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И.С.

Ивянская

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ
язык
для
АРХИТЕКТОРОВ
УЧЕБНИК
Издание второе, переработанное и дополненное

Д опущ ено УМ О по образованию


в области архитектуры в качестве учебного пособия
для студентов вузов обучающихся по направлению
«Архитектура»

Электронно* Соответствует
Федеральному государственному
образовательному стандарту
3-го поколения
zn a n iu m .co m

М ОСК ВА
КУРС
ИНФРА-М
2014
УДК 802.0 ФЗ Издание не подлежит маркировке
ББК 81.2 № 436-ф3 в соответствии с п. 1 ч. 1 ст. 11

И17

Ивянская И.С.
И17 Английский язык для архитекторов: учебник / И.С. Ивянская. —
2-е изд., перераб. и доп. — М .: КУРС : ИНФРА-М, 2014. — 400 с. —
DOI 10.12737/989 (www.doi.oig).
ISBN 978-5-905554-38-4 (КУРС, print)
ISBN 978-5-16-009139-6 (ИНФРА-М, print)
ISBN 978-5-16-100089-2 (online)
Учебник разработан в соответствии с программой по иностранному
языку для неязыковых вузов.
Учебник состоит из девяти тематических разделов и включает много
пояснительных иллюстраций и упражнений. В приложении находятся
дополнительные тексты, грамматический справочник и словари по те­
матике «Архитектура» и «Градостроительство».
Учебник предназначен для студентов высших учебных заведений, за­
нимающихся подготовкой бакалавров и магистров по направлениям
«Архитектура» и «Градостроительство». Он может быть использован для
самостоятельного усовершенствования уровня знаний в профессиональ­
ной сфере и может быть полезен для архитекторов и строителей и всех,
интересующихся архитектурой.

УДК 802.0
ББК 81.2

ISBN 978-5-905554-38-4 (КУРС, print)


ISBN 978-5-16-009139-6 (ИНФРА-М, print)
ISBN 978-5-16-100089-2 (online) О КУРС, 2014
ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Учебник предназначен для обучения студентов английскому языку по специальности «Архитектура». Цель
учебника научить студентов читать и понимать литературу, переводить нужные материалы и обсуждать темы по
специальности. Учебник включает много иллюстраций. Он состоит из девяти тематических разделов:
0 — Архитектурное образование (вступительный раздел).
1 — Москва (история Москвы и памятники московской архитектуры, включая современные).
2 — Лондон (история Лондона и памятники лондонской архитектуры, включая современные).
3 — Строительные материалы, конструкции, части зданий.
4 — Архитектура древнего мира (Греции и Рима).
5 — Европейские стили.
6 — Факторы, влияющие на архитектуру, типы зданий, типы жилых зданий, типы городов.
7 — Творчество знаменитых зарубежных и русских архитекторов (Баженов, Казаков, Жолтовский,
Щусев, Райт, Корбюзье, Фостер).
8 — Ландшафтная архитектура, экологичная архитектура, энергосберегающая архитектура.
Каждый тематический раздел включает тексты для изучающего и просмотрового чтения, предтек-
стовые и послетекстовые упражнения для обучения пониманию текста, составлению резюме, извлечению
информации, лексические и грамматические упражнения, продуктивный и рецептивный словарь к
текстам. Обычно текст А предназначен для ознакомительного чтения, В — для изучающего. В случае
необходимости к тексту даются примечания.
Учебник также включает следующие разделы: UNIT IX (дополнительные тексты к каждому предыдущему
разделу), UN IT X (тексты по темам студенческих проектов), краткий грамматический справочник, алфавитный
англо-русский словарь, алфавитный русско-английский словарь, тематические словари англо-русские
(thematic English-Russian vocabulary (housing), Greek architectural terms, Gothic architectural terms) и рус­
ско-английские (алфавитный русско-английский словарь (жилье), алфавитный русско-английский
словарь русских архитектурных терминов). Наличие словарей поможет вести беседу и делать сообщения
на нужную архитектурную тему. Тексты по темам студенческих проектов включают материал на английском
и русском языке, вопросы на английском языке, позволяющие описать свой проект.
Список слов с транскрипцией для продуктивного и рецептивного усвоения дается после каждого
текста, а в конце пособия общий список слов. Слова в текстах первого раздела приводятся в порядке их
употребления в тексте и в случае необходимости с примерами. В последующих разделах — в алфавитном
порядке к тексту. В случае нестандартного образования грамматических форм, они указываются. В при­
ложении дается таблица наиболее употребительных в архитектурных текстах нестандартных глаголов.
Грамматический справочник охватывает как продуктивную грамматику, так и рецептивную, необ­
ходимую для понимания архитектурных текстов. Даются правила перевода сложных случаев. В упраж­
нениях в разделах указывается нужный параграф грамматического справочника — цифра или две с точкой,
стоящие после знака §, означают номер главы справочника, следующие цифры, разделенные запятыми —
номера параграфов, например, Грам. справ. § 3. 3,4, 5 означает Глава 3, параграфы 3 ,4 и 5, а Грам. справ.
§ 8. 6. 2 — Глава 8, параграф 6, Continuous.
В алфавитном англо-русском словаре римской цифрой обозначается раздел, арабской — номер зада­
ния, буквами А, В и др. конкретный текст, в котором слово встречается в первый раз и поэтому было
вставлено в список слов данного раздела. Для текстов, предназначенных для письменного перевода со
словарем, лексика не дается (за исключением слов, которые студент может не найти в обычном словаре),
т.к. студенты должны научиться работе с обычным словарем.
В словаре жирным шрифтом выделены слова для продуктивного использования, простым — для узнава­
ния в тексте, без указания номера раздела и текста — слова школьной лексики или один раз встречающиеся в
пособии для облегчения понимания текста. Add — слова из дополнительного списка, необходимые для обсу­
ждения темы. Цифра со скобкой «1)» означает часть речи, цифра с точкой «2.» — еще одно значение слова.
Учебник может быть использован не только студентами архитектурных институтов и факультетов,
но и всеми интересующимися архитектурой и желающими иметь возможность читать литературу в ори­
гинале и вести беседу на архитектурные темы.

Введение 3
С ПИ СО К СОКРАЩЕНИИ

а = adjective — прилагательное
A.D. = of our era ['югэ] — н.э.
A . М. = in the morning — (... часов) утра
add = additional — дополнительный
adv = adverb — наречие
attr = attribute — определение
B. C. ['bi:'si:] = before Christ [kraist] — до н.э.
с = circa ['s3:ka] — около (о дате)
cj = conjunction — союз
e.g. = for example — например esp = especially — особенно
etc. = et cetera [et'setra] — и т.д.
ft = foot, feet — фут
i.e. = that is, it means — т.е.
in = inch — дюйм
n = noun — существительное
ord. num. = ordinary numerical — порядковое числительное
P.M = in the afternoon — (... часов) дня
pref = prefix — приставка
pi — plural — множественное число
p.p. = past participle
prep — preposition — предлог
pron. indef. = pronoun indefinite — неопределенное местоимение
sing = singular — единственное число
v = verb — глагол
Грам. справ. — грамматический справочник
греч. — греческий
косв. — косвенный
миф. — мифологический
нем. — немецкий
п — падеж
преим. — перимущественно
тж. — также
фр. — французский

4 Список сокращений
UNIT О
ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION

Упражнение 1. Прочтите текст и ответьте на следующие вопросы:


I. Where are architects trained in Russia? 2. What is Ecole des Beaux Arts? 3. When was the first archi­
tectural department founded in Moscow? 4. When was the Moscow Architectural Institute founded?

ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION IN RUSSIA

In Russia architects are trained at many engineering institutes which have architectural faculties and at
some special architectural and artistic institutes. In foreign countries they are taught either at engineering or
artistic schools, e.g. Ecole des Beaux Arts* in Paris.
In 1866 an architectural department was founded at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and
Architecture*. In 1930 architectural faculties of a number of Moscow institutes were united, establishing
Higher Architectural and Building Institute (VASI)*. In 1933 it was renamed the Moscow Architectural
Institute.
ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Ecole des Beaux Arts — Экольде Боз Ар, Школа изящных искусств
2. Moscow School o f Painting, Sculpture and Architecture — Училище живописи, ваяния и зодчества
3. Higher Architectural and Building Institute (VASI) — Высший архитектурно-строительный инсти­
тут (ВАСИ)

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст и составьте его план.

MOSCOW ARCHITECTURAL INSTITUTE (STATE ACADEMY)

The Institute is situated in the centre of Moscow in Rozhdest-


venka Street. It is set back from the street with a fountain in front.
It seems to be a three-storey building, but in fact there are more
storeys. Looking at the facade we see that the wall is decorated
with portraits of famous architects and over the windows there are
triangular and segmental pediments.
Entering the Institute through a draft lobby the visitor sees a
vast entrance hall with cloakrooms and stairs leading up. On dif­
ferent floors there is an exhibition hall, assembly hall, rector’s and
prorectors’ offices, dean’s offices, classrooms, gymnasium, etc.
There are several faculties at the Institute: the Faculty of General Training (at which first and second
year students study), the Faculty o f Fundamentals in Architecture (third and the fourth year students) and
the Faculty of Specialization (the fifth and sixth year students).
Besides these faculties there is also an evening department (or faculty), post-graduate courses (aspiran-
tura), refresher or extension courses, and preliminary courses.
At the preliminary or preparatory courses those who want to enter the Institute prepare for the entrance
examinations.
The evening department was established in 1958. Students work in the day-time and study in the evening
or on Saturdays.
The Institute has a six years’ course. Students specialize in residential, civic and industrial buildings,
town planning, restoration of historic buildings, etc. The key subjects are principles of architectural design,

UNIT 0 • Architectural education 5


painting, artistic drawing, history of art and architecture, perspective and shadow projection. Students study
also one of foreign languages.
The academic year lasts from September to July consisting of two terms or semesters (the day department)
and of three trimesters (the evening department). At the end of each term or trimester students have to take
exams. Each year students spend some time on practice.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. At what Institute do you study? 2. Where is your Institute situated? 3. What can you say about its build­
ing, its facade? 4. What faculties are there at the Institute and at what faculty (department) do you study? 5.
What year student are you? 6. What subjects do you study? 7. What is your favourite subject? 8. What can you
say about the academic year? 9. Has the Institute a four years’ course? 10. Who is your dean (assistant dean)?
11. Where is your dean’s office situated? 12. Why did you decide to enter your Institute?

Упражнение 4. О пиш ите историю своего института, его располож ение и здание.

Упражнение 5. Расскажите о своем институте и об учебе в нем.

WORDS (ENGLISH-RUSSIAN)

academic /school/ year — учебный год


administrative [ad'm inistrativ] office — учебная часть
artistic drawing, free hand drawing — рисование, рисунок
assembly hall [a'sem bli ho:l] — актовый зал
assistant dean, vice-dean [,vais'di:n] — заместитель декана
auditorium [, 3:di'to:riam ] (pi тж. -ria) n — зрительный зал
basement fb eism an t] n — подвал
be in the (first) year, be a (first) year student — учиться на (первом) курсе
break [breik] n — перерыв
buffet ['bufei] n, refreshment-room n — буфет
building n — здание; civic ['sivik] building — гражданское здание, industrial [in'dAStrial] building —
промышленное здание, residential [,rez i'd en j(a)l] building — жилое здание
canteen [kaen'ti:n] n — столовая (в учебном заведении)
civic ['sivik] building — гражданское здание
classroom ['klarsrum ] n — аудитория (помещение)
cloakroom ['klaukram , -ru:m] n — гардероб
compulsory [kam'pAls(a)ri] a — обязательный
course [ko:s] n — 1. курс лекций, обучения; 2. pi курсы; post-graduate courses — аспирантура,
preliminary [pnT im m (a)ri] courses, preparatory [pri'paerat(a)ri] courses — подготовительные курсы,
refresher courses [rTfreJaka:siz], extension courses [ik'stenJ(a)nko:siz] — курс(ы) повыш ения квали­
фикации; курс(ы) усовершенствования, переподготовки
dean [di:n] n — декан (факультета); vice-dean [,vais'di:n], assistant dean — заместитель декана
dean’s office — деканат
department [di'partm ant] n — отделение, факультет; кафедра; evening department, evening faculty —
вечернее отделение, вечерний факультет
department, chair n — кафедра
design [di'zain] n — проект; решение; pregraduation design — преддипломный проект, sketch d e­
sign — клаузура, thesis [ ' 0 i:sis] (diploma) design — дипломный проект
draught [dra:ft] lobby — тамбур

6 Architectural education
drawing n — черчение, рисование, чертеж, рисунок; artistic drawing, free hand drawing — рисова­
ние, рисунок, engineering drawing, technical drawing — черчение, чертеж
engineering drawing, technical drawing — черчение, чертеж
enter ['enta] v —1. входить (в); 2 . поступать (в)
entrance examinations — вступительные экзамены
entrance hall ['entranshoil] — вестибюль
evening department — вечернее отделение, вечерний факультет
exam [ig'zaem] (in ...) — экзамен (по ...); take exams — сдавать экзамены, pass exams — сдать эк ­
замены, fail in the exam (in) — провалиться на экзамене
exhibition hall [,e k si'b ij( 9)n ho:l] — выставочный зал
extension courses [ik'stenJ(a)nko:siz] — курс(ы) повышения квалификации; курс(ы) усовершен­
ствования, переподготовки
faculty ['faek(s)lti] n — факультет; the Faculty of General Training — факультет общей подготовки,
the Faculty of Fundamentals in Architecture —факультет фундаментальной подготовки, the Faculty of
Specialization — факультет специальной подготовки
fail in the exam (in) — провалиться на экзамене
finish school — окончить школу
first-aid room — медпункт
free hand drawing, artistic drawing — рисование, рисунок
graduate programme — выпускающая кафедра
graduate ['graedjueit] from the Institute — окончить высшее учебное заведение
gymnasium [d 3im 'n eizi 9m] (pi -sia, -s [-z]) n — гимнастический зал
hall [ho:l] n — зал; assembly hall [a'sem bli ho:l] — актовый зал, entrance hall ['entronshoil] —
вестибюль; exhibition hall [/eksTbiJ(a)n ho:l] — выставочный зал
history o f architecture — история архитектуры
history o f art — история искусства
industrial [in'dAStrial] building — промышленное здание
key [ki:] a — ключевой, главный
laboratory [la'bDrotri] n — лаборатория
lavatory [Taev9t( 3)ri] n — уборная, туалет
lettering ['le t( 3)rirj] n — шрифт
library ['laibr(9)ri] n — библиотека
mark [ma:k] n — отметка
measured ['m e 39d] drawings — обмеры
office [ ofis] n — кабинет, офис; dean’s office — деканат
optional Г о р Д э)п э 1] a — необязательный; факультативный
painting n — живопись
pass exams — сдать экзамены
pedim ent ['p ed im an t] n — фронтон; triangular pedim ent — треугольный фронтон, segmental
pediment — лучковый фронтон
perspective and shadow projection [pa'spektiv and'Jaedau р г э ^ з е к Д э )п ] — начертательная гео­
метрия
post-graduate courses — аспирантура
practice ['praektis] n — практика
preexam, pretest [,p ri:'test] n — зачет
pregraduation design — преддипломный проект
preliminary [ р п ' 1н п т (э )п ] courses — подготовительные курсы
preparatory [pri'paer 9t( 9)ri] courses — подготовительные курсы
pretest [,p ri:'te st], preexam n — зачет
principal fp rin sa p l] a — главный

UNIT 0 • Architectural education 7


principles of architectural design — основы архитектурного проектирования
reading room — читальня
refresher courses [ri'freJV ko:siz], extension courses [ik'stenJ(a)n'ko:siz] — курс(ы) повыш ения
квалификации; курс(ы) усовершенствования, переподготовки
refreshment [ri'frejm ant] room — буфет
registration [,red 3i'streij(a )n ] office — канцелярия
residential [,re z i'd e n f( 9)l] building — жилое здание
restoration of historic buildings — реставрация исторических зданий
sculpture ['skAlptJb] n — скульптура, ваяние
sketch design — клаузура
spacial (spatial) ['speij(a)l] and three-dimensional composition — объемно-пространственная ком ­
позиция
specialize ['spejalaiz] v in — специализироваться в
staff [sta:f] room — комната преподавателей, кафедра (помещение)
sta ff office ['s ta :f,D fis ] — о т д е л к а д р о в
stairs n — лестница
student’s book, record book — зачетка
subject ['sAbd 3ikt] n — предмет; compulsory subject [kam 'pAls(a)ri 'sAbd 3ikt] — обязательный
предмет (обучения), key [ki:] subject — основной предмет, optional subject ['DpJ( 3)n 3l'sAbd 3ikt] —
факультативный предмет
take exams — сдавать экзамены
technical drawing, engineering drawing — черчение, чертеж
term [t3:m] n — семестр
the number of candidates for each vacancy — конкурс
thesis [ ' 0 i:sis] (diploma) design — дипломный проект
thrice [Grais] a year, three times a year — трижды, три раза в год
town planning — градостроительство
trimester [tr(a)i'm esta] n — триместр
twice [twais] a year, two times a year — дважды, два раза в год
vast [va:st] а — обширный, огромный
vice-dean [,vais'di:n], assistant dean — заместитель декана
wash v in, tint v — отмывать
workshop ['w 3:kjrip] — мастерская
year Цз:] n — год; курс (обучения); in the first year — на первом курсе

СЛОВАРЬ РУССКО-АНГЛИЙСКИЙ

актовый зал — assembly hall [a'sem bli ho:l]


аспирантура — post-graduate courses
аудитория (помещение) — classroom ['kla:srum ]
библиотека — library ['la ib r( 3)ri]
буфет — buffet ['bufei], refreshment [ri'fre/m an t] room
ваяние, скульптура — sculpture fskAlptJb]
вестибюль — entrance hall ['entransho:l]
вечернее отделение — evening department
вступительные экзамены — entrance examinations
входить (в) — enter fe n ta ]
выпускающая кафедра — graduate programme
выставочный зал — exhibition hall [/eksi,b ij(a)n ho:l]
гардероб — cloakroom ['klaukram , -ru:m]

8 Architectural education
гимнастический зал — gymnasium [d 3im 'n eizi 3m] (pi -sia, -s [-z])
градостроительство — town planning
гражданское здание — civic ['sivik] building
дважды, два раза в год — twice [twais] a year, two times a year
декан (факультета) — dean [di:n]; заместитель декана — vice-dean [,vais'di:n], assistant dean
деканат — dean’s office
дипломный проект — thesis [ ' 0 i:sis] (diploma) design
живопись — painting
жилое здание — residential [,rezi'd en f(a)l] building
зал — hall [ho:l]; актовый зал — assembly hall [a'sem bli ho:l]; выставочный зал — exhibition hall
[,ek si'bij(a)n ho:l]; зрительный зал — auditorium [,o:di'to:ri 3m] (pi тж. -ria)
заместитель декана — vice-dean [,vais'di:n], assistant dean
зачет — preexam, pretest [,p ri:'test]
зачетка — student’s book, record-book
здание — building; гражданское здание — civic ['sivik] building; жилое здание — resident tial
[,rezi'den/(3)l] building; промышленное здание — industrial [in'dAStrial] building
зрительный зал — auditorium [,o :d i't3 :m m ] (pi тж. -ria)
история архитектуры — history of architecture
история искусства — history of art
кабинет — office
канцелярия — registration [/red 3i'streij(a )n ] office
кафедра — 1. department, chair; 2 . (помещение, комната преподавателей) — staff [sta:f] room
клаузура — sketch design
конкурс (вступительный) — the number o f candidates for each vacancy
курс 1. (лекций, обучения) — course [ko:s]; 2 . pi курсы; подготовительные курсы — preliminary
[р п ' 1т з т ( э ) п ] courses, preparatory [рп 'раегэД э)п ] courses, курс(ы) повыш ения квалификации;
курс(ы) усовершенствования, переподготовки — refresher courses [гi' frеJ э ' ко:siz], extension courses
[ik'stenJ(a)n'ko:siz]; 3. курс (год обучения) — year Цз:]; на первом курсе — in the first year
лаборатория — laboratory [ta'bDratri]
мастерская — workshop ['w 3:kJop]
медпункт — first-aid room
начертательная геометрия — perspective and shadow projection [pa'spektiv and'Jaedau р гэ^зек Д э)п ]
необязательный; факультативный — optional ['о р /(э )п э 1]
обмеры — measured ['m e 33d] drawings
обширный, огромный — vast [va:st]
объемно-пространственная композиция — spacial (spatial) ['s p e ij( 9)l] and three-dimensional
composition
обязательный — compulsory [k 9m 'pAls( 9)ri]
окончить высшее учебное заведение — graduate ['graedjueit] from the Institute, окончить школу —
finish school
основы архитектурного проектирования — principles of architectural design
отдел кадров — staff office ['staff,ofis]
отделение — department [di'paffm ant]; вечернее отделение — evening department
отметка — mark [ma:k]
отмывать — wash in
офис, кабинет — office ['ofis]
перерыв — break [breik]
подвал — basement ['beism ant]
подготовительные курсы — prelim inary [p ri, lim in(a)ri] courses, preparatory [p ri'p aer 9t( 9)ri]
courses

UNIT 0 • Architectural education 9


поступать (в) — enter f'enta]
практика — practice ['praektis]
преддипломный проект — pregraduation design
предмет — subject ['sAbd3ikt]; обязательный предмет (обучения) — compulsory subject [kam'pAls(a)
ri 'sAbd3iktj; основной предмет — key [ki:] subject, факультативный предмет — optional subject [Ъ рД э)
n3l'sAbd3ikt]
провалиться на экзамене — fail in the exam (in)
проект, проектирование — design [di'zain]; дипломный проект — thesis [ ' 0 i:sis] (diploma) design;
преддипломный проект — pregraduation design
промышленное здание — industrial [in'dAStrial] building
реставрация исторических зданий — restoration of historic buildings
рисование, рисунок — artistic drawing, free hand drawing
сдавать экзамены — take exams
сдать экзамены — pass exams
семестр — term [t3:m]
скульптура, ваяние — sculpture ['skAlptJa]
специализироваться (в ) — specialize ['spejalaiz] (in)
столовая (в учебном заведении) — canteen [kaen'ti:n]
тамбур — draught [dra:ft] lobby
трижды, три раза в год — thrice [Grais] a year, three times a year
триместр — trimester [tr(a)i'm esta]
уборная, туалет — lavatory [Taevat(a)ri]
учебная часть — administrative [ad'm inistrativ] office
учебный год — academic (school) year
учиться на (первом) курсе — be in the (first) year, be a (first) year student
факультативный — optional ['о р Д э)п э 1]
факультет — faculty ['faek(a)lti]; факультет общей подготовки — the Faculty of General Training,
факультет специальной подготовки — the Faculty of Specialization; факультет фундаментальной
подготовки — the Faculty of Fundamentals in Architecture
фронтон — pediment ['p ed im an t]; лучковый фронтон — segmental pediment; треугольный ф рон­
тон — triangular pediment
черчение, чертеж — drawing, engineering drawing, technical drawing
читальня — reading room
шрифт — lettering [Tet(a)rirj]
экзамен (no ...) — exam [ig'zaem](in ...); сдавать экзамены — take exams, сдать экзамены — pass
exams, провалиться на экзамене — fail in the exam (in)
UNIT I
MOSCOW

1. HISTORY OF THE CITY OF M OSCOW

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующие слова.


A. о, ow [эи] old, cold, told, Moscow
о [л] won, some, come, cover, above, mother
ou, ow [au] town, house, proud, found, surround
ou [л] country, double, trouble
our [з] favour, labour
ea [i:] increase, please
ea, ear [ia] appear, near, clear, fear, area
ее, ei, ie [i:] free, decree, receive, chief, believe
eau [ju:] beauty
ch [k] chronicles, school
ch [tj] chief, chair
ph [f] geography, physics
kh [h] Astrakhan, Chekhov
B. although [э:ГЗэи] — хотя, conquest ['km jkwest] — победа, principality [,p n n s 3 'pael 3ti] —
княжество, rampart ['raem part] — (крепостной) вал

Упражнение 2. П рочитайте следующие слова, имею щ ие общ ий корень со словами русского


языка, и догадайтесь об их значениях. П олностью ли они совпадают?
Kazan [кл'га:п], Peter I = Peter the First, Muscovite [’mAsksvait], Ivan faiv n ], European [ju a ra 'p ra n ],
chronicle ['kroniklj, title ['taitl], Tatar ['ta rts], fortress ['foitrss], domination ^dD m i'neiJn], Astrakhan
[,aestr3 'kaen, -haen], Kremlin ['krem lin]

Упражнение 3. Расскажите по-английски все, что вы знаете об истории М осквы.

WORDS ТО BE USED

capital ['kaepitl] n — 1. столица; 2. капитель. London is the capital of England,


take [teik] (took; taken) v — брать; take (its) name from — быть названным по ... The street takes its
name from the river; take place — произойти, take part in — принимать участие в
bank [baerjk] n — берег (реки, канала). The building is situated on the bank o f the Neva-River
both [Ьэиб] 1) a — оба; 2) cj — both ... and ... — как ..., так и ..., и ..., и ... Both Moscow and St.
Petersburg are industrial cities.
found [faund] v — основывать; учреждать; создавать. The city was founded in the 18th century,
for the first time — впервые, at first — сначала. I read this book for the first time two years ago. At first
I did not want to take this book, but then I decided to read it.
increase [in'kri:s] v — увеличивать. He increased his principality.
add [aed] v — прибавлять; присоединять, пристраивать; addition [s 'd ij( 3)n] n — прибавление,
дополнение, пристройка; in addition (to) — к тому же, кроме того. Не added a room to his house,
under prep — под, у, при. I study under this professor. It was built under Ivan Kalita,
free [fri:] 1) a — свободный 2) v = liberate [Tibsreit] — освобождать. The town was freed in 1944
divide [di'vaid] v (into) — делить (на). The city was divided into 4 parts.

UNIT I • Moscow 11
surround [sa'raund] v, enclose [in'klauz] v — окружать. The town was surrounded with stone walls,
earth [э:0] n — земля; земной шар. The house was built o f earth. We live on the Earth,
area ['е эп э] n — площадь, зона, область, сфера; to cover an area (territory) o f — занимать пло­
щадь в ... The town covers an area of 40 sq. km. The area of the house is 50 sq. m.
square [skwea] 1) n — 1. квадрат; 2. площадь (города). Red Square. The room is 4 sq.m, in area.
The room is a 4 m. square (квадрат со стороной 4 м); 2) a — квадратный
population [/popjuTeiJ(a)n] n — население. The population o f the town is over 100,000 people,
like [laik] 1) a — подобны й, похожий 2) prep — так; как кто-л.; к ак ч то -л . 3) cj — как, подоб­
но. Like other Russian towns it has a kremlin in the centre,
circular a — круглый, кольцевой
radial-circular a — радиально-кольцевой. It has a radial-circular plan.
anniversary [/aenTv 3:s(o)n] n — годовщина
celebrate ['selobreit] v — праздновать. To celebrate the anniversary

Упражнение 4. Прочтите текст и напиш ите его план.

Упражнение 5. Найдите в тексте абзацы , в которых говорится, где находится М осква, кто ее
основал, сколько ей лет, когда она окончательно стала столицей независимого княж ества.

HISTORY OF THE CITY OF MOSCOW*

Moscow, the capital of the Russian Federation, is situated in the centre of the European part o f the
country. It takes its name from the River Moskva, on whose both banks it was built.
The name of Moscow appeared in the Russian chronicles for the first time in 1147. The Grand Prince
Yury Dolgoruky founded the city of Moscow. For more than a century Moscow remained an unim portant
village of the Suzdal Principality. In 1272 it became a small principality when Daniel, Alexander Nevsky’s
son, became the Moscow prince. Daniel increased his appanage (udel) by the addition of Kolomna, and thus
became the founder o f Muscovite Russia.
Under Ivan Danilovich Kalita (1328 — 40) Vladimir became united with Moscow and in 1328 Kalita
obtained from the Tatars the title of Grand Prince.
Under Ivan III, in 1480, central Russia was finally freed from the Tatar domination, but it was Ivan the
Terrible who* completed the task of liberation by his conquest o f Kazan and Astrakhan in 1552 and 1556.
In 1713 Peter I transferred the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg but in 1918 Moscow became the
capital of the country again.
Old Moscow was divided into four parts: 1) the Kremlin* or the fortress, 2) Kitai-gorod, the chief centre
of trade, situated between the Kremlin and the White-Town, 3) Bely-Gorod or White Town, which took its
name from the white wall which surrounded it (it was built in 1587), 4) Zemlanoi-Gorod or Earth-Town,
which surrounded the three others and was enclosed by a rampart of earth.
Now Moscow covers an area of about 3000 sq. km. and has a population of over 11 million people. Like
many other old Russian towns Moscow was built on a radial-circular plan. In 1997 Moscow celebrated its
850th anniversary.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Обратите внимание на употребление артикля и предлога в словосочетании the city o f Moscow —


город Москва
2. it is (w as).... who (that) — именно ... It was Pushkin who wrote this poem. — Именно Пушкин на­
писал это стихотворение. It is Moscow that is the capital o f the Russian Federation. — И менно М о­
сква — столица Российской Федерации. It was in 2003 that this house was built. — Этот дом был
построен именно (только, уже) в 2003 г.
3. The Kremlin I'krem lin] — Кремль (М осковский), a kremlin — (любой) кремль

12 1. History of the city of Moscow


Упражнение 6. Вставьте предлоги или сою зы, если необходимо. Переведите на русский язык.
1. We study ... Professor N. 2. The city is divided ... many parts and covers an area ... 400 sq. km. 3. It
takes its name ... the artist who lived there. 4. The city was b u ilt... a radial-circular plan. 5. The city ... N.
was founded ... the banks ... two rivers. 6 . The city was founded ... Prince Vasily. 7. I was in Kiev ... the first
time ... 2001. 8. The city was b u ilt... Peter I. 9.... other houses in this street it was built long ago.
(), by, for, from, in, into, like, of, on, under

Упражнение 7. Н апиш ите предложения со следующ ими словосочетаниями.


То cover an area, on a radial-circular plan, to surround, to found, to divide into.

Упражнение 8. Переведите н а^н гли й скц й язык.


Петербург был основан в 18-м веке Петром I. И был назван в честь своего основателя. Город
расположен на берегу реки Нева недалеко от моря. В 1713 году Петр перенес столицу в Петербург,
но после революции в 1918 году Москва снова стала столицей. Сейчас Петербург часто называют
культурной столицей страны.

Упражнение 9. Н апиш ите антоним ы к словам unim portant, far, old, after, unlike.

Упражнение 10. Переведите на русский, обращ ая вним ание на “ it was ... who (th at)” .
I. It was Kazakov who built a palace in the Kremlin. 2. It was Peter I who founded St. Petersburg. 3. It
was in the I5,h century that Ivan III freed Russia from the Tatar domination. 4. It was Suzdal that was the
capital at first, not Moscow.

Упражнение 11. Переведите на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на подчеркнутые слова.
I. London is the capital of England. 2. The Corinthian capital is very beautiful. 3. Kiev is situated on the
banks of the Dnieper. 4. The State Bank is situated in the centre of Moscow. 5. Did Yury Dolgoruky found
Moscow? 6 . 1 found the book under the table. 7. It was built under Ivan IV. 8. What are you speaking about?
9. There are about 20 museums in this area. Ю. Both houses are old. II. Both the street and the park are very
beautiful. 12. I have no free time. 13. I am not free. 14. This area is free of traffic (движение, транспорт).
15. The Prince freed his country.

Упражнение 12. Переведите на русский язы к и напиш ите соответствующ ие русские слова (от
этого же корня). Есть ли разница между значением русских и английских слов? Какая?
Capital, centre, city, prince, title, domination, chronicles

Упражнение 13. Переведите на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на местоим ения, притяж а­
тельный падеж и число сущ ествительных (см. Грам. справ. § 4. 2, § 2, 2. 3, 4, 6 ).
1.1 like my friend’s house. It is nice. 2 . 1 like my friends’ house. 3. This is Ann and Pete’s book. It is very
interesting. 4. The Doctor Ivanov’s house is new. 5. The children’s room is big. 6 . 1 see them. 7. They see us.
8. Give me this book. 9. Alexander Nevsky's victory.

Упражнение 14. Вставьте м естоим ения в нужной форме или сущ ествительные в нужном па­
деже (см. Грам. справ. § 2. 6 , §4. 2, 3).
I. This is (мой брат). 2. This is (его дом). 3. This is (мой брат) house. 4. I see (его/ брата). 5. I see
(его/дом). 6 . This is (их) house. 7. I see (их). 8. This is (ее) book. 9. I see (ее). Ю. (Она) is on the table.

Упражнение 15. П одберите формы ед. и мн. числа одного слова и объясните, как они образо­
ваны (см. Грам. справ. § 2. 2):
boy, pen, capitals, country, wives, boxes, area, banks, areas, capital, boys, countries, bank, wife, pens,
box.

UNIT I • Moscow 13
Упражнение 16. Н апиш ите формы множ ественного числа для словоформ единственного ч и ­
сла и наоборот (см. Грам. справ. § 2. 2):
cities, family, schools, girl, dogs, cat, watch, fox, leaves, church.
Упражнение 17. И справьте план, поставив все пункты в логическом порядке, и укаж ите, все
ли они соответствуют тексту.
1. The situation of Moscow. 5. Peter I.
2. Its foundation. 6 . Parts of old Moscow.
3. Moscow — a village of Pskov Principality. 7. Foundation of the Muscovite State.
4. Present Moscow. 8. Ivan Kalita.

2. CATHEDRAL OF THE ASSUMPTION


(USPENSKY)

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующие слова и переведите их.


metropolitan [,m etr9'pD lit(a)n] interior [in'tiaria] copy fkD pi]
tsar [za:] though [баи] arcature ['arkatja]
century ['sen tj(a)ri] width [wid 0 ] height [halt]
patriarch ['peitriark] grandeur ['дгаеп(б)зэ] religious [rThd 39s]
fa?ade [fa'sa:d] icon ['afimn] portal ['pa:tl]
Упражнение 2. Прочтите следующие слова.
а [а:] — past, last, father, rather, ask, arcature, facade
a [o:] (a + 1))—all, altar, fall
-ture [tja] — picture, feature, future, arcature
ea [i:] — sea, feature

Упражнение 3. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на


сказуемые (пассивны е и активны е ф ормы ) (см. Грам. справ. § 8 . 8 , § 9. 1).
1. Не can call her. 2. Не may be called the best student o f the group. 3. I asked you to go with me. 4. I
was asked to go with him. 5. I advised you to study English. 6 . I was advised to study English. 7. He told me
a story. 8. A story was told by him. 9. He told me to go home. 10. He was told by me to go home.

WORDS TO BE USED
famous ['feim as] a (for) — знаменитый (чем-либо). He is famous for his buildings,
church ['tja :tf] n — церковь. The church was built last year,
cathedral [ka'0i:dr(a)l] n — собор. This cathedral is an old building,
main [mein] a — главный, основной. It is the main street o f the town.
crown [kraun] v — 1. короновать; 2. увенчивать. The church is crowned with five bulbous domes,
dome [daum] n, cupola ['k ju :p ala] n — купол, глава; bulbous dom e ['bA lbas-], onion dom e
['Anjan-] — луковичный купол, луковичная глава
chapel ['tjasp(a)l] n — часовня, придел (в русских церквях). Some Russian churches have several
chapels.
bury ['beri] v — хоронить. He was buried in this cathedral.
rather [ 'r a : 6a] adv — довольно; rather than — скорее ... чем. It is rather cold.
admire [ad'm a(i)a] v — любоваться; восхищаться; выражать восторг
construct [kan'strAkt] v — строить; construction [kan'strAkJ(a)n] n — строительство; to be under
construction — строиться, быть в стадии строительства; reconstruct ['ri:kans'trA kt] v — реконструи­
ровать
advise [ad'vaiz] v — советовать. I was advised to read this book.

14 2. Cathedral of the Assumption (Uspensky)


feature [ 'fi:t/ э ] n — особенность; (характерная) черта. What Russian features can we see in this
building?
design [di'zain] 1) n — проект; 2) v — проектировать. Who designed this building?
style ['stall] n — стиль. What is the style of this building?
composition [,к ш п р э 'г 1/(э )п ] n — композиция. What can you say about the composition of this
building?
complete [kam 'plht] v — заканчивать, завершать. The construction was completed,
be of the same (width) — быть одной (ширины). These two streets are of the same width,
aisle [ail] n — боковой неф, неф
nave [neiv] n — главный неф. If we say that a cathedral has three aisles, it means that it has one nave
and two side aisles.
apse [aeps] n — апсида. This cathedral has only one apse.
pillar ['рй э] n — столб, колонна; (зд.) столп. In Russian churches there are often four pillars,
column ['к Ы э т ] n — колонна
support [ss'port] 1) n — поддержка; опора 2) v — поддерживать
at mid-height — на середине (высоты)
arcature f'arkatjb] n — аркатура. Arcature decorates the facade at mid-height,
deeply recessed [ri'sest] portal — перспективный портал. He entered the chapel through the deeply
recessed portal.

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

huge ['h ju :d 3 ] a — огромный. The ceiling was supported by huge columns,


shore [Jo:] n — берег (моря, озера); побережье

Упражнение 4. П рочтите текст и напиш ите его резюме на английском (или русском) языке.

Упражнение 5. Прочтите текст и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. What was Russia’s main cathedral? 2. How was it used? 3. Why would it be called a chapel in the West?
4. Why did Fieravanti go to Vladimir? 5. Is the Moscow Assumption Cathedral like the Vladimir Cathedral?

UNIT I • Moscow 15
CATHEDRAL OF THE ASSUMPTION
(USPENSKY)

The most famous o f the Kremlin churches is the Cathedral of the Assumption* or the Cathedral o f the
Dormition*. It was Russia’s main cathedral. From the 15th century the Russian tsars were always crowned
in it, the Church metropolitans and the Moscow patriarchs are buried here. It is rather small — in the west
it would be called* a chapel rather than a cathedral. The fine situation of the cathedral, its bulbous domes,
and interior grandeur* make* everybody admire it.
The construction of this cathedral was begun in 1326 under the Grand Prince Ivan Danilovich Kalita by
Peter, the metropolitan o f Moscow, who may be called its founder. When the Italian architect Aristotele
Fieravanti* was asked by Ivan III to reconstruct the old church in 1475, he was advised to go to Vladimir and
study the Uspensky Cathedral, built in 1158. Fieravanti visited also Rostov, Yaroslavl, and the shores o f the
White Sea. Thus the Italian architect got first-hand information on Russian religious architecture and
understood the main features o f its traditions. So though the cathedral was designed by an Italian architect
and engineer, its style and composition are Russian and Orthodox*.
The Moscow cathedral was completed in 1479; it is like the Vladimir cathedral, but is far from being a
literal copy*. The two cathedrals are of the same width, but the Moscow one is much longer; the Moscow
cathedral has three aisles and five apses, the Vladimir cathedral has five aisles and three apses. The Moscow
cathedral has six pillars, four of which — huge circular columns — support the central cupola, which is
surrounded with four smaller cupolas. The facade is decorated at mid-height with a band o f arcatures and a
deeply recessed portal.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Assumption [ э ' 8л т р Д э )п ], Dormition [do:'m iJ( 9)n] — Успение


2. would be called — назвали бы
3. grandeur ['graend 33] — 1. величие; 2. великолепие; пышность
4. to make ['m eik] (made) — 1. делать; 2. заставлять делать. He made a mistake. He made his brother
go there. He was made to go there
5. Aristotele Fieravanti — Фьораванти Аристотель (1420—1486), итальянский инженер и архитектор,
прозванный Аристотелем за его знания
6 . Orthodox ['o:03doks] — православный
7. literal сору [Т йг(з)1' kopi] — буквальная копия

ADDITIONAL WORDS

altar ['э:Иэ] n — алтарь (престол)


decorate v ['deksreit] — украшать
drum [drAm] n — барабан; blind drum — глухой барабан; windowed drum — световой барабан
fresco ['freskau] n — фреска
icon f'aikon] n — икона
icon-painter n — иконописец
paint [peint] 1) n — краска; окраска 2) v — 1. красить, окрашивать; 2 . писать красками
painting ['peintirj] n — 1. живопись; 2 . картина; роспись; 3. окраска
sanctuary ['saerjktju( 3)ri] n — алтарь (алтарное пространство); святилище
slit-like window — щелевидное окно

Упражнение 6. Поставьте прилагательное или наречие в нужную ф орму с сою зом than, если
требуется, (см. Грам. справ. § 3. 3, 4, 5).
1. This book is m u c h ..........that one (interesting). 2. There are now much ... buildings ... there were ...
(many, early). 3. This cathedral i s .......that one (old). 4. It is the ... cathedral in the country (old).

16 2. Cathedral of the Assumption (Uspensky)


Упражнение 7. П ереведите на английский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на степени сравнения
(см. Грам. справ. § 3. 3, 4, 5).
1. Это одно из самых красивых зданий в Москве. 2. Эта улица намного длиннее той. 3. В Москве
больше церквей, чем в Петербурге? 4. Новая апсида больше и лучше старой. 5. Москва более древ­
ний город, чем Петербург. 6 . Самая широкая улица в Москве — Садо во-Сухаре вс кая (88 м), самая
длинная — Профсоюзная (14,8 км), самое теплое место — район Балчуг. 7. Успенский собор древнее
других кремлевских соборов.

Упражнение 8. Переведите на русский язык.


1.1want to have first-hand information on this building. 2. This area is rather small. 3 . 1was told to write
two exercises. 4. We were made to do it again. 5. They were advised to reconstruct the building. 6 . The square
is a 10 m. square.

Упражнение 9. П ереведите на русски й я зы к , обращ ая вн и м ан и е на п р и ч асти я (см. Грам.


справ. §9. 2).
1. The architect building this chapel is very famous. 2. The chapel built by this architect is huge. 3. The
domes crowning the cathedral were constructed 40 years ago. 4. The cathedral crowned with 5 cupolas was
built by a famous architect.

Упражнение 10.
a) Переведите на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на модальные глаголы (см. Грам. справ.
§ 8. 11).
1 .1can write this text now. 2. Can you speak English? 3 . 1 can’t speak with you now. 4. A man must build
a house. 5. Must he read this text? 6 . He mustn’t go there. 7. May I go there?

b) Переведите на английский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на модальные глаголы (см. Грам.
справ. § 8 . 11).
1. Кто может придти завтра? 2. Он должен увенчать собор куполами. 3. Я не могу сделать это, я
должен заниматься. 4. Йы не должны курить (smoke) здесь.

Упражнение 11. Подберите синоним ы к следующим словам:


to construct, territory, huge, circular, cupola.

Упражнение 12. Переведите на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на подчеркнутые слова.
I. What place in Moscow do you like best? 2. This church is not like two other ones. 3. Moscow tsars
were crowned in the Assumption Cathedral. 4. The cathedral is crowned with five cupolas. 5. This man looks
rather ljke a boy than an old man, he is rather small. 6. He lives not far from Red Square. 7. The house is (a)
square in plan. 8. Who made it? 9. The mother made her son read the book. II. Who was made to reconstruct
the house?

' Упражнение 13. Поставьте глагол в следующих предложениях в утвердительную, вопроситель­


ную и отрицательную формы (см. Грам. справ. § 8 . 5, 6 , 8 , 9).
a) во все лица Present Indefinite и Past Indefinite действительного залога.
I. I usually (work) at home. 2. I (speak) English
b) во все возможные лица Present Indefinite и Past Jndefinite страдательного залога.
3 . 1 (build) a house 4. I (ask) to do it
c) Поставьте глагол в следующих предложениях во все лица Present Indefinite и Past Indefinite, в
утвердительную, вопросительную и отрицательную формы (см. Грам. справ. § 8. П).
5 . 1 (can) speak English.

UNIT I • Moscow 17
Упражнение 14. О ткройте скобки, поставив глаголы в нужную ф орму (см. Грам. справ. § 8 . 6 ,
8, Ю).
I. The church .... five years ago. The architect ...the church five years ago. It... by him (to build). 2. The
child ... a story. He ...to go to L o n d o n .... me where you are going (to tell). 3. Do n o t... me what to do. She
... to play volleyball (to advise).

Упражнение 15. Вставьте подходящее слово.


I. Moscow is situated on the ... of the Moskva-River. I shall go to the ... of the Black Sea. (bank, shore).
2. We entered the ... . In the centre there was a small wooden ... (altar, sanctuary). 3. What is the name of
this .... The ... of this ... is very small (area, square).

Упражнение 16. Сгруппируйте слова согласно их значению : водное пространство, опора, п о ­


мещ ение, искусство, строительны й материал, конструктивны е элементы помещ ения.
River, apse, pillar, room, fresco, sea, painting, support, lake, nave, wall, stone, aisle, ceiling, column,
wood, floor, window, door

Упражнение 17. Образуйте глаголы от следующих существительных, переведите их (см. Грам.


справ. § 14. 1). Приведите примеры.
Group, form, visit

Упражнение 18. Н апиш ите соответствующ ие русские слова. Есть между русскими и ан гл и й ­
скими словами разница в значении?
Architect, reconstruct, visit, information, religious, architecture, tradition, design, engineer, style, com ­
position, Orthodox, copy, apse, circular, column, central, cupola, facade, arcature, fragment, fresco, prince,
construction, interior, patriarch, metropolitan, master, icon, artist, altar, situation

Упражнение 19. Укажите, согласны ли вы со следую щ ими предлож ениям и. Если нет, и с­
правьте.
I. Russian tsars were buried in the Assumption Cathedral. 2. Fieravanti was advised to go to St. Petersburg.
3. He went to Rostov and other towns to build churches there. 4. The Assumption Cathedral is a typical Rus­
sian cathedral.

Упражнение 20. Постройте диалог об У спенском соборе как диалог между И ваном I II и Ф ьо-
раванти или жителями Владимира и М осквы. Укажите типично русские особенности его архи­
тектуры.

3. CATHEDRAL OF THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL


A N D CATHEDRAL OF THE A N N U N C IA T IO N

TEXT A

Упражнение 1. П рочтите следующ ие слова и переведите их на русский.


A. Archangel ['а :к /етб з(э)1 ] Michael ['m aikl] Milanese [,пн1э'ш:г]
anonymous [a'm m im ss] intimate [Tntimit] genealogical [/d 3i:nj 9 , lDd3ik(a)l]
iconostasis [.aiks'nD stasis] detail ['dirteil] zakomara
B. ch — [k] — archangel, archivolt, Michael
ch — [J] — niche, machine
er, ir, ur [э:] — certain, girl, church
a, ai — [ei] — patron, archangel, main, saint, paint, contain
air — [еэ] — air, pair, repair

18 3. Cathedral of the Archangel Michael and Cathedral of the Annunciation


-ize — [aiz] — realize, baptize
ph — [f] — physics, phonetics
-sure [33] — treasure, measure, pleasure

Упражнение 2. П рочтите следующ ие слова, обращ ая вним ание на сочетания букв.


shch — щ — Shchusev, Vereshchagin, Blagoveshchensky
zh — ж — Zhukov, Zhilardi
yo — ё — Rublyov
ye — e — Yerevan, Ryleyev, Dmitriyevich
у — ы, ый, ий — Ryleyev, Chorny, Belinsky

WORDS TO BE USED

dedicate ['dedikeit] (to) v —посвящать. The church is dedicated to St. John,


original [э 'п б з п (э ) 1] a — 1. оригинальный; 2. первоначальный
wood ['w ud] n — 1. лес; 2. дерево (как материал), древесина. The house was built o f wood,
wooden ['w udn] a — деревянный
timber ['tim ba] 1) n — лесоматериал; строевой лес 2) a — деревянный
forest ['forist] n — лес
tree [tri:] n — дерево
scallop-shell ['sk o b p /e l] n — раковина (архит. деталь). He used scallop-shells in the zakomaras.
decorate ['dekareit] v (with) — украшать, декорировать; decoration ^ d ek a'reifn ] n — 1. украшение;
убранство 2 . архит. декор, наружная и внутренняя отделка
pilaster [pi'laesta] n — пилястр. The room is decorated with pilasters,
contain [кэп'tern] v — содержать в себе, вмещать
rectangle ['rek,taer)gl] n — прямоугольник; rectangular [rek'taerjgjula] a — прямоугольный
cornice ['kornis] n — карниз. The facade is crowned with a cornice.
order ['o:da] 1) n — 1. порядок; последовательность; 2. приказ; 3. ордер; 2) v — приказать
3) in order to — для того, чтобы
tomb ['tu:m ] n — могила, надгробие, гробница; склеп; могила с надгробием

WORDS ТО BE INDERSTOOD

adapt [a'daept] v — приспособлять


predecessor ['prhdisesa] n —предшественник
treasure [Тгезэ] n — сокровище
sacristy ['saskristi] n — ризница

Упражнение 3. П рочтите текст “ C athedral o f the Archangel M ichael” , напиш ите его план на
английском язы ке и резю ме на русском.

Упражнение 4. Ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. Why was the cathedral dedicated to the Archangel Michael? 2. W hat was the difference between
the new and the old one? 3. Was the new cathedral built in the Italian style? 4. How was the cathedral
used?

CATHEDRAL
OF THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL

The cathedral dedicated to the Archangel M ichael was originally built o f wood in the middle o f the 13th
’ century and was rebuilt o f stone in 1333 to be used as the burial place for the Moscow princes, the Archangel
Michael being their patron saint*.

