, etc.
The other peculiarities of scientific prose are: the use of quotations provided
with references, the use of footnotes which conclude the ideas not directly
associated with those in question but helping to reason them.
A scientific book, paper, collection of works, lecture may be intended not
only for specialists in the given field, but also for a larger audience, which is little
if at all acquainted with a subject. In such a case the result is popular scientific
paper aimed at popularizing scientific knowledge.

The Style of Official Documents


This one can be divided into the following sub-styles. These are:
1. business documents,
2. legal documents,
3. diplomacy,
4. military pacts and treaties.
The predominant function of this style is communicative and it lies in
expressing certain relations between governments, parties, the state and the
citizens, etc.
Official documents of the above types can assume various forms: they may
be official statements, pacts, charters, treaties, business correspondence, military
orders, instructions, minutes of proceedings, etc. In the first place, just like in
scientific prose, all words here should be used here in their direct logical meaning.
The language of official documents abounds in clichés, terms and set expressions
64

which prove to be stable and permanent, for example: the above-said, the above-
mentioned, in accordance with, on behalf of, in every respect, etc.
Archaic forms may also be met, like thereof, hereby, herewith, therefrom.
Each sub-style is recognized by its own terminology, standard language
formulae, fossilized expressions. Besides, the variants of official style are
characterized by their compositional patterns because every official document has
its own form, design, which is always suggestive of the information contained.
Thus, business letters typically begin with the name and address of the sender and
the date of the letter which is followed by the name and address of the addressee.
Treaties, charters, pacts being documents of considerable size still may
consist of two, three or even one sentence, organized into well developed
paragraphs or infinitival, gerundial, participial constructions.
Graphically each paragraph may begin with small letter. The paragraphs
then should be separated by semi-columns. Widely used are italics, bold type and
capital lettering. The paragraphs can be combined together asyndetically.
One more characteristic feature of this style is the use of abbreviations,
shortening, conventional symbols, schemes, diagrams and other illustrations.

Lecture 5.2 Publicistic Style. The Style of Newspapers. Belle-Lettre


Publicistic Functional Style
This style became recognised as a separate one in the middle of the 18 th
century. It has three distinct sub-styles, each characterised by its own peculiar
features. They are:
1) oratorical style
2) the style of essays
3) the style of articles
Publicistic style exists in two forms, written and oral. Essays and articles
naturally belong to the former: speeches, oratories, radio and TV commentaries are
traditionally shaped in an oral form.
65

a. Oratories and Speeches


The principal aim here is to inform and persuade the audience, to evoke a
desired reaction on its part, to stimulate the listeners to some activity.
Being in oral representation it retains some peculiarities of standard oral
speech such as direct address to the audience, use of contractions like I’ll, don’t,
you’ve, etc., use of imperative mood, use of colloquialisms and second person of
pronouns, etc.
Besides, pronunciation, intonation, speaker’s appearance, gestures, mimics
are of considerable importance.
Speech and orations are delivered as monologues. Their vocabulary
comprises a lot of literary, bookish words and the syntactical structure is logically
ordered and paragraphed. Such structures are combined by subordinate and
coordinative connectives.
To make the speech more comprehensible, emphatic, emotive the orator
often uses repetitions of various kinds: anaphorical with parallel constructions,
word and phrase repetitions, synonymical groups, etc. In fact, repetition proves to
be one of the most typical syntactical stylistic devices in oratorical sub-style.
General balance and rhythm of the utterance help the listeners remember the
major idea or ideas of the speech.
b. Essays
An essay is a limited prose composition on some definite, perhaps scientific
or political or legal or economic or literary topic.
As a separate literary genre it came into being as early as in the 16 th century
(*all the dates are given in regard as to the English language). But most popular
they became in the 18th century when essays was the principle literary genre
dealing with political and social problems of the then England. Beginning with the
19th century it gradually turned into a genre of newspaper articles conveying
different subjects from politics to sports.
66

An essay is not supposed to treat a problem thoroughly. It is rather an


expression of the author’s personal approach to the problem discussed. Thus this
sub-style mostly depends on the writer’s individuality.
c. Articles
The aim of a newspaper or magazine article is to interpret news, give
comments on political, cultural, economic events of the day or to explain and
convince the reader on something. The singleness of purpose determines the
existence of a number of common principles characteristic for both this latter sub-
styles and the newspaper functional style.