UNIT I • Moscow 19
In 1505 Ivan III decided to build a new and larger cathedral near
the Assumption and Annunciation* Cathedrals.
The new cathedral was to be designed by the Milanese architect
Alevisio Novy*. Like Fieravanti before him, he was told to use the
basic features of Russian church planning in the new cathedral (it is
a six-colum ned and five-domed church), but in the exterior
decoration he used Italian architectural forms of the 15th century,
which were adapted and reworked by Russian artists later (e.g*.
scallop shells in the zakomaras). The cathedral stands on a stone base.
The lower storey is decorated with pilasters and arcatures containing
small windows. The upper storey is divided into rectangles crowned with cornices. Novy treated the zakomaras
as purely decorative features by converting them into scallop-shell niches.
Ivan 111 placed in this cathedral the remains o f the earlier princes who had been buried in an older church
built by Ivan Kalita. Russian tsars were buried here until the time of Peter the Great. Along the walls the
tombs of princes and tsars, from the founder of Moscow to the predecessor of the founder o f St. Petersburg,
are situated in the genealogical order (only Boris Godunov is absent: he is buried in Zagorsk).
The sacristy and library of the cathedral contain some of the great treasures of Russian religious art.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. patron saint [ 'p e itr(s )n ' seint] — святой покровитель


2. Annunciation [3,nAnsi'eiJ(3)n] — Благовещение
3. Alevisio Novy — Алевиз Новый (Алевиз Ф рязин) — архитектор конца XV — начала XVI вв. По
происхождению итальянец. Приехал в Москву в 1504 г. из М илана по приглашению Ивана III.
4. e.g. = for example — например

Упражнение 5. Выпишите из текста А. все случаи употребления пассивного залога и переве­


дите предложения на русский язы к (см. Грам. справ. § 8. 8).

Упражнение 6. Переведите предложение на русский язы к, обратив вним ание на глагол to have
(см. Грам. справ. § 8. 12).
Ivan 111 placed in this cathedral the remains of the earlier princes who had been buried in an older church.

20 3. Cathedral of the Archangel Michael and Cathedral of the Annunciation


TEXT В
WORDS TO BE USED

certain ['ss:tn ] a — некоторый, определенный


domestic [da'm estik] a — 1. домашний; 2. внутренний; отечественный; 3. жилищный
replace [ri'pleis] v — замещать, заменять. The columns replaced the pilasters. The pilasters were re­
placed by the columns.
differ ['difa] (in ... from) v — различаться, отличаться. The new cathedral differs in the number of
statues from the old one.
resemble [rTzembl] v — походить, иметь сходство
damage ['daem id 3 ] v — наносить ущерб; повреждать. The porch has been damaged and is to be
repaired.
repair [п 'р еэ ] v — ремонтировать
porch [port/] n — крыльцо; портик. The porch was added later.
engaged [in 'g eid 3d] column — связанная колонна (полуколонна, четвертная или трехчетвертная
колонна). The engaged columns decorate the interior.
archivolt ['arkivoult] n — архивольт. Arches have archivolts.
carve ['karv] v — вырезать (по дереву, кости); высекать (из камня). The monument is carved out of
marble.
private ['praivot] a — частный; личный
crossing ['krosir)] n — 1 . пересечение; 2. перекресток; 3. средокрестие
(plan) with a cross inscribed in a rectangle and with a dome over the crossing, cross-domed — кресто­
вокупольный. Traditionally Russian churches are cross-domed,
tiered [tiad] a — ярусный. I like multitiered churches.
g ild e d [ 'g ild id ] a — п о з о л о ч е н н ы й . R u ssia n c h u r c h e s o fte n have g ild e d d o m e s,
(pi -s e s ) n — и к о н о с т а с
ic o n o s ta s is [,a ik a 'n D S ta s is ]
introduce [,in tr 'djurs] v — 1. представлять, знакомить; 2. вводить в употребление; привносить;
применять; 3. вводить; вставлять (into)

Упражнение 7. П рочтите текст “ Cathedral o f the A nnunciation” и напиш ите его план на а н ­
глийском язы ке.

Упражнение 8. Н айдите абзацы , описы ваю щ ие историю собора, его архитектурные особен­
ности, указав ти пично русские, его отличие от других кремлевских соборов.

Упражнение 9. Прочтите текст и сократите его — вы пиш ите самые важные предложения.

CATHEDRAL OF THE ANNUNCIATION


( Blagoveshchensky)

The cathedral was built as the domestic church o f the tsars and grand princes of Muscovy* by Pskov
architects in 1482—1490 replacing the original one founded by Grand Prince Vasily Dmitriyevich in 1397.
It was here that the tsar and his family celebrated their weddings.
It differs in certain details from the other two main cathedrals of the Kremlin. The central cubical
element, crowned by five cupolas, resembles the Vladimir Assumption Cathedral. However, here the Pskov
architects introduced a new architectural m otif — the kokoshnik, which became very popular later.
In 1547 the cathedral was damaged by a fire. While it was being repaired, open porches were added to
three of its sides. At the same time an anonymous Italian built the deeply recessed portals with their engaged
columns, pilasters, and archivolts and decorated the walls with the richly carved ornament.
The cathedral is much smaller and of more intimate character than the two other cathedrals, being the
private chapel o f the tsars (they were married and baptized in it). The plan is a cross inscribed in a rectangle

UNIT I • Moscow 21
with a dome over the crossing. It is four-columned with three apses. The interior is richly decorated. The
many-tiered gilded iconostasis has a number of icons by Andrei Rublyov and Theophanes the Greek*, Prokhor
and Daniil Chomy, the famous master icon-painters of the late 14th and 15th centuries. Some frescoes were painted
in 1508 by a team of painters headed by Theodosius, son of Dionysius. The altar is elegant and richly adorned.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Muscovy ['mAskavi] — М осковское государство; Московия


2. Theophanes [GToifaniz] — Ф еофан Грек, иконописец (30-е гг. XIVв. — после 1405 г.)

Упражнение 10. Найдите в текстах А и В соответствующ ие английские слова.


Предшественник, иконостас, четырехстолпный, крестовокупольный, перспективный портал,
возглавляемый, пилястр, связанная колонна, пристроить, архивольт, повредить, отремонтировать,
деталь, резной, крест, пересечение, глава, апсида, придел, средокрестие

Упражнение 11. Перечислите все виды опор и укажите, чем они отличаются друг от друга.

Упражнение 12. Выскажите свое согласие или несогласие со следующ ими предлож ениям и и
исправьте ош ибку, если она есть (It is right/true/w rong/untrue; I am afraid it is ...; I agree with it; I
d o n ’t agree/disagree with it, because ...).
A. I. Pilasters differ from engaged columns in size. 2. The capital crowns the column. 3. Scallop-shells
were very popular in Old Russia. 4. Kokoshniks were introduced by Italian architects.
B. I. The Cathedral of the Archangel Michael looks like Italian cathedrals. 2. It was used as a burial place
o f the Moscow princes. 3. The Blagoveshchensky Cathedral was built by a Milanese architect. 4. It is the
largest of the three Kremlin cathedrals.

Упражнение 13. Переведите на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на подчеркнутые слова (см.
Грам. справ. § 8. 8, 12, § 9. 1).
1. The house was built of wood. 2. The house is built o f wood. 3. The house is to be built of wood. 4. The
house was to be built of wood. 5. The house will be built of wood. 6. A chapel was to be added to the cathedral.

Упражнение 14. Переведите на русский язы к следующие предлож ения, обращ ая вним ание на
употребление C ontinuous (см. Грам. справ. § 8. 6. 2).
I . When he came I was reading a book. 2. She is drawing a house now. 3. At five o ’clock we were going
home. 4. We were thinking about our project, while he was working at it. 6. When the church was being
repaired, some new details were added to it.

22 3. Cathedral of the Archangel Michael and Cathedral of the Annunciation


Упражнение 15. Вставьте предлоги, если они нужны.
I. The stone church is like ... the wooden one. 2. The facade is decorated .... a portico. 3. The church is
crowned ... 22 cupolas. 4. The statue is carved.......granite. 5. This new cinema differs ... size ... the old one.
(), by, from, out of, with

Упражнение 16. Подберите синоним ы к следующим словам.


То ornament, ornamentation, cupola, resemble, wooden.

Упражнение 17. Переведите на русский язы к, обращ ая особое вним ание на подчеркнутые
слова.
I. This building is very original in style. 2. The original building had two storeys, but now a new storey
has been added to it. 3. The Chapel of Henry VII is in Westminster Abbey. 4. There are nine chapels in St.
Basil’s Cathedral. 5. The house was built for the Prince of Rostov. 6 . This is the house of the Prince of Wales
(Уэльс) 7. The private chapel of the prince is surrounded by a garden.

Упражнение 18. О бъясните способ образования следующих слов и переведите их (см. Грам.
справ. § 15).
1. founder, designer, admirer 4. four-columned, three-aisled, five-pointed, five-domed
2. width, length, height, breadth, depth, death 5. burial
3. triangular, rectangular 6 . rework, reconstruct, rebuild
Упражнение 19. Н апиш ите соответствующ ие русские слова и укажите, отличается ли их зн а­
чение от английских: fresco, decoration, adapt.

Упражнение 20. П ереведите следующ ие предлож ения на русский язык.


I. It was here that the prince founded the city. 2. It is here that the cathedral is to be founded. 3. It was
during the war that the chapel was damaged. 4. It is he who repaired the church. 5. He is to come tomorrow.
6. The house is to be built near the sea.

Упражнение 21. П ереведите предложения на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на глагол to
have (см. Грам. справ. § 8 . 12).
1. I have a book. 2. Не has read this book. 3. I have seen this film. 4. I have not been there. 5. When I
came home he had already finished his work. 6 . He asked this architect to build a new house for him because
he liked the houses which had been built by this architect.

Упражнение 2 2. Н апиш ите следующ ие предлож ения в логическом порядке.


1. The Grand Prince built stone buildings there in the 16th century. 2. It is a masterpiece of Russian ar­
chitecture. 3. The church occupies a splendid place on the bank of the Moskva-River. 4. The name of Kolo-
menskoye appears in documents o f the early 14th century. 5. The earliest of these was the Church of the
Ascension (Вознесение). 6 . It stands on a high podklet and is remarkable for its composition.

Упражнение 2 3 . Н апиш ите все слова, означаю щ ие:


1. части здания, церкви; 2. религиозные здания; 3. строительные материалы; 4. формы; 5. деко­
ративные детали; 6 . типично русские архитектурные детали.

Упражнение 24. О пиш ите один из пройденных соборов или другой русский собор или церковь,
обращая вним ание на архитектурные (особенно русские) детали, воспользуйтесь вопросами
как примерны м планом.
1. Where, when and by whom was it built? 2. To whom is it dedicated? 3. How was and is it used? 4. In
what style is it built? Prove it. 5. O f what material was it built? 6. What is its plan? 7. Into what parts is it di­
vided? 8. What can you say about its facade, domes, portal, decoration?

UNIT I • Moscow 23
Упражнение 2 5. С равните кремлевские соборы, что у них общ его и чем различаю тся.

Упражнение 26.
A. Переведите следующие слова:
Milanese, Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Burmese.
B. Прочтите анекдот и скажите, что вы думаете о характере действующих лиц.
Once an American lady was speaking with a Vietnamese gentleman. The lady was very proud to be
an American. She asked the Vietnamese: “W hat“— ese ’’are you? Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese?” The
gentleman answered: “And what“— anky ’’are you? Yankey, monkey, donkey?” (donkey — осел).

4. BOLSHOI THEATRE A N D CATHEDRAL


OF CHRIST THE SAVIOUR

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующие слова и укажите, есть ли в русском язы ке слова, имею щ ие
тот же корень:
sculptural ['skAlptJr(a)l] dozen ['dAzn] diameter [dai'aemita]
Christ [kraist] Biblical ['biblik(a)l] Saviour ['seivja]
acoustics [a'ku:stiks] baroque [Ьэ'гэик] Apollo [a'pDlau]

Упражнение 2. Объясните, от каких слов, каким способом образованы слова sculptural, Saviour,
Biblical.

TEXT А

Упражнение 3. Прочтите текст о Больш ом театре, напиш ите его план на английском язы ке и
ответьте на следующие вопросы.
I . Who built the theatre? 2. Does the reconstructed building differ from the old one and how?

WORDS TO BE USED
consider [kan'sids] v — рассматривать, считать; принимать во внимание. It is considered the best
example of the baroque style. Let us consider this problem,
considerable [k 9n'sid(a)rabl] a — значительный
end [end] n — конец; at the end (beginning) o f... — в конце (начале) чего-либо; in the end —
в к о н ц е (к о н ц о в )
erect [i'rekt] v — устанавливать; воздвигать, сооружать. The theatre was erected in the centre of the city,
restore [ri'sto:] v — восстанавливать
portico ['pa:tikau] n — портик. Porticoes were often used in Greece,
splendid ['splendid] a — великолепный
quadriga [kw a'drugs] (pi -gae [-gi:]) n — квадрига (двухколесная колесница, запряженная чет­
веркой лошадей) The theatre is crowned with a quadriga,
art [cut] n — искусство; artist ['a:tist] n — художник
respect [ri'spekt] n — 1. уважение; 2 . отношение; in respect (of), with respect (to) — что касается;
in all respects — во всех отношениях
detail ['di:teil] n — подробность; деталь
baroque [Ьэ'гэик] n — барокко. In Russia Moscow or Naryshkin baroque was widely used,
face [feis] v — 1. быть обращенным (к чему-л., в сторону чего-л.); 2. облицовывать. The building
was faced with stones.
facing ['feisirj] n — наружная отделка; облицовка
moulding ['mauldirj] n — 1. лепнина; 2. облом, рельеф. The ceiling in the palace is decorated with
mouldings. Greek orders differ in mouldings.

24 4. Bolshoi Theatre and Cathedral of Christ the Saviour


auditorium [,o:di'tDriam ] (pi —ria [пэ]) n — зрительный зал. The auditorium accommodates (hous­
es) 500 spectators.
accommodate [a'kDm adeit] v — предоставлять жилье; размещать; вмещать
house [hauz] v — 1. обеспечивать жильем; 2. вмещать
fountain [’fauntin] n — фонтан. There is a fountain in front of the Institute.

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

while [wail] cj — пока, в то время как. Write this exercise while I am reading the text,
spectator [spek'teita] n — зритель

BOLSHOI THEATRE

Theatre Square is justly considered one of the finest squares in Russian architecture. At one end of the
square the famous Bolshoi Theatre was erected between 1821 and 1824 by architects O. Beauvais* and others.
The theatre was damaged by fire in 1853 but was soon restored by architect A. Kavos*. The famous eight-
columned portico is crowned with a splendid quadriga with Apollo, god of the arts, by sculptor P.K. Klodt*.
In all other respects A. Kavos changed considerably the features of the original building. The details in the
wall divisions are somewhat dry, while the interior of the theatre was given a baroque facing of unparalleled
beauty. Red plush and extraordinarily rich gilt* mouldings are the main features of the auditorium, which
has good acoustics. Nowdays it can accommodate 2,900 spectators. In 1826 a fountain was set up in the square
opposite the theatre and in 1835 this had a sculptural group by Vitaly* added to it.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Beauvais (Bove) — Бове Осип (Иосиф) Иванович (1784-


1834), архитектор
2. Kavos — Кавос Альберт Катеринович (1801 — 1863), стро­
итель императорских театров
3. Klodt — Клодт Петр Карлович (1805 — 1867), крупный
русский скульптор
4. gilt [gilt] = gilded — позолоченный
5. Vitaly — Витали Иван Петрович (1794 —1855), русский
скульптор

TEXT В

WORDS ТО BE USED

embankment [im 'baeqkm ant] n — набережная. The embankment runs along the river.
commemorate [ks'm em areit] v — отмечать (годовщину). The building was erected to commemorate
(in commemoration of) the victory.
commemoration [кэ,memo' reijn] n — празднование (годовщины); in commemoration of — в память о ...
structure ['strAktJo] n — здание, сооружение, строение, конструкция
construct [kon'strAkt] v — строить, сооружать; воздвигать; construction [kan'strAkfn] n — 1. стро­
ительство, стройка; 2. строение, здание; to be under construction — быть в стадии строительства,
строиться
foundation [faun'deij(a)n] n — 1. основание; учреждение; 2. фундамент. The foundation was laid
two years ago.
lay [lei] (laid) v — класть; положить
consecrate f'konsikreit] v — освящать; consecration [/kDnsi/kreiJ(a)n] n — освящение. The conse­
cration of the cathedral took place last year.

UNIT I • Moscow 25
marble ['m a:bl] n — мрамор
band [baend] n — лента, полоса. The wall was decorated with a band of arcature.
relief[ri'li:f] n — рельеф; bas relief[,ba:riTi:f] — барельеф
run [глп] (ran; run) v — 1. бегать; бежать; 2. простираться, тянуться. The street ran from the square
to the river.
swimming-pool ['swim ir)'pu:l] n — открытый бассейн для плавания. The cathedral replaced the
swimming pool.
site [salt] n — место, участок; building site — строительная площадка.ТЬе chapel was built on the
original site.
mural ['mju(3)r3l] 1) n — фреска, стенная живопись; 2) a — стенной. The church was decorated
with murals.
WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD
event [Tvent] n — событие
enormous [TnD:m3S] a — громадный, огромный, грандиозный
edifice ['edifis] n — здание; сооружение. This edifice is a beautiful building,
explode [ik'splsud] v — взрывать(ся)

Упражнение 4. Прочтите текст о храме Христа Спасителя и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы :


1. What is the size of the cathedral? 2. By whom was it built and decorated? 3. Do we see the original
building?
CATHEDRAL OF CHRIST THE SAVIOUR

The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour is situated in the city centre, not far from the Kremlin, on the high
bank of the Moskva-River (Kropotkinskaya Embankment). Built in commemoration of a great event in Rus­
sian history the glorious victory over N apoleon’s army in 1812, the structure was to be built in accord with*
the architectural composition o f the Kremlin, Moscow’s historical centre, and was modeled on the Kremlin
Cathedrals of the Assumption and the Archangel Michael.
Its size is enormous: it is 103 m high, its area is 6,805 sq. m., and
the central dome’s diameter is 25.5 m. The construction of this grand
edifice which could accommodate 10,000 people went on for dozens
of years. The foundation was laid in 1839, the construction work
completed in the 1880s* and the consecration of the cathedral took
place in 1889 after which daily services began there.
The cathedral designed by K. Thon* was richly decorated. A
marble band with bas reliefs showing Biblical scenes ran along the
facades, above the portals. The murals inside were painted by the
famous Russian artists V. Surikov*, V. Vereshchagin*, K. Makovsky*
and others.
In 1931 the cathedral was exploded, later a swimming pool was situated on this site. In the 1990s the
cathedral was completely reconstructed on the original site. It looks exactly like the original structure, though
the latest methods and materials have been used.
ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ
1. in accord [э 'ka:d] with — в соответствии с
2. in the 1880s —в восьмидесятые годы девятнадцатого века
3. Thon — Тон Константин Андреевич (1794—1881), русский архитектор
4. V. Surikov — Суриков Василий Иванович (1848—1916), великий русский художник-реалист
5. V. Vereshchagin — Верещагин Василий Васильевич (1842—1904), выдающийся русский живопи­
сец-баталист
6. К. Makovsky — М аковский Константин Егорович (1839—1915), русский живописец

26 4. Bolshoi Theatre and Cathedral of Christ the Saviour


Упражнение 5. Вставьте предлоги, если они нужны.
1. It is a nice building ... all respects. 2. This chapel was erected ... commemoration ... the 15th anniver­
sary. 3.... first he wanted to build a wooden house, but ...the end decided to erect a stone one. 4. There was
a door... the end ... the corridor. 6 . The street ran ... the river... the park ... the main square.
[at, from, in, near, of, to]

Упражнение 6. Переведите на русский язы к (см. Грам. справ. § 5. 1,2, 3).


In the 50s of the 19th century; in 1950; in 5 years; 325.178 meters; 325,178 meters; the area of the house
is 10 sq. m.; the area of the house is a 10 m. square; in the early 21s1 century; in the late 20th century, in the
mid 19lh century.

Упражнение 7. Подберите синоним ы к следующим словам и словосочетаниям.


Enormous, erect, to house, fresco, edifice, in the late 20lh century, to construct

Упражнение 8. Переведите на английский язы к.


1. Здание должно было быть построено на участке в конце улицы в 30-х годах. 2. В конце концов,
здание перестроили. 3. Собор должен был быть увенчан 5 главами, но, в конце концов, его увенча­
ли только одной. 4. Город был основан в конце 13 в.

Упражнение 9. Найдите слова того же корня в русском язы ке и укажите, совпадаю т ли их зн а ­


чения или это «ложные друзья переводчика».
Original, artist, structure, construction
Упражнение 10. О бъясните образование следующих слов (от каких слов и каким способом):
unparalleled, considerably, completely, modeling, Saviour, artist (см. Грам. справ. § 14).

Упражнение 11. Переведите предложения на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на глагол to
have (см. Грам. справ. § 8 . 12).
I. Who has done it? 2. He has a brother. 3. He built a new house because the old one had been damaged.
4 .1went to London last year because I had never been there.
Упражнение 12. О пиш ите Больш ой театр.

Упражнение 13. Посмотрите на иллюстрацию храма Христа Спасителя и опиш ите его, обращая
внимание на типично русские черты его архитектуры.

5. M O SCO W METRO

Упражнение 1. П рочтите следующ ие слова и переведите их.


A. qu- [kw] -que[k]
quite unique [ju:'ni:k]
question picturesque [,piktJV resk]
quality grotesque [grau'tesk]
quantity Leonardesque [lena'desk]

B. natural ['n a etjr( 9)l] Altai [cd 'tai] granite ['graenit]


variety [va'ra(i)ati] hall [ho:l] massive ['maesiv]
vestibule [ 'vestibju:l]
WORDS TO BE USED

station ['s te ij( 9)n] n — станция


underground [,лпбэ'дгаипб] a — подземный; the underground n — метрополитен

UNIT I • Moscow 27
palace ['paelis] n — дворец
royal ['roi(a)l] a — королевский
as well as — так же как
hall [ho:l] n — зал
mosaics [m a(u)'zenk] n — мозаика
stained glass ['steind 'gla:s] — витраж, окрашенное стекло
execute ['eksikju:t] v — 1. исполнять; выполнять; 2. казнить
outstanding [aut'staendirj] a — выдающийся
stainless steel ['steinlis'sti:l] — нержавеющая сталь
instead [in'sted] prep — взамен; вместо (of). He used stainless steel instead o f stone,
exhibit [ig'zibit] v — выставлять (на выставке и т.п.); exhibition [,ek si'b ij(a)n ] n — выставка
perfect ['p3:fikt] a — совершенный, безупречный, прекрасный
urban ['з:Ьэп] a — городской
light [lait] 1) n — свет; освещение; 2) a — легкий, светлый; 3) v (lit или lighted) — 1. освещать;
2. зажигать
flat [flaet] a — плоский, ровный
roof [ru:f] n — крыша
polygonal [pa'hgsnl] a — многоугольный
shape ['/eip ] n — форма; очертание; вид
turn [t3:n] 1) n — 1. поворот; 2. очередь; in its turn — в свою очередь; 2) v — 1. вертеть(ся),
поворачивать(ся); 2 . (in)to становиться, превращаться (в)
about [a'baut] 1). prep — 1. (в отнош ении места) вокруг, по; при; около; 2 . о, относительно
2) adv — 1. (в отношении времени) около (for about fifteen minutes, he is about thirty — ему около
тридцати лет); 2. (перед обозначением меры и числа) около; почти (about fifteen roubles; about 5 years)
foot [fut] (pi feet) n — 1. нога; ступня; 2. подножие; 3. фут (= 30,48 см)
capital ['kaepitl] n — капитель
latter [Taeta] a — последний (из упомянутых)
former [Т о :тэ] a — 1. прежний, бывший; 2. первый (из вышеупомянутых)
source [so:s] n — источник

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

adorn [a'dorn] v — украшать


magnificent [maeg'nifisnt] a — великолепный, пышный
award [a'word] v — присуждать (что-л.), награждать (чем-л.). Не was awarded the first prize,
prize ['praiz] n — приз, премия, награда

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст “ Moscow M etro” и ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. When was the Moscow underground built? 2. How were the stations decorated? 3. What architects and
artists designed them? 4. What materials were used in the Moscow metro?
Упражнение 3. Н апиш ите резюме текста на английском или русском язы ке.

MOSCOW METRO

Moscow's metro stations called the “underground palaces” of Moscow are another attraction o f the
city. It is not an exaggeration as their interiors demonstrate almost royal splendour. Used in their decora­
tion are more than twenty varieties of marble coming from the Urals*, Altai, Central Asia*, the Caucasus*
and Ukraine* as well as labradorite*, granite, porphyry*, rhodonite*, onyx* and other natural stones. The
magnificent halls and vestibules are adorned with sculpture, bas-reliefs, mosaics, paintings, stained glass
panels and murals executed by the best artists. It was built between the 1930s and the 1950s, but work is
still going on.

28 5. Moscow metro
The Moscow underground was designed and built by outstanding
Soviet architects. Mayakovskaya metro station opened in 1938, built
by architect A. Dushkin*, is considered one of the most beautiful. Its
underground vestibule is supported by metal columns faced with
granite and stainless steel instead of usual massive supports. Mosaics
in the cupolas were made after the sketches of A. Deineka*. In 1937
Mayakovskaya station was awarded the Grand Prix* at the Interna­
tional Exhibition in Paris. At the same exhibition Moscow's metro
stations o f the first line were given a prize for perfect urban design.
Kropotkinskaya Station is on the first line and was opened on the
Kropotkinskaya Station 14th of May 1935. Its flat roof is supported by light pillars. Its archi­
tects A. Dushkin and Y. Lichtenberg paid a great attention to these
pillars. Polygonal in shape, at a height of about thirty feet they change smoothly into capitals with somewhat
turned back edges*. The lamps hidden by the edges of the capitals make the latter seem to be sources of light
themselves.
The metro stations Mayakovskaya, Kropotkinskaya, Teatralnaya, Novoslobodskaya, Mir Prospect and
Kurskaya-Radialnaya are fine examples of the architecture from the 1930s to the 1950s.
ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ
1. the Urals ['ju(a)rslz] — Урал
2. Central Asia ['sentr(9)l 'e i/э] — Средняя Азия
3. the Caucasus ['koikasss] — Кавказ
4. Ukraine [ju:'krein] — Украина
5. labradorite [,laebr9'do:rait] — лабрадор
6. porphyry ['porfiri] — порфир
7. rhodonite fra u d sn a it] — родонит
8. o n y x ['D n ik s] — о н и к
9. A. Dushkin — Алексей Николаевич Душкин (1903—1977), советский архитектор
10. A. Deineka — Александр Александрович Дейнека (1899—1969), советский художник, скульптор
11. Grand Prix ['grasnd 'pri] — гран-при, большой приз
12. Y. Lichtenberg — Яков Григорьевич Лихтенберг (1899-1982), советский архитектор
13. somewhat turned back edges — края, несколько загнутые назад
Упражнение 4. Вставьте предлоги если нужно.
1. The archture runs ... a height .1. 3 metres. 2. The palace was b u ilt... his design. 3. We decided to use
columns instead ... pilasters. 4. She is ... 5 years old. 5. What are you speaking ...? 6. She was awarded ... the
second prize. (), about, after, at, of
Упражнение 5. О бъясните способ словообразования слов: comparatively, themselves, stainless,
attraction, national, massive, natural, splendour.
Упражнение 6. Подберите синоним ы к словам splendid, adorn, shape.
Упражнение 7. П еречислите: а) строительны е материалы, б) части здания, в) опоры.
Упражнение 8. П одберите соответствую щ ие русские слова (того же корня) и укажите, отли­
чаются ли они по значению от английских: sketch, lamp, urban, prize, vestibule, artist, unique,
palace, natural, capital, execute, massive.
Упражнение 9. О бъясните, почему некоторы е географические названия употребляю тся с ар­
тиклем, а другие без (см. Грам. справ. § 1.3).
The Urals, Central Asia, the United States, Great Britain, the Caucasus, Moscow, the Moskva-River
Упражнение 10. Ответьте на вопрос: W hich o f the m etro stations do you like best? Why?

UNIT I • Moscow 29
6. ZUYEV CLUB
A N D CENTROSOYUZ BUILDING

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующие слова и переведите их.


cement [si'm ent] mass [maes] auditorium [,o:di'tDriam]
office ['Dfis] spiral ['spaigr(9)l] weather ['w eds]
physical [Тшк(э)1]

TEXT A
WORDS TO BE USED

space ['speis] n — 1. пространство, место; 2. расстояние; 3. космос


gymnasium n — I.[d3im 'neizi9m ] (pi -sia, -siums [-ziamz]) — гимнастический зал; 2. [gim'ncuziam]
(pi -siums [-zismz]) — гимназия
staircase ['steakeis] n — лестница
glazed [gleizd] a — застекленный
com er ['ко:пэ] n — угол; angle ['aerjgl] n — мат. угол
different ['difsr(9)nt] a — другой; различный, разный
spiral ['spai9r(g)l] 1) n — спираль; 2) a — спиральный
floor [fb:] n — 1. пол; 2. этаж; 3. междуэтажное перекрытие
level [Tevl] n — уровень
finish ['finij] 1) n — 1. окончание, конец, финиш; 2. отделка; 2) v — 1. кончать; 2. отделывать
factory ['faekt(9)ri] n — фабрика; завод
seat [si:t] 1) n — место (для сидения); 2) v — усадить, посадить; this hall seats 5000 — этот зал вме­
щает 5000 человек.
WORDS ТО BE UNDERSTOOD
series ['si9ri:z] n — серия, ряд
education [,edju:'keij(9)n] n — образование; воспитание
activity [aek'tiviti] n — деятельность
emphasize ['em fasaiz] v — подчеркивать

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст о клубе Зуева и укажите на английском язы ке, какие черты
клуба напом инаю т промы ш ленны е здания.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. What was the purpose of building this club? 2. Who was its architect? 3. How many people does the
club seat?

ZUYEV CLUB

It was built in 1929, being one of the series of clubs and


cultural centres. It was a new type of building, used for political
meetings, educational and mass cultural activities and for the
organization of physical education for industrial workers. The
clubs were to have auditoriums, space for spare time* activities,
gymnasia, children’s rooms.
Ilya Golosov placed the spiral staircase in a glazed circular
shaft* at one corner o f the building. He used many elements
taken from industrial architecture (e.g.* emphasized the different

30 6. Zuyev Club and Centrosoyuz building


floor levels, used grey cement finish), because at that time it was believed that workmen’s clubs were to re­
semble factories.
The auditorium seating 950 is one of the biggest in club architecture of the period.
ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ
1. spare time ['spea'taim] — свободное время
2. shaft [Ja:ft] — шахта
3. e.g. = for example — например

TEXT В

WORDS TO BE USED

restaurant ['rest(a)ro:i3 ] n — ресторан


ramp [raemp] n — пандус
plane [plein] n — плоскость
plate glass — зеркальное стекло
pilotis ['paildtis, pila'tis] n — опоры, «ножки» под зданием
stilt ['stilt] n — опора (под зданием)
car parking — стоянка
terrace roof — эксплуатируемая крыша
load-bearing [lsud'besrir)] a — несущий; non-loadbearing a — не несущий
no longer — больше не.... It is a new building no longer.
strip window — ленточное окно
extend [ik'stend] v — простирать(ся); тянуть(ся)
cantilever ['kaenti,li:va] n — консоль

WORD TO BE UNDERSTOOD
enclose [in'klsuz] v — окружать, огораживать

Упражнение 4. Прочтите текст о здании Центросоюза, ответьте на вопросы.


1. What kind of building is the Centrosoyuz building? 2. Is it a large building? 3. What characteristic
features of Le Corbusier’s architecture do we see in this building? 4. Are all five points used in the Moscow
building in the same way as in European buildings?

CENTROSOYUZ BUILDING
(Central Union of Consumer Societies)*

The office building for the Centrosoyuz was built by Le Corbusier* in 1936. The building contains of­
fices for 3500 people, a social club with a large auditorium, restaurant and gymnasium. It embodies* many
of the characteristic features o f Le Corbusier’s architecture, e.g. ramps, glass walls, striking contrast between
the smooth planes of plate glass and those o P stone walls,
etc. — i. e. his famous five points.
1. Pilotis or the building on columns (stilts). The building
is in the air, above the ground. The place under the building
can be used for a garden, car parking or playground for chil­
dren in bad weather. Unfortunately in this building the ground
floor, originally designed as parking space, was later enclosed.
2. The flat or terrace roof and roof gardens.
3. The free plan. The walls are load-bearing no longer.
The plan is not a slave of load-bearing walls. The rooms on
different floors can be o f different sizes.

UNIT I • Moscow 31
4. A long or strip window. Windows can now run from one edge of the fagade to the other.
5. The free facade. The columns are set back from the facade towards the interior. The floor extends
outward as a cantilever. The facades are only light membranes.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Consumer Societies [kan'sjm m a sa'saiatiz] — потребительские общества


2. Le Corbusier [1э ko:'bu:ziei] —знаменитый архитектор Ле Корбюзье (1887—1965)
3. to embody [im'bDdi] — воплощать, олицетворять
4. th at/ those o f — употребляется, чтобы не повторять уже употребленное существительное

Упражнение 5. Н айдите в обоих текстах.


а) существительные с нестандартным образованием множественного числа, какие еще подобные
существительные вы знаете (см. Грам. справ. § 2. 4)?
б) существительные в притяжательном падеже и переведите словосочетания с ними на русский
язы к (см. Грам. справ. § 2 . 6 )
в) предложения с to be в функции модального глагола, переведите на русский язы к (см. Грам.
справ. § 8. 12 )

Упражнение 6. О бъясните образование следующих слов и словосочетаний.


Different, education, cultural, load-bearing, non-loadbearing, terrace roof, playground, car parking,
unfortunately, strip window, massive

Упражнение 7. П одберите русские слова с тем же корнем , что у следующих английских слов,
и укажите разницу в значении, если она есть.
Cement, physical, mass, auditorium, gymnasium, spiral, period, series, circular, cultural, activities,
organization, ramp, restaurant, finish, industrial, political, meetings, type, club, centre, social, office

Упражнение 8. П одберите синоним ы к следующ им словам, укажите разницу в значении, если


она есть.
То run along, to accommodate, stilt, floor

Упражнение 9. Н апиш ите все прилагательные, которы е вы знаете, означаю щ ие превосходное


качество.

Упражнение 10. Укажите разницу в значении между следую щ ими словами.


Plan — plane, area — square

Упражнение 11. Переведите на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на подчеркнутые слова.
I. There are any old buildings here no longer. 2. The Kremlin towers are like those o f Italy. 3. When was
the work finished? 4. The vestibule is beautifully finished. 5. The facade is divided into three planes. 6 . 1 like
the plans of these buildings. 7. The window is big, so the room is light. 8. Wood is lighter than stone. 9. It was
believed that workmen’s clubs were to resemble factories. 10. Who placed the playground here? 11. It is a
good place for a playground.

Упражнение 12. Вы пиш ите все терм ины и словосочетания, которы е нуж ны для оп и сан и я
театра, кинотеатра и т.п.

Упражнение 13. Переведите на английский язы к.


Этот кинотеатр находится в центре города. Он построен в 50-е годы. Зрительный зал рассчитан
на 300 мест. Здание напоминает великолепный дворец.

32 6. Zuyev Club and Centrosoyuz building


7. M O SCO W UNIVERSITY
A N D "PUSHKINSKY" CINEMA

TEXT A

Упражнение 1. П рочтите следующ ие слова и переведите их на русский язы к,


acre ['eika] ceramic [sTraemik] classic ['klaesik] colonnade [kola'neid]

WORDS TO BE USED

be located [lau'keitid] — находиться, быть расположенным


district f'distrikt] n — район
acre [’eika] n — акр (около 0,4 га)
tower ['taua] n — башня
reach [ri:tj] v — 1. достигать; 2. простираться
wing [wip] n — 1. крыло; 2. флигель (дома)
hostel ['hDSt(a)l] n — общежитие
flat [flaet] n — квартира (в одном уровне) (брит.)
entrance ['en tr(a)n s] n — 1. вход; 2. поступление (в институт)

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст об университете и опиш ите его, ответив на следующие вопросы.
1. Where is the University situated? 2. When and by whom was it built? 3. How large is the site? 4. How
high is the main building and by what is it flanked? 5. What can you say about its finishing and decoration?

MOSCOW UNIVERSITY
(new building)

The new building of the Lomonosov University is located on the


Vorobyovy Hills. The University complex is the dominating element in
the southwestern district. It was constructed in 1949—53 by Rudnev,
Chernyshov and others. The site covers an area of 79 acres. The main
building whose central tower reaches a height of 32 storeys, is flanked to
the right and left by two 18-storey wings containing hostels for students
and flats for professors. The exterior is finished in ceramics. The colon­
nade to the main entrance is classic. The design of the entrance hall,
vestibules, and staircases resembles the interiors of royal palaces with
their classical columns, rich marbles and mosaics.

TEXT В

WORDS TO BE USED

serve [s3:v] v — служить


background ['baekgraund] n — фон, задний план; foreground ['foigraund] n — передний план; in
the foreground — на переднем плане; against the background of — на фоне чего-либо
equip [I'kwtp] v — снаряжать; оборудовать (with)
side [said] n — сторона, бок; on the side of — сбоку от
lead [li:d] (led) v — вести
overpass ['suvopcus] n — эстакада
span [spaen] v — перекрывать
impressive [im 'presiv] a — производящий глубокое впечатление
simplicity [sim 'plisiti] n — простота

UNIT I • Moscow 33
Упражнение 3. П рочтите текст о кинотеатре «П уш кинский» и ответьте на вопросы.
1. Where is it situated? 2. How is used? 3. By whom was it designed? 4. What auditoria are there?

“PUSHKINSKY CINEMA (ROSSIYA)”

A good example of m odem Soviet architecture is the “Pushkinsky” Cinema. The m odem forms of
architecture of this cinema and the huge glass facade serve as a background for the famous m onum ent to the
great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin. The main auditorium, which seats 2,500, is on the first floor and is
equipped to show ordinary, wide screen and panorama films. On the ground floor are two auditoria seating
2000 each. They are used for newsreels and documenentaries. On the three sides of the main lounge on the
first floor is a terrace which leads to the main entrance. It is in the form of an overpass spanning the street.
The auditorium is air-conditioned. The architecture of this building is impressive in its simplicity, modem
lines and monumental form.
It was designed by Sheverdyayev and others (1960). Originally it was called “ Rossiya”, but some years
ago it was renamed after Pushkin.

Упражнение 4. О бъясните образование следующих слов и словосочетаний и переведите их.


Southwestern, glass facade, entrance hall, overpass, air-conditioned, monumental, simplicity, terrace roof

Упражнение 5. П одберите соответствующ ие русские слова с этим же корнем и укаж ите раз­
ницу в значении, если она есть.
Equip, element, dominate, complex, acre, ceramic, colonnade, classic, m odem , cinema, film, terrace,
line, monumental, monument

Упражнение 6. Подберите синоним ы к следующим словам, укажите разницу в значении, если


она есть: to construct, to be located, huge.

Упражнение 7. П одберите антони м ы к следую щ им словам: right, background, unglazed,


unfortunate, non-loadbearing, to finish.

Упражнение 8. Вставьте предлоги и переведи­


те предложения на русский язы к.
1. The chapel is located'... the background. 2. The
river is seen „. the background the hills. 3. The
monqm ent^pYury Dolgoruky is situatedVl the cen­
tre Sr^Vloscow.
against, in, of, to

Упражнение 9. Укажите разницу в значении


между следующ ими словами:
reach — rich, side —site — sight, cinema — film,
tree — wood

Упражнение 10. Переведите на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на подчеркнутые слова.
1. The flat is situated on the ground floor. 2. The site is flat. 3. There are a lot of trees in the park. 4. There
is car parking at the side of the building. 5. The floor is wooden. 6. The river isjiow under the ground.

Упражнение 11. О пиш ите какой-либо московский театр или кинотеатр, указав м естораспо­
лож ение, архитектора, время постройки, размеры , архитектурные особенности и т.д.
UNIT II
LONDON

1. HISTORY OF LO ND O N
Упражнение 1. П рочтите следую щ ие и н тер н ац и о н а л ь н ы е слова и н азван и я и переведите их
на русский.
Thames [temz] Britain fb ritn ] Edward ['edwod]
museum [m ju(:)'ziom ] era [Тэгэ] national['naeJri(o)l]
viking ['vaikirj] Scandinavia LskaendTneivjo]
WORDS TO BE USED

ancient ['e in j(a )n t] а — древний; старинный, старый


arch [a:tj] n — арка
borough ['Ьлгэ] n — 1. город, имеющий самоуправление; 2. городской район (в Лондоне и Нью-
Йорке)
bum (down) [Ьз:п] (burnt) v — 1. жечь, сжигать; 2. гореть
со те [к л т ] (саше; come) v — 1. приходить, приезжать; 2. становиться, стать (начало действия)
consist [kon'sist] v — 1. состоять из (of); 2. заключаться в (in)
department store [d i'p artm an t 'sto:] — универсальный магазин
destroy [dis'troi] v — уничтожать; разрушать
divide [di'vaid] v — делить (into — на); division [di'vi 3 (o)n] n — деление; разделение
goods [gudz] n pi — товары
have [haev] (had) v — 1. иметь; 2. с последующим инфинитивом: должен, должна и т.п. she has to
go there — она должна пойти туда
important [im 'po:t(o)nt] а — важный, значительный
independent L indi' pendant] а — независимый
island ['ailond] n — остров
leave [li:v] (left) v — 1. уезжать, уходить; уезжать (куда-л. — for); 2. оставлять
masonry ['m eisnri] n — каменная или кирпичная кладка
quality ['kwoloti] n — качество
settler ['setla] n — поселенец; settlement ['setlm ont] n — поселение
shop [Jbp] n — 1. магазин (в Англии); 2. мастерская, цех
since [sins] 1) prep — 1. с. I have not seen him since 1960 — я не видел его с 1960 года. 2. с тех пор
как. Where have you been since I saw you last? — Где вы были с тех пор, как я видел вас в последний
раз? 2) cj — так как, поскольку. I do not know where he is since I have not seen him for a long time. — Я не
знаю, где он, т.к. я не видел его давно.
store [sto:] n — 1. магазин (в Америке); 2. склад
traffic ['traefik] n — движение, сообщение; транспорт

Упражнение 2. П рочтите текст и найдите абзацы , описы ваю щ ие:


1. The first settlers in Britain. 2. The Romans in Britain. 3. Vikings and the Normans in Britain. 4. The
modem city of London.

Упражнение 3. Н ап и ш и те резю м е на ру сско м или а н гл и й с к о м я зы к е к тек сту об и стори и


Л ондона.

UNIT II • London 35
Упраж нение 4. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. Who ruled in Britain? 2. What can you say about William? 3. Is Anglo-Saxon influence on London
seen today? 4. Why are there many French words in the English language? 5. What was the result o f the Great
Fire? 6. Into what parts is London divided?

HISTORY OF LONDON

The first settlers were


Britons*, Piets*, Scots* and
others. Hundreds of years be­
fore our era the Britons came
to live on the banks of the
Thames, and founded there a
settlement. In the first cen­
tury A. D.* the Romans* con­
quered Britain, and it re­
mained a Roman province for
400 years.
In the 5th century the Ro­
mans had to leave Britain and
the Germanic* tribes (the
Angles* and the Saxons*)
cam e from the continent.
They established seven A n­
glo-Saxon kingdoms in Brit­
ain. The Anglo-Saxon archi­
tecture was characterised by
masonry walls and round arches. Its influence on London is hardly seen today, as the wooden town with
ancient buildings was burnt in the ninth and tenth centuries.
In the ninth century Vikings* (Danes* and Normans*) began to invade the island. When the Danes were
driven away Edward the Confessor* became the king (1024—1066) and made London the capital o f the
country (it had been the capital of one o f the kingdoms).
In 1066 came the Normans with William the Duke of Normandy*, they defeated* the English army.
William was called the Conqueror after that and became the King of England. The Normans had come from
Scandinavia and conquered the northern part of France, which came to be called Normandy because o f it.
These Normans spoke the French language and that’s why there are so many French words in the English
language (which is a Germanic one).
London saw many fires, plagues. In December 1664 the Great Plague* broke out. In September 1666 the
Great Fire* took place, 420 streets, 13,000 houses, 89 churches were burnt down.
The modem city o f London is not one city that has become larger through centuries, it consists of a
number of former independent cities, towns and villages. Greater London* covers 580 sq. km. and stretches
for nearly 30 miles from north to south and from east to west. It comprises the City and 32 boroughs; and
since 1965 to 1996 was governed by the Greater London Council (GLC)*1. The City is only one square mile
in area, stretching from the Tower to Fleet Street, and only ten thousand people live there. The River Thames
divides London into two parts known as the north bank and the south bank. The division between «the City»,
«the West End»* and «the East End»* is much more important. In the West End are the finest theatres,
cinemas and concert halls, the largest museums, the largest department stores, and the most famous shops.
The name «West End» came to be associated with wealth, and goods of high quality.

Before 1965 London was governed by London C ounty Council (L C C )* and since 2 0 0 0 it has been governed by the G reater London Authority
(GLA — Управление Большого Лондона).

36 1. History of London
ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Britons ['britnz] — бритты


2. Piets [pikts] — пикты
3. Scots [skots] — скотты
4. A.D. = of our era — нашей эры
5. Romans ['гэ и т э п г] — римляне
6. Germanic [с!зз:'таеш к] — германский; Germanic tribes — германские племена;
7. Angles ['asqglz] — англы
8. Saxons ['sasksnz] — саксы
9. Viking ['vaiknj] — викинг
10. Danes [deins] — датчане
11. Normans ['п э :т э п г ] — норманны
12. Edward the Confessor [kan'fesa] — Эдуард Исповедник. Умер в 1066
13. William the Conqueror ['w iljsm бп'кш ]к(э)гэ] — Вильгельм Завоеватель (1027—1087), король
Англии (1066—1087), до этого герцог Нормандии
14. defeat [di'fi:t] — наносить поражение, разбивать
15. Great Plague ['g re it pleig] — Великая чума
16. Great Fire ['g reit Таю] — Великий пожар
17. Greater London — Большой Лондон
18. Greater London Council (GLC) — Совет Большого Лондона
19. London County Council [' L\ndan' kaunti' kaunsl] — Совет Лондонского графства
20. West End ['w est'en d ] — Уэст-Энд (аристократический квартал Лондона)
21. East End ['i:st'end] — Ист-Энд

Упражнение 5. П рочтите следующ ие предлож ения и укажите, в каких местах они могут быть
вставлены в текст.
1. This original London was built at the place where now St. Paul’s Cathedral is situated. It is the oldest
part (with a history of almost two thousand years), Westminster being six hundred years younger.
2. In the second century the Romans built a wall round the settlement, making it into a city. Only some
fragments of it remain now. The Romans built long straight roads, many of them met at the point where
London Bridge now stands, and they built there the first bridge in London.
3. The Roman temples were tom down for building materials: St. Paul’s Cathedral was founded in 604,
being built with ample use o f Roman stone.
4. The Normans called the city London.
5. The capital was badly damaged during World War II, many buildings were destroyed and now there
are a lot of m odem buildings in London (e.g. Post Office Tower, Hilton Hotel, Vicker’s Building, etc.).
6. The streets in the City are narrow and the traffic is slow.
7. The port o f London is to the east of the City. Here are miles and miles of docks. This is the East End
of London, unattractive in appearance, but very important for the country’s commerce.

Упражнение 6. Н айдите в тексте все случаи употребления глагола to have, переведите предло­
жения на русский язы к и объясните его ф ункцию в данном предлож ении (в значении «иметь»,
как вспомогательны й глагол для образования перф ектны х времен, к ак модальны й глагол со
значением «должен, вынужден») (см. Грам. справ. § 8. 12).

Упражнение 7. Переведите следующ ие предлож ения на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на
разницу в значении эквивалента м одальных глаголов to have и to be и другие значения этих гла­
голов (см. Грам. справ. § 8. 12).

UNIT II • London 37
1 .1 have to get up early today, since 1am to meet my friend at 7 o ’clock A.M. 2. You do not have to finish
this work today at night, as you are to give it to me only in a month. 3. The architects had to reconstruct this
building as some of its parts had been damaged. 4. Are you to go to the Institute today? — Oh, I did not want,
but I have to go, because I have left my book there. 5. He had to go to the Institute, because he had left his
book there. 6. The house is to be built in two years.

Упражнение 8. Найдите в тексте предложения в пассивном залоге и переведите их (см. Грам.


справ. § 8. 8).

Упражнение 9. Вставьте предлоги или послелоги' (например, down), если они нуж ны , переве­
дите предложения на русский язы к.
1. The house consists ... three rooms. 2. The cathedral b u rn t... two years ago. 3. When did you leave ...
Kiev ... Moscow? 4. When did you come ... Kiev ... Moscow?
[(), down, for, from, of, to ]

Упражнение 10. Подберите синонимы и укажите разницу в значении между ними, если она есть.
Round, to stretch, nearly, to tear down, to leave for, to come, ancient, to come to live in, since.

Упражнение 11. Подберите антонимы : wide, B.C., to leave for, ancient.

Упражнение 12. Укажите разницу в значении между следующ ими словами: 1. в значении «за­
быть»: to leave — to forget (I have left my book at home. I have forgotten to take it. D o n ’t forget to do
it.); 2. to leave — to live; ages — century; latter — later — letter.

Упражнение 13. О бъясните образование следующих слов (от каких слов и каким способом):
kingdom, conqueror, settlement.

Упражнение 14. Подберите соответствующ ие русские слова и укажите, отличаются ли они по


значению от английских: province, fragment, continent, museum , national, gallery, concert, hall,
hotel, associate, city.

Упражнение 15. Переведите на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на подчеркнутые слова.
I. What is your age? 2. It was built in the Middle Ages. 3. I haven’t seen you for ages. 4. G o to the left.
5. He left Moscow two days ago. 6. He is a former student o f the Institute. 7. I want to visit my brother and
sister. The former lives in Tver and the latter in Pskov. At first I shall go to Tver, and later to Pskov. 8. I was
in Vologda for the first time in 2000. 9. The city o f Moscow is more than 800 years old. Ю. Not many people
live in the City. II. Greater London, Greater Moscow, Great Fire, Great Plague. 11.1 have not seen him since
January. 12. I can’t visit you since I am ill.

Упражнение 16. Прочтите следующ ие предлож ения и скаж ите, согласны вы с ним и или нет,
начиная с “You are right” mm “You are w r o n g ” (B последнем случае исправьте их).
1. London was founded in the 6th century B.C. 2. There are few French words in the English language.
3. The capital was badly damaged during the Second World War. 4. The first settlers were the Germans.

Упражнение 17. Определите в каких предлож ениях нужно употребить обороты there is, there
are (см. Грам. справ. §12).
1. В городе много новых домов. 2. Новые дома расположены в центре города. 3. В доме 5 комнат.
4. Столовая находится на первом этаже. 5. В лесу много старых деревьев. 6. В группе 15 человек.

' П ослелог — служебное слово, подобное предлогу, но стоящ ее не п еред д ругим словом (сущ ествительны м), а после него (глагола)
(см. Грам. справ. Глава 7).

38 1. History of London
Упражнение 18. Переведите на английский язык.
Город Киев — древнейший из крупных русских городов. Он прозван «матерью русских городов».
Город расположен на берегах реки Днепр (the Dnieper). Он очень красив. Киеву больше (over) 1000
лет. В 6—7 вв. на месте Киева существовало поселение. В то время на территории теперешней Ук­
раины (the present Ukraine) жили славянские (Slav) племена. Киев видел много войн и пожаров.
В конце 11 в. ряд русских городов, например, Киев, Новгород и другие, был захвачен варягами или
норманнами, которые пришли из Скандинавии. В 1240 г. город Киев был захвачен татарами (the
Ta(r)tars). В результате (из-за) войн многие здания были разрушены, особенно сильно пострадали
(были повреждены) деревянные дома. Но и сейчас в Киеве существуют многие древние здания,
например, собор Св. Софии. Он был построен при Ярославе Мудром (the Wise) в 1037 г. Сильно
пострадал Киев во время Второй мировой войны. После войны здания были восстановлены. В 1934
г. Киев стал столицей Украинской республики и ее самым большим промышленным центром. Он
занимает площадь около 700 кв. км. Сейчас Киев — столица независимого государства.

2. WESTMINSTER

TEXT А

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующие слова и переведите их:


Elizabeth [iTizabaG] present ['preznt] bomb [Ьшп]
Conqueror Г'копк(э)гэ1 Edward ['edw ad] tomb [tu:m]
total ['tautl] Thames [temz] polygonal [pa'hganl]
close [kbits] (to) poet ['pauit] Latin [Taetin]
to close [kbuz] neo- [,ni:au] monastery ['m D nast(a)ri]
mosaic [m au'zenk] altar ['o:lta] chief [tji:f]
St. Paul’s [san(t) 'po:lz] to alter [b d ta ] honour ['Dna]
breadth [bredG] bury fb e ri] Henry ['henri]

WORDS TO BE USED

abbey ['aebi] n—аббатство


choir ['kwaia] n — хор, пространство в церкви между алтарным пространством и средокрестием,
иногда включает и алтарное пространство
close [kbits] (to ) adv — близко (HO close [kbuz] v — закрывать)
cruciform ['kru:sifo:m ] a — крестообразный
date [deit] from v—вести начало от...; относиться (к определенной эпохе)
destroy [dis'troi] v — разрушать
fan-vault(ing) ['faen,vo:lt(irj)] n — веерный свод
hardly ['ha:dli] adv — 1. едва; 2. едва ли
high [hai] a — 1. высокий; 2. главный; high altar — главный алтарь
Latin cross [Taetin'kros] — неравноконечный крест; Greek cross — равноконечный крест
monastery ['mDnast(9)ri] n — монастырь (мужский); convent ['kDnv(a)nt] n —монастырь (преим.)
женский, nunnery ['плпэп] n — женский монастырь (употребляется без названия)
monument ['nm njum ant] (to) n — памятник; монумент
pendant ['p en d an t] n — подвеска
pointed ['pointid] a — 1. остроконечный; 2. стрельчатый; pointed style = Gothic ['gD0ik] — готи­
ческий
represent [,rep ri'z en t] v — изображать, представлять

UNIT II • London 39
rise [raiz] (rose; risen) v — подниматься, возвышатьсяго8е window [ja u z 'w in d su ] — окно-роза
total f'tautl] a — (все)общий; полный
transept ['trasnsept] n — трансепт, поперечный неф готического собора
vault [vo:lt] n — свод; fan-vaulted — с веерообразным сводом
wonderful ['wAndsf(3)l] а — удивительный, замечательный

WORDS ТО BE UNDERSTOOD

battle ['baetl] n — битва; сражение


chevet ['Jevei] n — венец, алтарное полукружие или апсида с круговым обходом и лучеобразно
расположенными часовнями или другими помещениями

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст о Вестминстерском аббатстве и ответьте наследую щ ие вопросы.


1. Why is the Westminster Abbey called so? 2. When was it built? 3. How was it used? 4. What typically
Gothic features do we see in it? 5. What French features do we see in it? 6. What did Nelson want to say by
his words “Victory or Westminster Abbey”? Do you know the Russian equivalent o f these words?

WESTMINSTER ABBEY

Westminster Abbey is situated in the city of Westminster, close to


Westminster Palace, not far from the Thames. The first church was found­
ed in 616 and was called Westminster, because there was already a min­
ster* — St. Paul’s in the City o f London. The city of Westminster took its
name from this church. This church was destroyed by the Danes, and in
1050 Edward the Confessor built a new one. It was rebuilt and enlarged
afterwards. The present building dates largely from the time of Henry III*.
It is built in the form of a Latin cross and is a cruciform structure consist­
ing of a nave and aisles, transepts with aisles, and choir of polygonal form
with chapels, the eastern chapel is known as Henry VIPs* chapel. The
western towers were added in the 18th century from the designs of Wren*.
In the centre a low square tower hardly rises above the roof. The main en­
trance is in the north transept. The total length of the church is 53 ft. The
breadth of the nave is 38 ft. 7 in. and its height almost 102 ft.
The interior is a wonderful example of the pointed style. The choir,
with radiating* chapels, follows French models forming a chevet. The fine
fan-vaulted roof, with its carved stone pendants, is the most beautiful
architectural feature of Henry VII’s Chapel. The high altar was designed
in 1867, the mosaic represents the Last Supper*. The rose window o f the south transept dates from 1902.
Westminster Abbey was a monastery, but under Queen Elizabeth I* it became the Church of St. Peter in
Westminster. Since William the Conqueror almost all English Kings and Queens have been crowned in the Abbey
and so there is a special Coronation Chair*.
The abbey is used as a burial place for the nation’s most famous men. It was considered to be a great hon­
our to be buried in Westminster Abbey: Nelson* is known to have said* before one battle “Victory or Westmin­
ster Abbey”. There is a special Hall of Heroes. In one comer, called Poets’ Comer, poets are grouped together.
Dickens, Kipling and many others are buried there. There are monuments to Shakespeare, Bums, Byron,
W. Scott, Thackeray and the American poet Longfellow. Near the east end there are tombs of many kings (from
Edward the Confessor) and queens.

40 2. Westminster
ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. minster ['m insta] — собор, большая церковь


2. Henry III — Генрих III, 1216—72, Плантагенет
3. Henry VII — Генрих VII, 1509—47, Тюдор
4. Sir Christopher Wren ['k rista fa 're n ] — Крис­
тофер Рен, великий английский архитектор
(1632-1723)
5. radiating ['reidiatirj] — расходящийся лучами
6. the Last Supper — Тайная Вечеря
7. Elizabeth I — Елизавета I Тюдор (1533—1603),
королева — (1558—1603), восстановила англи­
канскую церковь
8. Coronation Chair [,k t)ra 'n e ijn 't /га] — Коро­
национное кресло, используется во время ко­
ронации
9. N elson ['n e ls ( a )n ] — Н ельсон Горацио
(1758—1805), английский адмирал, был смер­
тельно ранен в морском сражении у мыса
Трафальгар, Испания
10. he is known to have said ... — известно, что он
сказал ... (сложное подлежащее; перфектный
и н ф и н и ти в о зн ач ает предш ествовани е)
(см. Грам. справ. § 9.1, § 10. 1).

ADDITIONAL WORDS

1. pinnacle ['pinakl] n — пинакль


2. turret ['tA rit] n — башенка
3. buttress ['bAtras] n — контрфорс
4. flying buttress — аркбутан
5. pediment [' pedim ant] n — фронтон; open work pediment, high pediment — вимперг

TEXT В

Упражнение 3. Прочтите следующие слова и переведите их:


to wind [waind] a wind [wind] bomb [bom] House of Lords

WORDS TO BE USED

bridge [brid 3 ] n — мост


connect [ka'nekt] (with) v — соединять (c)
exact [ig'zaekt] a — точный
fly [flai] (flew; flown) v — 1. летать; 2. развеваться (о флаге)
indicate [Tndikeit] v — указывать; показывать
member ['memba] n — 1. член; 2. деталь, элемент
row [rau] n — ряд
sit [sit] (sat) v — 1. сидеть; 2. заседать; sitting n — заседание

UNIT II • London 41
У п р а ж н е н и е 4. Прочтите текст о Вестминстерском дворце и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы :
1. Where is the palace situated? 2. How was it used and how is it used now? 3. What parts does it consist
of? 4. How many towers are there? 5. What is Big Ben?

У п р а ж н е н и е 5. Н апиш ите резюме текста на русском или английском язы ке.

WESTMINSTER PALACE
WITH THE HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT

Westminster Palace is situated on the bank of the


Thames near Westminster Bridge.
For many centuries English kings lived in Westminster
Palace. It was many times rebuilt. The new building was
erected in 1840—1850 from the designs by Sir Charles
Barry*. This neo-gothic building extends for 940 feet along
the Thames.
The Parliament sat in a part of this palace from the
time o f Edward III (1312—77).
The two Houses of Parliament are situated at different
ends of the building. At the House of Commons’* end
rises the high Clock Tower (318 feet) with Big Ben in it,
and at the House of Lords’* end — the Victoria Tower*.
The House of Lords is decorated in the richest Gothic style, it seats 550 members. The House o f C om ­
mons is new as it was terribly bombed in World War II and rebuilt in 1950. There are 660 members, but it
seats only 400, as not all the members attend every sitting. There are two rows of benches in the Hall: the
Government on one side, the Opposition — on the other.
A light in the Clock Tower by night and union flag* (Union Jack) flying from the Victoria Tower by day
indicate that the “ House” is sitting.
Big Ben is one of the largest clocks in the world and it takes two hours a week to wind it up.
The face is 22 feet across. The time is always exact, as it is connected with Greenwich*. It was called after
Benjamin Hall, the Chief Commissioner of Works* at that time, who was a very tall man, and whose nickname
was Big Ben.

f e l V E R T h. A m . £ 5

v------— ---------------— ............... ............... H ' ---

R i v e r t B R R * c e
'~ * P S A № r : s
ке й й е п се
C o m m o n ^ llR R .A R IE S L o R d S s c o m m it t e f R o o m s lo a fs Ь ы ию к

\J _ -------------------------г—J------ v_----

ft gpeAKea's ~ ioaimcre ccuat


couet U sds oouat }RoyAL count
OOUBt
fc.aiW.agn.loap1I EAStCO bSCaO K
—I-Houseof1 to», RoyAL^лЦеку
31 jwgfrtCORRi
New COUKt
pAUce-
VARd

p-uaUo VeStmUsb*. -HaIL


w
rtR
ARc
e

d
OLd pALACe VARcl

42 2. Westminster
ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Sir Charles Barry ['tjadz'baeri] — Чарльз Барри (1795—1860), архитектор


2. the House of Commons — палата общин
3. the House of Lords — палата лордов
4. Victoria Tower — Баш ня Виктории (названа в честь британской королевы Виктории)
5. Union Flag, Union Jack ['ju :n ja n 'd 3aek] — государственный флаг Соединенного королевства
Великобритании и Северной Ирландии
6. Greenwich ['д п ш б з] — Гринвич
7. the Chief Commissioner of Works — главный смотритель работ

Упражнение 6. Вставьте предлоги, если они нужны.


1. The abbey dates ... the 11th century. 2. The cathedral is b u ilt... the form ... a cross. 3. It was b u ilt...
Queen Mary. 4. Close ... the theatre there is a m onum ent... Henry III. 5. The park is connected... the square
... a short street. 6. The park is called ... M. Gorky. 7. The street extends ... 1 km.
(), after, by, for, from, in, of, to, under, with

Упражнение 7. Подберите синоним ы к словам: indicate, chief, to name.

Упражнение 8. О бъясните образование следующ их слов (каким способом они образованы и


от чего) и переведите их:
A. large — to enlarge, rich — to enrich, able — to enable, circle — to encircle, danger — to endanger,
dear — endear, noble — to ennoble, slave — to enslave, throne — to enthrone, tomb — to entomb
B. burial, national, rebuilt, government, sitting, neo-G othic, pointed, length, breadth, height
C. Дайте примеры слов, образованных с помощью приставки ге-.

Упражнение 9. П одберите соответствую щ ие русские слова и укаж ите, отличаю тся ли они по
значению от английских: bom b, opposition, coronation, hero, poet, group, special, m odel, mosaic,
chief.

Упражнение 10. У каж ите разницу в зн ачени и между следую щ ими словами: m onastery —
convent — nunnery; to attend — to visit.

Упражнение 11. Н апиш ите все: 1) н азвания религиозны х зданий; 2) прилагательны е, означа­
ющие качество, и переведите их.

Упражнение 12. Переведите на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на подчеркнутые слова.
I. Since 2000 I have lived in Moscow. 2. Since you are ill, you must remain at home. 3. Everybody is pres-
entat the lesson. 4. At present I study at the Institute. 5. Use this verb in the Present Tense. 6. The present
building dates from the 15th century. 7. The church is crowned with a cross. 8. We must cross the street here.
9. The palace is situated near the street crossing. 10. There are frescos above the crossing. 11. The tsar’s crown
was put on the table. 12. The tsar was crowned in the cathedral. 13. The house is very small, it houses only two
people and two rooms. 14. The House of Parliament houses a library. 15. Wash your face. 16. The room faces
the south. 17. The wall is faced with wood. 18. The clock has a face. 17. Take the book. 18. It took me one hour
to come to the Institute. 19. The village took its name from the famous writer who had lived there.

Упражнение 13. Переведите на русский язы к предложения со сложным подлежащим (см. Грам.
справ. § 9. 1).
1. Не is known to live in Moscow. 2. He is known to have lived in Moscow. 3. He is said to be building a
house. 4. He is said to build many houses. 5. He is said to have built a house. 6. He was said to have built good
houses. 7. He is believed to be a good architect 8. He is wanted to come here. 9. He was seen to be dancing.

UNIT II • London 43
Упражнение 14. Задайте все возможные вопросы к следующим предлож ениям.
I. The street extends for l km. (4) 2. The old architect built a stone monastery in the centre in 1914 (8).

Упражнение 15. Опиш ите Вестминстерское аббатство, обращая особое внимание на готические
детали.

Упражнение 16. Отгадайте загадку. W hat has a face, two or three hands; it has no feet, but can go.

3. TOWER A N D PALACES

TEXT A

Упражнение 1. П рочтите следующие слова и переведите их.


Concentric [кэп'sentrik] fortification [,fo:tifi'keiJn] Conqueror ['кш )к(э)гэ] tow er [Таиэ]

WORDS TO BE USED

age [eid 3 ] n — 1. возраст; 2. (часто pi) разг. долгий срок; 3. век; период, эпоха
castle ['ka:sl] n — замок
ditch [ditj] n — ров
encircle [in's3:kl] v — окружать, опоясывать
execute [ 'eksikjurt] v 1. казнить; 2. выполнять
fortress ['fo:tras] n — крепость
hexagon ['heksagan] n — шестиугольник; hexagonal [hek'saeganl] n — шестиугольник
keep [ki:p] 1) n — донжон, центральная укрепленная часть замка; 2) keep (kept) v — сохранять,
хранить
occupy ['okjupai] v — 1.занимать (дом, квартиру); арендовать; 2. занимать (пространство, время)
prison ['prizn] n — тюрьма
pull down [pul] v — сносить (здания)
regular ['regjula] a — правильный, регулярный
remain [ri'm ein] v — оставаться
sights [salts] n pi — достопримечательности
size [saiz] n — размер, величина; объем
zoo [zu:] n — зоопарк

WORD TO BE UNDERSTOOD

moat [maut] n — ров (с водой)

Упражнение 2. П рочтите текст о Тауэре, ответьте на следующ ие вопросы.


1. Where is the Tower situated? 2. Who built and rebuilt the Tower? 3. What is situated in the centre of
the Tower? 4. How was it used? 5. What is it now?

TOWER OF LONDON

One of the most famous sights o f London — the Tower — is situated on the north bank o f the Thames,
near Tower Bridge.
In the eleventh century William the Conqueror pulled down an old fortress and on its site built a castle
to live in and it has grown into the Tower. It was not built at one time. Now the Tower looks like a number of
buildings of all ages and sizes. The square building in the centre (the keep) with four little corner towers is
called the White Tower, though it is not white now. It is the oldest part begun about 1078 by William the

44 3. Tower and palaces


Conqueror. It rises 90 feet, and its walls are 15 feet thick. William Rufus* or William II began to build the
inner bailey* with thirteen towers, twelve of which remain, but a large part was remodelled by other kings.
The present Tower covers an irregular hexagonal area encircled by a deep ditch (it was under Richard
Coeur de Lion* that this moat was dug), now it is dry. It is a concentric castle with two lines of fortifications
which surround the inner bailey. The inner bailey is, in its turn, enclosed by an outer bailey and wall with
eight towers.
The Tower was used as a fortress, palace, prison, royal Zoo. Many people were executed just outside the
Tower or in the Tower Green*. Now it is a museum. The two upper floors of the White Tower are occupied
with the Armoury*. The Crown Jewels* are also kept in the Tower (Wakefield Tower).

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. William Rufus ['ru:fos] — Вильгельм II Рыжий, 1056—1100, сын Вильгельма Завоевателя


2. bailey ['belli] — двор замка
3. Richard I Coeur de Lion ['ritj9d,k3:d3Ti5:r)] — Ричард Львиное Сердце (1189—99)
4. Tower Green — лужайка Тауэр-Грин в Тауэре, где казнили аристократов
5. Armoury ['а :т эп ] — арсенал, оружейная палата
6. Crown Jewels ['kraun'd3u:3lz] — королевские регалии1

1. Tower Green; 2. White Tower; 3. Wakefield Tower

TEXTS В

Упражнение 3. Прочтите следующие слова и переведите их:


Buckingham ['Ьлкщэш] bought [bo:t] James [d3 eimz]
Whitehall ['waithorl] official [o'fijl]

UNIT II • London 45
WORDS TO BE USED

buy [bai] (bought [bo:t]) v — покупать


court [ko:t] n — 1. суд; 2. двор (тж. короля); 3. спорт, корт; площадка
figure ['figs] n — 1. цифра; 2. рисунок (иллюстрация); 3. фигура
fortress ['fo:trss] n — крепость
memorial [ т э 'т э :п э 1 ] n — памятник
move [mu:v] v — 1. двигать; 2. двигаться; 3. переезжать, переселяться
over ['suvs] prep — 1. над; вокруг; через; 2. свыше, более
picturesque [p ik tjs'resk ] а — живописный
state [steit] n — 1. государство; 2. штат; 3. состояние, положение
surmount [ss'm aunt] v — (преим. passive) увенчивать

Упражнение 4. Прочтите тексты о дворцах и скаж ите, какая ф ункция у них была общ ей.

Упражнение 5. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. What did the palaces take their names from? 2. How are they used now? 3. Which palace is used as a
royal residence now?

WHITEHALL* PALACE

The Westminster Palace became old and when Henry VIII (1492—1547) saw a beautiful house — the
present Whitehall*, called York house, he took it for himself. It was renamed Whitehall House and in the 16th
century the English kings lived there, but in 1700 it was burnt down.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ

Whitehall ['w aithod] — Уайтхолл (сейчас улица в Лондоне, на которой расположены правитель­
ственные учреждения)

ST. JAM ES’S PALACE

At about the same time when Henry VIII took the York
House and turned it into Whitehall Palace, he took also a house
in St. James’s Park and built a palace there, called St. James’s
Palace. It is a very picturesque building. The Royal family and the
Court moved to this palace in 1700 and Uved there for nearly 150
years. Now International Conferences are held in St. James's.

BUCKINGHAM PALACE

At the West end o f St. James’s Park is Buckingham Palace.


It takes its name from the Duke of Buckingham’s house which
occupied this site and was bought by George III (1760—1820).
The Palace was begun under George IV in 1825 from the designs
of John Nash*. Since 1837 it has been used as the official Lon­
don home of the King.
The white marble memorial to Queen Victoria surmounted
by the figure of «Victory» in front of the Palace was erected in 1911.
The Palace houses a fine sculpture gallery, library, throne
room, state ball room and picture gallery. The gardens extend
over 40 acres. The Royal standard* flying over the Palace indi­
cates that the Queen is in residence.

46 3. Tower and palaces


ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. John Nash [М зоп'пэе/] — Джон Нэш , английский архитектор, 1752—1835


2. Royal standard ['ro i^ l's ta e n d o d ] — королевское знамя, штандарт

Упражнение 6. Н айдите в текстах предлож ения с сущ ествительными в притяж ательном паде­
же, переведите их (см. Грам. справ. § 2. 6).

Упражнение 7. Вставьте предлоги или послелоги (см. Грам. справ. § 7), если они нужны.
1. The house is to be pulled ... 2. The castle is surmounted ... a tower. 3. The memorial covers ... an area
... 20 sq. m.
(), by, down, of

Упражнение 8. Образуйте множ ественное число от существительных и объясните его образо­


вание (см. Грам. справ. § 2. 4).
Building, square, prison, palace, fortress, fort, size, age, box, residence, gallery, ditch, number, tower,
city, castle, place, house, site, family, library, park, auditorium

Упражнение 9. Напиш ите основные формы следующих глаголов: keep, dig, meet, begin, hold, rise.

Упражнение 10. Подберите синонимы к следующим словам: to pull down, to surm ount, memorial,
to cover an area, ditch, to surround, close to.

Упражнение 11. Подберите антоним ы к следующ им словам: upper, over, far from.

Упражнение 12. О бъясните образование следующих слов (от каких слов и каким способом они
образованы): to renam e, m em orial, fan-vaulted, to remodel, irregular, hexagonal.

Упражнение 13. П еречислите все: А. Т ер м и н ы , характерн ы е для готической архитектуры


Б. Прилагательные, означаю щ ие качество.

Упражнение 14. Подберите соответствующ ие русские слова и укажите, отличаю тся ли они по
значению от английских: m em orial, ball, figure, residence, throne, state, standard, m useum , to
occupy, official.

Упражнение 15. Переведите на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на подчеркнутые слова:
I. What is the number of the house he lives in? 2. A small (great) number of buildings were destroyed
during the war. 3. Almost all nouns (существительные) have two numbers both in Russian and English.
4. The monument was executed last year. 5. Many people were executed in the Tower Green. 6. The tower is
in a bad state. 7. There are many states in Europe. 8. Texas is one of the USA states. 9. There is a court in
front of the building. 10. The court is in a new building. 11. The Royal court moved to a new palace. 12. Five
is a figure. 13. The book contains a lot of figures. 14. She has a good figure. 15. The standard is high above
the palace. 16. The standard of living is not high. 17. The standard lamp is a floor lamp. 18. Where do you
keep your books? 19. The keep o f the castle is very ancient. 20. He turned to the right. 21. He turned out to
be right. 22. They did it in turn. 23. He studied well and turned into a good architect. 24. There are 4 towers
in the castle. 25. The Tower is situated close to Tower Bridge.

Упражнение 16. Переведите следующ ие предлож ения на русский язык.


I. It was William the Conqueror who built the Tower. 2. It is the square building in the centre that is called
the White Tower. 3. It was the oldest part that was begun in 1078.4. It was in 1078 that the oldest pan was begun.
5. It was in the Tower Green that people were executed. 6. It was towers that decorated the building.

UNIT II • London 47
Упражнение 17. Укажите разницу в значении между следующ ими словами: sight — site — side,
corner — angle, figure — drawing, century — age.

4. ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующ ие слова и переведите их.


double [МлЫ] front [frAnt] facade [fa'scud]
column I'kDlam] national ['пае/п(э)1] statue ['staetju:]
aisle [ail] ton [tAn] pedestal ['pedistl]
St. Paul’s [s3n(t)'po:lz] Latin ['laetin]

WORDS TO BE USED

angle ['aerjg(a)l] n —угол; at right angles —под прямым углом


approach [a'prautf] v — приближаться, подходить (to approach something)
ball [bo:l] n — map
bell tower — колокольня
commission [ka'm ijn] v — давать заказ (особ, художнику)
coupled ['клрМ] а — спаренный
drum [drAm] n — барабан
flight [flait] n — лестничный марш; пролет лестницы
grave [greiv] n — могила
ground plan ['graundplaen] — план первого этажа здания
lantern [Taentan] n — фонарь
masterpiece ['m a:stapi:s] n — шедевр
plain [plein] a — простой; одноцветный, без узора; гладкий; ровный
principal ['prinsapl] а — главный, основной
slab [slaeb] n — плита (строительная)
step [step] n — 1. шаг; 2. ступень, ступенька

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст о соборе Св. Павла и напиш ите резюме.

Упражнение 3. Прочтите текст и напиш ите его план.

Упражнение 4. Ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. Where is the cathedral situated? 2. Is it the first church built on this place? 3. To whom is the cathedral
dedicated? 4. Why was Wren commissioned to build it? 5. How long did he build it? 6. Is it very large? 7. Is
it a Catholic church? 8. Why did he have to use the plan of a Latin cross? 9. What orders were used in the
cathedral? 10. What can you say about its towers? 11. Why did national heroes begin to be buried here in the
18th century? 12. Whose monuments are there? 13. Why is there no monument to Wren in the cathedral?

ST. PAUL’S CATHEDRAL

St. Paul’s Cathedral is situated not far from the Thames in the City on the site that knew several earlier
churches dedicated also to St. Paul. After the Great Fire of London in 1666 Christopher Wren* was commis­
sioned to build a new (the present) cathedral. This masterpiece took Wren 35 years to build (from 1675 to
1710). It is the fourth or the fifth largest cathedral in the world and the principal Protestant* church o f Eng­
land.
Wren had to make some changes in his original plan: he wanted the cathedral to be built in the style of
the Renaissance*, and his first design was in the form o f a Greek cross, but the public wished at least the
ground plan of the Old English cathedral to be followed, and he had to use the form o f a Latin cross.

48 4. St. Paul's Cathedral


The present building is 152 m. long and 36 m. wide. The
exterior is very effective. The facades have two Orders, the lower
Corinthian* and the upper Composite*. The aisles are only one
storey high. The western faijade, approached by a broad flight of
steps, has a central two-storey portico, the lower part o f which
consists o f 12 coupled Corinthian columns and the upper of 8
Composite columns. On each side of the facade is a bell tower
with statues of the four Evangelists* at the angles. The left (north)
tower contains the largest (17 tons) bell in England (“Great
Paul”).
A drum o f two sections, the lower with Corinthian, the upper
with Composite columns, is crowned with a dome. On the top of
the lantern is a ball with a cross.
When in the 18th century W estminster Abbey became
overcrowded with monuments, the English people began to bury
their national heroes in St. Paul’s. Many famous Englishmen are
buried there, among them Wellington*, Nelson*, Wren. Wren’s
grave is marked by a plain marble slab with words in Latin “ Ifyou
want to see my monument, look around you” .
Nelson seems to have hoped to be buried in Westminster Ab­
bey as before one battle he said “ Victory or Westminster Abbey” .
ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Sir Christopher Wren ['kristofa'ren] — Крис­


тофер Рен, великий английский архитектор (1632—1723)
2. Protestant ['p ro tist(s)n t] — протестантский
3. the Renaissance [ra'neisns] — эпоха Возро­
ждения, Ренессанс
4. Corinthian [кэ'п п вю п ] — коринфский
5. Composite ['кш п рэгй] — композитный
6. Evangelists [Tvaen(d)3(9)lists] — евангели­
сты, авторы четырех евангелий: Матфей, Марк, Лука, Иоанн
7. Wellington ['wehrjtsn] — герцог Веллингтон (Уэллингтон) Артур Уэлсли (1769—1852), английский
полководец, победил Наполеона в сражении при Ватерлоо
8. Nelson ['nels(q)n] — знаменитый адмирал Горацио Нельсон (1758—1805)

ADDITIONAL WORDS
font [font] n — купель
reredos ['riadris] n — декоративная перегородка за алтарем

Упражнение 5. П рочтите текст и укажите, куда мож но вставить следующие предложения.


1. The first cathedral was founded in 604 by Ethelbert1, King of Kent, and destroyed by fire in 1087. It
was dedicated to S. Paul. The second was burnt down and rebuilt several times in Gothic Style.
2. Above the second row of the portico columns, above the pediment (which contains a relief showing
St. Paul) rises a statue of St. Paul with St. Peter and St. James on his right and left.
3. The ball can hold ten or twelve persons. In the dome the Whispering Gallery2 is situated. One can hear
what is whispered at the other end o f the gallery.
4. The statue o f Nelson stands on a pedestal decorated with allegorical figures.
1 Ethelbert ['e0alb3:t] — Этельберт, король Кента, 5 6 0 -6 1 6 .
2 Whispering Gallery [, wisp(3)nri'gael3n] - «Галерея шепота», акустический свод (резонирую щ ий слова, сказанные ш епотом).

UNIT II • London 49
Упражнение 6 Переведите на русский язы к предлож ения со слож ны м подлеж ащ им и доп ол­
нением. О бъясните употребление перф ектного и пассивного инф инитивов в следую щ их пред­
лож ениях (см. Грамм. справ. § 9. 1, § 10).
1. The public wished at least the ground plan o f the Old English cathedral to be followed. 2. Christopher
Wren was commissioned to build a new (the present) cathedral. 3. He seems to have come from Moscow.
4. The building seems to have been built by this architect. 5. He wanted the cathedral to be built in the style
of the Renaissance. 6. Nelson seems to have hoped to be buried in Westminster Abbey.

Упражнение 7. Вставьте предлоги, если они нужны.


1. The cathedral is decorated ... arcatures ... midheight ...the walls. 2. The chapel was erected ... G othic
style. 3. The m onum ent... the architect was marked ... words ... English. 4. The museum is overcrowded ...
pictures. 5. Flowers grow close ... the m onum ent... the poet. 6. The garden is situated... fro n t... the house.
7. There are statues ... the angels ... the chapel. 8. The church was erected ... the form ... a circle. 9. We ap­
proached ... the cathedral.
() , at, in, of, to, with
Упражнение 8. Сгруппируйте синонимы , указав разницу в значении, если она имеется: to hold,
tom b, broad, to construct, to contain, to destroy, to house, principal, to comprise, grave, chief, to build,
to bum down, to pull down, to erect, to tear down, m ain, wide.

Упражнение 9. Переведите на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на подчеркнутые слова.


1. It is the second longest street in the town. 2. We live in the third largest town in the country. 3. He is
the fourth oldest student in the group. 4. The column consists o f four drums. 5. There is a drum under the
dome. 6. The capital is plain. 7.1 don’t like the plan of this house. 8. The two houses are situated on the same
plane. 9. This is the principal question. 10. He has no moral principles. 11. Every man has two feet. 12. The
house is situated at the foot o f a hill. 13. The area of the house is 60 square feet. 14. This step is very high.
15. He made several steps.

Упражнение 10. Объясните образование следующих слов (от каких слов и каким способом они
образованы): overcrowded, masterpiece, building, national.

Упражнение 11. Подберите соответствующ ие русские слова и укажите, отличаю тся ли они по
значению от английских: principal, num ber, to decorate, front, colum n, figure, allegorical, pedestal,
national, person, gallery, statue, section, form , style, ton.

Упражнение 12. Сгруппируйте слова согласно их значению .


Castle, size, colum n, marble, fortress, stone, concrete, tow n, height, statue, departm ent store, portico,
pedim ent, m arket, m etal, terracotta, picture, drum , tow er, village, width, city, draw ing, m useum ,
m onum ent, arm oury, work o f art, relief, shop, gallery, capital

Упражнение 13. Переведите следующ ий текст на английский


язы к и перескажите его.
Вестминстерский собор расположен к югу от улицы королевы
Виктории. Он является главной католической (Catholic) церковью
Англии. Собор существует с конца 19-го века. Он построен архи­
тектором Бентли (Bentley) в византийском (Byzantine) стиле. Здание
украшено мрамором и мозаикой. Так как колокольня имеет высоту
86 м, внутри предусмотрен лифт. Здание очень большое, и его глав­
ный неф самый широкий в Англии.
Упражнение 14. О пиш ите С обор Св. Павла.

50 4. St. Paul's Cathedral


5. TRAFALGAR SQUARE A N D HYDE PARK CORNER

TEXT A

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующ ие интернациональны е слова и имена и переведите их.


Napoleon [пэ'рэиЬэп] Trafalgar [tro'faelgo]
restaurant ['rest(o)ror)] Charles Barry ['tjcnlz'baeri]
hotel [hou'tel]

WORDS TO BE USED

lifesize, life-size(d) [,la if saiz(d)] a — в натуральную величину (о портрете, статуе и т.п.)


lay out [lei] (laid) v — разбить (парк, сад), проложить (улицу, площадь)
steeple ['sti:p(a)l] n — ш пиц, шпиль
kind [kaind] n — сорт, вид

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст “Trafalgar square” и перечи­


слите сооруж ения, находящ иеся на ней.
TRAFALGAR SQUARE
The square was laid out by Sir Charles Barry and named after the
famous battle of Trafalgar, where Nelson in 1805 saved England from
Napoleon, but was killed. In the centre of the square stands Nelson’s
Column supporting his statue erected in 1843. The column is 44 m high
and the figure is 5 m high, that is three times life-size. On the four sides
of the base are reliefs in bronze showing Nelson’s greatest victories. The
four bronze lions were added in 1867. The Church of St. Martin-in the
Fields*, with its great Corinthian portico and high steeple, was designed
by James Gibbs*, Wren’s pupil in 1721—25 to replace the old church
that Henry VIII had erected in the fields. The north side of the square is
occupied by the famous National Gallery. The central part of the
building with its fine Corinthian columns and the dome was erected in
1832—38 and was enlarged afterwards. The Gallery contains one o f the
finest collections in the world.
All kinds of political demonstrations take place on this square, people speaking from the plinth of Nelson’s
column.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Church of St M artin-in-the-Fields — церковь Св. М артина-в-полях


2. James Gibbs ['djeim z'gibz] — Джеймс Гиббс, английский архитектор, 1662—1754

TEXT В

Упражнение 3. П рочтите следующ ие слова и переведите их.


island ['ailand] statue [ 'staetju:]
quadriga [kwo'drirgo] bronze [branz]

WORD TO BE USED

triple ['tripl) a — тройной

Упражнение 4. П рочтите текст “ Hyde Park C orner” и объясните, почему он так называется.

UNIT II • London 51
Упражнение 5. Переведите письм енно текст с помощ ью словаря.

HYDE PARK CORNER

Hyde Park Corner is situated to the west of Green Park at the entrance
to Hyde Park*. Several streets lead to it, Piccadilly connects it with Picca­
dilly Circus*. It is a very pleasant place with Wellington Arch in the middle
and Hilton Hotel in the background. The triple archway, designed in 1828,
serves as gateway to the park. Wellington Arch, designed in 1846, formerly
stood in another place, now it is situated in the central island away from the
traffic. The arch takes its name from a statue of Wellington, which formerly
stood on top of the arch. The bronze group representing Peace in the quad­
riga was added in 1912.
Hilton Hotel was built by the American architect Hilton in 1961. It is 300 ft high and contains about 500
bedrooms, restaurants, bars and other public rooms.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Hyde Park Corner — Гайд-парк-корнер, площадь в Лондоне


2. Circus ['s3:kas] — брит, серкес или сиркус (в названиях), Oxford Circus — Оксфорд-серкес, кру­
глая площадь с радиально расходящимися улицами

Упражнение 5. Вставьте предлоги, послелоги или сою зы, если они нужны.
1. The park was la id ... n e a r... the river. 2. The park is n a m ed ... Gorky. 3. The town took its name ... the
river. 4. It is situated close ... the square. 5. The tower serves ... a gateway... the park. 6. The gateway leads ...
the building situated ... the background. 7. There is a statue ... the entrance ... the palace.
( ) , after, as, at, from, in, out, to

Упражнение 6. П одберите синоним ы .


Before, to contain, formerly, afterwards, to make bigger, cupola, fine, to build instead of, to erect

Упражнение 7. Объясните образование следующих слов (от каких слов и каки м способом они
образованы ).
Formerly, gateway, archway, doorway, bedroom

Упражнение 8. П одберите соответствующ ие русские слова и укажите, отличаю тся л и он и по


значению от английских.
Plinth, political, demonstration, public, bar, restaurant, square

Упражнение 9. Вставьте подходящ ие по смыслу слова и переведите на русский язы к.


1.1 want to take ... in the conference. 2. When will the conference take ... ? 3. I t ... me twenty minutes to
get home. 4. The tow er... its name from the queen who built it. 5. The picture ... a river in the ....

Упражнение 10. О пиш ите К расную площ адь или какую -нибудь другую.

6. LO N D O N BRIDGES A N D PARKS

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующ ие слова и переведите их.


caught [ko:t] hectare ['h e k ta:] [-tea] granite ['graenit]
reason ['ri:z(a)n] Mall [mo:l] landscape [Tasndskeip]

52 6. London bridges and parks


TEXTS A

WORDS TO BE USED

railway ['reilw ei] n, railroad ['reilraud] n (амер.) — железная дорога


boundary ['baund(a)ri] n — граница
only ['aunli] 1) adv — только; 2) the only a — единственный
necessary ['nesis(a)ri] a — необходимый, нужный
choose [tju:z] (chose; chosen) v — выбирать
watch [wDtJ] v — наблюдать, следить; смотреть
because of [bi'kDz sv] — из-за, вследствие
piece [pi:s] n — 1. кусок, часть; 2. отдельный предмет, штука; a piece of work — произведение
project 1) n f p m d 3ekt] — 1. проект, план; программа (строительства и т.п.); 2. строительный
объект, осуществляемое строительство; 2) v [p ra'd jek t] — 1. проектировать; составлять проект, план;
2. выдаваться, выступать
dark [da:k] а — темный
fashion ['faejn] n — стиль, мода
drawbridge ['dro:brid 3 ] n — подъемный мост, разводной мост
footbridge ['futbrid 3] n — пешеходный мостик
responsible [ri'spD nssbl] а — ответственный, несущий ответственность (to — перед кем-л.)
pass [pa:s] v — 1. идти; проходить; проезжать; 2. проходить мимо, миновать
stop [stop] v — 1. останавливать, задерживать; 2. останавливаться; 3. (с инфинитивом) остано­
виться, чтобы we stopped to speak — мы остановились, чтобы поговорить; 4. ( с герундием) пере­
ставать we stopped speaking — мы перестали разговаривать
raise [reiz] v — поднимать

Упражнение 2. П рочтите тексты о лондонских мостах и скаж ите, какой из них самый интере­
сный и почему (с вашей точки зрени я), у какого трагическая история (в каком абзаце об этом
говорится), где говорится о дальнейш ей судьбе моста.

LONDON BRIDGES

Not counting railway bridges there are altogether fifteen bridges across the Thames within the boundaries
of the former County of London*. O f these Westminster Bridge, London Bridge, and Tower Bridge are the
best known. London Bridge was the only bridge over the river until 1739.

LONDON BRIDGE

The first London bridge was built by the Romans not far from the place where the Tower is situated now.
They established a fort and soon found that a bridge was necessary to cross the river, so they chose the nar­
rowest place not far from their settlement.

UNIT II • London 53
The first bridge was built of wood. In the early 13th century the first bridge of stone was finished, but in
1212 a great fire broke out on the south side o f the river not far from the end of the bridge. Hundreds of
people* ran across the bridge, or stood on it, in order to watch the fire. At last the fire caught the south end
of the bridge itself and then because of a strong wind its north end also began to burn, so the people were in
a position o f great danger between two fires. A panic began. Hundreds jumped into the water. About 3,000
people perished (burnt or drowned) that day!
After that the bridge had to be rebuilt, and it is this bridge generally called the Old London Bridge, which
is the most interesting of all. It really was a wonderful piece of work. On each side were houses which pro­
jected out above the water. The houses formed a street, which was very narrow and dark because the upper
storeys of the houses were built out toward each other, as was the fashion in those days. There were shops on
the ground floors of the houses. In the middle of the bridge was a drawbridge. At the south end o f the bridge
there was a great gate on which the heads of the executed people were set on poles*.
A new bridge was designed by John Rennie*, and finished by his sons in the 19th century. It was pulled
down in 1832. When this bridge in its turn became old, it was sold to the USA in 1968 and a new bridge was
constructed in 1973.
ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ
1. County [' kaunti] of London — Лондонское графство (административная единица, существовав­
шая до 1965, когда оно было заменено Большим Лондоном)
2. hundreds o f people — сотни людей, ср. two hundred people — две сотни людей
3. to set on poles [paulz] — помещать на столбы
4. John Rennie ['d 3D n'reni] — Джон Ренни, шотландский архитектор, 1761—1821, построил не­
сколько мостов в Лондоне
TOWER BRIDGE
The Tower Bridge is situated near the Tower of London.
It was opened in 1894. Sir J.W. Barry* was responsible for
the design, and the architectural details are the work of Sir
Horace Jones*. The gateway o f the city has two Gothic
towers, rising to a great height. They are connected by two
bridges. The upper is a footbridge, over 150 feet high. The
lower is on the level o f the roadway, across it passes all the
traffic. It is so low over the water that if a large ship comes
up, the traffic has to stop. It takes about two minutes to raise
the twin drawbridges. The twin steel towers are faced with
granite and Portland stone*.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. John Wolfe-Barry ['basri] — Джон Волфи-Берри, 1836—1919, английский инженер


2. Horace Jones ['h o ra s 'd 3aunz] — Гораций Джонс, английский архитектор, 1819—87
3. Portland stone ['po:tland'staun] — портлендский камень (строительный известняк)

TEXT В

Упражнение 3. П рочтите следующ ие слова и переведите их.


hectar ['hektea] Buckingham ['Ь л к щ э т ] orator ['o rata]
remove [rTmu:v] triumphal [trai'Amfl] Mall [mael]

54 6. London bridges and parks


WORDS TO BE USED

be fond o f [fond] — любить


hunting ['hAntirj] n — охота
lane [lein] n — 1. переулок; 2. полоса дороги
triumphal [trai'Amf(9)l] a — триумфальный
artificial [ya:ti'fiJ(a)l] а — искусственный
pond [pond] n —пруд; водоем, бассейн
join [d 30in] — соединять; связывать
junction [^ зл г)(к )/(э)п ] n — 1. место, точка соединения или пересечения; скрещение; 2. скре­
щивание (дорог); распутье; перекресток; 3. слияние (рек)
landscape gardener [,laendskeip'ga:dn9] — специалист по декоративному садоводству; дизайнер
садов, цветников и т.п.
Упражнение 4. Прочтите текст о лондонских парках и напиш ите краткое резюме.

Упражнение 5. Н апиш ите план текста.

LONDON PARKS

There are very many parks in London. One of the reasons is the fact that English kings were fond of
hunting.
The most famous is Hyde Park. It stretches from Park Lane in the east to Kensington Gardens in the
west and covers an area of 158 hectares. The park was laid out under Henry VIII (the first half o f the
16th century).
In the north-east corner of the park Marble Arch is situated. It takes its name from the Carrara marble*
from which it is made. This triumphal arch was designed by John Nash* (erected in 1828 in front of Buck­
ingham Palace and removed from there in 1851). Near Marble Arch one can see the Speakers’ Corner with
the “soap-box preachers”*: they are all kinds of orators who speak to the people (if there are any who wish
to listen to them) about all sorts of things, standing sometimes on a soap-box.
Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens are really one piece of ground divided by a lake called the Serpen­
tine*. This park was also laid out under Henry VIII. The Serpentine is an artificial lake, it was formed in the
18th century of a number of ponds. The lake is crossed by a bridge designed by John Rennie in 1826.
Green Park is situated between Buckingham Palace, Piccadilly, Constitution Hill and the Mall. Artists
display their pictures and drawings in this park. At the west end of the park, at the junction of Piccadilly and
Constitution Hill, is the Hyde Park Corner. Green Park is joined to St. Jam es’s Park. It was turned into a
park under Henry VIII, and under Charles II it was laid out by Le Notre*, the celebrated French landscape
gardener. In 1827—29 it was changed by John Nash. In the park there is a very beautiful lake with a lot of
birds.
In London there are many more parks — Regent’s Park, with the Zoological Gardens, Victoria Park,
New Gardens (Botanic Gardens) and others.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Carrara [к э 'га л э] marble — каррарский мрамор


2. John Nash ['d 3Dn'naeJ] — Джон Н эш , английский архитектор, 1752—1835
3. “soap-box preachers” ['ssupbD ks'priitJbz] — ораторы, выступающие на «ящиках из под мыла»,
как на импровизированных трибунах
4. the Serpentine ['s3:p9ntain] — Серпентин (озеро в Гайд-парке), дословно «змеевидное озеро»
5. Le Notre Апбгё—французский ландш афтный архитектор Андре Ле Нотр, 1613—1700

UNIT II • London 55
Упражнение 6. Вставьте предлоги или послелоги, если они нужны.
1. The arch is decorated ... reliefs. 2. The street was la id .....the thirties. 3 .... the background we see a
m em orial... a great poet. 4. The centre ... the square is occupied ... an arch. 5.... fro n t... the palace a statue
was erected. 6. This church is b u ilt... the Gothic style. 7. This bridge dates ... the second half... the 17th cen-
tury. 8. He is listening ... his teacher. 8 . 1 am fond ... drawing.
( ) , by, from, in, of, out, to, with

Упражнение 7. Укажите разницу в значении следующих слов: piece — peace, to raise — to rise,
ground — land — earth, angle — angel, principal — principle.

Упражнение 8. Переведите на русский язы к.


A. обращая внимание на подчеркнутые слова. 1. It is his only building because he built only this
building. 2. There are three Greek architectural orders. 3. He ordered to build a beautiful palace. 4. It was
built at his order. 5. Everything is now in order. 6. In order to be able to found his state, he had to conquer
other states. 7. He could not erect the statue because he had no good material. 8. He could not erect the
statue because of bad material.
B. 1. It is this bridge generally called the Old London Bridge, which is the most interesting of all. 2. It is
Charles Barry who built the Parliament. 3. It was in the 15th century that this cathedral was built. 4. It is in
Moscow that the Kremlin is situated. 5 .1 want you to design a house for me. 6 . 1 know him to live in Moscow.
7. He is known to live in Moscow. 8. I like you to sing.

Упражнение 9. Объясните образование следующих слов (от каких слов и каким способом):
railway, roadway, footbridge, drawbridge.

Упражнение 10. П одберите соответствующ ие русские слова и укажите, отличаю тся ли они по
значению от английских: panic, form, project, reason, fact, hectare, triumphal, sort, orator, landscape.

Упражнение 11. Н апиш ите все слова, означаю щ ие:


l. building materials; 2. works of art; 3. places where works o f art are kept; 4. buildings; 5. parts of a
building, details.

Упражнение 12. Н апиш ите основны е формы глаголов: run, catch, set, sell, choose, break, speak.

Упражнение 13. Переведите на английский язы к.


I. Улица делит город на две части. 2. Улица ведет к площади и соединяет ее с парком. 3. Дворец
был спроектирован известным архитектором и заменил старые маленькие дома. 4. Чтобы облицевать
дом, ему потребовалось 3 дня. 5. Чтобы облицевать дом, ему потребовалось много материала.
6. Город окружен рекой. 7. Музей основан в конце 19-го века. 8. Мраморная арка так названа, по­
тому что она построена из мрамора. 9. Эта территория похожа на парк.