Newspaper Style
English newspaper dates back to the 17 th century as the first English
newspaper named “The News of the Present Week” appeared in 1622.
Newspaper deals with newspaper printed matter but not everything printed
in newspapers automatically belongs to this style.
The main communicative aim here is to impart information. This is achieved
by brief news items and communiqués, reports, articles, advertisements,
announcements, obituaries, etc.
Though most of the vocabulary used in newspapers is neutral and common
literary so that it could be understood by the majority of reader or by the target
readers, there are some peculiarities in this respect.
Newspaper language is characterised by a rather ample use of economic and
political terms as well as abstract words. Newspaper clichés and phraseology are
often employed here.
Conciseness of forms and expressiveness being the major objectives of this
style demand a great number of abbreviations, which can denote people’s posts,
sometimes geograohical names, famous political figures, writers, etc:
Qbc – Quebec, JFK – John F. Kennedy, JC – Jesus Christ, GBS – George
Bernard Shaw
67

Clipped forms are also characteristic:


H-bomb, Lib – Liberal party
As any newspaper is sensitive to everything new, neologisms frequently first
come into being on its pages.
The basic peculiarities of the newspaper style can also be found in its
syntactical structure. The syntax here may be complicated as the whole contents is
sometimes conveyed in one or two sentences.
Among the most striking peculiarities is an extremely wide range of the
headline patterns. The language of newspaper headlines has many times been the
subject of a thorough scrutiny for linguists.
Here we may come across ellipsis, chiasmus, interrogation, rhetorical
questions. Unusual are the semantic (functional) links between the headlines and
the article text.
Of special importance is the graphical organisation of lines and letters in a
headline. Punctuation marks, especially dash, are widely used. The language of
this style presents a combination of different vocabulary strata. It’s extremely rich
in stylistic means, both lexical and syntactical.

Belles-lettres Style
This style has three subdivisions or sub-styles:
1) style of poetry
2) style of emotive prose
3) style of drama
The function of belles-lettres style is twofold:
a) to inform and communicate facts and ideas to the reader
b) to affect the reader emotionally
As regard to the poetry the order should be reverse.
All the three sub-styles have quite a number of common features. But in
spite of that each has individual characteristics as well.
68

The element of emotion is definitely higher in poetry where the author


reveals his feelings directly. Unlike poetry the number of colloquial elements will
be larger in drama where the oral type of language is widely employed since the
form of plays is basically that of dialogs.
While observing this last feature one should also bear in mind that the
functional styles not infrequently interact with one another and with colloquial
speech on the other hand.
Emotive prose may amply use the elements from other functional styles,
those of official documentation, scientific prose, publicistic speeches and
newspapers. As far as colloquial speech is concerned, it remains an integral
component of the belles-lettres style. It’s naturally used in plays, dialogues of
stories, novels. Elements of colloquial speech, when used in fiction, help portray a
character through his speech, but such elements are hardly possible in the author’s
narrative proper.

Literature
1. Galperin I.R. Stylistics. – Moscow, 1991.
2. Skrebnev Yu.M. Fundamentals of English Stylistics. – Moscow, 1994.
3. Enkvist, N.E. Linguistic Stylistics. – The Hague, 1973.
4. Esser, J. English Linguistic Stylistics. – Tübingen, 1993.
5. Wales, K. A Dictionary of Stylistics. – London, 1990.
6. Арнольд И.В. Стилистика современного английского языка
(Стилистика декодирования). – М., 1990.
7. Балли Ш. Французская стилистика. – М., 1961.
8. Стилистический энциклопедический словарь русского языка / Под ред.
М.Н. Кожиной. – М., 2003.

Progress Check on Module V.


69

To pass this progress check, the student has to give answers to 10 questions.
Each correct answer shall be evaluated in 10 points. The total of all correct
answers shall then make 100 points.
Questions:
1. Can you give the general notion of a functional style?
2. Can you name the principal formal features of the scientific prose style?
3. Can you give the sub-styles within the scientific prose style?
4. Can you name the principal formal features of the style of official
documents?
5. Can you give the sub-styles within the style of official documents?
6. Can you name the principal formal features of the publicistic style?
7. Can you give the sub-styles within the publicistic style?
8. Can you name the principal formal features of the newspaper style?
9. Can you give the sub-styles within the newspaper style?
10. What are the principal formal features of the belle-lettres style?

Topics for Essays


1. Classification Of Functional Styles: A Comparative Study
2. Mixture Of Styles And Its Effects
3. Distinctive Linguistic Features of Functional Styles

Topics for Individual Independent Work


1. Phraseology in style formation
2. Lexicon in style formation
3. Graphics in style formation
4. Syntax in style formation