Упражнение 14. Прочтите следующие числа по-английски и по-русски (см. Грам. справ. § 5 .1 ,3 ).
1.5; 1,500; 2.375; 2,375; 10,684; 5.485

Упражнение 15. О пиш ите какой-нибудь мост по картинке.

Упражнение 16. О пиш ите какой-нибудь парк.


UNIT III
BUILDING MATERIALS, STRUCTURES
AND PARTS OF BUILDINGS

1. B U ILD IN G MATERIALS

TEXT A

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующие слова и переведите их на русский язык.


aesthetic [irs'Getik] vary ['у е(э)п ] natural ['naetf(s)ral]
transport ['tra n sp o rt] cement [sTment] to manufacture Emaenju'faektjo]
artificial [,a:ti'fiJT]

WORDS TO BE USED

adobe [o'doubi] — преим. амер. 1) n — саман, кирпич воздушной сушки (с соломой); 2) а — гли­
нобитный
bake [beik] v — сушить на солнце; обжигать (кирпичи)
brick [brik] n — кирпич; adobe brick — саман, саманный кирпич; mud-brick f'mAdbrik] — сырец;
sunburnt brick — кирпич воздушной сушки, необожженный кирпич, сырцовый кирпич; baked brick —
обожженный кирпич; face (facing) brick — лицевой кирпич, облицовочный кирпич
brickwork ['brikw3:k] n — кирпичная кладка
clay [klei] n — глина
condition [kon'dijn] n — 1. условие; 2. состояние
depend [di'pend] v — зависеть (on, upon — от)
determine [d f t3:min] v — определять
hard [hard] а — твердый, жесткий; harden ['hardn] v — делать(ся) твердым; твердеть, застывать
lath [1а:0] n — планка; дранка; рейка
lime [laim] n — известь; limestone [Taim staun] n — известняк
lime [laim] n — липа
mix [miks] v — смешивать, мешать; mixture ['m ikst/э ] n — смешивание, смесь
mortar ['m arts] n — (известковый) раствор; строительный раствор
mud [mAd] n — грязь; слякоть; ил, тина; глина
mud brick — киппич-сырец, необожженный кирпич
pebble ['реЬ(э)1] п — голыш, галька, булыжник
post [poust] n — столб
sand [saend] n — песок
timber ['tim bs] n — лесоматериалы; timberframed a = half-timbered a — фахверковый
vary ['veori] v — менять(ся), изменять(ся)

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

be composed [kom 'pouzd] of — состоять (из)


frequent ['frirkwont] a — частый

Упражнение 2. П рочтите текст, скаж ите, о чем он и ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. What does the use of building materials depend on? 2. What determines the cost of building materials?
3. What kinds of stone do you know? 4. What is cement composed of? 5. What is concrete composed of?

UNIT III • Building materials, structures and parts of buildings 57


BUILDING MATERIALS (PART 1)

The use of building materials is determined by their cost, their structural and aesthetic qualities.
Cost depends on how the materials are extracted or manufactured and conditions of transport. Cost of
transport varies with distance, and determines how the building shall depend on local materials.
STONE. The distinction must be made between natural and artificial stone. The principal variety of
artificial stones is brick, or baked clay. In hot countries it is not necessary to bake or burn bricks. So they use
adobes or mud-bricks (sun-dried, unfired bricks of clay and straw).
MORTAR. M ortar is also an artificial material. The elementary type is the m ortar composed o f soil
mixed with water, which hardens as it dries. To this chopped straw* is sometimes added. This was used in
the Middle Ages in the absence of brick, in many timber-framed houses, to fill in the spaces between the
posts and laths.
Mortars of lime and cement are more frequently used. The former is a mixture of lime and sand. Cement
is a lime, mixed with sand and water; it becomes extremely hard on exposure to air*. Concrete is a mixture
of sand, cement and water with pebbles o f various sizes, though never larger than an egg.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. chopped straw ['t/D pt'stro:] — рубленная солома


2. exposure [ik 'sp at^ s] to air — выставление на воздух

TEXT В

Упражнение 1. П рочтите следующие слова и переведите их на русский язы к.


elastic [i'laestik] resource [ri'sors] facade [fa'scud]
mass-production [,maes ргэ'блк/п ] local [Tsukl] result [ri'zAlt]
component [ к э т 'р э и п э т ] method [’meGsd]

WORDS TO BE USED

according [s'koidip] (to) adv — соответственно


advantage [3d'va:ntid3] n — преимущество (of, over — над)
appearance [a'pi3r(o)ns] n — 1. появление; 2. (внешний) вид, наружность; 3. видимость
beam [bi:m] n — балка
danger ['dein(d)33] n — опасность
diminish [di'm inij] v — уменыпать(ся)
distinguish [di'stnjgw iJ] v — различать; отличать
drawback ['dro:baek] n — недостаток
fireproof ['fa(i)3pru:f| a — несгораемый; огнеупорный; fireproofing ['fa(i)3pru:firj] n — придание
огнестойкости
flexible ['fleksabl] a — гибкий
framework ['freimw3:k] n — каркас, остов
furniture [Тз:пП/э] n — мебель
iron ['a(i)3n] n — железо; cast-iron [,ka:st'a(i)3n] n — чугун; wrought-iron [/ro:t'a(i)3n] — кованое
железо
oak [эик] n — дуб
pine [pain] n — сосна
prefer [рпТз:] v — предпочитать
prevent [pri'vent] v — мешать, препятствовать (from — чему-л.); не допускать, предотвращать,
rot [rat] v — гнить; портиться
rust [rAst] 1) n — ржавчина; 2) v — ржаветь

58 1. Building materials
WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD
acquire [a'kw a(i)a] v — приобретать, достигать
bar [ba:] n — брусок, кусок, полоса; стержень
direct [d s'rek t] а — прямой
entire [in'taio] a — полный, целый
extract [ik'straekt] v — добывать
grade [greid] n — степень; ранг, класс; звание, качество, сорт
lower [Тэиэ] v — снижать(ся), понижать
ore [o:J п — руда
pour [рэ:] v — лить(ся), наливать (into)
primarily ['praim r(3)li] adv — первоначально, прежде всего, первым делом, главным образом
relatively ['re b tiv li] adv — относительно, сравнительно, соответственно
ugly ['лдй] а — уродливый, безобразный
variable [ 'vesriabl] а — изменчивый, непостоянный, переменный

ADDITIONAL WORDS
ash [aej] n — 1. ясень; 2. зола, пепел
beech [bi:tj] n — бук
birch [b3:tj] n — береза
carbon fk a rb s n ] n —углерод, уголь
cedar ['si:da] n — кедр
chestnut ['tJesnAt] n — каштан
elm [elm] n — вяз, ильм
fir [f3:], fir-tree ['f3:tri:] n — ель
walnut ['wodnAt] n — орех, древесина орехового дерева
wattle and daub ['w otland'daib] — глинобитный

Упражнение 4. П рочтите текст и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. What are the main timber materials? 2. What can be done with timber? 3. What are advantages and
drawbacks o f timber, iron and reinforced concrete? 4. What is reinforced concrete?

Упражнение 5. П рочтите текст и напиш ите его резюме на русском язы ке или английском.

BUILDING MATERIALS (PART 2)


TIMBER. The main kinds of timber are oak and pine, chestnut, elm, beech, ash, and walnut, according
to local resources. Timber is the only material with which an entire house may be built — framework (posts
and beams), facing o f the facades and inside walls, floors and roofing, doors and windows, and even the
greater part of the furniture. Timber has many advantages, e.g. it is easily worked, and it allows the easy mass-
production of component parts which lowers the cost considerably. It also has its drawbacks, e.g. it can rot.
The danger o f fire is much diminished by the process of fireproofing.
IRON. Under the heading* of iron three materials should be distinguished — cast iron, iron and steel.
Cast-iron is the direct result of the smelting* of ore in the blast furnaces*. It is used primarily for vertical
supports, pillars or columns.
Iron is obtained by oxidizing* white-hot cast-iron. Iron has various drawbacks. It expands* when hot. It
has to be painted often to prevent rust. It is not fire-proof.
Steel is iron combined with 1 or 2% of carbon. It is harder and more elastic than iron and (almost) does
not rust.
REINFORCED CONCRETE. Reinforced concrete is a combination of concrete and iron. Bars of iron of
variable thickness are placed in a wooden mould*. Into this mould is poured liquid* concrete, which hardens.

UNIT III • Building materials, structures and parts of buildings 59


The advantages of reinforced concrete are many. It can be prepared anywhere by workmen of a grade
relatively easy to find. Iron enclosed in cement does not rust, and cement enclosing iron becomes as flexible
as the iron itself, that is to say, the whole acquires qualities which neither iron, nor concrete have. But the
external appearance is frankly ugly and above all, concrete cannot be repaired.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. heading fhed irj] n — рубрика


2. smelting ['smeltir)] n — плавка, плавление; smelt [smelt] v —плавить, выплавлять (не путать с
smelt [smelt] past и p. p. от smell — пахнуть)
3. blast furnace ['bla:st,f3:nis] — домна
4. oxidize ['Dksidaiz] v окислять(ся); оксидировать
5. expand [ik'spaend] v — расширяться
6. mould [mauld] n — (литейная) форма, изложница
7. liquid [Tikwid] a — жидкий

Упражнение 6. Переведите на русский язы к.


Chopped straw, timber-framed house, that is to say, expansion, harden, rust, fire-proof, fireproofing,
other than clay, white-hot

Упражнение 7. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. From what points of view is each material discussed? 2. What determines structural qualities of build­
ing materials? 3. What are the main types of stone? 4. What is mortar and how is it used? 5. What is a timber­
framed house and in what countries are such houses common? 6. What is timber remarkable for? 10. What
are its advantages and drawbacks? 8. Was it commonly used in Russia and why? 9. What main kinds o f iron
do you know? 10. What is the difference between them? 11. Does iron always rust? 12. How can we prevent
iron from rusting? 13. What is reinforced concrete? 14. Does its production require qualified workers?
15. What are its advantages and drawbacks? 16. What material do you prefer?

Упражнение 8. Н азовите строительные материалы и названия деревьев. П осмотрите в словаре


названия незнакомы х материалов.
Larch, mahogany, maple, fir, birch, cedar, squared log, baulk, ashlar

Упражнение 9. Подберите синоним ы к следующ им словам: ferroconcrete, half-timber house, to


face, wood, masonry, mud-brick.

Упражнение 10. Н азовите все слова, означаю щ ие ухудшение качества.

Упражнение 11. Назовите все прилагательные и глаголы, которые употребляются при описании
здания.

Упражнение 12. Переведите на английский: ф ахверк, например, сам ан, дерево.

Упражнение 13. С каж ите, какие определения соответствуют следующ им терминам.


I. Adobes; 2. half-timber; 3. wattle and daub

1. Descriptive of buildings in which walls were made o f a wood frame structure filled with wattle and
daub or masonry materials. 2. Unburnt, sunbaked bricks or blocks about 45 x 10 sm containing straw
chopped to about 15 sm length as reinforcement in Central America, southwest USA, and other semi-dry
regions 3. A very common form of primitive construction, consisting of a sort of basket-work o f twigs
between upright poles then plastered with mud.

60 1. Building materials
Упражнение 14. Обсудите в виде диалога качества кирпича и дерева или других материалов,
доказывая, что вы бранны й вами лучш ий.

2. STRUCTURE

TEXT А

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующие слова и переведите их.


principle ['prinsopl] lo a d [lo u d ] e le m e n t [ 'e lim a n t ]
principal ['prinsspl] lo a d b ea rin g stru ctu re ['strA k t/ э ]
internal [in't3 :nl] n o n -lo a d b e a r in g h o r iz o n ta l [,h D n 'z D n tl]
basic ['beisik] b o th [Ь эи 0] c o lu m n [ ' к Ы э т ]
external [ik'st3:nl] p o s t [p s u s t] carry ['kaeri]
foundation [faun'deij(3)n]

WORDS TO BE USED

cover ['клуэ] v — закрывать; покрывать; накрывать; covering ['клу(з)пг)] n — покрытие, пере­


крытие
deck [dek] n — настил, платформа
panel ['paenl] n — 1. панель; 2. филенка; 3. панно
truss [trAs] n — ферма
vault [vo:lt] n — свод; barrel-vault ['baer3l,vo:lt] — цилиндрический свод; fan-vault(ing)
['faen,vo:lt(ir))] — веерный свод; groin [groin] vault, groined vault, cross vault — крестовый свод; ribbed
(rib) vault — ребристый свод

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст и найдите в нем ответы на следующие вопросы:


1. What kinds of elements are used in buildings? 2. What elements can be both loadbearing and enclos­
ing? 3. Is an enclosing element always non-loadbearing? 4. What are the principal kinds of loadbearing ele­
ments and o f covering?
ELEMENTS OF BUILDINGS

The elements o f a building carrying loads are called loadbearing elements (members). There are vertical
loadbearing elements (walls, supports, columns and foundations) and horizontal loadbearing elements
(trusses, panels, decks and beams).
The elements of a building enclosing it or its parts are called enclosing elements. They are external and
internal walls, floors, roofs, etc.
Some elements can be both loadbearing and enclosing at the same time (e.g. walls).
The two basic problems of structure are those of support and covering. Walls, pillars, columns, and posts
are supports. The principal kinds of covering are ceilings, vaults and roofs.

TEXT В

Упражнение 3. П рочтите следующ ие слова и переведите их.


eitherfaids] double f'dAbl] massive ['maesiv]
combination [ykDmbTneiJn] contact ['kontaekt] zigzag ['zigzaeg]

WORDS TO BE USED

bed [bed] n — 1. кровать; постель; ложе; 2. грядка, клумба; 3. русло (реки); 4. ряд, слой = course =
layer; 5. постель, верхняя или нижняя грань кирпича
board [bo:d] n — доска

UNIT III • Building materials, structures and parts of buildings 61


course [ko:s] n — 1. ряд камней, кирпичей, горизонтальный ряд кладки = layer [' leis] = bed;
2 курс; направление; 3. курс (лекций, обучения, лечения); (НО — курс — год обучения = year)
curtain wall ['кз:Ш -] — навесная стена
cut [kAt] (cut) v — 1.резать; разрезать; срезать; 2. высекать; резать (по камню)
incline [in'klain] v — наклонять(ся)
joint [d 30int] n — место соединения, шов
lining boards — вагонка
log [k>g] n — бревно
pattern fpaetn] n — 1. рисунок, узор (на материи и т.п.); 2. образец, пример; 3. модель, шаблон
rustication [/rA sti'kei/(a)n] n — рустовка, кладка (выступающими камнями)
self-bearing [,self'Ьеэпг)] а — самонесущий
single ['sirjgl] а — один; единственный
stonework ['stounw3:k] n — каменная кладка; каменные работы
wallpaper ['w o:l,peip3] 1) n — обои; 2) v — оклеивать обоями

WORDS ТО BE UNDERSTOOD

band [baend] n — лента; sawtooth band — зубчатая лента


breadthwise ['bredQwaiz] adv — в ширину
header ['b ed s] n — тычок
lengthwise [TerjQwaiz] adv — в длину
saw [so:] 1) n — пила; 2) v (sawed [so:d]; sawed, sawn) пилить, распиливать; sawtooth ['so:tu:Q]
(pi—teeth [ti:Q]) n — зуб пилы
stretcher ['stre tja ] n — ложок

Упражнение 4. Прочтите текст и напиш ите его резюме на английском или русском язы ке.

Упражнение 5. Прочтите текст и ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. What functions has the wall? 2. What kinds of wall do you know? 3. O f what materials can the walls be
made? 4. How are the stones and bricks laid in walls? 5. What are stonework and brickwork? 6. What is rus­
tication? 7. What kinds of brick do you know? 8. What are headers and stretchers? 9. How can walls be fin­
ished? 10. What patterns are used in Russia?

WALLS

The wall has a double function: it encloses the building and at the same time supports the covering. It
can be loadbearing, enclosing, non-loadbearing (curtain and self-bearing wall). It can be made either of a
single type of material (stone, brick or wood), or of a combination of different materials.
Stone walls. The stones are laid in courses or beds. The points o f contact between two stones are called
joints. The construction in stones is called the stonework. One of the kinds of stonework is rustication. It is
masonry cut in massive blocks separated from each other by deep joints.
Brick walls. Bricks can be put breadthwise or
lengthwise, e.g. one course lengthwise, another
breadthwise, or, in the same course, two bricks length­
wise, one behind the other, plus one breadthwise;
many other combinations are possible. As bricks can
be laid in the masonry in different ways, they are called
headers and stretchers. A header is a brick laid so that
only the end is seen on the face o f the wall. A stretch­
er is a brick laid so that only the side is seen on the face
of the wall. The brick courses are separated by thick

62 2. Structure
beds of mortar. There are many different kinds o f bricks: glazed brick, coloured brick, burnt brick, sun-dried
or adobe brick, face brick.
Wooden or timber walls. The external walls can be built e.g. of logs, panels, and internal walls — of boards.
Walls are often painted, wallpapered or faced with lining boards.
In Russia decorative brick and wooden bands are used to adorn the building; different patterns are used,
e.g. a sawtooth band o f inclined brick (porebrik) or a zigzag pattern (begunets), etc.

Porebrik i Begunets i

Упражнение 6. Переведите предложения на русский язы к, обращая внимание на подчеркнутые


слова.
1. The Moscow Architectural Institute is the principal one of its kind in Russia. 2. Every man must have
his principles. 3. Both books are interesting. 4. Both Moscow and St. Petersburg are big cities. 5. O f course
I shall go there. 6. The red brick course is above the two black brick courses. 7. 1 like the History o f Archi­
tecture course. 8. He is a first year student. 9 . 1 like to walk in a wood. 10. The house is built of wood. 11. This
is a wooden house. 12. In Russia there is much timber because there are a lot o f woods. 13. This is a timber
house. 14. The structure is built o f timber. 15. There are three floors in the building. 16. The book fell to the
floor. 17. The window is glazed. 18. The wall was decorated with glazed bricks. 19. The bed is made o f timber.
20. Near the house there is a flower bed. 21. One of the sides o f the brick is called the bed.

Упражнение 7. Переведите следующ ие слова и сгруппируйте синоним ы и антонимы .


Adobe, breadthwise, brickwork, chief, course, double, header, horizontal, to lay, layer, lengthwise, load-
bearing, main, masonry, non-loadbearing, principal, to put, single, stonework, stretcher, sun-dried brick,
timber, vertical, wood

Упражнение 8. Ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. What kinds of brick do you know? 2. How can bricks be put? 3. What are the principal kinds of cover­
ing? 4. What are the principal elements of a building? 5. What elements of a building carry loads?

Упражнение 9. О бъясните способ образования следующих слов и переведите их на русский


язык.
Unconnected, horizontal, sun-dried, non-loadbearing, unwrought, self-bearing, lengthwise, breadthwise,
sunburnt, brickwork, stonework, unworked

Упражнение 10. П ереведите следующ ие предлож ения на английский язык.


I. Я учусь на первом курсе. 2. Я студент первого курса. 3. Этот курс очень интересный. 4. Ниж­
ние два ряда несущей стены выложены из камня, а верхние из кирпича.

Упражнение 11. Н азовите все значения следующих слов. Д айте примеры.


Bed, sunburnt, glazed, floor, wood, structure, construction

Упражнение 12. П рочтите текст и укажите, в чем его различие с основны м.

UNIT III • Building materials, structures and parts of buildings 63


TYPES OF WALLS

Walls are of three types:


1) load-bearing walls — supporting themselves plus the weight of floors or other walls above;
2) self-bearing walls supporting themselves only, they are one storey high;
3) curtain walls — requiring intermediate supports within a storey height.

3. PILLARS A N D COVERING
TEXT A

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующие слова и переведите их на русский язы к.


circular ['s3:kjuld] diam eter [dai'aem ita] h alf [ha:f]
coupled ['клрШ] isolated ['aisaleitid] m onolith ['nmnaliG]
decorative ['dek(a)r3trv] o b e lisk ['D b (a )lis k ] pier [рю]
polygonal [рэТ1д(э)п1] post [paust] quarter ['kwo:ta]
section ['sekjn] series ['siari:z] e.g.
style [stall] triumphal [trai'Amfl]
WORDS TO BE USED
base [beis] n — база (колонны)
column: engaged [in'geid 3d] (attached [a'taetjt]) column — связанная колонна, приставная колон­
на; half column (semicolumn, demicolumn) — полуколонна; quarter column — четвертная колонна;
three quarter column — трехчетвертная колонна; coupled ['клрЫ] = twin columns — парные (двойные)
колонны ; freestanding column — отдельно стоящая колонна
covering ['клу(э)пг)] n — покры тие
depend [d i'p e n d ] v — зависеть (on, upon — от)
freestanding [,fri:'staendirj] a — свободно стоящий, отдельно стоящий
pier [рю] n — 1. столб 2. простенок
pilaster [pi'lassta] n — пилястр; pilaster strip — лопатка
place: in the first place — во-первых; in the second place — во-вторых
save [seiv] v — 1. спасать; 2. беречь, экономить (время, деньги, труд, силы и т.п.)
saving ['seivig] n — эконом ия,
section ['sekjn] n — (поперечное) сечение, разрез
semicircular [^ e m i'se ^ ju la ] a — полукруглый
shaft [Ja:ft] n — ствол (колонны)
solid ['solid] а — 1. твердый (не жидкий, не газообразный); 2. сплошной, массивный (не полый)
span [spaen] 1) n — пролет (моста); расстояние между опорами (арки, свода); 2) v — перекрывать
(об арке, крыше и т. п.); соединять берега (о мосте)
subdivide [,SAbdi'vaid] v — подразделять(ся)
top [tDp] n — верхушка, вершина; at the top (of) — на верху
twin [twin] a — двойной; сдвоенный, спаренный

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD
attach [a'taetj] v — прикреплять, прикладывать
gap [gaep] n — промежуток, интервал

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. What can be used instead of a non-loadbearing wall? 2. What section has a column? 3. What is an
engaged column? 4. What is the difference between a half-column and a pilaster? 5. What parts does a column
consist of?

64 3. Pillars and covering


COLUMNS AND PILLARS
If the wall has only to support and not to enclose, it can be replaced by a series of
small supports, columns or piers, joined together only at the top. The saving o f material
is considerable.
The column o f a circular section is the simplest kind of support. When in stone it
may consist of a single block (monolith), or of drums. Usually it consists of three parts —
the base, the shaft, and the capital. Columns can be of different types. In the first place
it depends on their style (e.g. Doric, Ionic, Corinthian*, etc.). In the second place they
can be subdivided into freestanding columns and columns that are elements o f the
building. The free-standing column can be a triumphal column, i.e. be a monument,
obelisk. Usually it is situated in the centre of a square, e.g. the Alexandriisky Column in
St. Petersburg. If the column is not freestanding, it can be circular, polygonal in section
and engaged. The engaged column is attached to the wall. It can be a half column (if it
projects one half its diameter, so it is semicircular), a quarter column and a three quarter
column. The engaged columns are usually only decorative. There are also coupled or
twin columns.
The simple, isolated support of wood or concrete (post) is generally square in section.
The pillar is a pier, a post or a column.
The pier is a solid masonry support.
The pilaster is an engaged rectangular pier with a capital and base.
The pilaster strip is a pilaster without base and capital
To span the gap between two supports, either a stone or wooden beam or a series o f smaller stones or
pieces of wood (arch) are used.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ

Doric fd o rik] — дорический; Ionic [ai'tmik] — ионический; Corinthian [кэ'ппбюп] — коринфский

TEXT В

Упражнение 3. Прочтите следующие слова и переведите их на русский язык:


mansard fmaenscnd] drainage ['d re in id 3 ] asphalt ['aesfaelt]
zinc [zirjk] equipment [Tkwipmant] aluminium ^aeb'miniam]
coupled ['L\pld] lead [li:d] v — lead [led] n

WORDS TO BE USED

bear [Ьеэ] v (bore; borne) — носить; нести


ceiling n — п о т о л о к ; nailed up from below to beams — подшивной ( п о т о л о к , прибитый снизу к
балкам); stretched — натяжной (им можно легко и быстро скрыть все недостатки существующего
перекрытия, т.к. он скрывает трещины, пятна или защищает базовый потолок от влажности и про­
течек); suspended ceiling — подвесной
copper ['кирз] п — медь
dormer (window) [/do:m3('windau)] n — слуховое окно
empty ['em (p)ti] a — пустой
ensure [in'/из] v — обеспечивать, гарантировать
felt [felt] n — толь, рубероид
furniture [Тз:пй/э] n — мебель
gable ['geib(s)l] n — щипец (в отличие от фронтона не отделяется от стены карнизом)
hide [hard] v (hid; hid, hidden) — прятать(ся)

UNIT 111 • Building materials, structures and parts of buildings 65


lead [led] n — свинец
link [lirjk] v — соединять, связывать, смыкать (together, to)
loft [toft] n — чердак
roof [ru:f], roofing n — крыша, кровля; gable(d) roof ['geib(9)ld] — двускатная; hipped roof [hipt] —
четырехскатная крыш а; m ansard roof ['maenscnd] — м ансардная крыш а; m onopitched ro o f —
односкатная крыша; pitched roof [pitft] = sloping roof — наклонная крыша
slate [sleit] n — сланец, шифер
slope [slaup] 1) n — наклон, склон, скат; 2) v — клониться; иметь наклон; sloping ['stoupir)] а —
наклонный, покатый
surface ['s3:fis] n — поверхность
tile [tail] n — 1. черепица; 2. кафель, изразец, плитка
transverse [traenz'v3:s] а = cross — поперечный
unit ['jurnit] n — агрегат, секция, блок, узел, элемент

Упражнение 4. Прочтите текст и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. What is a roof, a ceiling, a floor, a vault? 2. Look at the pictures of roofs and say what kinds they are.

COVERING

To span an empty space roofs, ceilings, floors and vaults are used.
The roof. Roofs protect buildings from rain and snow. To ensure drainage roofs are usually sloped. The
sloping surface of the roof is called a "slope". Depending on the shape and number o f the slopes roofs may
be flat roofs (with a very small fall), monopitched roofs, pitched roofs or gable(d) roofs, hipped roofs (sloping
on all four sides), mansard roofs, etc.
In a sloping roof there can be a loft. On the roof there are often dormer windows.
Roofs can be covered with tiles, slates, felt, aluminium, copper, zinc, lead, or asphalt.

ROOFS (see also Упражнение 11)

The ceiling. To cover a room, beams of stone, wood, iron or reinforced concrete are thrown from one
wall to another. These transverse (or cross) beams are then linked together at the right angle by other short­
er beams. The ceilings can be suspended, nailed up from below to beams, stretched (which hide all defects).
The floor. Floors are horizontal elements bearing the load of people, furniture and equipment, supported
by walls or columns and dividing the building into storeys.
The vault. It is masonry covering an area which uses the principle o f the arch. It spans large spaces by the
use o f small units, not difficult to put together.

Упражнение 5. Подберите соответствующ ие русские слова и укажите, есть ли разни ц а в зн а­


чении.
Circular, section, square, isolate, base, drainage, m onopitched, demicolumn, protect

Упражнение 6. Сгруппируйте слова, имею щ ие общ ие корни или приставки, переведите их и


объясните, как они образованы .

66 3. Pillars and covering


Circle, polygonal, octagon, semicircular, demi-season, isolated, polyglot, subdivide, circular, structure,
join, demicolumn, isolation, superstructure, pentagon, polyclinic, joint, divide, super, circular, half column,
semicolumn, substructure

Упражнение 7. Переведите на русский язы к, обращ ая внимание на подчеркнутые глаголы (см.


Грам. справ. § 8. 12).
1. 1 have to do it today, because tomorrow I shall have no time. 2. I am to do it today, because I have
promised it to my friend. 3. 1 want to have dinner at home. 4. He is a student. 5. Where is he now? 6. The
house was built two years ago.

Упражнение 8. Сгруппируйте синоним ы , укажите, есть ли между ними разница в значении.


Attached, circular, column, connect, cross, coupled, demicolumn, engaged, floor, form, freestanding,
half-column, inclined, isolated, link, of a square section, pillar, pitched, round, semicolumn, shape, sloping,
square in section, storey, transverse, twin

Упражнение 9. Переведите следующие предлож ения на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на
подчеркнутые слова.
A. 1. There is a dormer on the roof. 2. There is a loft in the roof. 3. There is a small window in the storey
under the roof.
B. 1. What streets lead to the square? 2. This is made of lead. 3. The room is square. 4. This is not a circle,
it is a square. 5. Go to the right. 6. You are right. 7. The buildings stand ar right angles to each other. 8. The
buildings were placed at right angles. 9. He felt pain (боль). 10. The roof is covered with felt. 11. Moscow is a
capital. 12. The column has a capital. 13. A great number of new structures were built last year. 14. Nouns in
Russian and English have two numbers: Singular and Plural. 15. We study in room number 2. 16.1 have a num­
ber of books in English. 17. The space can be light or dark depending on the number of windows. 18. To build
a new house we have to save money. 19. A small number of people were saved after the catastrophe. 20. How
many slopes has this roof? 21. The roof slopes to the ground. 22. The floor is wooden. 23.1 live on the first floor.
Упражнение 10. Вставьте предлоги, если нужно.
I. What does the cost o f the house depend ...? 2. What are the two rooms connected ...? 3. There are two
dormer windows ... the roof.
() , on, with
Упражнение 11. А. П еречислите строительны е материалы.
A. Назовите формы (например, круглый, плоский), дайте примеры.
B. Определите виды крыш на рисунке, объясните по-английски, чем они различаются.

Упражнение 12. П ерескажите текст, ответив наследую щ ие вопросы.


A. I. When can supports replace the wall? 2. What supports can be used? 3. Why are they used? 4. What
does a column consist of? 5. What are the main kinds of column? 6. What is the difference between them?
B. I. What is a roof? 2. O f what materials can it be made? 3. What kinds o f roof do you know? 4. What
are ceilings made of? 5. What kinds o f ceiling do you know?

Упражнение 13. О бъясните по-английски следующ ие термины : pilaster, pilaster-strip, capital,


column.

4. ARCHES
TEXT A
Упражнение 1. П рочтите следующ ие слова и переведите их на русский язы к.
Segment f'segm ant] evolution [,i:v3Tu:Jn] figure ['figs]
segmental [seg'm entl] monolithic [,ппэпэTiGik] basis ['beisis]

UNIT III • Building materials, structures and parts of buildings 67


WORDS TO BE USED

achieve [s'tjnv] v — достигать, добиваться


arc [a:k] n — дуга
carry ['kaeri] v — 1. везти, перевозить; 2. нести
curve [k3:v] 1) n — кривая; 2) v — гнуть, сгибать; изгибать(ся); curved [k3:vd] a — кривой, изо­
гнутый, искривленный
draw [dro:] v (drew [dru:]; drawn [dro:n) — чертить
edge [ed3 ] n — край
e.g. = for example — например
i.e. = that is — т.е.
intersect [,int3'sekt] v — пересекать(ся); intersection [,int3'sekj(3)n] n — пересечение; intersect­
ing — пересекающий(ся)
keystone ['ki:st3un] n — замковый камень
lintel [' lintl] n — перемычка окна или двери
opening ['эир(э)шг)] n — проем
segmental [seg'mentl] a — сегментный
spring [sprig] n, springing Une — линия пят. Линия начала изгиба арки, линия опоры пятовых
камней на импосты
successful [ssk'sesfl] а — успешный
voussoir [vu:'swa:] n — клинчатый кирпич или камень
wedge [wed3 ] n — 1. клин; 2. что-л. клинообразное

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст и выпишите термины, необходимые для описания арки.

ROMAN ARCHES

The Romans needed large buildings. They used stone, brick and concrete as building materials. Their
architecture had the round arch as its basis. The arch is a curved member that is used to span an opening and
to support loads from above. The arch formed the basis for the evolution o f the vault. The Roman arch is a
round arch drawn from a single centre, formed in a continuous curve. The arch can be called a curved lintel.
Its construction depends essentially on the wedge. In the Figure a series of wedge-shaped blocks — i.e. ones
in which the upper edge is wider than the lower edge — are set flank to flank*. These blocks are called
voussoirs. The central voussoir is called the keystone. The point from which the arch rises from its vertical
supports is known as the spring, or springing line.
The curve in an arch may be sem icircular,
segmental (consisting of less than one-half o f a
circle), or pointed (two intersecting arcs o f a
circle), and noncircular curves can also be used
successfully.
In masonry construction, arches have several
great advantages over horizontal beams, or lintels.
They can span much wider openings, and this can
be achieved using small, easily carried blocks of
brick or stone rather than by a massive, monolithic
stone lintel. An arch can also carry a much greater
load than a horizontal beam can.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ

flank to flank [flaerjk] — бок о бок, рядом

68 4. Arches
ADDITIONAL WORDS

abutment [a'bAtmant] — пята; нижняя поверхность нижнего (пятового) камня арки


impost ['im paust] n — импост; пята арки или свода
radius ['reidias] n (pi radii ['reidiai]) — радиус
extrados [ek'streidDs] n — верхняя выпуклая поверхность между пятами арки или свода
intrados [in'treidDs] n (pi тж. без измен.) — внутренняя поверхность арки от пят до замка

TEXT В

Упражнение 3 П рочтите следующ ие слова и переведите их на русский язы к


exploit [ik 'sp b it] false [foils] aqueduct ['aekwidAkt]
a contrast ['ko n traist] Egypt ['id 3ipt] triumphal [trai'Amf(9)l]
to contrast [k an 'traist] Arab [’aerob] popularize ['pD pjubraiz]
elliptical [riliptikl] midpoint ['m idpoint] victory ['vikt(9)ri]

WORDS TO BE USED

attic ['aetik] n — 1. мансарда; чердак; 2. аттик


case [keis] n — случай; in case of — в случае
clad [klaed] p.p. — облицованный
dressing ['dresirj] n — отделка, очистка; шлифовка
engineering [,e n (d ) 3i'niariq] n — инженерное искусство; техника
enter ['ento] v — 1. входить; 2. поступать (в институт)
exist [ig'zist] v — существовать
ground [graund] n — 1. земля; почва; грунт; 2. pi сад, парк при доме; 3. участок земли; спортивная
площадка (тж. sports ground)
hill [hil] n — холм
medieval [,m edi'i:vl] a — средневековый
mosque [mDsk] n — мечеть
originate [o 'rid 3oneit] v — 1. давать начало, порождать; создавать; 2. брать начало, происходить,
возникать (from, in — от чего-л. from, with — от кого-л.)
rely [ri'lai] v — полагаться, доверять, быть уверенным (on, upon)
scale [skeil] n — масштаб; размер; large-scale [,la:d 3 'skeil] а — 1. крупномасштабный; 2. широкий,
массовый (о жилищ ном строительстве и т.п.)
skill [skil] n — искусство, мастерство, умение
suit [s(j)u:t] v — удовлетворять требованиям; подходить, устраивать, годиться; соответствовать,
подходить; suitable ["sjuitabl] (for) а — подходящий, соответствующий, годный
value [ 'vaelju:] 1) n — ценность 2) v — ценить
various ['vearias] a — различный, разный, разнообразный; разносторонний

WORDS ТО BE UNDERSTOOD

extensive [ik'stensiv] a — обширный, пространный


lateral ['laetr(a)l] a — боковой
uniform ['juinifoim] a — единообразный; однообразный; однородный

Упражнение 4. П рочтите текст В, придумайте для него название и напиш ите его план по
английски.
Arches were known in ancient Egypt* and Greece* but were considered unsuitable for monumental
architecture and were little exploited. The Romans*, by contrast, used the semicircular arch in bridges,
aqueducts, and large-scale architecture. In most cases they did not use mortar, relying simply on the preci-

UNIT III • Building materials, structures and parts of buildings 69


sion of their stone dressing. The Arabs popularized the pointed arch in their mosques. Medieval Europe made
great use of the pointed arch, which constituted a basic element in Gothic architecture. In the late Middle
Ages the segmental arch was introduced. This form and the elliptical arch had great value in bridge engineer­
ing. One of the most ancient kinds of arch is a corbel arch* or false arch: it is masonry built over a wall open­
ing by uniformly advancing courses* from each side until they meet at midpoints.
It is sometimes said that the arch originated with the Romans. But the arch itself they did not originate,
they applied it with great skill and success to various structures.
i Corbel arches

<- The Arch of Constantine seen from Via Triumphalis

The Arch of Constantine* is a triumphal arch. It was


erected to commemorate Constantine I’s victory over
Maxentius* on October 28, 312. Dedicated in 315, it is the
latest of the existing triumphal arches in Rome, from which
it differs by spolia*, the extensive reuse of parts of earlier
buildings. The arch is 21 m high, 25.7 m wide and 7.4 m deep. It has three archways, the central one being 11.5
m high and 6.5 m wide, the lateral archways 7.4 m by 3.4 m each. The lower part o f the monument is built of
marble blocks, the top (called attic) is brickwork clad with marble. A staircase formed in the thickness of the
arch is entered from a door at some height from the ground, in the end towards the Palatine Hill*.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Egypt [Td 3 ipt] — Египет


2. Greece [grits] — Греция
3. the Romans ['raumanz] — римлянине
4. corbel fkarbl] arch — ложная арка = false arch
5. advancing [ad'vatns irj] course — выдвигающийся вперед горизонтальный ряд кладки
6. Constantine ['konst(a)ntain] I — Константин I, римский император (ок. 260—337)
7 . Maxentius — Максенций, Марк Аврелий Валерий, римский император (306—312), проиграл
в 312 г. битву за власть в Риме
8. spolia is a modem art-historical term used to describe the re-use of earlier building material or deco­
rative sculpture on new monuments — сполия
9. The Palatine H ill ['paelatain] — Палатинский холм. It is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome
and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome.

Упражнение 5. Переведите на русский язык.


1. It is sometimes said that the arch originated with the Romans. 2. The room is entered from the staircase.
3. It was erected to commemorate the victory.

Упражнение 6. Объясните способ образования следующих слов и переведите их на русский язык.


Midpoint, noncircular, successful, unsuitable

Упражнение 7. Сгруппируйте слова по значению А — синонимы , В — антонимы.


A. apply, brickwork, carry a load, clad, faced, lateral, lined, masonry, side, support a load, use
B. circular, double, single, successful, uncircular, unsuccessful

70 4. Arches
Упражнение 8. П еречислите все виды арок и части арок.

Упражнение 9. Подберите объяснения к терминам.


l . aqueduct 1. central voussoir
2. attic 2. channel for supplying water
3. extrados 3. storey above the wall cornice
4. intrados 4. the exterior curve of the visible face of the arch
5. keysone 5. the inner curve or face of an arch
6. voussoir 6. wedge stone

Упражнение 10. Укажите соответствующ ие русские и английские названия арок:


I. Арка двухпролетная 1. arch formed of voussoirs
2. Арка зонтичная 2. bell arch
3. Арка клинчатая 3. broken arch
4. Арка колоколообразная 4. bulbous arch, onion-like arch
5. Арка ложная 5. corbel(ed) arch
6. Арка лопастная 6. elliptical arch
7. Арка луковичная 7. foiled arch, cusped arch, lobed arch
8. Арка подковообразная 8. horseshoe arch
9. Арка полукруглая, полуциркульная 9. pointed arch
Ю. Арка разорванная 10. ribbed arch
11. Арка ребристая, нервюрная 11. semicircular arch
12. Арка стрельчатая, готическая 12. three-centered arch
13. Арка трехлопастная 13. trefoil arch
14. Арка трехцентровая 14. triumphal arch
15. Арка триумфальная 15. two-span arch
16. Арка эллиптическая, коробовая 16. umbrella arch

Упражнение 11. Начертите какую -нибудь арку или принесите картинку арки и опиш ите ее.

5. VAULTS

Упражнение 1. П рочтите следующие слова и переведите их на русский язык.


tunnel [Члп1] nervure ['пз:ущэ] region ['п :б з(э)п ]
Morocco [ш э'ш кэи ] voussoir [vur'swa:] Europe ['juarop]
Turkey ['t3:ki] conical ['konikl] curvature ['k3:vstja]
radiate ['reidieit] Middle Ages [,m id re id 3iz] labour ['leibs]
economy [I'konam i] castle ['ka:sl]

WORDS TO BE USED

barrel vault ['baeralvodt], wagon ('waeg(a)n] or tunnel ['U n i] vault — цилиндрический свод
blind vault ['blaindvodt] = corbel vault
concave [kon'keiv, кэп-] a — вогнутый; convex [ kon'veks] a — выпуклый
conical ['кош к(э)1] a — конический
corbel ['ко:Ь(э)1] arch (corbel vault) — ложная арка (ложный свод)

UNIT III • Building materials, structures and parts of buildings 71


curvature ['k3:v9t/9] n — изгиб, кривизна, курватура
equal ['i:kw(9)l] 1) a — равный; 2) v — равняться, быть равным
groin vault ['groinvorit], groined vault — крестовый свод
occur [э'кз:] v — случаться, происходить, встречаться
provide [pra'vaid] v — снабжать; обеспечивать, предусматривать (for)
radiate f'reidieit] v — расходиться из центра подобно радиусам
rib n, nervure n — ребро крестового свода, нервюра
right [rait] а — 1. правый; 2. верный; 3. прямой (о линии, угле); at right angles — под прямым углом
star vault (stellar vault) — звездчатый свод
voussoir vault — клинчатый свод
WORDS ТО BE UNSERSTOOD
exploit [ik'sp b it] v — 1. эксплуатировать; 2. использовать
lieme [ li'з:п, 1Теэп] n — лиерна (дополнительное ребро готического свода)
slightly ['slaitli] adv — слегка, немного
tiercerone [[tia'sein] n — тьерсерон (дополнительное ребро, идущее от опоры и поддерживающее
лиерну посередине)
ultimate ['Altimat] а — последний, конечный; окончательный
umbrella [лт'Ь геЬ ] п — зонтик

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст и напиш ите его резюме на русском или английском язы ке.

Упражнение 3. Выпиш ите из текста названия видов сводов.

VAULTS
The term is given to the covering over a space with stone or brick in arched form.The simplest kind of
vault is that known as the barrel, wagon or tunnel vault, which is generally semicircular in section: it is a series
o f arches placed side by side, i.e., one after another.
Barrel vaults are known from Ancient Egypt, and were used extensively in Roman architecture. Early
barrel vault designs occur in northern Europe, Turkey, Morocco and other regions. In medieval Europe the
barrel vault was an important element of stone construction in monasteries, castles and other structures.
A groin vault or groined vault (also sometimes known as a double barrel vault, intersecting vault or cross
vault) is a vault produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults. Sometimes the arches of groin
vaults are pointed instead of round. Groin vault construction was first exploited by the Romans. It reached
its ultimate expression in the Gothic architecture of the Middle Ages.
A rib vault or ribbed vault, Gothic vault is any vault reinforced by masonry ribs.
A fan vault is a concave conical vault whose ribs, of equal length and curvature, radiate like the ribs of a fan.

In addition to these kinds there are many others. The main o f them are star
vault (or stellar vault, star-ribbed vault, Herne vault), umbrella vault, voussoir
vault, conical vault, blind vault or corbel vaulting (a masonry roof constructed
from opposite sides or a circular base, by courses projecting slightly inward until
Iwm veub
they meet).

72 5. Vaults
Упражнение 4. Вставьте предлоги, если они нужны.
1. .. right angles forming a cross
The arch is very old ... comparison ... the vault. 2. The vaults intersect.
vault. 3. The building is square ... section. 4. The columns stand side ... side. 5 . They used an umbrella vault
... a voussoir vault. 6 .... addition ... brick stone was exploited,
at, by, in, instead of, to, with

Упражнение 5. Сгруппируйте слова по значению (синоним ы ).


Barrel vault, blind vault, corbel vault, cross vault, double barrel vault, Gothic vault, groin vault, groined
vault, intersecting vault, lierne, lierne vault, nervure, rib, rib vault, ribbed vault, star vault, star-ribbed vault,
stellar vault, tunnel vault, wagon vault

Упражнение 6. П одберите правильны е переводы к данны м терминам (может быть несколько


вариантов).
Веерный свод, готический свод, звездчатый свод, зонтичный свод, клинчатый свод,
конический свод, крестовый свод, лиерна, ложный свод, нервюрный свод, ребро, цилин­
дрический свод
Barrel vault, conical vault, corbel vault, cross vault, fan vault, double barrel vault, Gothic vault,
groin vault, groined vault, intersecting vault, lierne, nervure, rib, rib vault, ribbed vault, star vault,
star-ribbed vault, stellar vault, tunnel vault, umbrella vault, voussoir vault, wagon vault

Упражнение 7. П еречислите все виды сводов, которые вы знаете.

6. FOUNDATIONS A N D OPENINGS

TEXT А

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующ ие слова и переведите их на русский язы к.


comfort ['L unfot] portal [po:tl] foundation [faun'deijn]
half-glazed [ ,h a :f gleizd] panel ['paenl] method ['meGad]
deeply recessed portal ['di:pli ri'sest'portl]

WORDS TO BE USED

cast in-situ ['karstin'sitju:], cast-in-place — залитый на месте, монолитный


fence [fens] n — забор, изгородь, ограда, ограждение
gate(s) [geit(s)] n — ворота
glaze [gleiz] v — вставлять стекла; застеклять; glazed [gleizd] a — застекленный, half-glazed [,h a:f
'gleizd] а — застекленный наполовину; fully glazed a — полностью остекленный; glazing ['gleizirj]
n — остекление; single ['sirjgl], double ['dAbl], triple ['tripl] glazing — одинарное, двойное, тройное
остекление, floor-to-ceiling glazing — остекление от пола до потолка
gravel ['graev(a)l] n — гравий
leaf [li:f] (pi leaves [li:vz]) n 1. лист; 2. створка
prefabricated [prir'faebrikeitid] a — изготовленный заводским способом; сборный
rock [rok] n — 1. скала, утес, камень; 2. горная порода
shallow ['Jaelou] а — мелкий, не глубокий
strip [strip] n — длинный узкий кусок; полоса; лента; полоска; strip foundation — ленточный
фундамент; strip window — ленточное окно
term [t3:m] 1) n — 1. термин; 2. семестр, триместр; 3. срок; 4. pi личные отношения; 5. обыкн. pi
условия; in terms o f — с точки зрения; 2) v — называть

UNIT III • Building materials, structures and parts of buildings 73


WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD
distribute [dis'tribju:t] v — распределять
polish ['poll/] v — полировать
subsoil [ SAbsoil] n — подпочва
veneer [va'm a] v — обклеивать фанерой
wicket ['w ikit] n — калитка
kinds of foundation and door
foundation [faun'deijn] n — 1. фундамент; основание, основа; 2. основание (города и т.п.); pile
[pail] foundation — свайный; raft [ra:ft] foundation — сплошной; ring [rip] foundation — кольцевой;
slab [slaeb] foundation — сплошной; strip [strip] foundation — ленточный
door [do:] n — дверь; boarded [bo:did] door — досчатая; flush [fUJ] door — гладкая, плоская, щ и­
товая дверь, находящаяся на одном уровне, заподлицо; folding ['fauldirj] door — створчатая, склад­
ная; hinged [hin(d) 3d] door — на петлях; multileaf door ['mAltili:f] — (много)створчатая; panelled
['paenld] door — филенчатая; sliding ['slaidip] door — скользящая, раздвижная; solid ['solid] door —
сплошная; цельная; swing door [,sw ip'do:] — вращающаяся дверь; дверь, открывающаяся в любую
сторону (обыкн. двустворчатая); panelled ['paenld] door — филенчатая
ADDITIONAL WORDS
details of doors and windows
architrave ['a:kitreiv] n = surrounds [sa'raundz] n — наличник
hinge [hind 3] n —петля (дверная)
jamb [d 3aem] n — косяк (двери, окна)
muntin ['mAntin] n — горбылек (оконного, дверного переплета)
panel ['paenl] n — панель, филенка; top panel — верхняя филенка; middle panel — средняя ф и ­
ленка; bottom panel — нижняя филенка
rail [red] n — поперечина, перекладина, горизонтальная обвязка; рейка, брусок; top rail — вер­
хняя обвязка дверного полотна или оконного переплета; frieze rail — средняя обвязка; lock rail —
средняя (замковая) обвязка, средник; middle rail — средняя обвязка; bottom rail — ниж няя обвязка
stile [stall] n — боковой брусок (двери или оконной рамы); shutting stile, lock stile — замковый
обвязочный брус; hanging stile, hinge stile — навесной обвязочный брус

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст и ответьте на следущие вопросы:


1. What is the foundation? 2. What foundations do you know? 3. What does the kind of foundation depend
on? 4. What is the difference between prefabricated and cast-in-place foundations? 5. What kinds o f door do
you know? 6. How can the door be finished?
FOUNDATIONS
The foundations are the part of a building which is (usually) under the ground and on which the walls or
columns rest, distributing the main load of the building to the ground.
The kind of foundation depends on the conditions of the ground (or subsoil). Subsoil may be rock, gravel,
sand or clay.
There are strip, pile, raft, ring, and other kinds o f foundation. They may be
prefabricated or cast-in-situ, deep or shallow.
DOORS
According to the method of opening, doors may be termed hinged, sliding, folding,
or swing doors. According to the number of leaves they can be single, double or multileaf
doors.
Panelled door 1. surrounds, architrave; 2. top rail; 3. shutting stile, lock stile;
4. hanging stile, hinge stile; 5. top panel; 6. frieze rail, middle rail; 7. muntin;
8. middle panel; 9. lock rail; 10. bottom panel; 11. bottom rail

74 6. Foundations and openings


According to their structure they can be paneled, flush or boarded doors. Doors can be glazed, half-
glazed, solid etc. Flush doors may be veneered and polished or just painted.
In external walls draught lobbies* are sometimes provided to increase comfort.
The fence has gates and wickets.
Palaces and churches have beautiful portals, very often they have deeply recessed portals.

П РИ М ЕЧ А Н И Е

draught lobby ['drcuftTobi] — тамбур

TEXT В

Упражнение 3. П рочтите следующ ие слова и переведите на русский язы к.


panoramic [,рагпэ'гаегтк] ventilate [ 'ventileit] pavilion [pa'vilian ]
facade [fa'scud] balcony ['baelk(a)m ] pediment fp e d im a n t]
kosyashchatoye volokovoye

WORDS TO BE USED

arrange [a 're in (d ) 3] v — 1. приводить в порядок, располагать; 2. устраивать(ся); arrangement


[a'rein(d) 3m ant] n — 1. приведение в порядок, расположение, классификация; 2. устройство
balcony ['Ьае1к(э)ш] п — балкон, лоджия; projecting balcony — балкон; recessed balcony — лоджия
bay window ^beTw indau] n — эркер (обычно на несколько этажей)
curtain ['кзДп] 1) п — занавеска; 2) v — занавешивать
entrance hall ['entransho:l] — вестибюль; холл; прихожая
fenestration [JenTstreiJX ajn] n — распределение окон в здании
fix [fiks] v — укреплять; закреплять; прикреплять; fixed а — неподвижный, закрепленный
frame [freim] n — рама, каркас
oriel ['о:пэ1] п — эркер на один этаж
pane [pern] п — оконное стекло, кусок стекла (в оконном переплете)
projection [p ra 'd 3ekjn] n =1. pavilion [pa'vilian] n — ризалит; 2. выступ
view [vju:] 1) n — 1. поле зрения, кругозор; 2. вид; пейзаж; 3. взгляд, мнение, точка зрения;
2) v — осматривать

ADDITIONAL WORDS
(WINDOW AND ITS DETAILS)

window ['windau] n — окно; bay window [^bei'windau] — эркер (обычно на несколько этажей); pic­
ture window ['piktja'w indau] — панорамное окно; sash-window ['saej^windau] — подъемное окно; sliding
window ['slaidirj'windau] — скользящее, раздвижное окно; ventilating window ['ventileitirj'windau] —
форточка
pediment ['pedim ant] n — фронтон; semicircular [/semi's3:kjula] pediment — полукруглый, луч­
ковый; triangular [trai'aerjgjula] pediment — треугольный, broken ['braukan] pediment — разорванный,
half-pediment — полуфронтон
elements o f windows: window post, standard, vertical rod — вертикальный брус, вертикальная об­
вязка; horizontal rod — горизонтальный, поперечный брус; transom ['traens(a)m ] n — 1. поперечный
брус, 2. фрамуга; sill — подоконник; window-ledge — наружный подоконник
window and door furniture [Т з т й /э ] n — фурнитура; оконный или дверной прибор; magnetic
catch — магнитная защелка; casement fastener [-farsna] — шпингалет; handle f'hasndl] n — ручка; hinge
[hind3] n — петля; knob [nob] n — круглая ручка; latch [laetf] n — дверной замок с задвижкой и за­
щелкой, щеколда; запор, задвижка; защелка; шпингалет; window catch — оконная задвижка, ш пин­
галет

UNIT III • Building materials, structures and parts of buildings 75


***
blind [blaind] n — штора
casement ['keismant] n — створный оконный переплет
double-glazing unit, double-pane unit — стеклопакет
fanlight ['faenlait] n — 1. веерообразное окно (над дверью); 2. фрамуга
glass block [,gla:s'blok] — стеклоблок
glazing bar ['gleiznj'ba:] — горбыль, горбылек
jamb [d3 aem] n — косяк (двери, окна)
louvers [Tu:vaz] n pi — жалюзи
m ullion ['тлй эп ] n — средник
sash ['saej] n — переплет (подъемный)
shutter ['jAta] n — ставень
sill, c ill [sil] n — подоконник
spandrel fspaendral] n — часть стены от перемычки нижнего окна до подоконника верхнего
surrounds [sa'raundz] = architrave ['a:kitreiv] — наличник
top-hung sash, transom ['traens(9)m] n — фрамуга
ventilating window, fresh-air shutter, ventlight — форточка
window box — наружный ящик для цветов

Упражнение 4. Прочтите текст и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


What is this text about? 2. Where are foundations, doors and windows used in the building? 3. What
materials are they made of? 4. What kinds of window are used in Britain and are used or were used in Russia?
5. What do you think, why Russian windows are called krasnoye, kosyashchatoye and volokovoye?

Упражнение 5. Переведите текст письм енно со словарем.

WINDOWS
A window consists of a window frame, glazed casements (side hung) or sashes (vertically sliding), a sill,
an external sill. Windows can be opening, fixed, vertically or horizontally pivoted*, top-, bottom - or side-
hung, or sliding. The windows can consist of one, two or three leaves; in the latter case the middle one is
fixed. They usually have a number of lights and single, double or triple glazing (used in warm, temperate*
and very cold climates respectively). Each light is glazed with a pane. Windows can be made of glass blocks
(usually in staircases, entrance halls, etc). If the window is large there can be horizontal or vertical glazing
bars (mullions or transoms).
In order that the room can be ventilated, windows can have small glazed casements within the main
casement (ventlights) and transoms.
Sometimes the wall is fully glazed; there can be also floor-to-ceiling glazing. The arrangement o f windows
in the exterior walls of a building is called fenestration. Sometimes rooms have picture windows, i.e. the main
large windows from which panoramic beautiful views open and which
j usually have only one pane.
Over the windows pediments are often used. They can be semicircular,
^ triangular, broken pediments, half-pediments, etc. Very often the window
has surrounds.

3
1. window frame; 2. transom; 3. casement; 4.sill;
5. jamb; 6. ventlight6

76 6. Foundations and openings


broken pediment t semicircular pediment t half-pediment т

The windows can have shutters, louvers or blinds; at


night they can be curtained. On the facade o f the building
we can see balconies, bay windows, oriels (one-storey bay
windows) and projections or pavilions (projecting parts of
the facade either in the centre or symmetrically at the ends).
Balconies can be projecting or recessed.

1. Окно с фрамугой, закрепленной вверху top-hung window; 2. Окно с фрамугой, закрепленной внизу
bottom-hung window; 3. Окно со створкой side-hung window; 4. Окно со створкой, вращающейся
горизонтально horizontally pivoted window; 5. Окно со створкой, вращающейся вертикально
vertically pivoted window

In old Russian wooden houses (izbas) two kinds of window were used: krasnoye or kosyashchatoye
window and volokovoye window. The krasnoye window is a window with a frame with jambs. The volokovoye
window is a small window cut in two logs (half in the upper one and part in the lower one) and covered with
sliding shutters (voloks)

volokovoye window t krasnoye window t

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. pivot ['pivot] v — вращаться


2. temperate ['temp(o)rot] a — умеренный (о климате и т.п.)

UNIT III • Building materials, structures and parts of buildings 77


Упражнение 6. О бъясните способ образования следующих слов и переведите их на русский
язы к.
Ventlight, entrance hall, opening, surroundings, multileaf, panelled, prefabricated, top-hung, bottom-
hung, side-hung, arrangement

Упражнение 7. Переведите следующ ие слова на русский язы к, назовите слова от этого же


корня в русском язы ке и укажите, есть л и разни ц а в значении между английским и и русскими
словами.
Furniture, rail, panel, hall, projection, ventilation, term, prefabricate

Упражнение 8. Переведите предложения на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на подчеркнутые


слова.
1. The room is light, because there are large lights in the window. 2. We see light at the end o f the tunnel.
3. The light of the sun. 4. The wall is painted light-blue. 5. He decided to light a lamp. 6. light industry; light
rain. 7. The house is lighted by electricity 8. He is opening the door with a great opening. 9. The door is glazed
with glass. 10. The stiles are of wood. 11. The house is built in the Russian style. 12. The structure is built of
large panels. 13. The panelled door consists of several panels, rails and stiles. 14. Will you go there by rail or
by air? 15. The window is surrounded by surrounds. 16. The foundation o f London took place at an unknown
date. 17. The house has strip foundations. 18. “ Foundations” is an architectural term. 18. It is a very short
term. 19. Architects must dictate terms to builders. 20. Now he is a fifth term student. 21. We are on good
terms with him. 22. Such walls are termed self-bearing.

Упражнение 9. Укажите все значения следующих слов: light, case, opening, glazed, rail, panel, term,
foundation.

Упражнение 10. Вставьте подходящ ие слова в нуж ной форме.


1. A ll... in the window are .... 2.... is a building material. 3. Some o f the ... in the windows were broken.
to glaze, glass, light, pane

Упражнение 11. Ответьте н а следующ ие вопросы:


1. What is the difference between “pane” and “light”? 2. What is the difference between casement and
sash windows? 3. What do the following terms mean: picture window, ventilating window, fully-glazed,
prefabricated, fenestration?

Упражнение 12. О пиш ите окн о и дверь в аудитории.


UNIT IV
ANCIENT ARCHITECTURE
(GREEK AND ROMAN)

1. GREEK ARCHITECTURE

TEXTS A. ORDERS

TEXT A. A.

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующ ие слова и переведите их на русский язык.


Diameter [dai'aemita] Greece [gri:s] classic fklassik]
modification [,rrmdifTkeiJn] Greek [gri:k] post [poust]
fundamental [,fAnda'm entl] to combine ['к ш п Ь а т] architrave f'arkitreiv]
entablature [en'tasblotja] proportion [ргэ'ро:/п] capital ['kaepitl]

WORDS TO BE USED

architrave ['arkitreiv] n — архитрав


develop [di'vetap] v — 1. развивать(ся); 2. застраивать; development [dTvelapm ant]; n — 1. разви­
тие; 2. застройка
distinct [di'stirj(k)t] (from) а — отличный (от других)
entablature [en'taeblatja] n — антаблемент
frieze [fri:z] n — фриз
include [in'klu:d] v — 1. заключать, содержать в себе; 2. включать
lintel [Tintl] n — перемычка окна или двери; post and lintel system — стоечно-балочная система
moulded ['m auldid] a — рельефный, профилированный
tympanum, [Т н п р э п э т] (pi -s [-z], -na) n — тимпан
variety [va'ra(i)ati] n — 1. разнообразие; 2. ряд, множество (of); 3. сорт, вид, разновидность
vary fv e a ri] v — 1. менять(ся), изменять(ся); 2. разниться

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD
embody [im'bDdi] v — воплощать
ornate [o:'neit] a — богато украшенный
Упражнение 2. Прочтите тексты об ордерах архитектуры и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:
1. What is the main principle of the Greek architecture? 2. How many orders do you know? 3. Why did archi­
tects begin to combine orders? 4. What are the main parts of orders? 5. What are the main parts of entablatures?
6. What are the main parts of columns? 7. What is the difference between the Ionic and Corinthian Orders?
Упражнение 3. П рочтите текст и переведите его письменно.

ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE
The three orders, or styles o f building, used by the Greeks, were the Doric*, the Ionic* and the
Corinthian*, all embodying the fundam ental principle o f Greek architecture, the post and lintel system.
The Corinthian was a later modification of the Ionic, the only difference being the capital. The Doric
Order was the simplest, the Corinthian the most ornate. In the early years of their development the Doric
and Ionic Orders were distinct, but then architects began to combine them to achieve beauty and variety.
The Romans added the Tuscan* and Composite*, thus completing the five orders of architecture.

UNIT IV • Ancient architecture (Greek and Roman) 79


An “order” in classic architecture consists of the vertical column or support, including base and capital,
and the horizontal entablature, or part supported. The latter is divided into architrave, or the lowest part,
frieze, or the middle part and cornice, or the upper part. The proportion of column and entablature vary in
different “orders” , as do* also mouldings and ornaments.
The pediment has a tympanum usually ornamented with sculpture.
ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ
1. Doric [' dorik] — дорический
2. Ionic [ai'Dnik] — ионический
3. Corinthian [ka'rinGian] — коринфский
4. Tuscan ['tAskan] — тосканский
5. Composite ['km npazit] — сложный, композитный
6. do — глагол to do может употребляться вместо предыдущего глагола, чтобы не повторять его, в
данном случае to vary

Упражнение 4. П ереведите на английский язы к.


Карниз, антаблемент, колонна, облом, орнамент, архитрав, стиль, стоечно-балочная система,
капитель, база, сочетать (комбинировать), поддерживать, поддерживающая часть, фриз, поддержи­
ваемая часть

Упражнение 5. Переведите на русский язы к и приведите прим еры употребления.


The latter — later, principal — principle, moulding o f the colum n — moulding in this London palace,
developm ent o f the country — developm ent o f the tow n, the only chapel — only the chapel

TEXT A. В
DORIC ORDER

Упражнение 6. П рочтите следующ ие интернациональны е слова и назван ия и переведите их.


Sicily ['sis(a)li] massive ['maesiv] triglyph ['traiglif]
entasis ['entasis] monolithic [,nrnnaTiGik] conical ['konikl]
stereobate ['steriabeit] metope ['m etaup] soffit ['sDfit]
abacus ['aebakas] interval [Tntavl] sculpture ['skAlptJa]
intercolumniation [intaka, 1 л тш ' ei/(a)n]

WORDS TO BE USED

abacus ['aebakas] (pi -es [-iz], -ci [-sai]) n — абак(а), верхняя часть капители
channel ['tfaenl] n — желобок, швеллер
correspond [,kora'spD nd] v — соответствовать ( to); согласовываться
convex [,kon'veks] a — выпуклый
echinus [i'kam as] (pi —ni [-nai]) n — эхин
eith er... or ['aida ... 'a:] — или ... или, либо ... либо
flute [flu:t] n — каннелюра
gutta [ gAta] (pi —ae [i:]) n — гутга, капля
intercolumniation [/in tak a/lA m m 'eiJ(a)n] n — интерколумний
metope ['m etaup] n — метоп(а)
narrow ['naerau] a — узкий
sharp [Ja:p] а — острый
temple ['tem pi] n — храм (языческий, не основной религии или храм науки и т.п.)
time [taim] n — 1. время; 2. раз
triglyph ['traiglif] n — триглиф

80 1. Greek architecture
WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

alternate ['odtaneit] v — чередовать(ся)


annulet faenjulat] n — поясок колонны, ремешок
arris ['asris] n — (острое) ребро
corona [кэ'гэипэ] (pi обычно —пае [ni:]) n — венчающий карниз
drop [drop] n — капля, капелька
entasis ['entasis] (pi entases ['entasi:z]) n — энтазис, выпуклость колонны
mutule ['m ju:tju:l] n — мутул
см. также, если потребуется, "Thematic English-Russian Vocabulary (Greek Architectural Terms)"

У праж н ени е 7. П рочтите текст о дорическом ордере и ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. Where was the Doric Order originally used? 2. What parts does the Doric Order consist of? 3. What
elements does each member o f the Doric Order include?

У праж н ени е 8. Прочтите текст и напиш ите его план на английском языке.

DORIC ORDER

The Doric Order, the most simple and massive, was developed in Doris*, a district in the middle part of
Greece. The principal Doric temples were in Greece, Sicily* and South Italy, as the Greeks had colonies
there. One of the most famous examples is the Parthenon*, Athens* (454—438 BC).
The Doric column stands without a base on a stereobate usually o f three steps, and, including the capi­
tal has a height of from 4 to 6.5 times the diameter at the base. The circular shaft, diminishing at the top, can
be either monolithic or be built in drums and is divided as a rule into 20 shallow flutes or channels separated
by sharp “arrises” . The shaft has a slightly convex profile called the “entasis”.

Doric O rder 1. acroterion 2. tym panum 3. entablature 4. (c). corona 5. frieze 6. architrave 7. mutule
8. guttae 9. (b). triglyph 10. (b). metope 11. tenia 12. (a), regula 13. colum n 14. capital 15. abacus
16. echinus 17. shaft. 18. annulets. 19. trahelion. 20. hypotrahelion 21. flute 22. arris (d). soffit with
mutules and guttae

The capital consists of annulets, echinus and abacus. The abacus is a square, unmoulded slab which
crowns the echinus and forms the topmost member o f the capital.
The Doric entablature is supported by the columns, and has three main divisions:

UNIT IV • Ancient architecture (Greek and Roman) 81


The architrave or principal beam is of considerable depth and has only one plane (in the Ionic and
Corinthian Orders it is usually divided into three planes). Separating this from the frieze is a flat moulding
called the tenia, and under this, at intervals corresponding to the triglyphs, is a narrow band called the regula
with six guttae (or small conical drops).
The frieze is formed of triglyphs with three vertical channels which alternate with metopes or square
spaces, often ornamented with groups of fine sculpture. The triglyphs come over each column, and there was
usually one over each intercolumniation.
The cornice, the upper or crowning part consists o f some mouldings and the corona or vertical face. The
soffit or sloping underside of the cornice has mutules. These are used above each triglyph and each metope,
and are usually ornamented with eighteen guttae, in three rows o f six each.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Doris fdD ris] — Дорида, горная область в средней части Греции


2. Sicily ['sisili] — о-в Сицилия
3. Parthenon ['р а :в т э п ] — П арфенон
4. Athens ['aeGanz] — г. Афины

Упражнение 9. Н айдите в тексте слова, имею щ ие общ ий корень с соответствую щ ими русски­
ми словами и переведите их.

Упражнение 10. П ереведите на русский язы к предлож ения, обращ ая вним ание на подчеркну­
тые слова.
I. The cathedral was crowned with golden cupolas. 2. The tsar was crowned in this cathedral. 3. The
entablature has several members. 4. He is a party member. 5. This time he came in time. 6. The column has
the height from 8 to 9 times the diameter at the top.

Упражнение11. Подберите к следующим словам из данного текста: а) синоним ы , б) антонимы.


а) member, sloping underside, vertical face, principal beam, drop, round, include, well-known, main
б) narrow, vertical, unmoulded, deep, built in drums, at the base

TEXT A. C

IONIC ORDER

Упражнение 12. П рочтите следующ ие интернациональны е слова и переведите их.


mutule ['m ju:tju:l] torus ['to:ras] spiral ['spair(a)l]
scotia [skaufa] volute [va'lurt] stylobate ['stailabeit]

WORDS TO BE USED

dentil ['dentil] n — дентикула, зубчик, сухарик


remarkable [n 'm aik ab l] a — 1. выдающийся; 2. замечательный, удивительный; to be remarkable
(for) — выделяться чем-л.
volute [va'lu:t] n — волюта

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

cushion ['kuj(a)n] n — подушка


fascia ffe ija ] (pi тж. -iae) n — фасция
fillet ['filit] n — ремешок, полочка
mutule ['m ju:tju:l] n — мутул

82 1. G r e e k architecture
scotia ['skaufo] n — скоция
torus ['to:ras] (pi tori ['to:rai]) n — торус

У п раж н ен и е 13. Прочтите текст об ионическом ордере и ответьте на следующие вопросы:


I. Where was the Ionic Order developed? 2. Are the main examples only in Greece? 3. Does the Ionic
capital resemble the Doric one? 3. What is the difference between the Doric and Ionic entablatures?

IONIC ORDER

The Ionic Order was developed in Ionia* and the principal examples are in Greece (e.g. the Erechtheion*
420-393 B.C.) and in Asia Minor*. It is less massive than the Doric and is remarkable for the volute capital.
Ionic columns have twenty-four flutes separated by fillets and not by arrises or sharp edges as in the
Doric column.
The moulded base usually consists of an upper and lower torus, divided by a scotia and fillets.
The capital consists of a pair of volutes or spirals connected by the cushion, sometimes plain and some­
times ornamented.
The Ionic entablature varies in height. It consists of:
1. architrave, usually formed as a triple fascia, in three planes;
2. frieze, sometimes plain, but often ornamented by a band of continuous sculpture (sometimes there is
no frieze);
3. cornice, with no mutules, but usually with dentil ornament, crowned by the corona and a moulding.

•g
О

Ionic Entablature from tl»v Temple of Minerva Pulias


nt Priene.

Ionic column: l. abacus 2. cushion


3. volute 4. eye 5. echinus 6. flute
7. fillet 8. scotia 9. torus

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Ionia [ai'aunja] — И ония, ионическое побережье Малой Азии, о-ва в Ионическом море
2. Erechtheion, Erechtheum ['erek'G kam ] — Эрехтёйон
3. Asia M inor ['e ija 'm a in a ] — п-ов Малая Азия

UNIT IV • Ancient architecture (Greek and Roman) 83


Упражнение 14. П одберите из данного текста к следующ им словам: а) син он и м ы (слова или
словосочетания), б) антонимы .
а) sharp edges, volute
б) less, plain, upper, triple
TEXTS A. D
CORINTHIAN ORDER, TUSCAN ORDER, COMPOSITE ORDER
Упражнение 15. Прочтите следующие интернациональны е слова и переведите их.
stylobate ['stailsb eit] character ['kaerskta] symmetric(al) [si'm etrik(l)]
acanthus [o'kaenGas] designer [di'zaina] triumphal [trai'Amfl]
bronze [bronz] idea [ai'dia]

WORDS TO BE USED
acanthus [a'kaenGas] (pi -ses [-siz], acanthi [a'kaenGai]) n — акант
bell-shaped ['beljeipt] a — колоколообразный
egg-and-dart ['e g an d 'd a:t] — ионики
см. также Thematic English-Russian Vocabulary (Greek Architectural Terms)

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD
basket fbcuskit] n — корзина
maiden fm e id n ] n — девица, девушка

Упражнение 16. Прочтите текст о коринф ском ордере и укажите, какие предложения соответ­
ствуют тексту, а какие нет, исправьте неправильны е.
1. The Parthenon was built in the Corinthian Order. 2. The Corinthian Order was widely used in Greece.
3. It has a bell-shaped capital. 4. The capital is decorated with volutes. 5. The entablature is divided into three
parts.

CORINTHIAN ORDER

The Corinthian Order was less used by the Greeks than either the Doric or Ionic
Order. One of the examples is the Olympieion*, Athens (174 B.C. — 117 A.D).
The Corinthian column, with base and shaft resembling the Ionic, is generally
about ten times its diameter in height, and like the other orders was placed on a
stylobate.
The distinctive feature is the capital. This symmetrical bell-shaped capital is
clothed in acanthus leaves (two tiers of eight leaves).
Callimachus*, a worker in Corinthian bronze, is sometimes credited* with
being the original designer o f this capital, and, according to Vitruvius*, he obtained
the idea from observing a basket over the grave of a Corinthian maiden covered
by a tile and surrounded by acanthus leaves, which formed volutes.
The Corinthian entablature is usually about one-fifth of the height of the order,
C o r in th ia n C i p i t a l w it h E n ta b la tu r e fro m
resembling the Ionic, with the usual triple division of architrave, frieze and cornice
th e P a n th e o n a t Rom e.
(but with additional carved moulding).

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Olympieion — Олимпейон, храм Зевса Олимпийского


2. Callimachus [ka'li:m akas] — Каллимах

84 1. Greek architecture
3. is credited — считается, что
4. Vitruvius [vi'tru:viss] — Витрувий, римский архитектор и теоретик архитектуры, работал в
46—30 гг. до н.э.

TUSCAN ORDER

The Tuscan Order is a simplified version of the Doric Order, about 7 diameters high, with base, un­
fluted shaft, and simply moulded capital, and with a simple entablature. Columns are usually widely spaced
and of short proportions.

COMPOSITE ORDER

Tuscan column Composite capital


The Composite Order of the Romans is a mixed
order, it has a capital which is a combination of the
Corinthian and Ionic capitals (the volutes of the
Ionic Order with the leaves of the Corinthian order),
it also has an echinus with egg-and-dart ornam enta­
tion between the volutes. The column of the Com ­
posite Order is ten diameters high. The order was
used largely in triumphal arches to give them an or­
nate character.

Упражнение 17. Переведите на русский язык.


A. the latter — later, much time — many times, plane — plain, he lives in
Moscow — he leaves Moscow — green leaves, widely spaced
B. He was credited with being the original designer of this masterpiece.

Упражнение 18. Н апиш ите все значения следующ их слов: face, to face, drum , step, capital,
development, moulding.

Упражнение 19. Переведите на английский язы к следующ ие слова и словосочетания.


A. балка, значительный, выступ, ярус, ярусный, плита (строительная), плитка (черепица), храм
(Афины), храм (Василия Блаженного), добиться красоты и разнообразия, стоечно-балочная система
B. абака, антаблемент, архитрав, база, волюта, каннелюра, капитель, карниз, колонна, метопа,
облом, ствол, тимпан, триглиф, фриз, фронтон, эхин

Упражнение 20. Вставьте предлоги, послелоги или сою зы, если нужно.
I. The temple is remarkable ... its size. 2. It was b u ilt... the 5th ...the 6th century. 3. I want to go ... Italy
... France. 4. According ... Vitruvius it is an archaic building. 5. It was b u rn t.......a resu lt... the war. 6. The
conflict ... the two countries resulted ... a war. 7. The war resulted ... the conflict ... the two countries.
8. ... the entablature there are three members. 9. Columns are divided ... three principal parts ... a rule.
Ю. Columns co n sist... three parts.

(), and, as, between, down, for, from, in, into, of, or, to

Упражнение 21. О бъясните образование следующ их слов, переведите их: simplified, fluted,
unfluted, unm oulded, moulding, bell-shaped, tiered, trium phal, com bination, developm ent, variety.

Упражнение 2 2 . Переведите на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на подчеркнутые слова.


I. The central square in a Greek town is called agora. 2. The square slab over the echinus is called abacus.
3. The building is square in plan. 4. Everything is in order. 5. Architects began to combine orders in order to

UNIT IV • Ancient architecture (Greek and Roman) 85


achieve beauty. 6. The Corinthian entablature has the triple division of the architrave like the Ionic entabla­
ture. 7. The architect projected two temples in the capital and later one in a small town, the latter having no
temple. 8. The capital projected over the shaft. 9. Originally the Corinthian capital was designed by Callima­
chus. 10. This temple is very original.
Упражнение 23. П ереведите на английский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на степени сравнения
(см. Грам.справ. § 3. 3, 4, 5).
1. Коринфский ордер самый красивый. 2. Ионический ордер красивее дорического. 3. И они­
ческая колонна намного выше дорической и имеет больше каннелюр. 4. У этого храма меньше
колонн, чем у Парфенона.
Упражнение 24. О ткройте скобки, поставив глагол в нуж ной форме (см. Грам. справ. § 8. 8).
1. The entablature ... into architrave, frieze and cornice (to divide). 2. The temple ... by columns (to sur­
round). 3. The column ... by a capital (to crown). 4. Three orders ... in this building (to use). 5. The capital
... from the shaft by the trahelion [tra'helian] (to separate). 6. The spaces ... by columns (to separate).
Упражнение 25. Н апиш ите основны е ф орм ы следующих слов (см. Грам. справ. §3. 3—5):
A. less, lowest, simplest, better, worst, least
B. wrote, built, taken, founded, found, buried, run, laid

Упражнение 26. Н апиш ите ф орму ед. числа следующ их слов, сгруппировав их по способу
образования мн. числа (а — ае [i:], ш п — а [э], us — i [ai], is —es [i:z]) (см. Грам. справ. § 2. 4).
Abaci, acanthi, acroteria, antefixae, axes, echini, entases, guttae, gymnasia, radii, teniae, tori, tympana
Упражнение 27. Н апиш ите п о-англи й ски и прочтите следующ ие дроби (см. Грам. справ. § 5.
3): 1/10, 3/5, 1/2, 1/15, 4/5, 1/8.

Упражнение 28. Н айдите, куда в описание Д орического ордера мож но вставить следующее
предложение.
The shaft terminates in the hypotrahelion [h aip atrs'h elisn ] usually formed of three grooves in archaic
examples and later of one groove, and immediately above it is the continuation of the fluted shaft known as
the trahelion or necking.
Упражнение 29. П одберите к указанны м терм инам соответствую щ ие определения из рамки.
Abacus, annulets, architrave, arrises, base, drum, echinus, flutes, stereobate, volutes
a circular elem ent o f the colum n shaft; a projecting elem ent under the Doric abacus; a square,
unmoulded slab; horizontal fillets; sharp edges; spirals; the lowest part o f the column; the lowest part of the
entablature or its principal beam; the platform under a temple consisting o f three steps; vertical channels

Упражнение 30. Задайте все возмож ны е вопросы к следую щ им предлож ениям .


1. Му friend lived in Moscow for two years. (7) 2. He decorated many temples in Greece. (6)

TEXTS В
TEMPLES

TEXT B. A
PARTHENON

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующие интернациональны е слова и переведите их на русский


язык.
trip le [Чпр(э)1] p erip teral [ p a 'r ip t ( 9 ) r a l] to m a sk [m a :s k ]
o c ta sty le ['D k ta s ta il] m u se u m [m ju 'z i:a m ] stereo b a te [ 's t e r is b e it ]

86 1. Greek architecture
Venetians [vs'nnjnz] statue ['staetju:] acroteria [/аекгэ(и)Чепэ]
constructive [ksn'strAktiv] tympanum [Ч н п р эп эт] antefixae ['asntifiksi:]
Christian ['k ristj(s)n z] tympana ['tim pano] pi winged [wirjd]
pedestal ['pedistl] portico ['po:tikau]

WORDS TO BE REMEMBERED

convert [kan'v3:t] (into) v — превращать; переделывать


in = inch [in(t)J] n — дюйм (= 2,5 см)
ivory ['aiv(a)ri] n — слоновая кость
naos ['neiDs] n — наос (главное помещение античного храма, в котором обычно стояла статуя)
opisthodomos [a^isG a'daum as] n — опистодом (помещение за наосом, не сообщающееся с ним
и имевшее вход с противоположной стороны)
pronaos [pra'neias] n — пронаос (полуоткрытая часть греческого храма, между входным порти­
ком и наосом)
pure [pjua] а — чистый; беспримесный
row [гэи] п — ряд
ruins ['ru:inz] n pi — развалины, руины; ruin v — разрушать; уничтожать

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

ambulatory [/aem bju'leit(a)ri] n — амбулаторий, галерея для прогулок; крытая галерея


apex ['eipeks] (pi -xes [-ksiz], apices ['eipisi:z]) n — 1. верхушка, вершина; 2. конек крыши
chamber ['t/eim bo] n — палата
convert [kon'v3:t] v — превращать
marvelous ['mcuvlss] a — изумительный, удивительный; необыкновенный
octastyle ['Dktostail] n — октастиль (портик с восемью колоннами)
peripteral [рз'пр1(э)гэ1] а — окруженный колоннами, периптерический
precious ['prejbs] а — драгоценный

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст о П арф еноне и укажите, в каких абзацах говорится об истории
строительства, о строительны х материалах, плане, его позднейш ей истории.

Упражнение 3. Прочтите текст и напиш ите его план на английском язы ке.

PARTHENON

The Parthenon is an example of pure Doric. Its beauty is mainly in its constructive lines and in harmony
of its proportions.
The Parthenon was begun on the Acropolis* in 447 B.C.* under Pericles*. It was dedicated to Athena
Parthenos*, the virgin Athena. Ictinus* and Callicrates* were the architects, and Pheidias* was the master
sculptor.
The whole building was of marble, but the roof beams were of wood. The temple is peripteral octastyle
in plan (i.e. it is surrounded with columns and has porticoes with eight columns) and stands on a stereobate
of three steps.
The unbased columns support entablatures which have the usual divisions of architrave, frieze and
cornice. The joints o f the marble roof slabs above the cornices were masked by carved antefixae. The
pediments decorated the roof at each end o f the temple, and had acroteria at the apex and lower angles. The
tympana in the pediments were filled with the finest sculpture of Pheidias.
The principal doorway on the east led from the pronaos into the naos, which had two rows of ten Doric
columns 3 ft. 8 in. in diameter with sixteen flutes. To the west of the naos was the Parthenon or virgin's

UNIT IV • Ancient architecture (Greek and Roman) 87


chamber, from which the temple took its name. It was entered from the opisthodomos by a large doorway.
The whole temple was encircled by an ambulatory 9 or 11 ft. wide.

Parthenon now Parthenon at the time o f Pericles

N ear the western end o f the naos stood the famous statue of Athena
Parthenos, one of the most marvelous works of Pheidias, supporting a winged
victory in her right hand. It was a statue of gold and ivory, about 40 feet high
including the pedestal. The gold details could be removed in case of danger.
The face, hands and feet were o f ivory, and the eyes o f precious stones.
In the 6th century A.D.* the Parthenon was converted into a
Christian church, in 1456 it was converted into a mosque. In the
17th century it was badly damaged during the war with the Venetians
and so it still lies in ruins. In 1801 many sculptures were removed
to the British Museum.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. the Acropolis [a' krapalis] n — афинский Акрополь


2. В.C ['bi:'si:] = before Christ [kraist] — до н.э.
3. Pericles fp erik laz] — Перикл, o k . 490—429 до н.э., вождь
афинской демократии в период ее расцвета
4. Athena Parthenos [a'Giina'paiOimas] — Афина Парфенос, Афина Девственница
5. Ictinus [ikTinas] — Иктин, афинский архитектор эпохи Перикла (Vв. до н.э.), один из величай­
ших архитекторов того времени
6. Callicrates [ka'likrati:z] — Калликрат, афинский архитектор эпохи Перикла
7. Pheidias (Phidias) ['firdias] — Фидий, греческий скульптор (V в. до н.э.), один из самых значи­
тельных и авторитетных мастеров древнегреческой скульптуры эпохи классики
8. A.D. ['ei'd i:] = of our era [Т(э)гэ] — нашей эры

У п р а ж н е н и е 4. Вставьте предлоги, если нужно.


1. The temple was dedicated ... Athena. 2. It was b u ilt.. Ictinus ... Pericles. 3. The cathedral is b u ilt...
marble. 4. The statue ... ivory stood ... the end ... the naos. 5. The portico was encircled ... columns. 6. The
ancient church was converted ... a Christian cathedral.

(), at, by, into, of, to, under

У п р а ж н е н и е 5. Укажите, каким способом были образованы следующ ие слова и переведите их:


unbased (column), winged (statue), to encircle.

88 1. Greek architecture
Упражнение 6. Начертите в тетрадках план П арф енона и укажите, где какие помещ ения на­
ходятся.

Упражнение 7. О пиш ите П арф енон, пользуясь написанны м вами планом.

TEXT В. В

ERECHTHEION

Упражнение 8. П рочтите следующие слова и переведите их на русский язык,


caryatid ^kaeri'aetid] harem ['ha:ri:m ]
Poseidon [pD 'said(a)n] guardian ['gcudian]

WORDS TO BE REMEMBERED

share [Jes] v — делить, разделять (с кем-л. что-л.)


shrine [frain] n — 1. рака; гробница, усыпальница; 2. храм, место поклонения, святыня, святилище

WORDS ТО BE UNDERSTOOD

antefix ['aentifiks], antefixa [-fik'sa], pi -ae [i:] n — антефикс (резная вертикально стоящая

« фигурная карнизная черепица античного храма, прикрывающая стыки плоской кровельной


черепицы)
female ['fi:m eil] а — женский
misfortune [m is'fo:tJ(a)n] n — беда, неудача, несчастье
magazine ^m aega'zim ] n — 1. склад боеприпасов; вещевой склад; 2. пороховой погреб; 3. иллю­
стрированный журнал
powder ['pauda] n — порох
suffer ['sAfa] v — страдать; испытывать, претерпевать

Упражнение 9. П рочтите текст об Эрехтейоне и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. When and where was it built? 2. Why is its plan irregular? 3. Was it similar to other Greek temples?
4. How many shrines has it? 4. Does it he now in ruins?

Упражнение 10. Прочтите текст и напиш ите его резюме.

ERECHTHEION

Porch o f Caryatides Erechtheion

UNIT IV • Ancient architecture (Greek and Roman) 89


План Эрехтейона (по Стерли ну)
1. Колонны простиля
2. Святилище Афины
3. Святилище Бута
4. Святилище Гефеста
5. Святилище Эрехтея-Посейдона
6. Святилище Посейдона
7. Портик кариатид
The temple designed in the 5th century B.C. stands on the Acropolis
north of the Parthenon, on the site of an older temple. The temple was
irregular in plan because of the sloping site and unusual as it consisted
of three shrines and had no side colonnades. The eastern part contained
the shrine of Athena Polias*, guardian* of the city, the western one contained those of Erechtheus* and
Poseidon; Athena thus sharing her temple with other gods (there are different versions of the plan and the names
of gods). There are three porticoes (the eastern, northern and southern) the southern being called the Caryatid
Portico or portico of the Maidens because of the six draped female figures of Caryatids. These figures, 7 ft. 9 in.
high (i.e. one half larger than life size), support the entablature, instead of columns.
The main building is crowned with an entablature, 5 ft. high, with the usual triple division of architrave,
frieze and cornice. The pediments have acroterion ornaments and antefixae.
Like the Parthenon the Erechtheion suffered many misfortunes, including at least two fires. After the
Roman period it was used as a Christian church, a Turkish harem and a powder magazine.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Athena Polias [a'0i:na'pD li9s] — Афина Полиас, покровительница города


2. guardian ['ga:dian] — покровитель
3. Erechtheus [Trek0ju:s]— Эрехтей, афинский герой, впоследствии царь, введший культ Афины

У п р а ж н е н и е 11. Переведите с русского язы ка на английский.


Акротерий, антефикс, антефиксы, колоннада, крылатая победа, наос, опистодом, пьедестал,
посвященный, склад, содержать, фронтон

У п р а ж н е н и е 12. Объясните, каким способом образованы следующие слова и словосочетания:


unbased, winged, encircle, misfortune, unusual, life size, irregular.

У п р а ж н е н и е 13. Переведите на русский язы к.


I. The naos was entered through a portico. 2. The left wing contained a museum o f Pushkin, the right
one contained that of Lermontov. 3. The portrait of the boy is one half larger than life size.

У п р а ж н е н и е 14. П одберите соответствующ ие определения к указанны м терминам.

acroterion the space between two adjacent columns


intercolumniation ornament at the com er of the roof
magazine sanctuary of a classical temple, containing the cult statue o f the god
metope the inner portico at the rear o f the naos of a classical temple
naos a storage especially for explosives, e.g. powder
opisthodomos the panel between triglyphs
triglyph Doric ornament consisting o f vertical bands separated by grooves

90 1. Greek architecture
Упражнение 15. Выберите из рамки английские слова, соответствующ ие подчеркнутым рус­
ским, и переведите предложения.
I. Комната чистая. 2. Статуя сделана из чистого золота. 3. Река отделяет парк от собора. 4. Река
делит город на 2 части. 5. Ш ерлок Холмс и доктор Ватсон делили одно жилище. 6. Парфенон был
разрушен из-за склада с порохом. 7. Мне нравится этот журнал.

clean, to divide, magazine, pure, to separate, to share

Упражнение i6. О пиш ите Эрехтейон или какой-нибудь другой греческий храм, обращ ая осо­
бое вним ание на детали, характеризую щ ие его стиль.

V if* Я lb* Tronic of Tlicwcf 41 AUi«nc.

2. ROMAN ARCHITECTURE

TEXTS A. DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE


PARTI

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующ ие слова и переведите их.


Suburban [s9'b3:b(3)n] remove [ri'm uiv] concrete [ 'korjkrirt]
contrast (n) ['kDntrcr.st] court [ko:t] balcony ['baelkani]
contrast (v) [kan'trcust] altar ['o:lta] palatial [psTeiJl]
group [gru:p] im pluvium [im 'plurvism ] degrade [di'greid]
residence ['rezid(3)ns] compluvium [ksm 'pluivism ]
Roman Empire [ 'г э и т э п 'е т р а ю ] quadrangular [kwo'draerjgjuls]

WORDS TO BE USED

atrium ['aetriam] (pi тж. -ia) n — атриум


basin ['beisn] n — бассейн, резервуар; водоем
block of flats — многоквартирный дом (брит.)
chimney ['tfim ni] n — труба (дымовая или вытяжная); дымоход
common ['кш пэп] а — общий
country house [/клпШ /haus] — загородный дом с поместьем
domus п — домус
dwelling ['dwelirj] n — жилище, односемейный дом, квартира, жилая единица
insula [Tnsjula] (pi -ае [i:]) n — инсула

UNIT IV • Ancient architecture (Greek and Roman) 91


living room flivirjrw n] n — гостиная, общая комната
modest ['nrndist] a — скромный
multistorey [,niA lti'sto:n] a — многоэтажный
numerous ['nju:m (a)ras] a — многочисленный
owner ['эипэ] n — владелец
peristyle [ 'peristail] n — перистиль (колонны, окружающие здание или внутренний двор)
quadrangular [kwo'draerjgjula] а — четырехугольный
suburban [sa'b3:b(a)n] а — пригородный
tenement ['tenam ant] n — арендуемое помещение; квартира (снимаемая семьей); tenement block
['tenam ant'blD k] — доходный дом; tenant ['ten an t] n — жилец
villa ['vila] n — вилла

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

empire ['em pa(i)a] n —империя


essential [i'sen/1] — весьма важный, ценный
merely ['m iali] adv — только; просто
palatial [pa'leijl] a — 1. дворцовый; 2. роскошный, великолепный
reception room [ri'sepjnru:m ] — гостиная, приемная

У п р а ж н е н и е 2. П рочтите текст, разбейте его на части и озаглавьте их.

У п р а ж н е н и е 3. Прочтите текст и напиш ите его план на английском язы ке.

While Greek architecture is characterized by post and lintel system, i.e. orders consisting of vertical col­
umns and horizontal entablatures, Roman architecture is characterized by the use of rounded forms (arch,
vault and dome). In Rome the column was often degraded to merely decorative uses, while the wall became
the essential element.
In domestic architecture three types were developed, the domus (private family residence of modest to
palatial proportions), the insula (multistorey block of flats or tenem ent block), and the villa (suburban or
country house).
i Domus. 1. Vestibule; 2. Atrium; 3. В edroom; 4. Living room;
5. Peristyle; 6. Dining room; 7. Service entrance; 8. Exedra

92 2. Roman architecture
In contrast to the insula, which housed numerous families, the domus was a single-family dwelling with
an atrium (a quadrangular court) and peristyle. The domus was usually of one storey only and inward looking,
the rooms being grouped around the atrium. It was entered by the door of the house and served as the common
meeting place for the family. In Roman times the hearth* was situated in the atrium. During the Roman
Empire, the room became the office o f the owner of the house. Traditionally, the atrium had the altar to the
family gods, the Lares*. The atrium had a marble basin known as the impluvium, which was situated in the
centre o f the room under the opening in the roof called the compluvium which provided light and served as
a chimney. The rain fell through it into the impluvium. Near the atrium was an open living room (the
tablinum).
Sometimes at the back of the house there was a garden (peristylium) surrounded by side buildings and
covered colonnades. The great house had a kind of entrance hall (vestibule) raised above the street and
approached by stairs. In later Roman houses, a second storey became usual. The street facade was plain and

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ
1. hearth [ha:0] — очаг
2. the Lares ['la:ri:z] — лары, души предков

PART II

Упражнение 4. П рочтите следующ ие слова и переведите их на русский язы к.


limit ['lim it] labour [Teiba] practical ['praektik(a)l]
reservoir ['rezavw a:] collapse [ka'laeps] reflect [ri'flekt]

UNIT IV • Ancient architecture (Greek and Roman) 93


A typical insula:
Insula
1. shop; 2. lightwell; 3. well; 4. latrine; 5. balcony

G fttifld floor

sanitary ['sasnit(3)ri] commercial [к э 'т з:/(э )1 ] fountain ['fauntin]


economically [,к к э'п ш ш к 11] asymmetrical [,eisi'm etrikl]

WORDS TO BE USED

apartment [a'pcutm ant] n — 1. комната, апартаменты, жилье; 2. (амер.) квартира


estate [i'steit] n — 1. имение, поместье; 2. площадка жилой или промышленной застройки
facilities [fs'silitiz] n pi — все, что нужно для какой-либо цели; учреждения; заведения; средства
обслуживания
housing ['hauzirj] n — 1. собир. дома, жилье; 2. жилищное строительство
inhabit [in'haebit] v — жить, обитать, населять
land [laend] n — 1. земля, суша; 2. страна; территория; 3. земельный участок; землевладение
law [1э:] п — закон
supply [sa'plai] n — снабжение; поставка; water supply ['wo:t3S3,plai] — водоснабжение
workshop ['w3:kjDp] n — мастерская; цех

94 2. Roman architecture
Упражнение 5. П рочтите текст (упр. 6) и озаглавьте его.

Упражнение 6. П рочтите текст и ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. What were insulae? 2. Who lived in insulae? 3. Was there water supply in the whole building? 4. Were
villas often built on sloping sites?
The insulae were largely tenements providing economically practical housing where land values and
density of population were high. Distinct from the domus, the upper-class private residence, they were
inhabited primarily by the labouring class. Insulae were constructed of brick covered with concrete and were
often five or more storeys high in spite of laws limiting them to 68 feet, and then 58 ft. The street level
characteristically housed artisans*, workshops and commercial establishments. The residences above were
reached by an interior common staircase, receiving light and air from the street and an inner court. Many
insulae were encircled with balconies of wood or concrete. Pumping devices* could raise water only to lower
apartments; tenants of higher apartments had to use public water and sanitary facilities. Cheap construction
and a limited water supply caused frequent collapses and serious fires.
The Latin word “villa” meant an estate, complete with house, grounds, and subsidiary buildings. Roman
villas frequently were asymmetrical in plan and were built with elaborate terracing on hillsides; they had long
colonnades, towers, fine water gardens with reflecting pools and fountains, and extensive reservoirs for water
supply.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. artisan [,a:ti'zasn] — ремесленник


2. pumping devices ['pAmpirjdi'vaisiz] — приспособление для подачи воды (насос)

Упражнение 7. Подберите синоним ы к следующим словам: enclose, running water, storey.

Упражнение 8. Переведите следующ ие словосочетания и предлож ения на русский язык:


A. sanitary facilities, children facilities, preschool facilities, sport facilities, shopping facilities, traveling
facilities
B. domestic servants, domestic animal, domestic affairs, domestic economy, domestic life, domestic
architecture
C. 1. The room was entered by a corridor. 2. The house was reached by a road.

Упражнение 9. О бъясните образование следующих слов.


Residence, suburban, palatial, multistorey, covered, roofed, rounded, axially, quadrangular, outer,
encircle, owner, complexity, hillside, establishment, water supply

Упражнение 10. Переведите на английский язык: в отличие, купол, свод, комплю вий.

Упражнение 11. Н айдите слова с тем же корнем в русском языке.


Domestic, degrade, characterize, contrast, collapse, compluvium, impluvium, balcony

Упражнение 12. Укажите разны е значения (или ом оним ы ) следующих слов: fire, shop, story,
house.

Упражнение 13. Прочтите следующие тексты и сравните их информацию с основным текстом,


укажите, куда их можно вставить в текст.
A. With the developing complexity of the domus (a larger residence), however, the kitchen and hearth
were removed to other positions, and the atrium began to function as a reception room and as the official
centre of family life. By the end of the Roman Republic, one or more colonnaded courts were added in the
larger houses.

UNIT IV • Ancient architecture (Greek and Roman) 95


В. Insulae in Ostia. Planned on three or four floors with strict regard for economy of space, they de­
pended on light from the exterior as well as from a central court. Independent apartments had separate en­
trances with direct access to the street. Since Ostia was a typical town of the 1st and 2nd centuries A.D and
was almost a suburb o f Rome itself, it is supposed that insulae at Rome would have similar features. Shops
might line the street front of either domus or insula.
Упражнение 14. С равните инф орм ацию следующих двух текстов: какая инф орм ация повто­
ряется, какая дополнительная? Есть ли противоречия?
A. The most famous of villas is H adrian’s ['heidrianz] Villa at Tivoli, begun about AD 123. It was a
sumptuous residence with parks and gardens on a large scale. The unevenness of the site necessitated large
terraces and flights of steps. There are remains o f great brick and concrete structures. The buildings, which
covered an area about two miles in length, were reproductions of celebrated structures the emperor had seen
in his travels. Its buildings were designed to follow the natural lay of the land and included baths and bath
buildings, libraries, sculpture gardens, theatres, pavilions, and private suites. Significant portions o f the com­
plex have survived to m odem times.
B. Hadrian’s villa was the largest and most sumptuous imperial villa in the Roman Empire. It was begun
about AD 118 and took about 10 years to build. It lies in a plain below the hill town of Tivoli. The villa con­
tained palaces, libraries, guest quarters, baths, and two theatres. The remnants o f many great brick and
concrete structures remain. All the buildings are Roman in style and method of construction, though with
Greek names. Covering approximately 7 square miles, the complex was more an imperial garden city than a
traditional villa.
Упражнение 15. Переведите текст упр. 14 письм енно со словарем.

Упражнение 16. Ответьте на следующие вопросы и используйте ответы, как план для описания
римских жилых зданий.
I. How many types of Roman domestic buildings do you know? What are they? 2. Did poor and rich
people live in similar dwellings? Prove it. 3. How many storeys had different kinds of residential buildings?
4. What can you say about heating, lighting and water supply? 5. What did different dwellings contain?

TEXT B. ROMAN TEMPLES

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующие слова и переведите их.


Pantheon ['раепвюп] cella['seta] compass ['к л т р э в ]
isolate ['aisaleit] antiquity [aen'tikwati] platform ['plaetfo:m]
podium ['paudiam ] fa?ade [fa'sa:d] orientation ^orrian'teijn]
result [ri'zAlt]
WORDS TO BE USED
cella ['seta] (pi —lae) n — целла
compare [к э т 'р е э ] v — сравнивать (with)
except [ik'sept] prep — исключая, за исключением, кроме
rest [rest] 1) n — 1. отдых; 2. the rest — остаток; 2) v — 1. отдыхать; 2. опираться
survive [sa'vaiv] v — 1. пережить; 2. продолжать существовать, сохраняться

WORDS ТО BE UNDERSTOOD
govern ['длуэп] v — править, управлять
reduce [ri'djurs] v (обыкн. to) — снижать; уменьшать, понижать, ослаблять, уменьшать, сокращать
relation [ri'leif(a)n] n — отношение
substitute ['sAbstitju:t] v (for) — заменять, замещать, использовать вместо
Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст и напиш ите его план на английском язы ке.

96 2. Roman architecture
Упражнение 3. Прочтите текст о римских храмах и сравните их с греческими.

ROMAN TEMPLES
Roman temples differed in many important respects from those of the Greeks. For a comparatively low
foundation on which a colonnade rests with three steps all around the structure, the Romans substituted a high
platform or podium with a flight of steps on the entrance facade.
Baalbek: Axonometric View Greek temples were isolated from other buildings and almost
always faced east and west; those of the Romans were turned to
all points of the compass*, their orientation governed by their
relation to other buildings. This resulted in the entrance facade
being emphasized and the entrance portico being deepened. The
cella was wider, and the colonnade that surrounded the Greek
temple was often reduced to a row of engaged, or applied, columns
or pilasters along the cella walls, except on the entrance facade.
The Romans built many circular temples. The greatest surviving
circular temple o f antiquity, and in many respects the most
4) нГхдроп*! F o re c o u rt a n d P re p y ia e a important Roman building, is the Pantheon* in Rome.
ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ
1. points o f the compass — по сторонам света
2. Pantheon ['рэепОюп, paen'0i:an] — 1. (Pantheon) П ан­
теон, «храм всех богов»; 2. пантеон, место погребения
знаменитых людей
3. Jupiter ['ё зш р й э] — Юпитер
4. sacrificial [,saekrTfiJ(a)l] — жертвенный
Упражнение 4. О бъясните способ образования следую ­
щих слов: deepen, entrance, foundation, comparatively, com ­
parison.

Упражнение 5. Н апиш ите синоним ы ; applied columns, to


be oriented, to replace, naos.

Упражнение 6. Укажите все значения следующих слов


face, rest.

Упражнение 7. Переведите следующие словосочетания


(см. Грам. справ. § 2.7): entrance portico, facade entrance, entrance facade.

TEXT C. PANTHEON

Упражнение 1. П рочтите следующ ие слова и переведите их.


symbolic [sim'bDlik] identity [ai'dentati]
niche [ni:/] rotunda [rau'tMida]

WORDS TO BE USED
coffer ['kofa] n — кессон
date [deit] 1) n —дата, число (месяца); 2) v — восходить (к определенной эпохе) (from)
destroy [di'stroi] v — разрушать; уничтожать

UNIT IV • Ancient architecture (Greek and Roman) 97


line [lain] 1) n — линия; 2) v — 1. проводить линии; 2. выстраивать(ся) в ряд, в линию; 3. уста­
навливать, тянуться вдоль (чего-л.)
recessed [ri'sest] а — заглубленный
reign [rein] 1) n — царствование, власть; 2) v — царствовать, царить, господствовать
water garden — сад с бассейнами, в которых растут водные растения
weight [weit] n — вес
WORD ТО BE UNDERSTOOD
sunken ['sArjkan] a — заглубленный
Упражнение 2. Найдите в тексте о П антеоне абзацы, описы ваю щ ие его историю и тепереш нее
здание.
The Pantheon (Latin Pantheon, from Greek Pantheon, meaning “Temple of all the Gods”) is a building
in Rome which was originally built as a temple to the seven deities* o f the seven planets in the state religion
of Ancient Rome, but which has been a Christian church since the 7th century. It is the best-preserved of all
Roman buildings and the oldest important building in the world with its original roof intact. It has been in
continuous use throughout its history. Although the identity of the Pantheon's primary architect remains
uncertain, it is largely assigned to Apollodorus* of Damascus.

Facade of the Pantheon The interior in the 18thcentury

The original Pantheon was built in 27 B.C —25 B.C under the Roman
Empire, during the third consulship of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa*, and his
name is inscribed on the portico of the building. It was originally built with
adjoining baths and water gardens. Agrippa’s Pantheon was destroyed along
with other buildings in a fire in 80, and the present building dates from about
125, during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian*.
The Pantheon consists o f a rotunda about 142 feet in diam eter
surrounded by concrete walls 20 feet thick, in which alternate circular and
rectangular niches. The Great Eye or oculus*, about 28 feet across, at the
crown of the dome at the dome's apex, is the source o f all light and is
symbolic o f the sun. Its original circular bronze cornice remains in position.
The oculus also serves as a cooling and ventilation method.

*» гм т т ш . Floor plan of the Pantheon

98 2. Roman architecture
The interior features sunken panels (coffers — decorative recessed panels), which originally contained
bronze star ornaments. This coffering was not only decorative, but also reduced the weight of the roof. The
interior was lined with precious marbles.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. deity ['dinti] n — божество


2. Apollodorus of Damascus [3,pDlad'o:rss av da'maeskas] — Аполлодор из Дамаска, греческий ин­
женер, архитектор, скульптор (2-ой век н.э.)
3. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa ['ma:kas э'дпрэ] — Марк Випсаний Агрйппа (63 до н. э. — 12 до н. э.),
римский государственный деятель и полководец
4. Hadrian fheidrian] (Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus) — Адриан, римский император (117—138)
5. oculus ['Dkjulas] (pi -li [ai]) — 1. круглое окно; 2. отверстие в вершине купола

Упражнение 3. Вставьте предлоги, если нужно:


1. The temple d a tes... the 15th century. 2. It was constructed ... the reign ... William 1. 3. The right street
is wide ... co n trast... the left one. 4. The cupola is ... 50 fe e t... diameter.

about, from, in, of, to

Упражнение 4. П ереведите на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на подчеркнуты е слова


(см. Грам.справ. § 8. 6. 3; § 9. 1; § 10. 2).
1. It is sometimes said that the arch originated with the Romans. 2. He is said to have been a very good
architect. 3. It was said he was a good architect. 4. It was said he had built the temple 5 years before. 5. He
was said to have built the museum 5 years before. 6. The interior features sunken panels (coffers), which
originally contained bronze star ornaments. 6. The window faces the south. 7. The wall is faced with panels.
8. The room is lined with tiles. 9. The street is lined with small houses. 10. The line is very long.

Упражнение 5. Подберите синоним ы к следующим словам: to be lined, sunken.

Упражнение 6. О пиш ите какой-нибудь рим ский храм.


UNITV
EUROPEAN STYLES

1. ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

TEXT A

Упражнение 1. Прочтите слова и переведите их.


Romanesque L raum a'nesk] island ['ailand] reign [rein]
concept ['konsept] buttress ['bAtras] keep [ki:p]
transept ['traensept] continent ['kD ntinant] typical ['tipikl]
Byzantine [b f zaentain] cylindrical [saTindrikl] cruciform ['kru:sifo:m]
Pan-European [/рагп]и(э)гэ'р 1эп] France [fra:ns] stylistic [stai'hstik]

WORDS TO BE USED

comprise [kam 'praiz] v — 1. включать, заключать в себе, охватывать; 2. содержать


describe [di'skraib] v — описывать, изображать
modem ['mDdn] а — современный
require [ri'kw aia] v — требовать

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

chancel ['tja :n s(a)l] n — алтарь (алтарное пространство, включая хор)


conceive [kan'si:v] v — задумывать
contemporary [kan'em p(a)rari] (with) a — современный (чему-л.)
designation L dezig'neifn] n — имя; название
invention [in'venjn] n — изобретение
powerful fp a u a fl] a — 1. сильный, могучий, мощный; 2. могущественный
radial ['reidial] a — радиальный
similar (to) ['sim (a)la] a — подобный (чему-л.)

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст и напиш ите его резюме.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. Why is this style called Romanesque? 2. Why can it be considered as Pan-European? 3. How was this
style called in England and why? 4. Why had the walls to be stronger and how did it influence architecture?
5. What were its characteristic features in different countries? 6. How long did it last?

ROMANESQUE

The term Romanesque*, like many other stylistic designations of periods in architecture, was not a term
contemporary with the art it describes, but a modern one.
The Romanesque style appeared in Western Europe in the early 11th century, based on Roman and
Byzantine elements. It was characterized by massive walls, round arches, powerful barrel vaults and groin
vaults and cruciform piers supporting vaults. The new concept of stone vaulting required stronger walls for
support. So it was necessary to build strong, thick walls with narrow openings. Romanesque appears to have
been the first Pan-European style since Roman imperial architecture; examples are found in every part of
the continent. It lasted until the appearance of Gothic architecture in the middle o f the 12th century.

100 1. Romanesque architecture


It was called the English Norm an style in England, because it appeared there after the Norman*
occupation of the island in 1066 and was widely used in the last part of the 11th and 12th centuries — 1066—
1189 and comprised the reigns of several kings. In England Norman architecture is massive, and the typical
features are semicircular arches, huge cylindrical piers, flat buttresses, and large, strong, simple keeps, e.g.
the White Tower in London, similar to the architecture of Normandy*.
The chief plan for the east end of Romanesque churches conceived in France was the staggered plan*:
with chapels situated radially along the apse or ambulatory, because more altars were needed.
In Germany another system was found, i.e. the church could have two transepts, two chancels, and two
apses. They used two different systems of alternating supports (square piers and columns): simple alternation —
1column (circular) is followed by 1 pier (rectangular) and double alternation — 2 piers stand between columns.
ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ:
1. Romanesque [, гэш пэ' nesk] — романский стиль
2. Normans ['noim snz] — норманны, («северные люди»), северогерманские племена (датчане,
норвежцы, шведы). В X в. захватили север Ф ранции, получивший поэтому название Нормандия
3. Normandy ['no:m andi] —Нормандия
4. staggered plan ['staegsd] — план с кольцевым обходом — амбулаторием и расположенными ра­
диально часовнями
TEXT С

Упражнение 4. П рочтите слова и переведите их:


to house [hauz] castle ['ka:sl] imperial [im 'piarial]
Christ [kraist] mile [mail] Celtic ['keltik]
WORDS TO BE USED
bay [bei] n — пролет (между колоннами и т.п.), травея
bend [bend] n — сгиб, изгиб
clerestory ['kli3St(a)ri] n — верхний рад окон над боковыми нефами
cluster ['kU sta] v — собираться группами; clustered column — пучковая колонна
drive [draiv] n — подъездная дорога
influence [Tnfluans] 1) n — влияние, воздействие (on, upon, over — на); 2) v — влиять
master-mason [/m a:sta'm eis(3)n] n — квалифицированный каменщ ик
relics ['reliks] n pi — реликвии, останки
scale [skeil] n — масштаб
strengthen ['strerjGn] v — усиливать(ся), укреплять(ся)
superstructure ['s(j)u:p3,strA ktj3] n — надстройка
surpass [ss'pais] v — превосходить
triforium [tra i'frria m ] (pi -ia) n — трифорий (узкая галерея над боковыми нефами под скатом
крыши боковых нефов)

WORDS ТО BE UNDERSTOOD
carriage ['каегк1з] n — экипаж, коляска
exquisite [ik'skwizit] a — изысканный, утонченный
grandeur ['grasn(d)33] n — грандиозность; великолепие; пышность
peninsula [ps'ninsjuls] n — полуостров

Упражнение 5. Прочтите текст и напиш ите его план на английском язы ке.

UNIT V • European styles 101


Упражнение 6. Прочтите текст и ответьте на вопросы:
1. Where is the Durham Cathedral situated? 2. Why was it built? 3. When was it built? 4. What was used
there on a grand scale? 5. What can you say about the nave? 5. Whose head is carved on one of the walls?
6. How is the shrine of St Cuthbert decorated? 7. How are the walls strengthened? 8. How many aisles are
there? 9. What did Wyatt want to do? 10. Why does this Norman cathedral display not only Norman features?
11. What do you think about Wyatt? 6. Where is the Galilee Chapel situated?

DURHAM CATHEDRAL

Durham* is situated in the north of England, 256 miles from


London. The Cathedral of Christ and the Blessed Virgin Mary* (995)
and the castle (1072) are situated on a narrow peninsula formed by a
bend of the river. The Durham Cathedral was built to house the relics
of St Cuthbert*. It is the finest example of Norman architecture in
England. In 998 the first stone church was completed. In 1093 the
church was rebuilt and became a Benedictine* abbey. This Norman
building remains with numerous additions.
In its strength and grandeur the Anglo-Saxon building (1096—1133)
remains unsurpassed in England and outside it. It is the first example
of ribbed stone vaulting on a grand scale. The nave (1099— 1128) is one
o f the finest Romanesque interiors in Europe. Massive cylindrical piers alternate with the clustered shafts.
The easternmost bay was remodeled during the 13lh century. This was done by the master-mason Richard

A — Crossing Tower Durham Cathedral 1. Galilee Chapel


В — Chapterhouse 2. Tomb of the Venerable Bede
C — Crypt 30m 3. Information Desk
D — Kitchen 4. North Door Entrance with door­
E — Dormitory knocker
F — Chapel of the nine Altars 5. Font
6. North Aisle
7. South Aisle
8. Crossing
9. North Transept
10. South Transept
11. High Altar
12. Tomb of St Cuthbert
13. Bishop’s throne
14. Deanery
15. Cathedral Library
16. Prison
17. Restaurant, Bookshop
18. Treasury

of Farheim, whose head is carved on the wall arcade. It is one o f the effective works of the 13th century and
houses the shrine of St. Cuthbert. It is decorated with beautiful carving and a rose window. The walls are
strengthened with flying buttresses under the roof of the triforium level. The famous Galilee Chapel* (added

102 1. Romanesque architecture


in 1175), of the finest late Norman work, projects from the west end. This exquisite creation of the later 12th
century is divided into five aisles by arcades. The twin western towers are Norman to the clerestory level, and
were raised to the present height during the 13lh century, so their superstructures and the central tower (1474)
are Gothic.
Durham suffered greatly at the hands of Wyatt*, the first and the least informed of the 19th century
restorers, who designed the weak rose-window at the east end. He wanted to pull down the Gallilee, to make
a carriage drive to the west front.

Galilee Chapel

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Durham ['ёлгэт] — Дарем (город и графство в Англии)


2. the Blessed Virgin Mary ['blesid'v3:d3in'me(3)ri] — Пресвятая Дева Мария
3. St Cuthbert [st'LvObst] — Катберт, епископ Нортумберленда, VII в. Много сделал для распро­
странения христианства в Англии
4. Benedictine [,beni'diktin] — бенедиктинский
5. Galilee Chapel ['gaelili:'tjaep(9)l] — часовня у западного конца церкви
6. Wyatt [waist] — Джеймс Уайет, английский архитектор, 1747—1813 гг.
Упражнение 7. Объясните образование следующих слов, переведите их: restorer, rose-window,
master-mason, unsurpassed
Упражнение 8. Подберите соответствующие определения к данным словам.
barrel vault (also sometimes referred to as a double barrel vault or cross vault) a vault produced
by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults.
chancel also known as a tunnel vault or a wagon vault
groin or groined vault donjon
keep sanctuary of a church including the choir
nave transverse aisle crossing the nave
transept the main aisle
bay a large medieval circular ornamental window
clerestory a number of columns grouped together
clustered columns an upper zone of a wall with windows
master-mason a qualified mason
rose window a regularly repeated spatial element defined by beams, ribs or columns

UNIT V • European styles 103


Упражнение 9. Переведите следующие слова на английский язык.
Термин, крестообразный, черта, столб, остров, правление, контрфорс, донж он, поперечный
неф, боковой неф, главный неф, апсида, аркбутан, чередовать, цилиндрический свод, крестовый
свод,алтарь, алтарное пространство

Упражнение 10. Вставьте предлоги, если нужно.


I. The Romanesque style was not contem porary... Rococo. 2. This new chapel is sim ilar... the old one.
3. This building is referred ... as the Old House.
to. with

Упражнение 11. Сгруппируйте синоним ы по значению , укажите, есть ли между ними разница.
Ambulatory, call, called, categorize, chancel, column, cross-shaped, cruciform, describe, designation,
donjon, gallery, in the reign of, keep, known as, main tower, name, named, pier, post, refer to as, referred to
as, sanctuary, support, under

Упражнение 12. А. П рочтите текст, располож ите абзацы в логическом порядке и укажите,
какая в нем имеется новая инф ормация по сравнению с основны м текстом. В. Переведите текст
письм енно со словарем.
In England the style which was developed had been created in Normandy in the 11th century. The Normans
by then had lived in the north-west France for a hundred years and from being Viking adventurers had become
rulers of a large territory. They had conquered England, replacing there Northern invaders who had come before
them. The Norman style in architecture, a variety of the early Romanesque style in the West, strongly influenced
France in the 11th century; in England it made more than that: it made English medieval architecture.
One important fact pointed out by the stylistic similarity of buildings across Europe is the relative mobility
o f medieval people. Contrary to many modem ideas o f life before the Industrial Revolution, merchants,
nobles, knights, artisans, and peasants crossed Europe and the M editerranean ([,m ed rts'rein i9 n ] —среди­
земноморский) world for business, war, and religious pilgrimages, carrying their knowledge of what buildings
in different places looked like.
The Romanesque was not confined only to architecture; it was accompanied by changes in design for
woodworking seen, for example, in chests and cupboards. The Romanesque style attempted to revive the
styles of the art of classical antiquity, but it also drew heavily on ancient Christian Celtic and Byzantine arts.
These Romanesque styles originated in Normandy and became widespread in north western Europe,
particularly in England, which contributed considerable development and has the largest number o f surviving
examples.
The term Norm an architecture is used to categorise styles o f Romanesque architecture developed by the
N orm ans in the various lands under their dom inion or influence in the 11th and 12th centuries. They
introduced large numbers of castles and fortifications including N orm an keeps, and at the same time
monasteries, abbeys, churches and cathedrals, in a style characterised by rounded arches (particularly over
windows and doorways) and massive proportions.

Упражнение 13. Н азовите основны е черты ром анского стиля и опиш ите данны й или другой
собор в этом стиле.

2. G O TH IC ARCHITECTURE

TEXT А

Упражнение 1. Прочтите и переведите следующие слова.


synthesis ['smGasrs] aesthetic [i:s'0etik] patron ['p ertr(s)n ]
expert ['eksp3:t] engineer [,еп (б)зг'ш э] m otif [m au'tirf]

104 2. Gothic architecture


massive ['maesiv] sculpture ['skAlptJa] ornament ['ornam ent]
air-conditioning ['e sk a ^ d ijn ir)] specialization [/sp ej(a)lai/zeijn] Edwardian [od'wo:dion]
geometrical [ ^ з п э 'т е Ш к ^ ) ] phase [feiz] technical [’teknikl]
buttress ['bAtras] perpendicular [/p3:p(a)n,dikjub] pointed ['pointid]

WORDS TO BE USED

curvilinear [,кз:уТ1т1э] a — криволинейный


flying buttress ['flaiirj'bAtras] — аркбутан
high open work pediment —вимперг
light [lait] n — световой проем; окно; two-light window — окно с двумя проемами
pinnacle ['pinokl] n — пинакль
rectilinear [je k tT lin io ] a — прямолинейный
rib-vault ['ribvodt] n — ребристый свод
sexfoil ['seksfoil] n — шестилистник
spire ['spa(i)a] n — шпиль, шпиц
stage [steid 3 ] n — 1. фаза, стадия, период, этап; 2. сцена
tracery ['treis(o)ri] n — готический ажурный каменный оконный переплет, массверк

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

installation [,in sta 'leijn ] n — установка; сборка


lancet [Ta:nsit] а = pointed — стрельчатый
majority [me'd3Droti] n — большинство

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст о готическом стиле и напиш ите его план на английском языке.

Упражнение 3. Прочтите текст о готическом стиле и ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. What features characterize this style? 2. Are all these features innovations? 3. How did the architect’s
role change at that time? 4. What can you say about the interior? 5. What were the main stages of the style in
different countries?

GOTHIC STYLE

Gothic of the 13th century in Europe was slowly developed from Romanesque architecture. Its main
features were flying buttresses, pinnacles and rib-vaults. Not one of them is the Gothic invention. What was
new, however, was the combination of these motifs, for a new aesthetic purpose. The Gothic is based on a
co-operation between artist and engineer, and a synthesis of aesthetic and technical qualities. It is the
beginning o f specialization, and now the patron is not an architect, the architect is not a builder, the builder
is not a mason, saying nothing about the heating engineer, the air-conditioning engineer, the electrical
installation expert.
Inventions of the Gothic style were the tracery and spire. Often two-light windows are crowned by a
circle with a sexfoil ornament. Very popular were high open work pediments over door and window openings.
Gothic cathedrals on the continent were richly ornamented with sculpture and carved ornaments. In England
the majority o f sculpture was destroyed under Cromwell*.
The most famous examples are the cathedrals of Chartres* and Rheimes*.
The style which was developed in England is just as exquisite as that of the French cathedrals, and at the
same time typically English, known under the name of Early English. It is less massive than the Norman.
The 13th century English style was also called Lancet, First Pointed or Early Plantagenet*. The 14th
century English style is known as Decorated, Geometrical and Curvilinear, Middle Pointed, Edwardian, or
Later Plantagenet. The late 14th and 15th century English style is called Perpendicular (it has upright lines of
the window tracery), Late Pointed, Rectilinear, or Lancastrian*. So while for the Continent the terms Early,

UNIT V • European styles 105


High and Late Gothic* indicate the three chief stages, the French middle stage is called Rayonnant*, the
late phase is called Flamboyant*, in England tradition has preferred a division into three Gothic stages: Early
English, Decorated and Perpendicular.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Cromwell ['krom w al] — Оливер Кромвель, 1599—1658, крупнейший деятель английской буржу­
азной революции XVII в., лорд-протектор
2. Rheims [ri:mz], Chartres [Jartr] — знаменитые соборы эпохи расцвета французской готической
архитектуры в Реймсе (1210) и в Шартре (1194—1260)
3. Plantagenet [plaen'taedjanit] — Плантагенет, относящийся к династии Плантагенетов, 1154—1399
(Генрих II, Ричард I Львиное сердце, Иоанн Безземельный, Генрих III, Эдуарды I, II, III, Ричард II)
4. Lancastrian [laerj'kasstrian] — относящийся к династии Ланкастеров, 1399—1461, включала Ген­
рихов IV, V, VI
5. Early, High and Late Gothic — Ранняя, Вы­
сокая или Зрелая и Поздняя готика
6. Rayonnant ['rem nant] — лучистый (о стиле)
7. Flam boyant [flaem 'boiant] — «пламенею­
щий» (название стиля поздней французской го­
тики)
Geometric Intersecting Reticulated
Panel WORDS FOR THE PICTURE
TRACERY
mouchette cusp [kAsp] n — треугольный выступ орнамента с

f~- hooJm oukl

cusp
внутренней стороны арки
dagger ['daega] n — заостренный мотив в камен­
ном узоре
mouchette п — мушет, овальный орнамент решет­
ки готического окна
■ t.-c-toi: h e a d
hoodmold ['hudm auld] n — слезник; сандрик
mu Шоп reticulated [ri'tikjuleitid] а — сетчатый
Curvilinear
trefoil ['trefoil] n — орнамент в виде трилистника

TEXT В

Упражнение 4. П рочтите и переведите следующ ие слова.


Anglican ['aerjglik(a)n] religious [ n 'h d 3as] monastery ['m D nast(a)ri]
abbot ['aebat] Benedictine [,bem 'diktm ]

WORDS TO BE USED

circle ['s3:kl] n — круг; окружность


market ['ma:kit] n — рынок
octagon ['oktag(a)n] n — восьмиугольник
parish ['paerij] n — церковный приход; parish church — приходская церковь
purpose ['p3:pas] n — цель, назначение
quantity ['kwontati] n — 1. количество; 2. большое количество

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

abbot ['aebat] n — аббат; настоятель монастыря


marsh [ma:J] n — болото, топь

106 2. Gothic architecture


Dane [dein] n — датчанин; датчанка
present ['preznt] a — теперешний, настоящий; современный; существующий
derive [di'raiv] v — получать, извлекать
holy ['hauli] a — священный, святой

Упражнение 5. Прочтите текст и напишите его план на английском языке.

Упражнение 6. Прочтите текст и ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. Where is the Ely Cathedral situated? 2. Why is it called so? 3. What is its history? 4. What material is
it built of? 5. How large is it? 6. What is its plan like? 7. What is the style of the nave? 8. What is the oldest
surviving part? 9. By what is the central tower surmounted? 10. By what is the cathedral entered? 11. What
Gothic styles are used in the cathedral? 12. Why was it built not in one style?

ELY CATHEDRAL

Ely* Cathedral (the Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity* of Ely) is the seat of the
Anglican Bishop* of Ely.
Ely is a cathedral city and market town in Cambridgeshire*, England. It stands on the west (left) bank
of the Ouse*, upon the Isle* of Ely, which rises some sixty feet above the level of the surrounding marshes.
It derives its name from the quantity of eels* in the waters about it.
A religious house was founded here in 673. In 870 the Monastery was destroyed by the Danes, and it
remained in ruins till 970, when a new Benedictine Monastery was founded here.
The foundation of the present cathedral was laid by its first abbot, Simeon*, in 1083. The cathedral, built
of limestone, is a cruciform structure, 537 ft long and 190 ft across the great transepts. The nave is Norman
throughout. The main transepts crossing the nave below the central tower are the oldest surviving part o f the
cathedral. The tower which is 215 ft high, is surmounted by a Decorated Octagon with side turrets and was
altered and strengthened in the Perpendicular period. In front o f the tower projects the western porch, by
which the cathedral is entered. It is a perfect example of Early English style. In 1322 the Norman central
tower, erected by Abbot Simeon, fell, destroying three western bays. It was restored in the form of the present
octagon. The octagon, completed in 1328, is the principal feature in the unusual general appearance o f the
cathedral. The Lady Chapel* is a beautiful example of Decorated work. It served from 1566 as a parish church.

West front of Ely Cathedral, The Octagon


including the West Tower (1174—97)

UNIT V • European styles 107


The Perpendicular style is represented by windows and some other details. There are also some splendid
chantry chapels* and tombs in this style. Between 1845 and 1884 the cathedral was restored.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Ely ['i:li] — г. Или


2. Anglican Bishop ['aer)glik(3)n'bijbp] — англиканский епископ
3. Undivided Trinity ['trinati] — Неделимая Троица
4. Cambridgeshire ['кенпЬгпЗз/ю] — графство Кембриджшир
5. Ouse [u:z] — река Уз
6. Isle [ail] o f Ely — А йл-оф-И ли
7. eel [i:l] — угорь
8. Simeon ['sim ian] - Симеон
9. Lady Chapel [Teidi/tjaep(a)l] — часовня богоматери (в храме)
10. chantry ['tja :n tri] chapel — часовня, сооруженная на вклад

Упражнение 7. Замените подчеркнутые слова синоним ам и.


1. Не came to be appreciated for his talent. 2. The castle derives its name from the street in which it is
situated. 3. The church is encircled with columns and is entered through a lancet arch. 4. The multitier
tower is very high.

Упражнение 8. О бъясните образование следующих слов, переведите их: trefoil, sexfoil, sexagon,
pentagon, octagon, quadrangle, quadrangular, triangle, triangular, strengthen, curvilinear, rectilinear.

Упражнение 9. Закончите следующ ие предлож ения, выбрав нуж ное слово, поставив его в
нужную форму, и переведите предложения на русский язы к.
1. We ... a house near the river. 2. Peter I ... the city of St. Petersburg. 3. The ... of Ely is much smaller
than the ... of London. 4. The table stood in the ... of the room. 5. The streets cross at rig h t... 6. One of the
... typical of the Gothic style is the ... arch. 7. The roof is ... with some ... 8. The ... is the ... aisle. 9. Gothic
o f the 13th century in Europe was slowly developed from ... 10. The rib-vault was not a G o th ic ....

angle, central, city, corner, crown, find, found, invention, nave, pinnacles, pointed, Romanesque, town

108 2. Gothic architecture


Упражнение 10. Переведите на русский, обращ ая вним ание на подчеркнутые слова.
]. In the middle of the tower there was a rose-window. 2. The castle rose to the height of 50 meters.
3. He found a good solution. 4. The king decided to found a monastery.

Упражнение 11. Н апиш ите все значения следующих слов: light, project.

Упражнение 12. Подберите определения к словам: roof, plan.

Упражнение 13. Н азовите все слова, означаю щ ие:


I. form; 2. kind of chapel; 3. building material; 4. parts of a church; 5. religious buildings; 6. styles;
7. synonyms to the words construct, alter

Упражнение 14. Вставьте предлоги, если нужно.


I. Не went back ... England to work ... home. 2. Many churches were b u ilt... the continent. 3. The ca­
thedral wall is divided ... three parts. 4. The style is known ... the name of Early English. 5. He built two
chapels ... the same time. 6. The window is crowned ... a sexfoil ornament. 7.... the beginning... the year the
buttress fell down ... the ground. 8. It appeared ... the first time in Germany.
at, by, for, into, of, on, to, under

Упражнение 15. Укажите разницу между следующими словами: alter — altar, altar — sanctuary —
chancel, Rom anesque — Roman.

Упражнение 16. Переведите на английский названия стилей: декоративны й стиль, лан ц ето­
видный стиль, украш енны й стиль, ром анский стиль, готический стиль, римский стиль, пер­
пендикулярный стиль.

TEXT С

Упражнение 17. Переведите письм енно со словарем текст, разделите его на смысловые части
и дайте им названия.
The various technical and visual innovations appeared for the first time combined into a Gothic system
at St. Denis*. The new type of architect who could build St. Denis and the later French and English cathedrals
was the master craftsman. Master masons had of course existed before, but their status now began to change.
In the earlier medieval centuries the names of the designers were not important. However, during the 12th
and, above all, the 13th centuries the importance of the individual grew,
and personality came to be appreciated. Sometimes the names o f the
architects were recorded on the pavement of the naves.
One of the great master masons of the early Gothic style is William
of Sens*, architect of the choir o f Canterbury* Cathedral — a work as
revolutionary in England as St. Denis was in France. A fire had destroyed
the old choir in 1174. Architects, both French and English, were invited.
Among them was William of Sens, a man of great abilities and a most
skilled workman in wood and stone. He was chosen for restoration. The
work went on for four years. At the beginning of the fifth year William,
while on scaffolding, fell down to the ground from a height of fifty feet.
He was badly hurt. Lying in bed, he gave orders “what was first and what
last to be done” . But soon he went to France to die at home. New
Gothic features appeared in the interior. An invention of the Gothic style

<- St. Denis

UNIT V • European styles 109


was the tracery. At Rheims, for the first time, we find bar
tracery* as against plate tracery*. The stress now rests on
the lines of the pattern, not on the surface of the wall.
Each two-light window is crowned by a circle with a sex-
foil ornament. Many towers carried or were designed to
carry spires. The spire is the creation of the Gothic mind.
Romanesque spires are no more than pyramids or conical
roofs! The spire over the south tower of Chartres Cathe­
dral is the first in France, that of the Oxford Cathedral the
first in England.
Canterbury Cathedral
ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. St. Denis [sntde'ni] — аббатство Сен Дени, Ф ранция, 1140—44


2. William o f Sens ['wiljam av 'sa .n ] — Уильям (Вильям) из Санса (Ф ранция), проектировщик и
мастер-каменщик, умер в 1180 г.
3. Canterbury ['kaentab(a)ri] г. Кентербери, Кент, Великобритания
4. tracery ['treis(a)ri] n — готический ажурный каменный оконный переплет; bar tracery — узор
переплета из переплетающихся элементов; flowing tracery — узор из плавных сложных кривых,
переходящих одна в другую; plate tracery — узор прорезанный в тонком каменном заполнении
верхней части окна

Упражнение 18. О пиш ите собор в Или или другой готический собор.

3. RENAISSANCE

TEXT А

Упражнение 1. Прочтите и переведите следующ ие слова,


social ['saufl] climatic [klai'maetik] factor ['faskta]
classical ['klaesikl] westwards ['westwadz] character ['kaerakta]
pioneer [ ^ а ^ э 'п ю ] start [sta:t] classic ['klassik]

WORDS TO BE USED

employ [im 'p b i] v — 1. употреблять, использовать, применять; 2. предоставлять работу;


employment [im 'p b im a n t] n — 1. применение, использование; 2. занятость (рабочей силы)
painted glass window, stained [steind] glass window — витраж
pair [pea] n — пара
pitch [pit/] 1) n — уклон, скат, наклон, покатость, угол наклона; 2) v — иметь наклон
pitched [pitft] а — (резко) наклонный, имеющий крутой уклон
regard [rTga:d] — 1) n (for) — 1. внимание, забота, уважение; (к), 2. отношение; 2) v — рассма­
тривать; считать
Renaissance [ra'neisns] n — эпоха Возрождения, Ренессанс
revival [rTvaivl] n — возрождение; оживление
rough [rAf] а — неровный, шершавый грубый, неотесанный
spread [spred] (spread) v — 1. простираться; 2. распространять(ся)

110 3. Renaissance
WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

cling [klirj] (clung) v (часто cling to) — оставаться верным


due to [dju:] (употр. как prep) — благодаря
especially [is'pejli] adv — особенно, главным образом
predominant [predom inant] a — преобладающий, доминирующий
root [ru:t] n — корень
start [start] v — начинать

Упражнение 2. П рочтите текст и ответьте на вопросы:


1. When and where did the Renaissance style of architecture appear? 2. Due to what factors did it differ
in different countries? 3. Why did the Renaissance style of architecture start in Italy? 4. What can you say
about Renaissance vaulting?

Упражнение 3. П рочтите текст и напиш ите его план на английском язы ке.

RENAISSANCE STYLE

The word Renaissance (French for “rebirth”) was first used to define the historical age in Italy, and in
Europe in general, that followed the Middle Ages, spanning roughly the 14th through the 16th century. The
principal features were the revival of learning based on classical sources.
The Renaissance of Classic architecture, which started in Italy early in the fifteenth century, spread
westwards throughout all countries. It differed in different countries due to the following factors: geological,
climatic, social and historical.
Italy, which was still rich in her ancient Roman monuments, was naturally the pioneer in the Renaissance
movement, especially as the Gothic style had never taken firm root in a country which had always clung to
her old traditions. The two old systems produced a style which, though it might be Gothic in construction,
was outwardly Classic in character. The important characteristic of this new style was the employment of the
Classic Roman Orders of architecture, which were now reintroduced after nearly 1,000 years. The five orders
were used both constructively and decoratively. Columns and entablatures appear in new combinations for
use in buildings designed to meet the requirements of the day. This style has formed the basis of most modem
architecture. The general characteristics vary in each country.
Plans were arranged with special regard for symmetry. The bays are covered with barrel or cross vaults
and with a central dome. Painted glass windows were used widely. Towers are rarely used, when they occur
they are symmetrically placed, usually in pairs. The dome is a predominant feature externally. Pediments are
of low pitch, due to the classic influence, or semicircular, sometimes filled with sculpture.
Some of the most famous examples of the style are in France: the Palais du Louvre*, Paris (1546—1878),
Palazzo* Pitti, Florence (1489), the Palace of Facets*, Moscow (1487—91).

П РИ М ЕЧ А Н И Я

1. Palais ['paelei] фр. — дворец


2. Louvre [lu:vr] — Лувр
3. Palazzo [pa'laetsa] — палаццо, дворец
4. Palace of Facets ffaesits] — Грановитая палата

TEXT В

Упражнение 4. П рочтите и переведите следующ ие слова.


aqueduct ['aekwidAkt] atmosphere ['aetmasfia] test [test]
arch-headed [,a :tj'h e d id ] public ['рлЬйк] series ['siari:z]

UNIT V • European styles 111


WORDS TO BE USED

brief [bri:f] a — короткий, недолгий


brief [bri:f] n — проектное задание
exhibition [,ek si'b ijn ] n — выставка
prevail [pri'veil] v — преобладать, господствовать
rusticated ['rAStikeitid] a — рустованный
span [spaen] v 1) n — расстояние между опорами (арки, свода); 2) v — перекрывать (об арке,
крыше, времени и т. п.); соединять берега (о мосте)
unite [ju'nait] v — соединять(ся), объединять(ся)

WORDS ТО BE UNDERSTOOD

aperture ['aepatja] n — отверстие, проем


maintain [m ein'tein] v — 1. поддерживать; удерживать; сохранять; 2. содержать
reminiscent [je m i'm s n t] a — напоминающий (of); вызывающий воспоминания
rival ['raivl] n — соперник
severe [si'via] a — строгий, суровый
withstand [wid'staend] (withstood) v — противостоять, выдержать

Упражнение 5. П рочтите текст Palazzo Pitti и найдите, в каких абзацах дается ответ.
1. Why is the Palazzo named so? 2. Its architecture is described. 3. How is it used?

Упражнение 6. Прочтите текст и напиш ите его резюме на русском или английском язы ке.

PALAZZO PITTI

The Palazzo Pitti (sometimes called the Pitti Palace) is a vast mainly Renaissance palace in Florence,
Italy. It is situated on the south side of the River Amo. The core* o f the present palazzo dates from 1458 and
was originally the town residence of Luca Pitti, an ambitious Florentine banker. It was bought by the Medici*
family in 1539 as the official residence of the ruling families o f the Grand Duchy* o f Tuscany.
In the 19th century, the palazzo served for a brief period as the principal royal palace of the newly-united
Italy. In the early 20th century, the palazzo was given to the Italian people by King Victor Emmanuel III*;
and its doors were opened to the public as one of Florence’s largest art galleries. Today, housing several mi­
nor additions, it is fully open to the public.

<- The Palazzo Pitti,


an exhibition centre
and tourist attraction.
Photographed in 2005

112 3. Renaissance
The original palazzo, though impressive, would have been no rival to the magnificence of the Florentine
Medici residences in terms of its size. Whoever* the architect o f the Palazzo Pitti was, he was moving against
the contem porary flow of fashion. The rusticated stonework gives the palazzo a severe and powerful
atmosphere, reinforced by the several times repeated series of arch-headed apertures, reminiscent of a Roman
aqueduct. This original design has withstood the test of time, and its influence has been maintained and
continued during the latest additions to the palazzo.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. core [ко:] — сердцевина; внутренность, ядро


2. Medici ['m editjij — Медичи, олигархическое семейство, правившее во Флоренции в XIII—XVIII вв.
3. duchy ['dAtfi] — герцогство
4. Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele III) was King of Italy (29 July 1900 — 9 May 1946)
5. whoever [hu'eva] (косв. n. whomever) — кто бы ни, который бы ни ( см. Грам. справ. § 14. 6).

Упражнение 7. Закончите следующ ие предлож ения, выбрав нужное слово (или слова).
1. The windows were filled with ... glass. 2. The Roman examples were ... in other countries. 3. All build­
ings m u st.... the requirements. 4. The ... arches were used .... 5. The high columns produced an effect of....
6. This is a ... buttress. 7. This design is solved successfully .... money, but badly ... size.

flying, followed, in terms of, meet, no longer, painted, pointed, stained, verticality

Упражнение 8. Вставьте предлоги, если нужно, и переведите предлож ения.


1. Architecture ... houses should m e e t.... the requirements. 2. The country is rich ... stone. 3. According
... him the cathedral was b u ilt... the early 15th century ... special regard ... lighting rather than ... symmetry.
4. This building is very interesting ... terms ... the building materials.

(), by, for, in, of, to, with

Упражнение 9. Подберите синоним ы (А) и антонимы (В) к следующим словам или слово­
сочетаниям.
A. effect, attention to, painted glass, in the early 15lh century, near, nearly, start, from the point of view
B. verticality, numerous, round arch, begin

Упражнение 10. Прочтите по-английски и по-русски следующие числа (см. Грам. справ. § 5. 3):
1,000, 1.005, 25.348,25,328.

Упражнение 11. Переведите на русский язы к следующие предлож ения, обращ ая вним ание на
подчеркнутые слова, приведите свои примеры (см. Грам. справ. § 14. 6).
I. However expensive this material was, he decided to use it. 2. Whatever he saw, he wanted to copy it.
3. Whatever building he saw, he wanted to copy it. 4. Whenever it was built, it is a beautiful building. 5. Wher­
ever I go, I take my photo camera with me. 6. I don’t know, who the architect of this cathedral is, however
l know, whoever he is, he is a genius.

TEXT C

Упражнение 12. П ереведите письм енно со словарем текст Palazzo Strozzi.

PALAZZO STROZZI

Palazzo Strozzi* is a palace in Florence, Italy. According to Giorgio Vasari* it was begun in 1489 by Bene­
detto da Maiano* for Filippo Strozzi the Elder*, an unfortunate rival of the Medici who had come back to the

UNIT V • European styles 113


city (he had been banned by the Medici as a young man, together with all
his family, due to the opposition of his relative Palla Strozzi* against Co-
simo de Medici*) and desired the most magnificent palace to reassure his
family prominence. A great number of other buildings were acquired and
demolished to provide enough space for the new construction. Giuliano
da Sangallo* the Younger is known to have provided a wooden model.
Filippo Strozzi died in 1491, long before the construction’s completion in
1538. Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici confiscated it the same year, returning
it to the Strozzi thirty years later.
Palazzo Strozzi is a splendid example of civil architecture with its
rusticated stone, inspired by the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, but with
more harmonious proportions. Unlike the Medici Palace, which was
sited on a corner lot, this building, surrounded on all four sides by
streets, is a free-standing structure.
The palazzo has mullioned* windows and a magnificent cornice, typical o f the Florentine palaces of
the time. It was left incomplete by Cronaca*, who continued the construction of the palace until 1504. Also
by Cronaca is the courtyard. The famous wrought-iron lanterns decorate the corners o f the palace exterior.
Today the palace is used for international expositions like the annual Antique Show, the Italian High
Fashion shows and other cultural and artistic events.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Palazzo Strozzi — Палаццо Строцци


2. Giorgio Vasari (1511—1574) was an Italian painter and architect, known for his famous biographies of
Italian artists — Джорджо Вазари
3. Benedetto da Maiano (1442—1497) was an early Italian Renaissance sculptor — Бенедетто да Майано
4. Filippo Strozzi the Elder (1428—1491) was an Italian banker and statesman, a member of the rich Stro­
zzi family of Florence — Филиппо Строцци Старший
5. Palla di Onorio Strozzi (1372—1472) was an Italian banker, politician, philosopher and philologist —
Онорио Строцци
6. Cosimo I de Medici ['ko:z i:m эи do 'm editfi] (1519—1574) was the first Grand Duke of Tuscany, rul­
ing from 1537 to 1574, during the waning days o f the Renaissance — Козимо Медичи
7. Giuliano da Sangallo ['бзиТш гпэ do sen 'g a:l ou] (c. 1443—1516) was an Italian sculptor, architect, and
military engineer active during the Italian Renaissance — Джулиано да Сангалло
8. A mullion is a structural element which divides adjacent window units — средник.
9. Simone del Pollaiuolo Cronaca (1457—1508) was a Florentine architect — Симоне Поллайоло Кронака

Упражнение 13. Обсудите характерны е черты Ренессанса и опиш ите какой-нибудь дворец.

4. BAROQUE
TEXT А

Упражнение 1. Прочтите и переведите следующие слова.


monotonous [mo'nDt(o)nos] defect ['di:fekt, di:'fekt] Baroque [bo'rouk]
standardize ['staendodaiz] reaction [ri'aekjn] figure ['figs]
regulation [,regjuTeiJri] interior [in'Н эпа] critic fk ritik ]

WORDS TO BE USED

create [kri'eit] v — создавать


demand [di'm am d] v — требовать

114 4. Baroque
drawing ['dronr)] n — 1. рисование; черчение; 2. рисунок, чертеж
freedom [Т г Ы э т ] n — свобода
lattice ['laetis] n — решетка
over-elaboration [/3uv9i/laeb9, reiJ(9)n] n — чрезмерная разработка, украшательство
parquetry ['pa:kitri] n — паркет, паркетный пол
scroll [skraul] n — завиток
spite [spait]: in spite of — несмотря на
strict [strikt] a — строгий
treat [tri:t] v — 1. обращаться, обходиться; относиться; 2. обрабатывать; treatment [ 'triitm ant]
n — обработка
twisted ['tw istid] a — переплетенный; витой
wavy ['weivi] a — волнистый

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

clumsy ['khvmzi] a — 1. неуклюжий, неловкий; неповоротливый; 2. грубый


foothold ['futhauld] n — точка опоры, плацдарм
harshly ['ha:Jli] adv — грубо, резко, строго
noble ('пэиЫ] a — прекрасный, замечательный; превосходный, величественный
tired ['ta(i)ad ] а — усталый; (I am) tired o f...—(мне) надоело

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст Baroque Style и объясните причину появления стиля, основны е
его черты и историю развития в разных странах.

BAROQUE STYLE

The Baroque (French, bizarre* or fantastic) was a new phase of architectural development, which, in
later Renaissance times appeared in Rome and afterwards spread throughout Europe. It is sometimes called
the Rococo* style, and appeared in the 17th century, when the true Renaissance had submitted to the formal
rules and m onotonous regulations of Classicists, e.g. Palladio*. The Baroque was perhaps chiefly the result
of reaction from Classic forms as standardized by Palladio. The men of the free cities of Italy loved freedom
and would not submit to the strict rules in art. They demanded freedom in plan, in design, and in ornament.
Thus the Renaissance style passed into Baroque with columns with twisted shafts, often placed in front of
pilasters with cornices round them, and surmounted by clumsy curved pediments, huge wavy scrolls, and
flying figures. It was often characterized by over-elaboration of scrolls, curves, and carved ornament. The
Baroque movement, in spite of its many defects, has perhaps been treated too harshly by critics.
The Baroque was not popular in Florence, the birth-city of the Renaissance style, for she was still full of
grand churches and noble palaces in this style. In Rome the Baroque appeared when architects had become
tired of the old and purely Classic forms and wanted to have something new.
In Russia the Baroque was created by Bartolomeo Rastrelli*. He was 16 when he came to Russia. He
learnt at the construction sites of St. Petersburg and became a famous architect, the designer o f many
magnificent palaces and churches in the Russian capital.
The Winter Palace is Rastrelli’s masterpiece. Rastrelly himself made the drawings and plans of the palace,
designed the carvings, sculptures, lattices, parquetry, interiors and furniture. In Moscow Naryshkin or
Moscow baroque was used, e.g. in the famous church at Fili.

П РИ М ЕЧ А Н И Я

1. bizarre [bCza:] — странный, причудливый


2. Rococo [гэ'кэикэи] — стиль рококо
3. Palladio, Andrea [рэТекйэ] — Палладио, Андреа (1508—1580), выдающийся итальянский архи­
тектор, предшественник классицизма в архитектуре

UNIT V • European styles 115


4. Rastrelli Bartolomeo — Растрелли, Варфоломей Варфоломеевич (1700—71), выдающийся русский
архитектор, представитель русского барокко.

Упражнение 3. О бъясните образование следующих слов и переведите их.


Treatment, over-elaboration, parquetry , wavy, stony, sunny, carving, construction

TEXTS В
MOSCOW BAROQUE

Упражнение 4. Прочтите следующие слова и переведите их.


sponsor ['sptm sa] gilding ['gildirj] podklet
boyar [bo'ja:] strengthen ['strer)0(3)n] half-column
iconostasis [yaika'nDst9sis] effect fi'fekt] quadrangle ['kwodraerjgl]
fruit [fru:t] facet f'faesit] whole [haul]

WORDS TO BE USED

basement ['beism ant] n — 1. подвал; (полу)подвал; 2. основание, фундамент


lobe [1эиЬ] n — лепесток, доля, лопасть
octagon ['Dkt9g(9)n] n — восьмиугольник, восьмерик
openwork ['9up(3)nw3:k] n (attr) — ажурный
quadrangle [' kwodraeqgl] n — четверик

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD
lace [[leis]] n — кружево
slender ['slenda] a — тонкий, стройный

Упражнение 5. Прочтите текст, напиш ите его резюме на английском языке.

Упражнение 6. Выпишите из текста основны е характерные черты московского барокко.

CHURCH OF THE INTERCESSION* AT FILI

The church o f the Intercession at Fili is one of the most impressive


late 17th century buildings in Russia. Erected in 1693 and sponsored by
Naryshkin, an uncle of Peter the Great and one o f the most powerful
boyars o f the time, the church is famous for its perfection and finish. It
is the best existing example o f Moscow Baroque. The Naryshkins built
so many excellent buildings on their estates during the 1690s that this
style is known as the Naryshkin Baroque, Baroque being the term
applied to European art of the early 17th to the mid 18th century and
created in Russia by Bartolomeo Rastrelli. The church is famous for its
centrical*, four-lobed and tiered composition. The multi-sectional
cruciform church forms a remarkable unity while remaining unusually
picturesque. The slender five-tiered building is growing out o f a high
basement surrounded by branching open staircases which rise up to an
open gallery on an arcade taking the place of the podklet, the raised base
common in the old style of church building. This type of church is the
octagon on the quadrangle: the two lower tiers are quadrangles (with
semicircular apses for the altar and the side-chapels) and the upper three
tiers are octagons.

116 4. Baroque
The white-stone details, emphasized by the red brickwork of the
walls, are of great importance in the decorative appearance o f the
church. Its large half-columns emphasize the corners of the cruciform
section of the church and the ribs o f the octagon. White-stone cornices
and pediments of the numerous windows decorate the building. Their
complex forms form the frame for the whole building and resemble lace.
The effect is strengthened by the gold faceted domes, openwork crosses
and windows.
The interior is no less beautiful than the exterior. A huge carved
iconostasis reaches up to the vaults. Black was used as the background
to the splendid carving with its twisted lines, and carved fruit, and this naturally increased the brilliant
decorativity of the gilding.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Intercession [,in ta 'se jn ] — Покров (богоматери)


2. centrical ['sentriklj — центричный

Упражнение 7. Переведите письм енно на русский язы к текст C hurch o f the Intercession at Fili.

Упражнение 8. Переведите следующ ие предлож ения на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на
подчеркнутые слова.
1. The Naryshkins built it in the 1690s. 2. The branching open staircase was very beautiful. 3. Their
complex forms form the frame for the building. 4. The octagon on the quadrangle was very often used in
Russian architecture. 5. The ramp took the place of the staircase. 6. The architect is known to have provided
a wooden staircase. 7. She is known to be designing a house now.

Упражнение 9. Вставьте, если требуется, предлоги.


1. The building is famous ... its m odem forms. 2. It has projecting balconies ... all four sides. 3. The
staircase rises up ... the top floor. 4. The lift takes the place ... a staircase. 5. The beauty o f the building is
emphasized... white-stone pediments.
(), by, for, of, on, to

Упражнение 10. О бъясните значение следующих слов и словосочетаний, переведите их на


русский, дайте примеры : centrical building, half-colum ns, the octagon on the quadrangle, five-
pointed, podklet, faceted, background, openwork, staircase, three-tiered, four-lobed.

Упражнение 11. Переведите с русского язы ка на английский: термин, придел, пятилепестковый,


трехъярусный, позолота, пятиугольник, отделка, четверик, восьмерик, центричный, ажурный.

Упражнение 12. Укажите все значения следующих слов: term , chapel, project, finish, octagon,
quadrangle.

Упражнение 13. Н азовите все слова означаю щ ие форму чего-либо.

Упражнение 14. Вставьте слова (некоторы е слова могут оказаться лиш ним и и, наоборот, воз­
можны варианты).
I. This old church is ... in plan. 2. It is no ... famous ... the ... one. 3. The ... chapel was built in the ...
4. The belltower is m u c h .....the chapel. 5. The ... churches can be octagonal.
centric, cruciform, higher, highest, latter, less, new, than, 1950, 1950s

UNIf V • European styles 117


Упражнение 15. Укажите разницу между следующими словами, переведите их на русский язык,
than — then; carved — curved — covered; vaults — volutes, furniture — situation
Упражнение 16. О пиш ите церковь П окрова в Ф илях.

Упражнение 17. Прочтите текст и опиш ите церковь, указав, в каком стиле она построена,
докажите это, сравните с другими пам ятникам и, скаж ите, согласны ли вы с утверждениями
автора текста.
Dubrovitsy, the picturesque place near the town of Podolsk (20 km from Moscow to the South), is famous
for a baroque church — the Church of Our Lady of the Sign (Знаменская) dating from the late 17th century.
Its Italian-style architecture with numerous decorative details and realistic sculpture is quite unusual in Rus­
sia of that historical period. In fact, according to some documents, Prince Boris Alekseyevich Golitsyn, who
owned this area, sent for 100 Italian masters to build it. The church was founded in 1690, the time of Peter
the Great. This remarkable tower, surmounted by a great gold tiara ([ti'a rrs] тиара — тройная корона
Римского папы) and cross, stands as a monument over the beautiful Pakhra River to the unknown Italian
artists who built it.

Упражнение 18. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


l . What is Dubrovitsy famous for? 2. What time does the church date from? 3. What can you say about
its decorative details? 4. What is it crowned with? 5. Is it typical of Russian churches? 6. What are Russian
churches usually crowned with? 7. What can you say about its plan? 8. In what style was it built in fact?
9. What other Russian churches have the same plan?

5. CLASSICISM A N D PASHKOV M A N SIO N

TEXT A

Упражнение 1. Прочтите и переведите слова.


Classicism ['klaesisiz(a)m] Neoclassicism [,ni:3u'klaesisiz(3)m]

Упражнение 2. Переведите текст письм енно со словарем.

CLASSICISM
Classicism in architecture means principles that emphasize the correct use not only o f Roman and Greek,
but also of Italian Renaissance models.

118 5. Classicism and Pashkov mansion


The last phase of European classicism, in the late 18lh and 19th centuries (1750—1830), characterized by
monumentality, strict use of the orders, and sparing application of ornament, is often known as Neoclassicism,
in order to distinguish it from the classical architecture of Ancient Rome or of the Renaissance. The centre
of international Neoclassicism was Rome, but the leading actors were French, German or English.
Palladianism is a mode of building following the strict Roman forms according to the rules of the Italian
Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio, particularly in England in the 18th century.
Classicism is characterized by flatter roofs, horizontal lines; there are often circles, right angles and
squares in the facade.

TEXT В

WORDS TO BE USED

belvedere ['belvsdio] n — бельведер


outstanding [aut'staendirj] a — выдающийся

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

secular ['sekjula] a — мирской, светский


sober ['saubo] a — умеренный, спокойный

Упражнение 3, П рочтите текст Pashkov House и укажите черты классицизм а, использованны е


в нем, ответьте на вопросы
1. What is Bazhenov’s most outstanding masterpiece? 2. Where is it situated? 3. What is it remarkable
for? 4. What parts does it consist of? 5. What crowns the wings and the central part? 6. Why is it called Pash­
kov House? 7. What did it house in the 19th century and what does it house now?

PASHKOV HOUSE

At the very end o f M okhovaya Street a


luxurious palace o f white stone stands on a hill
across from the Kremlin. It was built between 1784
and 1786 by Bazhenov, one o f Moscow's best
architects. This splendid building, the architect's
m ost outstanding m asterpiece is regarded as
Moscow's most beautiful secular building. Its
combination of the strict, sober lines of antiquity
with the Moscow style o f patterning makes it a
masterpiece of the unique Russian classicism. It is
rem arkable for its arch itectu ral details and
interesting plan, its two wings being linked to the
central block by elegant galleries. The wings are
crowned with beautiful pediments; the central part
is topped with a belvedere. This palace was known
as the House o f Pashkov, since it was commissioned by the rich landowner Pashkov and was named after
him. It was used as a “city-estate” mansion. In the 19th century it housed the Rumyantsev Museum which
had, among other things, Russia’s best library.

Упражнение 4. Переведите на русский язы к: “city-estate” m ansion, patterning, landowner.

Упражнение 5. О пиш ите Pashkov House, обращ ая вним ание на черты классицизма.

UNIT V • European styles 119


6. ROCOCO
TEXT Л

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующие слова и переведите их.


pastel ['paest(a)l isolated fa is a le itid ] fantastic [faen'taestik]
emphasis ['em fasis] integration [/in tT g reiJ(a)n ] elegant ['e lig an t]
sm ooth [smu:6] niche [ni:J] principal ['p rin sa p l]
podklet aisle [ail] ornam ent ['o m a m an t]
WORDS TO BE USED
apply [a'plai] v — касаться, относиться; быть приемлемым; применять; употреблять
graceful ['greisfl] а — грациозный, изящный
lack [laek] n — недостаток, нужда; отсутствие (чего-л.)
marquetry ['mcnkitri] n — маркетри, инкрустация по дереву
projecting semicircular section — ризалит
rocaille [ro'kai] n (фр.) — рокайль, искусственный грот или раковина, характерный для стиля
рококо, мотив орнамента; стиль рококо, орнамент в виде раковины
taste [teist] n — вкус
treatment ['tri:tm ant] n — трактовка, подход, обработка
undulating [/Andju'leitirj] a — волнообразный
unify ['ju:nifai[ v — объединять
WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD
fluid ['flu:id] a — текучий
jagged ['d 3aegid] a — зубчатый, зазубренный
pierce [piss] v — пронзать, протыкать, прокалывать
refine [ri'fain] v — делать(ся) более изящным, утонченным; усовершенствовать
robust [rsu'bASt] а — крепкий, здоровый; сильный; грубый, грубоватый
shell [fel] n — раковина
whimsical ['wimzikl] a — прихотливый, фантастический, причудливый

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст Rococo Style и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


I. When did this style appear? 2. What features are typical o f Rococo architecture?

ROCOCO STYLE
Rococo = French Rocaille is a term applied to Renaissance ornament in which rock-like forms, fantastic
scrolls, and crimped* shells are used widely.
During the period o f Enlightment* (about 1700 to 1780) various kinds o f post-Baroque* art and
architecture appeared. A principal kind, known as Rococo, refined the robust architecture o f the 17th century
to suit elegant 18th century tastes. Bright colours were replaced by pastel ones. Relief was replaced by smooth
masses with emphasis only at isolated points. Churches and palaces still exhibited an integration o f the three
arts (architecture, sculpture and painting). Interiors became more graceful. Rococo architects obtained
unified spaces, emphasized structural elements, and reduced column sizes to a minimum. In churches, the
ceilings of side aisles were raised to the height of the nave ceiling to unify the space from wall to wall.

П РИ М ЕЧА Н И Я
1. crimped [krim pt] — гофрированный, волнистый
2. enlightment [in'laitm ant] — просвещение.
3. post- [paust-] — после, позднее (во времени)

120 6. Rococo
Упражнение 3. П рочтите тексты о рококо и укажите, какая в них дается дополнительная и н ­
формация по сравнению с предыдущим текстом, а какая повторяется.
1. The Rococo style o f art appeared in France in the early 18th century as a continuation of the Baroque
style. The word Rococo is seen as a combination of the French rocaille, or shell, and the Italian barocco, or
Baroque style.
Rococo features: 1. Continuous undulating curves. 2. Twisting naturalistic ornament in marquetry and
metal. 3. Whimsical interpretation of mainly classical designs, characterized by carved shells and S-shaped
curves. 4. Lack of symmetry (asymmetrical). 5. Restless, fluid movement. 6. Fanciful treatment of forms in
nature: attenuated sprays (тонкие веточки), pierced and jagged scallop shells, flower garlands, flickering flames.
2. Exotic motifs from the Near and Far East, esp. China. Freely modeled forms, often combining natu­
ral elements, e.g., animals, shells, and leaves with scrolls.

TEXT В

Упражнение 4. П рочтите следующие слова и словосочетания, переведите их.


service building reign [rein] elegant ['eligant]
popular fpDpjula] series ['siari:z] plasticity [plae'stisati]
scheme [skim ] manifestation ^m aenife'steijn] typical ['tipikl]
WORDS TO BE USED
adjoin [ э 'б з э т ] v — примыкать, прилегать, граничить
bright [brait] a — яркий; блестящий
broken pediment — разорванный фронтон
courtyard ['ko:tja:d] n — внутренний двор
device [dTvais] n — 1. устройство; приспособление; 2. способ, средство, прием
even [i:vn] 1) а — 1. ровный, гладкий; 2. четный; 2) adv — даже
evident [ 'e v i d e n t ] а — очевидный, явный
mansion ['m aenjn] n — особняк
native ['neitiv] a — 1. родной; 2. (to) присущий, свойственный
once [wAns] adv — 1. (один) раз; 2. некогда, когда-то; однажды
shade [Jeid] n — 1. тень; 2. оттенок, нюанс;
stand out (against) v — выделяться, выступать (на фоне)

Упражнение 5. П рочтите текст Apraksin Family M ansion и напиш ите его резюме на русском
или английском язы ке.

Упражнение 6. Ответьте на вопросы:


1. When and where was it built? 2. Why is it called Apraksin mansion? 3. In what style was it built and
why? 4. Which facade is illustrated in the picture: the street or courtyard one? 5. What features of this palace
are typical of Russian architecture of the mid-18th century? 6. What three arts were used in the mansion?

Упражнение 7. П ереведите текст письм енно и вы пиш ите терм ины , характерные для рококо.

APRAKSIN FAMILY MANSION


A mansion once belonging to the Apraksins is situated in Pokrovka Street. It has been restored and now
looks just as it did when completed in the reign of Empress Elizabeth. The elegant portico columns, window-
frames and sculptural details with their characteristically fanciful shapes stand out against the emerald*-blue
of its walls. The palace was built in 1766 at a time when rococo was still very popular in Moscow. The unknown
architect provided the building with such a quantity of porticoes and so uneven are its walls that it is difficult
to see its real shape.

UNIT V • European styles 121


In addition, he has introduced a whole series of devices
to increase its decorativity and plasticity; in one place
narrow niches cut into the stylobates below the columns,
in another broken pediments (which look particularly fine
above the porticoes), and in a third place windows of
different sizes.
The building is no less effective from the courtyard side
where the facade is broken in the centre by a projecting
semicircular section and the third floor has large round
windows absent on the street side. The bright painting was
not only typical of the m id-18th century, but reflected the
Russian love of bright colours in architecture so evident in
work of the late 17th century. Colour increased the sensation
of gaiety and luxury* native to baroque, particularly in its
rococo manifestations. The house has wings at either end, while on the right it is adjoined by a connected group
of service buildings. It is also typical of Moscow buildings in the mid-18Ih century. The Apraksins’ house is
perhaps the only surviving example of its kind in Moscow which can tell us much about domestic architecture
of the rococo period, rococo being post-Baroque art (pastel shades, diffused light*, integration of the three arts,
continuous decorative schemes, column sizes reduced to a minimum).

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. emerald ['е т эг(э)Ы ] — изумруд


2. luxury [Т лк/(э)п] — роскошь
3. diffused light [di'fjutzd'lait] — рассеянный свет

Упражнение 8. Подберите антоним ы к: even, known.

Упражнение 9. Вставьте предлоги или послелоги, если нужно.


1. The mansion belongs ...the last century. 2. It was b u ilt.... the reign ...Peter 1.3. The columns stan d ...
... the wall. 4. The architect provided the building ...good heating. 5. The decorative detail is typical... Rococo.
6. The porticoes were designed... either e n d ... the temple. 7. The size was reduced ... the usual one. 8. The
forest adjoins ...the site.

( ) , against, at, in, of, out, to, with

Упражнение 10. Подберите синоним ы к следующим словам или словосочетаниям: in the reign
of, evident, circular, podklet.

Упражнение 11 Н азовите все значения или омонимы для следующих слов: still, even, wing, only,
kind, shade, finish, light.

Упражнение 12. Назовите определения, которые могут употребляться со следующими словами:


pediment, light.

Упражнение 13. Н айдите в тексте английский эквивалент для терм ина «ризалит».

Упражнение 14. П рочтите следующие слова, обращ ая вним ание на чтение “c h ” — [k], [J], [tf],
приведите, если знаете, другие примеры . О бъясните причину такого произн ош ен и я.
Archangel, archivolt, chair, chalet, champagne, character, Chartres, chevet, choir, Christian, chronicles,
chronology, church, machine, Michael, niche, parachute, patriarch, scheme, school, teach

122 6. Rococo
Упражнение 15. Переведите на английский язык.
В 1930-х годах, в середине 1940-х годов, в начале XXI в., в середине XIX в., в конце XIII в.

Упражнение 16. О пиш ите особняк А праксиных.

7. ART NOUVEAU

TEXT А

Упражнение 1. Переведите текст письм енно с помощ ью словаря.

ART NOUVEAU
Art Nouveau* (French for “new art”) is an international style of art, architecture and design that peaked
in popularity at the beginning o f the 20th century (1880—1914) and is characterized by highly-stylized, flow­
ing, curvilinear designs often incorporating floral and other plant-inspired motifs.
Its name differed in different countries: Jugendstil* in Germany and the Netherlands, named after the
avant-garde periodical Jugend ( “Youth”), Mioda Polska (“Young Poland” style) in Poland, and Sezessionsstil
(“Secessionism”*) in Vienna. In Russia, the movement revolved around the art magazine M ir iskusstva
(“World of A rt”). In Italy, Stile Liberty was named after the London shop, Liberty & Co. In Spain, the
movement was centred in Barcelona and was known as moderaisme, with the architect Antoni Gaudi as the
most noteworthy practitioner. Art Nouveau was also a force in Eastern Europe, with the influence of Alfons
Mucha* in Prague and Moravia and Latvian Romanticism (Riga, the capital of Latvia, is home of over 800
Art Nouveau buildings). The entrances to the Paris Metro designed by Hector Guimard* in 1899 and 1900
are famous examples of Art Nouveau. One of the famous architects working in this style was Victor Horta*
(1861—1947), a Belgian architect, he is referred to as “undoubtedly the key European Art Nouveau architect.”

П РИ М ЕЧ А Н И Я

1. Art Nouveau [,a:(t)nu:'v9u] фр. — стиль «модерн» (художественный и архитектурный стиль кон­
ца XIX — начала XX вв.)
2. Jugendstil — Югендштиль
3. Secessionism — стиль Сецессиона
4. Alfonse Maria M ucha (Альфонс Муха) (1860—1939) was a Czech painter and decorative artist
5. Hector Guimard (Эктор Гимар) (Lyon, 1867 — New York, 1942) was an architect, who is widely con­
sidered today to be the most prominent representative of the French Art Nouveau movement of the end
of the nineteenth and beginning o f the twentieth centuries
6. Victor H orta (Виктбр Орт&) (1861—1947) — бельгийский архитектор и дизайнер

TEXT В
Упражнение 2. Прочтите следующ ие слова: picturesque, Shekhtel, Ryabushinsky.

WORDS TO BE USED

banisters fbasm stsz] n pi — перила (лестницы)


floral [Т1э:гэ1] a — цветочный растительный
flowing ['Аэшг)] a — плавный; гладкий
grill [gril] n — решетка
offset [,Df'set] v — оттенять
railing ['reilirj] n (часто pi) — ограда
sash [saej] n — оконный переплет, подъемное окно
wrought iron [,ro:t'a(i)3n] — кованое железо

UNIT V • European styles 123


Упражнение 3. Прочтите текст Ryabushinsky’s House, напиш ите его резю ме на русском или
английском язы ке и вы пиш ите характерные признаки модерна, использовавш иеся в нем.

RYABUSHINSKY’S HOUSE

At the com er of Malaya Nikitskaya and Spiridonovka Streets stands a mansion built for Ryabushinsky,
one of the great industrialists of the pre-Revolutionary Russia. It was built between 1902 and 1906 by
F. Shekhtel*, one of the most important architects o f the period. In its exterior and decorative elements both
inside and out, this building was an amalgam* of all the characteristics of art nouveau at that particular stage
of its development (asymmetry, coloured materials, stained glass, grilles, balconies, wrought iron, and bay
windows).

The architect has built a house whose asymmetrical shape helps to form a rather picturesque harmony. The
large windows occupy an important position in the smooth-glazed* brick facade, creating an interesting effect
and making it rather difficult to tell how many floors there are. Equally original are the window sashes deco­
rated with a pattern of interweaving* tree branches. A broad mosaic frieze of coloured flowers, a favourite theme
of the style modeme, encircles the upper parts of the walls and is offset by the projecting cornices which clear­
ly demonstrate the properties of the new materials such as steel and concrete employed by the architect. The
rhythmic flowing lines of the wrought iron grillwork* on the balcony above the porch and the railings in the
garden are a typical manifestation of art nouveau. The same kind of wrought iron has been used in the interiors
too. For example, the banisters of the main staircase from the hall to the top floor are wrought in the shape of
sea monsters. The chief impression the building gives is one o f movement. The architectural lines seem not so
much to outline this or that form as to run and flow through all parts of the building.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. Shekhtel — Федор Осипович Шехтель (1859—1926), известный русский архитектор


2. amalgam [э'шаг1дэш] п — 1. амальгама; 2. смесь
3. smooth-glazed a ['sm u:3'gleizd] — гладкий, глазированный
4. interweave p ints'w i:v] (interwove; interwoven, interweaved [-d]) v — переплетаться
5. grillwork — декоративная металлическая решетка

Упражнение 4. Переведите на русский язы к.


While, the domestic architecture, device, offset, stained glass, window sashes, bay window

Упражнение 5. Подберите синонимы к следующим словам: employed, style m odem e, broad, lattice.

Упражнение 6. Переведите на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на подчеркнуты е слова.


1. Now one can admire the projecting window in the house projected by this architect. 2. This projecting
balcony was added later. 3. The latter was projected in the modem style.

Упражнение 7. Опишите Дом-музей Рябушинского, обращая особое внимание на черты модерна.


UNIT VI
FACTORS, TYPES OF BUILDINGS
AND CENTRES OF POPULATION

1. FACTORS INFLUENCING ARCHITECTURE

TEXTS A

Упражнение 1. П рочтите и nej


переведите следующие слова.
tundra ['tAndrs] igloo [Tglu:] orient ['o:rient]
landscape [Taen(d)skeip] relief [rTH:f] wind [wind]
protect [p rs'te k t] lighting [Taitirj] transport ['traenspo:t]
the Caucasus ['koikssss] distance ['dist(3)ns] natural ['naetjr(3)l]
accumulate [a'kjurm jsleit] Eskimo ['eskim au] ordinary ['o:dn(3)ri]
gallery ['дэе1(э)п] local [Tsukl] heating ['hirtirj]
arrangement [3'rein(d)3m 3nt] device [di'vais] earthen ['з:0п]
produce [prs'djurs] Asia ['eijb]
WORDS TO BE USED
branch [bra:n(t)J] n — ветвь; ветка
canopy ['kaenspi] n — навес
choice [tjois] n — выбор, отбор; choose [tju:z] (chose [tjauz]; chosen ['tjbuzn]) v — выбирать
direction [d s're k jn ] n — 1. руководство; 2. направление
fireplace ['fa(i)3pleis] n — камин, очаг
heating ['hi:tirj] n — отопление; central heating [,sentr3l'hi:tir)] — центральное отопление; local
heating [,1эикГЫ:Ш)] — местное отопление
ice [ais] n — лед
local [Taukl] a — местный
mountain ['m auntin] n — гора
pile [pail] n — свая
protection [p ra 'te k jn ] n — защита, охрана
solution [sa'luijn] n — решение, разрешение (вопроса и т.п.)
stove [stsuv] n — печь, печка
WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD
palm [pa:m] n — пальма
pis6-walled [,pi:z eTworld] а — глинобитный
reed [ri:d] n — тростник, камыш
straw [stro:] n — солома
thatch [0aetj] 1) n — 1. соломенная или тростниковая крыша, крыша из пальмовых листьев;
2. солома или тростник (для кровли); 2) v — крыть соломой или тростником
whether ['w eds] cj — ли

Упражнение 2. Прочтите текст и напиш ите его резюме на русском или английском языке.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. Why does the orientation o f rooms and buildings depend on the climate? 2. How does the climate
influence the walls and roofs? 3. What kinds of balconies can be used in the building and what is the differ­

UNIT VI • Factors, types of buildings and centres of population 125


ence between them? 4. How can the rooms be heated? 5. How does the climate influence the choice of build­
ing materials? 6. What other factors influence the choice of building materials? 7. What natural and made-man
materials do you know?
GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION AND CLIMATE
The orientation of rooms and buildings depends on the climate: the house is to be built in such a way that
it can provide maximal or minimal natural lighting in rooms. Windows are protected by canopies, curtains,
blinds, louvres. The orientation of buildings depends also on the direction o f winds, the relief and landscape.
The climate (whether it is warm or cold) influences the thickness of walls, sizes of windows, glazing
(ordinary, double and even triple), form of the roof (flat or sloping — to prevent snow from accumulating),
arrangement of terraces, balconies (projecting or recessed), galleries, both for the protection against the sun,
and for the protection against the wind, the solution of heating problems (central or local heating, electric
devices, gas, stoves, fireplaces), structure and choice of building materials. In the warm climate it is possible
to build wattle and daub or mud houses and adobe houses.

In the north the Eskimos build houses o f ice (igloo). Such houses are impossible in Africa, and in tundra
the house built of palm tree branches is impossible. The quality of ground influences the choice of type of
foundation; it is possible that it can be necessary to build a house on piles.
BUILDING MATERIALS
At first people built houses out of natural materials (clay, sand, wood, stone, and earth). A roof was
covered with earth, straw, reed (forming an earthen or thatch roof). Then people began to produce unburnt
brick. Such materials, as concrete, came to be used too.
As a rule, houses were built of local materials, especially houses of ordinary people. It became easier to
carry building materials over great distances with development o f transport. In the countries rich in woods
(Russia, Scandinavia) people built basically of timber. In the mountains o f the Caucasus people built out of
stone. In Central Asia pise-walled structures (i.e. constructed o f a wattle fence and covered with clay) and
structures of sun-dried brick were widely used.

TEXTS В
Упражнение 4. Прочтите и переведите следующ ие слова.
progress v [prau'gres] polygamy [paTigami] castle fk a :sl]
progress n ['praugras] Caucasian [ko:'keizian] morals ['mDr(a)lz]
peoples ['pi:plz] conception [k an 'sep jn ] palm [pa:m]
people [ pi:pl] aqueduct ['aekwidAkt] religious [n T id 3as]
identical [ai'dentikl] skyscraper fsk aisk reip a] skeleton ['skelit(a)n]
primitive society ['prim ativ sa'sa(i)ati] communicate [ka'm ju:nikeit]

WORDS TO BE USED

contribute [kan'tribjurt] v — способствовать


custom ['kAstam] n — обычай

1 26 1. Factors influencing architecture


fortified ['fo:tifaid] a — укрепленный
rear [пэ] a — задний, расположенный сзади
result [п'глИ] 1) n — результат, следствие; 2) v — 1. происходить в результате (from); 2. иметь
результатом, приводить к (in)
sewerage ['su:arid 3 ] n — канализация
strange [strein(d) 3] a — 1. чужой; чуждый; незнакомый, неизвестный; 2. странный, необыкно­
венный; удивительный; stranger f'strein(d)33] n — чужестранец, чужой; незнакомец; посторонний
(человек)

WORDS ТО BE UNDERSTOOD

approximately [s'proksim atli] adv — приблизительно, приближенно, почти


consequently ['konsikw antli] adv — следовательно; поэтому; в результате
threat [0ret] n — угроза

Упражнение 5. Прочтите текст и напиш ите его резюме на русском или английском языке.

Упражнение 6. Ответьте на следующ ие вопросы (по всей теме):


1. What factors influence the planning of houses? 2. What can prevent the sun from getting into the house?
3. Why are different kinds of glazing used? 4. What kind of glazing is used in England, in the north of Europe?
5. What kinds of balconies do you know? 6. What can you say about building materials and their connection
with the climate and geographical regions? 7. What is the connection between technical progress and hous­
ing? 8. Why should a house in the Moslem countries have many rooms? 8. What were the results of war
threats?

TECHNICAL PROGRESS
With the appearance of new building materials and new kinds of structure (for example, vaults) it became
possible to build higher and larger buildings. The invention of lift and metal skeleton contributed to increasing
the height of buildings and number of floors. It also made it possible to build skyscrapers. The invention of
glass resulted in increasing the sizes of windows and replacing mica* and the bull bladder* with it.
CUSTOMS AND MORALS
The planning of a house and the quantity of rooms are influenced by customs and religious conceptions.
In Moslim* countries where polygamy is authorized*, each wife should have her own room. Some North
Caucasian peoples think that a daughter-in-law* should not communicate with her father-in-law and
consequently rooms of young husbands and wives were at some distance from the central part of the house.
Usually people do not want a stranger to be able to see what is going on in the house, so it was placed in the
rear of the garden or a court yard, and the facade was oriented not to the street.
REQUIREMENTS AND PUBLIC POSITION OF THE OWNER
Requirements grew with the growth of culture and technical progress, as well as with that of material
well-being and social standing of the owner. There was no sewerage either in the primitive society or in the
Middle Ages. Aqueducts were built already in Rome. In a primitive society all people lived either in one and
the same house or in approximately identical houses. Both hovels* of the poor*, and mansions, and palaces
of the rich could be built later in the same town. War threat demanded strengthening dwellings — castles and
fortresses were built, in Russia princes built kremlins, in the Caucasus they built fortified residential towers.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. mica ['m aika] — слюда


2. bull bladder ['b d 'b lasd o ] — бычий пузырь
3. Moslim pmDzlim] — мусульманский

UNIT VI • Factors, types of buildings and centres of population 127


4. authorize ['orGsraiz] — разрешать
5. daughter-in-law [/do:t9(r)inb:] — жена сына, невестка, сноха
6. hovel ['hDvl] — лачуга, хибара
7. the rich — богатые, the poor — бедняки («прилагательное» с определенным артиклем переводит­
ся соответствующим существительным во множественном числе)

Упражнение 7. Найдите в рамке английские термины и объяснения, соответствующие русским.


М ожет быть несколько эквивалентов.
Адоба, глинобитный дом, иглу, кирпич-сырец, необожженный кирпич, саманный кирпич
adobe; brick not burnt in the kiln (печь для обжига кирпичей), but dried up in the sun; house
constructed o f a wattle fence and covered with clay; ice-block house; igloo; m ud house; pis6-walled
house; snow-block house; sun-dried brick; wattle and daub house

Упражнение 8. Н айдите в рамке синоним ы . М ожет быть более одного эквивалента.


A. replaced В, skeleton, to be influenced by, to replace A. with B. as a result, to result in
A. was used instead o f B, to depend on, to lead to, to use B. instead o f A. consequently, frame

Упражнение 9. П одберите английские слова, соответствующ ие русским.


A. балкон, двойное остекление, естественное освещение, каркас, количество, лоджия, местное
отопление, наклонная крыша, одинарное остекление, остекление с пола до потолка, плоская кры­
ша, толща стены, тройное остекление, центральное отопление
am ount, central heating, double glazing, flat roof, floor to ceiling glazing, fram e, local heating,
natural lighting, number, ordinary glazing, projecting balcony, quantity, recessed balcony, sloping
roof, sunlight, skeleton, thickness o f the wall, triple glazing
B. невестка, сноха, зять, свекор, тесть, свекровь, теща, деверь, шурин, свояченица
brother-in-law , daughter-in-law , father-in-law, m other-in-law , sister-in-law, son-in-law

Упражнение 10. Вставьте подходящее слово (в нужной ф орме). М ожет бы ть более одного ва­
рианта. Переведите на русский язы к.
1. The Government should pay attention to the requirements and needs o f .... people, not only to those
of the elite ([i'li:t]). 2.1 don’t like him — he is too ..., and 1 like clever people. 3. This problem is not difficult,
it is very..., it i s ... to ... it. 4. What have you ....? Will you try to find a ...? 5 . 1 have already made a .... I’ll pre­
pare this design. 6. Very many new buildings will be built h e re :... residential... administrative ones. 7. The ...
revolves round the sun. 8. In the primitive society houses were often made of.... 9. The column fell to the ...
10. The ... under the house was bad so they had to take measures to provide piles under the ... floor. 11. The
space ship approached the ... and ... near the sea. 12. Russia is our native .... 13. The ... house was built near a
.... 14. People burn ... in the fireplace. 15. Houses built o f ... are economic. 16.1 like these green .... 17. We shall
build the chapel... out of stone ... of brick. 18. The quality of these tiles is very bad; we can use them ... for the
floor... for the walls. 19. The quality of these tiles is very bad; we cannot use th e m ... for the floor... for the walls.
and, both, com m on, to decide, decision, easy, earth, either, forest, ground, to land, land,
neither, nor, or, ordinary, simple, solution, to solve, timber, tree, wood, w ooden

Упражнение 11. Переведите предложения на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на подчеркну­
тые слова (см. Грам. справ. § 1 .3 ).
1. Both the rich and the poor want to live in good houses. 2. The young as well as the old do not want
strangers to prevent them from living as they want. 3. The cost o f materials grew with that o f labour. 4. The

128 1. Factors influencing architecture


new design made it possible to build the house either of stone or of wood. 5. I prefer neither this nor that
department store. 6. I do not know whether he is a good architect. 7. Today the weather is good.

2. TYPES OF BUILDINGS

TEXT A

Упражнение 1. Прочтите и переведите следующие слова.


cafeteria [,kaef3'tiaria] character ['kaerakta] caf6 ['kaefei]
sanatoria [,saena'ta:ria] hostel ['hDStl] restaurant ['restaro n t]
sanatorium ^saena'tom am ] hotel [,h au 'tel] college ['k o lid 3]
academy [a'kaedami] military ['m ilit(a)ri] hospital ['hospitl]
institution [jn s ti'tjm jn ] mass [maes] classified [' klaesifaid]

WORDS TO BE USED

apartment hotel, extended-stay hotel — гостиница для длительного проживания, апарт-отель


canteen [kaen'tim ] n — буфет, столовая (при заводе, учреждении и т.п.)
cinema ['sinam a] n — кинотеатр; drive-in cinema — драйв-ин (кинотеатр с заездом на машинах),
multi-screen cinema — многоэкранный кинотеатр, wide-screen cinema — широкоэкранный кинотеатр
civic ['sivik] а — гражданский
civil ['sivl] а — гражданский (невоенный, не уголовный), церк. мирской
creche, crdche [kreij] n — ясли
employee [,im p b i'i:] n — служащий, работающий по найму; employee facilities pi — бытовки
entertainment [,e n ta 'te in m a n t] n — развлечения, увеселения
health centre ['helG senta] — поликлиника
kindergarten ['kindaga:tn] n — детский сад
leisure ['1езэ] n — досуг
library [Taibr(a)ri] n — библиотека
maison(n)ette [,m eiza'n et] n — двухэтажная квартира
public ['рлЬйк] a — общественный
residential [,rez i'd en jl] a — жилой
terminal [Чз:ппп1] n — конечная станция; конечный пункт; вокзал

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

catering ['keit(a)rir)] n — общественное питание


dilapidated [di'laepideitid] a — полуразрушенный, полуразвалившийся; ветхий, обветшавший
lodging ['lDd3irj] n — 1. жилище; 2. pi (снимаемая или сдаваемая) комната, комнаты; квартира
refreshment room [ri'frejm an t] — буфет
shabby ['Jaebi] a — запущенный, захудалый, убогий

Упражнение 2. П рочтите текст и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. According to what principles can we divide buildings into different groups? 2. Can these groups be
subdivided? 3. What other buildings or classes can you add?

PARTI

Buildings can be classified according to different principles, e.g. the building material they are constructed
of (wood, brick, concrete, ice), the number of storeys, the place they are situated in (in the country, in a

UNIT VI • Factors, types of buildings and centres of population 129


village, under the ground or water, in mountains, in a wood, near water), their condition (new, modem,
dilapidated, shabby, old, be in ruins), etc.
According to their character and purpose buildings are divided into residential, civic or industrial classes.
RESIDENTIAL buildings are blocks of flats or maisonettes and houses.
CIVIC and PUBLIC buildings can be divided into several classes. They are public lodging buildings
(hostels, apartment hotels and hotels), medical establishments (e.g. hospitals, sanatoria, health centres),
educational establishments and children facilities (schools, colleges, institutes, academies, kindergartens,
creches), administrative offices, shopping facilities (shops in Britain or stores in the USA, department stores,
covered markets), entertainment, cultural and leisure institutions (clubs, theatres, concert halls, cinemas,
museums, art galleries, libraries), sports buildings and structures (stadiums, sport halls), religious or cult
buildings (cathedrals, churches, temples, chapels, mosques), transport facilities (bus stations, railway stations,
terminals) etc. There are different kinds of cinema, e.g. wide-screen cinemas, multi-screen cinemas, drive-
in cinemas. Catering facilities include restaurants, caf<5s, cafeterias, canteens, refreshment rooms.

TEXT В

WORDS TO BE USED

elevation [,eli'vei/n] n — 1. фасад; 2. вертикальная плоскость


fast-to-build a — быстровозводимый
intelligent [m 'telid 3(a)nt] building — «умное» здание
loft [toft] n — 1. чердак; 2. амер. верхний этаж (торгового помещения, склада)
modular type — модульный тип
multiplex ['mAltipleks] n — мультиплекс, торгово-развлекательный комплекс
service industry — сфера обслуживания

Упражнение 3. П рочтите текст и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


l.What is the difference between industrial and industrialized buildings? 2. What is the difference between
apartment blocks, apartment hotels and loft apartments? 3. What is an intelligent building?
PART II
INDUSTRIAL buildings are factories, plants or mills, workshops, agricultural buildings, industrial
warehouses, car repair shops etc. (besides production areas they usually contain also offices and employee
facilities). There should also be service industry buildings.
INDUSTRIALIZED buildings. The mass production o f building parts can be found as early as in the
late 18th century in England. It was greatly developed in the 19th century both in England and the USA.
However, it was not until the 20th century that the idea o f industrialized building systems based on mass-
produced factory-made prefabricated units for the construction of repetitive, identical buildings was discussed.
IN TELLIG EN T buildings. They are the buildings in which computers are used in the building manage­
ment systems. Security, energy, structural maintenance and repair are monitored by computers.
Now city authorities begin to build “modular type” multi-functional centres, fast-to-build modem build­
ings situated within walking distance from the housing, apartment hotels (or extended-stay hotels), loft apart­
ments (loft apartments are apartments that are generally built into former industrial buildings), multiplexes.
Designing buildings architects prepare several drawings: general view, front, back and side elevations, plans,
cross (transverse) and longitudinal sections. They pay attention to orientation of the building, land coverage.

Упражнение 4. Переведите на русский язы к и объясните по-англи й ски , что означаю т следу­
ющие термины:
Apartment hotel, loft apartm ent, drive-in cinema, multiplex, extended-stay hotel, employee facilities,
cultural & leisure institution (or Cultural and Leisure Centre o r cultural-leisure center), service industry,
within walking distance, fast-to-build, m odular type m ulti-functional centers

130 2. Types of buildings


Упражнение 5. Переведите на английский язык.
Учреждение культуры модульного типа. Быстровозводимые красивые здания. Культурно-обра­
зовательные и культурно-досуговые учреждения вблизи жилья. Бытовки. Предприятия сферы об­
служивания. Детские учреждения. Дошкольные учреждения. Торговые заведения. Находиться в
пешеходной доступности

Упражнение 6 . Переведите на русский язы к, обращ ая внимание на “ it was ... th a t” (см. Грам.
справ. § 8. 10).
1. It was a new creche that he built last year. 2. It was last year that he built a new creche. 3. It was he who
built a new creche. 4. It was in Moscow that he built a new creche. 5. It was not until the 20th century that
such buildings began to be erected.

Упражнение 7. Переведите на русский язык.


Loft apartments are apartments that are generally built into former industrial buildings. “ Loft-style” may
also refer simply to developments where a street-level business occupies the first floor while apartment “ lofts”
are placed above the first floor.

Упражнение 8. О бъясните, каким образом образованы следующие слова.


A. factory-made, prefabricated
B. employee; trainee [,trei'n i:] — проходящий подготовку, обучение; стажер, практикант; ad­
dressee [,aedre'si:] — адресат

Упражнение 9. О пиш ите различны е виды зданий и скаж ите, какие вы предпочитаете п р о ек­
тировать и почему.

3. RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

TEXT А

Упражнение 1. Прочтите и переведите следующие слова.


house [halts] n to house [hauz] v rehouse [jii'h a u z ] v
tenem ent blocks because of start [sta:t]
comparatively [kam 'paerativli] cooperative [kau'op(a)rativ] produce v [pra'djuis]
control [kan'traul]

WORDS TO BE USED

authority [o:'0Drati] n — 1 (обыкн. pi the authorities) — власти; 2. авторитет, вес, влияние


condominium ^kDnda'mmiam] n — 1. кондоминиум, совладение, кооперативный жилой дом, в
котором квартиры принадлежат владельцам как частная собственность; 2. квартира (в таком доме)
council ['kaunsl] n — совет; town council городской (или муниципальный) совет, мэрия
own [эип] 1) а — собственный; 2) v — владеть; иметь,
past [pa:st] 1) а — прошлый, минувший; 2) adv — мимо; 3) prep — мимо, после, за
rent [rent] 1) n — арендная плата; квартирная плата; 2) v — 1. брать в аренду, нанимать; 2. сдавать
в аренду
restriction [ri'strik jn ] n — ограничение
village [ 'vilid 3 ] n — деревня; село

UNIT VI • Factors, types of buildings and centres of population 131


WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD
rehouse [,ri:'haus] v — переселять в новые дома
subject 1) n ['sAbd 3ekt] — 1. тема; предмет разговора; сюжет; 2. предмет, дисциплина; 3. грам.
подлежащее; 4. подданный; 2) a ['sAbd3ekt] — 1. подчиненный, подвластный; 2. подверженный (to);
3) v [sab 'd 3ekt] — 1. подвергать (воздействию, влиянию и т.п.); 2. подчинять
whereas [wea(r)'aez] cj — тогда как

Упражнение 2. П рочтите текст о жилых зданиях и напиш ите его план на английском язы ке.

Упражнение 3. П рочтите текст и ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. In what residential buildings do people in England and Russia live mostly? 2. When did flats appear
in England?
RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
In cities and towns of Russia people live mostly in blocks of flats, whereas in small towns and villages they
live mostly in houses.
In England even in cities comparatively few people live in blocks o f flats or maisonettes, large families
with children preferring to live in houses with gardens.
In Britain there have existed flats as a dwelling type for perhaps the past century and a half (starting with
the “tenement blocks” o f flats for rehousing workers around 1860). However it was not till after the Second
World War that flats as a dwelling type were produced in large numbers.
People can live in their own or private houses, in privately rented houses or flats, in local authority Coun­
cil houses or flats, in condominiums or cooperative buildings and in dwellings occupied because o f employ­
ment. A condominium is a building or building complex, usually residential, in which each unit is individu­
ally owned but subject to group control and restrictions.

Упражнение 4. Вставьте подходящие по смыслу слова.


1. Не works at the T o w n .....2. There are two rooms in m y ... 3. The bedrooms occupy the second level
in my ... 4 . 1 have no flat. So I have to ... a flat. 5 . 1 prefer to live in a house with a ....
council, flat, garden, m aisonnette, to rent

TEXT В

Упражнение 5. Прочтите и переведите следующие слова.


cottage ['kr»tid 3] villa [ 'Vila] popular ['pDpjula]
patio ['paetiau] L-shaped terrace ['teras]
illusion [Т1и:зп] rectangular

Упражнение 6. Прочтите текст о типах односемейны х домов и опиш ите их типы.

Упражнение 7. Переведите текст письм енно на русский язы к

WORDS ТО BE USED

access ['aekses] n — проход; подход


accommodation [a^D ina'deiJX ajn] n — помещение
bed-sitter (house) —однокомнатный дом
border ['ba:da] 1) n — граница; край; кайма, бордюр; 2. v — граничить (on, upon — с)
conditioned [kan'dijnd] a — 1. обусловленный; 2. кондиционированный
cottage ['kDtid 3] — коттедж
detached house [d i'taetjt'h au s ] — отдельный дом

132 3. Residential buildings


duplex ['dju:pleks] house (амер.) — спаренный дом
exception [ik 'sep jn ] n — исключение; with the exception of = except — за исключением
party wall [,pa:ti'w o:l] — стена, разделяющая части здания, брандмауэр
patio-house ['paetiau-], (amer. — court house) — дом с внутренним двориком, патио
public house [,pAblik'haus] = pub n — трактир, кабак, пивная, пивной бар
semi- ['sem i-] pref — полу-
semi-detached house — квартира в спаренном доме
stepped [stept] а — ступенчатый, со сдвигом
terrace house = terraced house (amer. — row house, town house) — квартира в блокированном доме
WORDS ТО BE UNDERSTOOD
adequate ['asdikw at] a — соответствующий, адекватный, отвечающий требованиям
gentry ['d 3entri] n — джентри, нетитулованное мелкопоместное дворянство
occasionally [э'ке1зп(э)11] adv — изредка, время от времени; подчас, порой
split level [,split'lev(a)l] a — (построенный) на разных уровнях (о доме, квартире и т.п.)
split-level house — дом с перепадом уровня
warehouse ['w eahaus] n — товарный склад
TYPES OF HOUSES
A house is a dwelling built on the ground for one family (but there are some exceptions, e.g. public house,
warehouse, Houses o f Parliament, etc.). In America a house is any residential building.
There are houses o f different types.
A split-level house is a house with a split level, conditioned by the fall of the site, i.e. the ground floor is
stepped to follow the slope. (Fig. 1)
A patio-house (American — court house) has an enclosed inner court, bordered by rooms (on two or
more sides) facing it. The most popular type of patio-house is an L-shaped house. (Fig. 2)
A cottage is a dwelling in the country.
A villa is a rich house in the country.
A mansion is a rich m an’s house.
A country house is a big mansion in the country generally built by the rich gentry during the last two or
three centuries.
Houses can be grouped in different ways: a house can stand by itself or be joined to others.
A detached house is a house that stands alone on the site. (Fig. 3)
A semi-detached house is one o f a pair of houses sharing one common wall or party wall. Such houses
are cheap, provide adequate accommodation and, being surrounded on three sides by space, give the illusion
of being a detached house. In America such houses are termed duplex houses. (Fig. 4)
A terrace house or terraced house is one o f a row of houses under one roof sharing dividing walls. Rear
access* is usually through the house. Usually a house is rectangular in plan (Fig. 5), but occasionally there occur
L-shaped houses and patio-houses. (Fig. 6, 7) In America such houses are called row houses, town houses.
If the house has only one room it is called a bed-sitter (house).

ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ
rear access [,ria'aekses] — зд. проход во двор

Fig. 1 Split-level houses

UNIf VI • Factors, types of buildings and centres of population 133


Fig. 2 Patio houses

Fig. 4 Semidetached pair

□ □
Fig. 5 Terrace houses Fig. 6 L-shaped terrace houses Fig. 7 Patio terrace houses

Fig. 8 Terrace houses Fig. 9 Stepped terraces Fig. 10 Stepped terraces Fig. 11 Stepped
in straight rows (stepped down a (stepped in plan) terraces (at an angle
hillside) to the street)

Fig. 12 Stepped terraces (with Fig. 13 Linked terrace houses Fig. 14 Linked stepped terrace
dog tooth stepping) houses

TEXT C

Упражнение 8. П рочтите и переведите следующ ие слова.


garage ['дэега:з] [дэ'гк!з] discuss [di'skAs] air-conditioning
burning ['Ьзгпщ] cylinder gas ['silinda'gaes] cooking ['kukirj]
service rooms full services central heating
telephone ['telifsun] gas supply ['gaessa,plai]
refrigerator [ri'frid33reita] bath [ba:6] (pi baths [ba:3z, ba:0s])
Copenhagen [/кэир(э)п'Ье!д(э)п]

134 3. Residential buildings


WORDS TO BE USED

cooker ['кикэ] n — плита; gas [electric] cooker — газовая [электрическая] плита


equipment [I'kw ipm ant] n —оборудование
fire ['fa(i)a] n — топка, печь, камин; electric fire — электрическая печка; электрический камин
full services — наличие всех современных удобств
fiimiture [Т з т й /э ] n — 1. мебель, обстановка; 2. фурнитура; оконный или дверной прибор; fitted
furniture, built-in fiimiture — встроенная мебель
heater ['hi:ta] n — нагревательный прибор; обогреватель
heating ['hirtirj] n — отопление
hillside ['hilsaid] n — склон горы или холма
install [in'stod] v — устанавливать
overlap [,эиуэ'1агр] v — частично покрывать; заходить один за другой; перекрывать
range [rein(d) 3] n — кухонная плита (т.ж. kitchen range)
refuse disposal ['refju:sdis'p3uz(3)l] (refuse chute fre fju :s ju :t]) — мусоропровод
sanitation [,saeni'teij(3)n], canalization [/kasn3lai'zeij(3)n], sewerage ['s(j)u:(3)rid3] n — канали­
зация
shower Г/аиэ] n — душ
sink [sirjk] (тж. kitchen sink) n — кухонная раковина, мойка
solid fuel [ 'solid'fjutsl] — твердое топливо
steep [sti:p] a — крутой
straight [streit] a — прямой

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

coal [ksul] n — (каменный) уголь


dog-tooth stepping — чередующийся сдвиг
extract hood ['ekstraekthud] — вытяжка
microwave oven ['m aikr3weiv'Av(3)n] — микроволновка
oil stove ['oilstsuv] — керосинка
portable appliance ['portsbl 3'pla(i)sns] — портативный ( переносной) прибор
sanitary ['saen3t(3)ri] a — санитарный, гигиенический
terraced houses 1. блокированный дом; 2. террасные дома; террасированные дома; дома, распо­
ложенные на склоне; крыша нижнего (или ее часть) служит террасой для верхнего
toilet bowl ['toilitbsul] — унитаз
wash basin [-'beis(3)n] — умывальник
ziggurat houses ['zigsraet'hausiz] — зиггуратный (зиккуратный) дом

Упражнение 9. П рочтите текст, разделите его на основны е части и озаглавьте их.

TYPES OF HOUSES (CONTINUATION)

In a terrace houses may be joined in various ways. They may stand in straight rows (Fig. 8) or in stepped
terraces. Such terraces may be stepped down a hillside (Fig. 9) or stepped in plan to follow the curve of the
road (Fig. 10); they may be situated with each house at an angle to the street (Fig. 11) or with dog-tooth
stepping. (Fig. 12)
Linked terrace houses instead of sharing a party wall are connected by links formed of garages, service
rooms, etc. (Fig. 13). Linked stepped terraces also occur. (Fig. 14)
Terraces may be o f any practical length; e.g. in Copenhagen there is even a row of forty eight houses.
Terraced houses are used on very steeply sloping sites, where the upper dwelling overlaps the lower one
and uses its roof as an open terrace. (Fig. 15)

UNIT VI • Factors, types of buildings and centres of population 135


т

а —фрагмент застройки;
б —Г-образная а плане
блок-квартира; а—разрез
по склону

Fig. 15. Terraced houses Fig. 16. Ziggurat houses

Ziggurat houses are terraced houses built upon a flat site with a space below used usually for garages,
shops, etc. Such houses are much discussed, but seldom built.
Various services are provided in houses, e.g. they should have space heating. They can be heated by stoves
or fireplaces (e.g. before the Second World War in Britain houses were built with fireplaces, often one to each
room), by portable appliances (if no fireplace was installed in the room) e.g. electric fires or other heaters.
Local central heating can be provided burning oil, gas or solid fuel (e.g. wood). Cooking is by electricity or
gas, so food can be prepared on a range, in an oven, on oil stoves, or on cookers using electricity or cylinder
gas (if there is no gas supply), or in a microwave oven. The dwelling may have full services, which include
central heating, hot water supply, cold water supply, refuse disposal (refuse chute), gas and electricity supply,
sanitation, air-conditioning, ventilation system. The dwelling may be on telephone, there is usually a refrig­
erator, fitted furniture, sanitary and kitchen equipment: bath, shower, wash basin, toilet bowl, cooker and
sink (single or double), extract hood. On the house roof there are usually chimneys. There can be an addi­
tional room in the roof.

Упражнение 10. Вставьте предлоги, послелоги или союзы, если нужно, и переведите на русский
язык.
I . There was a high storey... the roof and an additional room ... the sloping roof. 2. Two houses are situ­
ated ... very steeply sloping sites. 3. They stand ... straight rows. 4. The buildings are used ... garages. 5. The
houses are joined ... various ways, e.g. they can be stepped ... plan to follow ... the curve ... the road. 6. The
terraces may be stepped ... a hillside. 7. The street may be ... any practical length. 8. The chapel stands ... an
angle ... the cathedral.
( ) , as, at, down, for, in, of, on, to, under

136 3. Residential buildings


Упражнение 11. Подберите соответствующие названия в русском и английском языках (может
быть несколько вариантов).
баллонный газ; батарея; блокированные дома; блокированные дома со сдвигом; блокированный
дом, соединенный служебными помещениями; водопровод; водоснабжение; встроенная мебель;
вытяжка; газовая (электрическая) плита; газовая колонка; газоснабжение; горячее водоснабжение;
дворец; деревенский дом; дом; дом в поместье; дом для проведения конца недели; дом с перепа­
дом уровня; дом с чередующимся сдвигом; дом-усадьба; душ; зиггуратный (зиккуратный) дом;
дом, расположенный под углом к улице; инфраструктура; канализация; коммуникации; микро­
волновая печь; мойка; мусоропровод; нагревание (отопление) помещения и воды; наличие всех
современных удобств; однокомнатный дом; односемейный дом; особняк; отопление; отопление
через пол (потолок, стены); паровое (водяное) отопление; печка; печь; плита; половина дома,
рассчитанного на две семьи (с отдельными входами); раковина; спаренный дом; телефон (иметь
телефон); уборная; удобства; умывальник; унитаз; холодное водоснабжение; электроснабжение
bed-sitter house; built-in furniture; canalization; cold water supply, cooker; country house; cylinder gas,
duplex house, gas; electricity; extract hood; fitted furniture; floor (ceiling, wall) heating; full services; gas
(electric) cooker; gas heater; gas supply; heating; hot water supply; house; house at an angle to the street,
house with a dog-tooth stepping; infrastructure; linked terrace houses, mansion, microwave oven, palace;
radiator; refuse chute; refuse disposal; row houses, running water; sanitation; semi-detached house; semi­
detached pair, services; sewerage; shower; sink; space and water heating; split-level house; steam (water)
heating; stepped terraces; stove; terrace houses, to be on telephone, toilet bowl, town houses, village house;
wash basin; water closet; water supply; week-end house; ziggurat house

Упражнение 12. Выпишите слова и словосочетания из упражнения 11, разделив их по значению


на: типы домов, удобства, оборудование.

TEXT D
WORDS ТО BE REMEMBERED

half-timber house — фахверковый дом


horizontal row of logs or baulks [bo:ks] (squared timber) — венец (горизонтальный ряд бревен или
бруса)
infilling [Tnfilip] n — заполнение
log house — бревенчатый дом
paneled house — щитовой дом
sectional house — сборный дом из объемных элементов
squared-timber house — брусовый дом
timber-framed and paneled house — каркасно-щ итовой дом
timber-framed house — дом с деревянным каркасом, фахверковый дом

Упражнение 13. П рочтите и переведите текст письм енно.

STRUCTURE OF HOUSES

Houses can be built of brick, adobe, concrete, timber, reed, palms etc. Timber houses can be paneled,
sectional, timber-framed, squared-timber or be built of logs.
Paneled houses are assembled on the site from prefabricated panels. Sectional houses are assembled from
prefabricated room-sized sections. Timber-framed houses have a wooden frame often with boarding or pre­
fabricated (usually wooden) panels; in the latter case the structure can be termed timber-framed and paneled.
If the timber frame is filled with some kind of infilling the structure can be also termed a half-timber structure.

UNIT VI • Factors, types of buildings and centres of population 137


Squared-timber houses are built of rectangular timber baulks and log houses are built o f round logs. The
structure of such houses consists of horizontal rows of logs or baulks.

Упражнение 14. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. What kinds of buildings do you know? 2. What kinds of houses do you know? 3. Where are they usu­
ally built? 4. What influences the choice of the house type? 5. What services are provided in houses? 6. What
kinds of heating can be used? 7. What equipment is there usually in the kitchen and in the bathroom? 8. What
do you prefer: a separate bathroom and a w.c. or a combined bathroom and w.c.? 9. What kinds o f structure
are used in wooden houses? 10. What is the difference in meaning of the word “house” in Britain and
America and the Russian word «дом»? 11. What is the difference between a house, flat, maisonnette and
dwelling; baulk and log? 12. What supplies and fuels, kinds of wall do you know? 13. What meanings have
words “service(s)” , “panel(ed)” , “step(ped)” , “a term ” , “terms” , “to term ” , “terrace” , «плита, плитка»?

Упражнение 15. Вставьте, если нужно, предлоги.


I. The frame is filled ... some kind ... infilling. 2. Paneled houses are assembled ... the site ... prefabri­
cated panels. 3. There is an attic ... the high pitched roof. 4. Is your fla t... telephone? 5. People prepare food
... a range. 6. The house is equipped ... fireplaces, often one ... each room. 7. Buildings can be ... any practi­
cal length and ... different heights. 8. The house is placed ... an angle ... the street. 9. Linked terrace houses
...... sharing a party wall are connected ... links formed ... garages and service rooms. 10. The detached house
is rectangular... plan. 11. Houses can be grouped ... different ways: stand alone or be joined ... others. 12. The
split level is conditioned ...the fa ll... the site.
( ) , at, by, from, in, instead of, of, on, to, with

Упражнение 16. Вставьте подходящие слова:


l . Stoves bum ... fuel. 2. Occasionally there ... L-shaped houses. 3. The ... level is conditioned by the ...
of the site. 4. Linked terrace houses instead o f ............are connected by links. 5. Terraces may b e ........a hillside
or stepped.......to follow the ... of the road. 6. Houses under one roof... dividing or party walls. 7. Ziggurat
houses are much ..., but seldom built. 8. Modern houses have ... services. 9. If the frame is filled with some
kind of infilling the structure can be termed a ....... o r ....... structure.
curve, discussed, fall, full, half-timber, in plan, occur, party wall, share, sharing, slope, solid, split,
stepped, stepped down, timber-framed

TEXT E
WORDS TO BE USED
angular ['aerjgjula] a — угбльный, угловой
bed-sitter(flat), efficiency flat [Tfi/nsi'flaet], studio apartment ['stjm d io i^p cu tm o n t] (амер.) — од­
нокомнатная квартира (с маленькой кухней)
block of flats, flats, block of maisonnettes (брит.)1, apartment house (block) (амер.) — многоквартир­
ный дом; balcony access block, gallery access block — галерейный дом; corridor access block — коридор­
ный дом; low-rise block — малоэтажный дом; point block, tower block — точечный дом, башенный
дом; slab, slab block — протяженный дом; staircase access block — секционный дом; tenement ['ten-
sm sn t] block — доходный дом
cellular ['seljula] a — ячеистый
combined [kam 'baind] a — совмещенный
duplex ['dju:pleks] apartment (амер) = maison(n)ette [,m eiz9'net] (брит) — квартира в двух уров­
нях (с внутренней лестницей)
high-rise [,hai'raiz] а — многоэтажный; высотной застройки
lavatory [Taev3t(a)ri] n — уборная, туалет

1 block of flats, flats — многоквартирные дома с квартирами в одном уровне, a block of m aisonnettes — с квартирами в двух уровнях.

138 3. Residential buildings


low-rise ['lauraiz] a — малоэтажный, невысокий, низкой застройки
lower ground floor — этаж на склоне, частично находящийся ниже уровня земли
medium-rise ['m hdiam 'raiz] а — средней этажности
mention ['m enjri] v — упоминать; ссылаться на
number of storeys — этажность
penthouse ['penthaus] n — пентхаус, фешенебельная квартира на крыше небоскреба; надстрой­
ка на крыше
self-contained flat — отдельная квартира с собственным входом с улицы
semibasement ['sein^beism ant] — полуподвал
shared flat — квартира, которую по взаимному согласию снимают больше одного человека (не
члены одной семьи)
studio-apartment — квартира-студия, однокомнатная квартира

Упражнение 17. П рочтите текст, разделите его на несколько частей и озаглавьте их.

Упражнение 18. П рочтите текст и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


I. How are buildings subdivided according to their heights? 2. What do blocks consist of and what kind
of flats and superstructure can they have? 3. What are American terms for the British “flat” and “ maison­
nette”? 4. How many rooms can flats contain? 5. What balconies and windows can be in flats? 6. What is a
shared flat? 7. What is a self-contained flat? 8. What plans can blocks have? 9. How are blocks subdivided
according to the way of access? Ю. How can maisonnettes be situated in a block? II. Why is it possible to
economize using maisonnettes?

BLOCKS OF FLATS

Blocks can be of different heights: low-rise, medium-rise or high-rise. Under the building there can be
a basement or semibasement. If the block is situated on a sloping site, there can be a lower ground floor. On
the roof there may be a penthouse. Sometimes not the whole block has the same number of storeys: a tall
slab may rise from a broad base of service and communal rooms and shops.

first floor first floor


ground floor ground floor
basement
lower ground floor
subbasement

Fig. 17. Floors of a building (cross sections)


Blocks consist o f flats or maisonnettes or flats and maisonnettes.
/

_□_ n , ПП
//

Fig. 18. Maisonette blocks

UNIT VI • Factors, types of buildings and centres of population 139


Fig. 19. Blocks of flats and maisonettes
A one-room flat is called bed-sitter, efficiency flat or studio apartment. The number of rooms in a flat
can be different, but Englishmen usually mention the number of bedrooms, e.g. “a two-bedroom flat” . Flats
can have recessed or projecting balconies and bay windows and oriels.
Sometimes two or three friends rent a flat together, such flats are called shared flats. A self-contained flat
is a flat which has its own entrance from the street.
The plan of blocks may be straight, angular, cellular, stepped, cruciform, L-shaped, T-shaped, U-shaped,
Y-shaped etc. According to their length and height they may be slab or point blocks (slabs being long rectan­
gular blocks, comparatively low).
Blocks are also subdivided into staircase access blocks, balcony access blocks (or gallery access blocks)
and corridor access blocks according to the way of approaching flats.

A X

Fig. 20. Staircase access block

Fig. 22. Corridor access block


Maisonnettes may be placed either next to each other in straight rows or they can be interlocked in sec­
tion to economize on the number of access galleries: lifts stop at alternate floors or even at every third floor
to serve the galleries or corridors. If the block contains both flats and maisonnettes, they can be placed on
different floors or share the same floors. Tiers of maisonnettes can be placed one above the other to form a
multistorey slab, (see Fig. 18)
Maisonnettes are not used in staircase access blocks.
Apartment is the American word for a flat; duplex apartment — for a maisonnette.

Упражнение 19. О бъясните разницу между терм инам и, обозначаю щ ими различны е виды до­
мов, квартир в домах, этажей, планов, балконов и т.д. Дайте определения и переведите на рус­
ский. Встречали вы в литературе пример shared dwelling?

140 3. Residential buildings


Упражнение 20. Н апиш ите следующие терм ины , разделив их на две колонки: британские и
американские.
Apartment, apartment house, block of flats, court house, duplex apartment, duplex house, elevator, first
floor, flat, ground floor, lift, maisonnette, patio house, row house, semi-detached pair, storey, story, street
car, subway, terrace house, tram, underground.

Упражнение 21. Н азовите все различны е виды планов.

Упражнение 22. Выпишите соответствующие названия в русском и английском языках (может


быть несколько вариантов).
alternate floor, angular, apartment, apartment house (block), balcony access block, basement, bath,
bathroom, bay-window, bedroom, bed-sitter (flat), bed-sitter (house), block of flats, block of maisonnettes,
cellular, circular, cooker, corridor, corridor access block, cruciform, dining-room, double glazing, duplex
apartment, efficiency flat, first floor, flat; flats, floor-to-ceiling glazing, gallery access block, glazing, ground
floor, half-timber house, high-rise development, I-shaped, kitchen, lavatory, lavatory and bathroom
combined, living-room, log house, lower ground floor, low-rise development, L-shaped, maisonnette,
medium-rise development, ordinary glazing, oriel, paneled house, pentagon, penthouse, point block,
range, rectangular, round, second floor, sectional house, self-contained flat, semibasement, semicircular,
shared flat, shower, sink, sitting-room, slab, slab block, staircase access block, stepped, straight, studio
apartment, study, tenement block, tile, timber-framed and paneled house, timber-framed house, toilet
bowl [bsul], tower block, triangular, T-shaped, U-shaped, walk-up, w.c., water-closet, wash stand, Y-
shaped
башенный дом, бревенчатый дом, ванна, ванная, вилкообразный, второй этаж, высотная застрой­
ка, галерейный дом; Г-образный, гостиная, двойное остекление, двутавровый, двухэтажная
квартира, дом без лифта, дом с деревянным каркасом, доходный дом, душ, кабинет, каждый
второй этаж, каркасно-щитовой дом, квартира; квартира в двух уровнях (с внутренней лестницей),
квартира, которую по взаимному согласию снимают больше одного человека (не члены одной
семьи), коридор, коридорный дом; крестообразный, круглый, кухня, малоэтажная застройка,
многоквартирный дом, многоквартирный дом с двухэтажными квартирами, одинарное остекле­
ние, однокомнатная квартира, однокомнатный дом, остекление, остекление с пола до потолка,
отдельная квартира с собственным входом с улицы, пентхаус, первый этаж, плита (кухонная),
плита (строительная), плитка, П-образный, подвал, полукруглый, полуподвал, протяженный дом;
прямой, прямоугольный, пятиугольник, раковина, санузел, сборный дом из объемных элементов,
секционный дом; совмещенный санузел, спальня, среднеэтажная застройка, столовая, ступен­
чатый, тавровый, Т-образный, точечный дом, третий этаж, трехлучевой, трехугольный, тройное
остекление, уборная, угольный, умывальник, унитаз, У-образный, фахверковый дом, феш ене­
бельная квартира на крыше небоскреба, щитовой дом, эркер (в несколько этажей), эркер (в один
этаж), этаж на склоне (частично находящийся ниже уровня земли), ячеистый

Упражнение 23. Выпишите слова и словосочетания из упражнения 21, разделив их по значению


на: типы домов, квартир, оборудование, пом ещ ения, окна, остекление, ф ормы , этаж и, британ­
ские и ам ериканские термины .

Упражнение 24. Прочтите и переведите на русский: с., i.e., e.g., etc., В.С., A .D., Р.М ., А.М ., P.S.

Упражнение 25. О пиш ите дома, изображ енны е на картинках. Выберите один из них. О бъя­
сните, почему вы предпочли его и закажите архитектору (другому студенту) построить его для
вас, или продайте дом клиенту, (см. VI. 3., X.V., Them atic English-Russian Vocabulary (H ousing),
Тематический русско-английский словарь (Ж илье).

UNIT VI • Factors, types of buildings and centres of population 141


4. TYPES OF CENRES OF POPULATION

TEXT A

Упражнение 1. Прочтите следующие слова и переведите их на русский язы к.


borough ['Ьлгэ] charter ['tja its ] conurbation [,копз:'Ьег/п]
huge [hju:d 3] parliament ['pcutam ant] differentiate [,drf9'renjrert]
settlement ['setlm ant] status ['stertas] Greater London
megalopolis [/meg9Top(3)hs] state self-government

WORDS TO BE USED

community [ka'm jum atr] n — 1. местность, населенный пункт, округа; 2. община


farming communities — фермы, сельские местности
density ['densati] n — плотность (населения)
metropolis [m9'trt>p(9)lis] n — столица, крупнейший город
neighbourhood ['neibahud] n — 1. соседство; 2. микрорайон
public service — коммунальное обслуживание, сфера обслуживания, государственная служба
rural ['гиэг(э)1] а — сельский, деревенский
suburb ['влЬзФ] n — пригород

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

hamlet ['haemlat] n — деревня, деревушка


loose [lu:s] a — свободный; loosely [Tu:sli] adv — свободно
range [rein(d) 3] (from) v — простираться; тянуться (от)

Упражнение 2. П рочтите текст и укажите разницу между различны м и видами поселений.

TOWN

People live in urban areas (cities, towns, megalopolises, metropolises, capitals, centres o f population)
and rural areas (villages, hamlets, and farming communities).
A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands (occasionally hundreds
o f thousands), although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. They can have low or high
density. Usually, a “town” is thought of as larger than a village but smaller than a “city” , though there are
exceptions to this rule. A city is an urban settlement with a particularly important status which differentiates
it from a town. It is a large and important town; in England a town is given special rights in self-government
by a charter from the King. The City is the part o f London, very small in area, which in olden days had walls
round it and is now a banking and commercial centre. A borough is a town or city that has power o f self-
government; in England it is a town that sends one or more members to Parliament. London and New York
are divided into boroughs. A suburb is a district just outside a town. A village is a small group o f houses in the
country, larger than a hamlet, but smaller than a town or city. Villages are generally located in rural areas. A
hamlet is a rural community, that is a small settlement, it is too small to be considered a village.
A capital is the main centre of a country or a state. A metropolis is a capital or large centre. A megalopolis is a
large urban region formed by chains of metropolitan regions. A conurbation is a group of towns linked together.
Towns and cities can be divided into boroughs, districts or neighbourhoods.

Упражнение 3. Переведите следующ ий текст со словарем письм енно. С равните его инф орм а­
цию с текстом “Tow n” .
1. Old English burges a fortified settlement, an enclosed piece o f land. The words “city” and “village”
came into English from Latin via* French. “Town” and “borough” are of native Germanic origin. In Old

142 4. Types of cenres of population


English and Old Scots, “Town” originally meant a fortified municipality, whereas a borough was not fortified.
But that distinction did not last long, and “ Edina Burgh” or “ Edinburgh” |'edlnb(q)rq| — modernly called
a “city” — was a fortified “town” from its founding.
In m odem American English, a town is usually a municipal corporation that is smaller than a city but
larger than a village. In some cases, “town” is an alternate name for “city” or “village” (especially a larger
village). Sometimes, the word “town” is short for “township” . In general, towns can be differentiated from
townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town’s population
will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry, commerce, and public service rather than pri­
mary industry such as agriculture or related activities.
A medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants; today some consider an urban place of
fewer than 100,000 as a town, even though there are many officially designated cities that are very, very much
smaller than that.
City is primarily used to designate an urban settlement with a large population. However, city may also
indicate a special administrative, legal, or historical status. In the United Kingdom, a city is a settlement with
a charter from the Crown, giving that settlement city status.
2. Villages have been the usual form of community for societies that practice agriculture, and even for
some non-agricultural societies. Towns and cities were few, and were home to only a small proportion of the
population. The Industrial Revolution caused many villages to grow into towns and cities; this trend of ur­
banisation has continued, though not always in connection with industrialisation.
In the United Kingdom, hamlets are traditionally defined ecclesiastically as a village or settlement that
usually does not have its own church. Hamlets may have been formed around a single source of economic
activity such as a farm, mill, mine or harbour that employed its working population. Some hamlets, particularly
those that have a medieval church, may be the result o f the depopulation o f a village.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ
via ['v a n ] prep — через; через посредство

TEXT В

Упражнение 4. П рочтите следующ ие слова и переведите их на русский язы к.


Versailles [ves'sail] contribution ^ k o n tri'b ju rjn ] medieval [/m edi'i:v(a)l]
Washington ['w ojigtan] scheme [ski:m] radial ['reidial]
Egypt [i'd 3ipt] satellite ['saetalait] originate [э 'п ё зэп е й ]
Baroque [ba'rok, Ьэ'гэик] limited [Timitid] circus ['s3:kas]
Renaissance [ra'neisns] hexagonal [hek'saeg(a)nl] ancient ['ein j(a)n t]
regular ['regjula] irregular [T regjula] star-shaped
agora ['аедэгэ] (р1тж. —гае) focal axes linear [Tinia] city
forum ['fa:ram ] (pi тж. fora) garden-city
city-state acropolis [a'kropalis] ( p i. ac is [a'kropalais])

WORDS TO BE USED
clear [klia] v — очищать(ся); расчищать, сносить
focal ['faukl] a — центральный, основной
gridiron ['g rid /a(i)an] plan — прямоугольная планировка
means [mi:nz] n pi — (часто употр. как sing) средство; способ
thoroughfare ['0Arafea] n — оживленная улица; главная артерия (города)
town hall — ратуша
zoning [zaunirj] n — зонирование

UNIT VI • Factors, types of buildings and centres of population 143


Упражнение 5. П рочтите текст “Types o f towns according to their plans” и вы пиш ите все назва­
н ия видов городской планировки.
Упражнение 6. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. Where do irregular plans occur? 2. In what countries were regular plans used? 3. What was in the
centre of different towns? 4. What is a radial-circular plan and where does it occur? 4. When did the star­
shaped plan appear? 5. What is the difference between a square and a circus (a circle)? 6. What is the difference
between agora and forum?
TYPES OF TOWNS ACCORDING TO THEIR PLANS
The most ancient towns had irregular plans, but even in ancient Egypt there appeared the first signs of a
regular plan.
In ancient Greece the regular town plan continued to develop. The city-states had gridiron plans with
main streets as focal axes and the acropolis and agora as the centre. Landscape played a very important part
in Greek town planning and architecture.
In Rome the town plan tended to be regular (gridiron plan) with a forum at the intersection o f the two
main streets.
Medieval towns had irregular plans. They developed from the old squares. The City o f London is an
example of such a town.
More often their occurred the radial-circular plan form. The centre of the town was a castle or monastery
and the streets ran radially from it. If the town stood on the bank o f a river or the shore o f a lake the street
plan took the form of a fan. With the growth of the town new walls were built farther from the centre, and old
ones were cleared out to form circular streets. In old Russia many towns also had radial-circular planning
with a kremlin or monastery in the centre (e.g. Moscow, Novgorod).
In the Renaissance the town was star-shaped with radial streets or had gridiron planning. In the centre
was the town hall, cathedral or market square. In the Baroque period there was also radial planning with two
or three streets fanning from the cathedral or monument (Versailles, Petersburg and Washington).
In France squares were triangular, square or hexagonal in plan and even for the first time included cir­
cuses.
The British contribution is the satellite town. Each satellite town has the means of employment for a large
proportion of its population. It is similar in character to the garden-city.
At the beginning of the 20th century zoning structure came into being.
The “Linear city” originated in Spain. The general principle is the construction of a city for a limited
depth on each side o f a very wide thoroughfare.
Another scheme was devised in the USSR by some teachers of the Moscow Architectural Institute in the
late 1920s. Its principal feature is that the zones run parallel to each other.
Упражнение 7. Н айдите ф ормы множ ественного числа, соответствующ ие ф орм ам единствен­
ного числа и переведите их (см. Грам. справ. § 2. 3, § 2 .4):
Singular: minimum, automaton, gymnasium, formula, cactus, crisis, forum, vacuum, pro'pylaeum,
agora, rhombus
Plural: fora, propylaea, automata, cacti, agorae, vacua, minima, crises, rhombi, gymnasia, formulae

Упражнение 8. Напиш ите формы един, числа следующих существительных, например, echini—
echinus, и переведите их (см. Грам. справ. § 2. 3, § 2. 4).
A: data, memoranda, minima, bacteria, gymnasia, candelabra; formulae, faunae, antennae; phenomena,
automata; gladioli, nimbi; crises, theses, neuroses, iconostases
B: cacti, ellipses, bases, sarcophagi [-d3ai], herbaria, vacua, propylaea, rhombi, maxima, trapezia, nim­
bi, axes, nuclei, pleurae

144 4. Types of cenres of population


Упражнение 9. Задайте все возмож ны е вопросы к следующ им предложениям:
1. Ancient towns had irregular plans. (6) 2. The first regular plans appeared in Egypt. (6) 3. This young
architect designed semidetached houses in the village a year ago. (9) 4. Such plans were used in towns at that
time. (6) 5. Landscape plays an important part in town planning. (7)

УпражнениеЮ. П ереведите следующ ие предлож ения на английский язы к.


1. Самые древние города имели регулярную прямоугольную планировку. 2. В греческих городах-
государствах улицы служили главными осями, а акрополь или агора — центром города. 3. Ландшафт
играл важную роль в греческой архитектуре. 4. Здание расположено на пересечении двух магистра­
лей. 5. Радиально-кольцевые планы городов не встречались в то время. 6. Старые здания были
снесены и заменены новыми. 6. Часто встречались звездообразные и веерообразные планы городов.
7. Если город находился на берегу озера, план принимал форму веера. 8. Сначала я прочел книгу о
Египте, а потом о Греции. 9. Впервые я прочел эту книгу о Египте 5 лет назад, с тех пор я ее пере­
читывал много раз.
TEXT С

Упражнение 11. П рочтите следующ ие слова и переведите их на русский язы к.


Washington ['w ojirjtan] M anhattan [maen'haetn] Bronx [bror)(k)s]
Vasiliyevsky Island borough ['Ьлгэ] avenue ['aevanju:]
designate ['dezigneit] admiralty [/aedmr(a)lti] direction [da'rekfn]

WORDS TO BE USED

boulevard ['bu:l(a)va:(d)] n — бульвар


mainland ['m einland] n — материк

Упражнение 12. П ереведите письм енно текст на русский язы к.


PLANS OF SOME CITIES

Moscow has radial-circular planning with the Kremlin in the centre, radial thoroughfares, Garden and
Boulevard Circles.
St. Petersburg is a regular city. It has a system of 3 radial prospekts (avenues) stretching from the Admi­
ralty. The mainland part of the city has “fan” planning while some districts have gridiron planning (e.g.
Vasiliyevsky Island.)
Cities in Russia are divided into districts.
London built originally as a Roman military camp had a gridiron plan with 6 roads. It united many urban
and rural areas and now consists of a number of boroughs (32 in Greater London plus the City).
In America gridiron planning is used.
The city of Washington is divided into four quarters, each designated by its direction from the centre, i.e.
Northeast (N E), Northwest (NW), Southwest (SW) and Southeast (SE). Streets running north and south
are numbered, e.g. First Street, Second Street etc. Streets running east and west are lettered, e.g. E Street, F
Street. The lettered and numbered streets are crossed by avenues named after the Union States, e.g. Vir­
ginia Avenue. Meeting streets and avenues form circles, e.g. Washington Circle.
New-York consists of five boroughs. The most important of them is M anhattan Island which is subdi­
vided into downtown (from the southern end o f the island to 29th Street), midtown (the centre of the island
from 20th Street to Central Park) and uptown (from Central Park to the Bronx)'.1

1 As a rule all American cities are divided into downtown (the business section) and uptown (residential areas) In England “down” and “up” mean “from
the centre” and “to the centre" respectively. In the USA the meaning is just the opposite.

UNIT VI • Factors, types of buildings and centres of population 145


Упражнение 13.О пределите часть речи подчеркнутых слов и переведите предлож ения на рус­
ский язы к.
I. It is a Chinese fan. 2. Streets fan from the square. 3. What use did he make of it? 4. I seldom use this
pen. 5. I do not like this place. 6. He decided to place two columns in the centre. 7. The streets do not form
a square. 8. What is the form of this square? 9. The streets cross forming a circle Ю. The town took the form
of a cross in a circle. II. The plan provides for an industrial zone. \2. The plan is zoned. 13. The house is
lighted by electricity. 14. We need more light. 15. The room is light. 16. How many letters are there in the
English alphabet? 17. A great number of old buildings have been cleared out. 18. There are lettered and num­
bered streets in Washington. 19. The glass is clear. 20. Everything is clear. 21. Today is a clear day.

У п р а ж н е н и е ^ . Переведите следующие словосочетания (см. Грам. справ. § 2. 7):


Street plan, plan form, town population, market square, square market, glass window, window glass, city
garden, garden city, com er room, room comer, table lamp, table leg, floor lamp, lamp post

Упражнение 15. Задайте все возмож ны е вопросы к следующ им предлож ениям.


1. Cities in Russia are divided into districts. (4) 2. In America gridiron planning is used. (4) 3. New-York
consists of five boroughs. (5) 4. The mainland part o f the city has “fan” planning. (6)

Упражнение 16. П ереведите на английский язы к.


М осква имеет радиально-кольцевую планировку. 2. М ного зданий было снесено. 3. Город со­
стоит из районов. 4. Улица тянется от центра города до реки. 5. Улица, идущая с севера на юг, ши­
рокая и обсажена деревьями.

Упражнение 17. С каж ите, где бы вы предпочли ж ить в больш ом, или небольш ом городе, де­
ревне и почему.
UNIT VII
FAMOUS ARCHITECTS

1. BAZHENOV A N D TSARITSYNO

TEXT A

Упражнение 1. Прочтите и переведите следующие слова на русский язык.


construction [kan'strAkJn] business ['biznas] political [pa'litikl]
financial [faf naen/l] reason ['ri:zn] tradition [tra'd ijn ]
commission [ka'm ijn] classicism [/klaesisiz(3)m] ensemble [a:n'sa:m bl]
model ['m odi] gigantic [d 3ai'gaentik] tragic [4raed3ik]

WORDS TO BE USED
attached [a'taetjt] to — при
carry ['kaeri] out v — выполнять
cornerstone ['ka:nastaun] n — угловой камень, краеугольный камень
discover [di'sL w a] v — делать открытия, открывать
interrupt [,inta'rA pt] v — прерывать
sketch [sketj] 1) n — эскиз, набросок; 2) v — рисовать эскизы, делать наброски
success [sak'ses] n — успех

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD
abandon [a'baend(a)n] v — покидать, оставлять, отказываться (от)
extant [ek'staent] a — сохранившийся, существующий в настоящее время
newly ['nju:li] adv —недавно, заново, вновь

Упражнение 2. П рочтите текст и составьте его план на английском языке.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. Were Bazhenov’s parents rich people? 2. What did he like to do when he was a boy? 3. Where did he
study? 4. Was he a talented man? 5. Were all his projects carried out? Why not? 6. Which of his works do you
know?

VASILY IVANOVICH BAZHENOV (1737-99)


Bazhenov was the son of a poor church deacon* and studied for the priest-hood*, but it was soon
discovered that his talents lay elsewhere. The boy was drawing, sketching and carving all the time. He began
to study at the gymnasium attached to the Moscow University (1755) and then at the newly opened school
of architecture at the Academy of Fine Arts in St. Petersburg. On graduation in 1760 he worked with Rastrelly,
and then was chosen to be one of the first pensioners* to be sent by the Academy to Paris for additional study.
There he studied under famous architects, and was greatly influenced by the 18th century classicism. In 1768
he went to Italy to study architecture.
On his return to Russia in 1765 he was given several commissions which he carried out successfully. In
the 1770s Bazhenov became the first Russian architect to create a national architectural language since the
17th century tradition interrupted by Peter I. Bazhenov’s early success was followed by a tragic professional
and private life. His two main construction projects were abandoned for political or financial reasons. Before
his death, he asked his children to stay aside* from the construction business.

UNIT VII • Famous architects 147


His great design not to be carried out was nothing less than reconstruction of the Kremlin as a gigantic
triangular palace enclosing the existing buildings and churches. The empress (Catherine 11) liked the project.
In 1769 work was begun on the preparation and clearing of the site, but the cornerstone was not laid until
1773. Had the work been completed*, no edifice could have been compared with it. Work was progressing
slowly, and Catherine began thinking of other projects and other architects. In 1775 she ordered to stop the
work. O f the entire project, nothing remains except the large wooden model and drawings.
Pashkov House is Bazhenov’s most conspicuous extant building and one of Moscow’s most graceful and
handsome residential ensembles.
ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ
1. deacon ['di:k(a)n] — дьякон
2. priest-hood ['pri:sthudj —духовный сан
3. pensioner ['p en /n a] — стипендиат
4. stay aside ['steia'said ] — отказываться (от)
5. Had the work been completed — если бы работа была закончена (см. Грам. справ. § 13)

Упражнение 4. Укажите куда в текст нуж но вставить следующие отрывки.


1. There were no suitable quarters in the Kremlin or in all Moscow, to accommodate the empress and
her court on her visit to the old capital.
2. The Petersburg Academy gave him the title o f Academician. Soon, however, his star began to decline.
French architects were the reigning architectural figures in the capital. Bazhenov was sent to the old capital
of Russia, Moscow.

Упражнение 5. П ереведите на русский язы к следующ ие предлож ения, обращ ая вним ание на
ф орму глагола (см. Грам. справ. § 13).
1. Were he ill, he would be at home. 2. Had she finished reading this book, she would have given it to
you. 3. Were the building painted, it would look new. 4. Were there central heating, it would be warm there.
5. Had he finished the work, he would have told us about it and would have got money for it.

Упражнение 6. О бъясните образование следующих слов: sketching, graceful, successfully, clearing,


additional.

Упражнение 7. П ереведите на русский язы к следующ ие предлож ения:


1. The cornerstone was not laid until 1773. 2. He wanted to clear nothing less than the Kremlin. 3. Work
was progressing slowly. 4. His design not to be carried out was a great edifice. 5. His talents lay elsewhere.

TEXT В

Упражнение 8. П рочтите и переведите следующ ие слова на русский язы к.


Reserve [rTz3:v] residence ['rezid(a)ns] N eo-G othic [щ пэи'довгк]
dominant ['dom inant] identical [ai'dentikl] enthusiastic [in'9ju:ziaestik]
report [ri'po:t] inspect [in'spekt] Biryulyovo
ensemble [Dn'sDmbl] Turkey ['t3:ki] pavilion [pa'vilian]
pergola ['рз:д(э)1э] cascade [kae'skeid] ruin ['ru:in]
alpinist ['aelpinist] training ['treinirj] grotto ['gratau]
recreation [ je k r i'e i/n ] dendropark [den'drapcnk] scheme [skim ]

WORDS TO BE USED

adjacent [a 'd 3eisnt] (to) a — примыкающий, смежный, соседний


arbour ['a:ba] n — беседка (увитая зеленью)

148 1. Bazhenov and Tsaritsyno


careful ['keafl] a — 1. заботливый, проявляющий заботу (for, of); 2. осторожный 3. точный, акку­
ратный
dimension [d(a)i'm enj(9)n] n — 1. измерение; 2. pi размеры, величина
fail [fell] v — 1. потерпеть неудачу; не иметь успеха; 2. провалить(ся) на экзаменах
greenhouse ['gri:nhaus] n — теплица, оранжерея
insist [in'sist] (on, upon) v — настаивать (на чем-л.), настойчиво утверждать
master plan — генплан
object 1) n — ['Dbd 3ikt] 1. предмет; вещь; 2. цель 2) [a b 'd 3ekt] v — возражать, протестовать (to,
against)
pergola ['рз:д(э)1э] n — беседка или крытая аллея из вьющихся растений, пергола
pond [pond] n — пруд; водоем
recreation [,re k ri'e ijn ] n — развлечение, отдых
reserve [ri'z3:v] n —заповедник
train [trein] v — воспитывать, учить(ся), тренировать(ся); training ['treinir)] обучение, тренировка
train [trein] n —поезд
WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

commuter [ka'm juita] n — житель пригорода, работающий в городе и ежедневно ездящий на


работу поездом, автобусом и т. п.
intend [in'tend] v — 1. намереваться, иметь в виду; 2. предназначать (for)
particular [pa'tikjula] n — частность; подробность, деталь; in particular — в особенности, в част­
ности
praise [preiz] v — хвалить
residence ['rezid(a)ns] n — резиденция
scatter ['skaeta] v — разбрасывать (on, over)

Упражнение 9. П рочтите текст и напиш ите его план.


Упражнение 10. Ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:
1. When and where was the museum founded? 2. From what time was the estate known? 3. Why did
Catherine buy this estate? 4. Whom did she commission to build a palace? 5. What did he begin to build?
6. What was the first plan like? 7. What was to be added according to the second plan? 8. What was it to be
decorated with? 9. What did Catherine insist on? 10. Why did Catherine order to pull the palace down?
11. Whom did she commission to build the palace after it? 12. Why did Kazakov fail to build it either?
13. What structures were there in the park? 14. In what state were they? 15. What was done in 2005—2007?
16. What is there in the park now?
TSARITSYNO
Tsaritsyno museum in Moscow (near Tsaritsyno Metro Station and commuter suburb train station) was
founded in 1984 in the park o f the same name. The estate is known from the late 16th century. In 1775 it was
bought by Empress Catherine the Great, as she wanted to build a country residence near Moscow. She
commissioned Bazhenov to design a N eo-G othic palace. Work began the following year, and went on until
1785. Bazhenov began construction with small buildings, gates and bridges.
In summer of 1775 Bazhenov prepared the first plan of Tsaritsyno. It had numerous neo-Gothic, country
style houses scattered on a carefully planned "natural" landscape. The second was "completely non-classical"
master plan approved by Catherine in spring of 1776. This time Bazhenov added a dominant main palace,
designed as two identical buildings connected by a greenhouse. One wing was intended for Catherine, another
for her son Paul. Bazhenov planned to decorate Tsaritsyno with traditional Russian coloured tiles, izraztsy,
but Catherine objected and insisted on a simpler red (brick walls), white (ornaments) and yellow (glazed roof
tiles) colour scheme. Governor Jacob Bruce, who inspected Tsaritsyno in 1784, sent Catherine an enthusiastic
report praising, in particular, bridges and landscaping.

UNIT VII • Famous architects 149


In 1785 the palace almost complete was inspected by the empress. She did not like it, for it was an almost
perfect copy of the palace built for her son Paul, the future Paul I. She ordered the palace to be partly pulled
down, and placed the project in the hands of Matvey Kazakov. But the palace remained unfinished: Kazakov
failed to complete its construction either because o f the war with Turkey.
Tsaritsyno was the only 18th-century architectural ensemble of such dimensions in Russia. Around the
palace, in the park there are a number of pavilions, pergolas, arbours, artificial grottos, decorative bridges,
and a Russian Orthodox church, as well as a modern recreation centre. For a long time most buildings were
ruined (and alpinists used them for training). Now in Tsaritsyno there is a history and architecture museum,
a landscape park with an adjacent forest, the Biryulyovo dendropark, and a cascade of the Tsaritsyno ponds.
In 2005—2007 most buildings were "completed": rooftops, interiors and decorations were added.

Упражнение 11. Переведите следующие предлож ения на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на
подчеркнутые слова.
1. In the town o f N. he laid out the landscape park o f the same name. 2. He built a country residence.
3. She went on reading until it stopped raining. 4. In the park we saw country style houses scattered on a

150 1. Bazhenov and Tsaritsyno


carefully planned "natural" landscape. 5. One house was intended for a small family. 6. She insisted on a
simpler red, white and yellow colour scheme. 7. We have read his enthusiastic report praising the design. 8.
She ordered the fortress to be partly pulled down. 9. The design was placed in the hands of another architect.
10. But that architect failed to complete its construction either. 11. For a long time most bridges were ruined.

Упражнение 12. О бъясните образование следующих слов, назовите английские слова того же
корень: carefully, greenhouse, residence, suburb.

Упражнение 13. Подберите синоним ы к следующим словам: object, pull down, continue, erect.

Упражнение 14. Н азовите разные виды stations.

Упражнение 15.Н азовите все значения слова object, сравните с русским, прочтите вслух сле­
дующие предложения:
1. 1 do not know the names of these objects. 2. W hat’s the object of doing that? 3. The object of his life
is creating an ideal town. 4. He failed in his object. 5. I d on’t object to going for a walk.

Упражнение 16. Выпишите названия всех сооружений в парке и используйте их при описании
парка в Ц арицы не и других парков.

2. KAZAKOV A N D PETROVSKY PALACE

TEXT A

Упражнение 1. П рочтите и переведите следующие слова на русский язык:


Neoclassical [ ,n i: 3 t /k la e s ik l] reign [rein] hospital ['h D sp itl]
Senate f'senat] clerk [k la :k ] rotunda [rau'tAnda]
portico ['p o :tik a u ] classicist [' klassisist] Muscovite ['mAskavait]

WORDS TO BE USED

core [кэ:] n — ядро


degree [di'gri:] n — 1. степень; 2. звание, ученая степень; 3. градус
disappear [,dis3'pi3] v — исчезать
hospital [ hDspitl] n — больница, госпиталь
rotunda [гэиЧлпбэ] n — ротонда

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

earn [з:п] v —зарабатывать


influential [, influ'enjl] a — влиятельный, важный
travel ['traevl] v — путешествовать, ездить

Упражнение 2. П рочтите текст и напиш ите его резюме.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. Was Kazakov a Romanesque style architect? 2. In whose reign did he live and work? 3. What did he
build? 4. Why were most of his works destroyed? 5. What was his education? 6. Did it differ from Bazhenov’s?
7. What are the main features o f his works?

UNIT VII • Famous architects 151


MATVEY FYODOROVICH KAZAKOV

Matvey Fyodorovich Kazakov (1738—1812) was a Russian Neoclassical architect. He was one of the
most influential Muscovite architects during the reign of Catherine II, completing num erous private
residences, two royal palaces, two hospitals, Moscow University, and the Kremlin Senate. Most o f his works
were destroyed by the Fire of 1812; they were later rebuilt with various degrees of alteration.
Kazakov was born in Moscow. His father was a government clerk and a former serf* who earned his
freedom by serving in the Navy*. When Kazakov was twelve years old, he joined the architectural school of
Dmitry Ukhtomsky*, where he worked and studied until 1760.
In 1768, Kazakov joined Vasily Bazhenov’s Great Kremlin Palace project. Both architects were the same
age — 30 years old — but had very different educations. Bazhenov received a formal European education,
while Kazakov learned his trade repairing Kremlin relics and never traveled far from Moscow.
Numerous private houses built by Kazakov shaped the city before 1812. These were very simple classicist
structures consisting of a symmetrical rectangular core with a portico and very modest exterior decoration.
"Kazakov’s Moscow" disappeared in the fire of 1812; the few surviving houses were later altered, rebuilt or
torn down.
Kazakov’s legacy* remains in public buildings, country palaces and churches. Kazakov’s main works,
unlike Bazhenov’s, are almost invariably centered around Kazakov’s trademark* rotunda halls.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. serf [s3:f] — крепостной


2. Navy ['neivi] — военно-морской флот
3. Dmitry Ukhtomsky — Дмитрий Васильевич Ухтомский (1719—1774), главный архитектор Москвы
4. legacy [Tegasi] — наследство; наследие
5. trademark ['treidm ark] — отличительный знак

Упражнение 4. О бъясните образование следующих слов: influential, alteration, trademark.

Упражнение 5. Подберите синоним ы к следующ им словам: shape, pull down, alter, round.

Упражнение 6. Подберите антонимы к следующим словам: erect, modest, exterior, survive, appear,
unlike, unsymmetrical, earlier, public buildings, few, council house.

TEXT В

Упражнение 7. П рочтите и переведите следующ ие слова н а русский язы к.


flight [flait] lucame [lu:'ka:n] magnificent [maeg'nifisnt]
pinnacle ['pinakl] castle ['ka:sl] overnight[^ u v a 'n a it]
pseudo-Gothic [,sju:da(u)'gD0ik] N eo-G othic [,ni:au'gD0ik]

WORDS TO BE USED

lucame [lu:'ka:n] n —люкарна, слуховое окно (обычно круглое)


obvious ['Dbvios] а — очевидный, явный, ясный
trim [trim] 1) n — украшение; отделка; 2) v — 1. приводить в порядок 2. подстригать; обтесывать,
отделывать, украшать
WORDS ТО BE UNDERSTOOD

appropriate [a'praupriat] a — подходящий, соответствующий (to, for)


borrow ['borau] v — занимать, заимствовать (of, from — у кого-л.)

152 2. Kazakov and Petrovsky Palace


dumpy ['dAmpi] a — кряжистый, коренастый
journey ['d33:ni] n — поездка, путешествие
minor ['m ains] a — незначительный; второстепенный
plenty ['plenti] n — (из)обилие; множество

Упражнение 8. П рочтите текст и напиш ите его резюме.

Упражнение 9. Ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. When was the palace built? 2. Why was it called itinerary ([ai'tinrari] — путевой) palace? 3. When
was it burned down? 4. Does it look out as it did originally? 5. What rooms were there originally? 6. In what
style was the palace built? 7. What features of different styles did Kazakov use in this palace? 8. What stands
out against the red walls?

PETROVSKY PALACE

Petrovsky Palace was begun in 1776 and officially completed on November 3, 1780 (though it is likely
that construction continued for a few years afterwards). This palace was intended to be the last overnight
station of royal journeys from St. Petersburg to Moscow. Catherine visited it once, in 1785; Paul I abandoned
it; Napoleon burned it down. The palace was restored in the 1830s and again in 1874 with minor alterations.
The red-brick castle with white details originally had two royal apartments on the first floor and plenty
of service space on the ground floor with a central rotunda hall. The term "Gothic" is not exactly appropriate
here, since Kazakov borrows heavily from Naryshkin Baroque and earlier Russian themes like the oversized
bottle-shaped* pillars by the main entrance.

Petrovsky Palace, main hall

UNIT VII • Famous architects 153


Though the building was erected by an architect whose buildings are mostly classical, it is, in fact, an
example of Pseudo- or Neo-Gothic. Its most obvious motives are pointed arches and pinnacles over the
windows, pre-Petrine details from the 17th century and other decorative details. The palace is surmounted
by a dome with lucarne-type windows set into Gothic kokoshnik arches and is surrounded by a high brick
wall with towers. In the centre of the palace is a Russian-type porch supported on imitation* old Russian
dumpy pillars with a wide flight of steps. The magnificent white stone trim stands out clearly against the dark
red brick walls.
ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. bottle-shaped —бутылкообразный
2. imitation [,im i'te ijn ] n — 1. подражание, имитирование, копирование, имитация; 2. attr. подде­
льный

Упражнение 10. О бъясните образование следующих слов: bottle-shaped, overnight, oversized, pre-
petrine.

Упражнение 11 Подберите синоним ы к следующим словам: trim, broad, cupola, plenty, surmount,
before Peter (architecture), magnificent, adjoining, feature.

Упражнение 12. Подберите антонимы к следующим словам: narrow, post-Petrine, plenty, high,
pointed arches.

Упражнение 13. Переведите на русский язы к следующие словосочетания:


I. oversized bottle-shaped pillars 2. last overnight station of royal journeys 3. pre-Petrine
building

Упражнение 14. Н азовите все значения следующих слов: original, flight, stand (out), step.

Упражнение 15. Вставьте предлоги или послелоги, если необходимо.


I. The house is adjacent... the forest. 2. The adjacent... house is very small. 3. The blue details stand ...
... the background ... the wall. 4. I in sist... this. 4. He w e n t... painting the w a ll... she came home. 5. I like
this h o u se,... particular, its recessed balcony. 6. The house consists ... 5 rooms. 7. He travels fa r ... Moscow.
8. He joined ... the project. 9. It is obvious that, ... fact, that is a magnificent building. Ю. The church is
surmounted ... a cupola. II. A wide flight... steps leads ... the door.
( ) , against, by, from, in, of, on, out, to, until

Упражнение 16. О пиш ите П утевой петровский дворец, его историю , опиш ите иллю страцию,
типичны е детали.

3. ZHOLTOVSKY

Упражнение 1. П рочтите и переведите следующ ие слова на русский язы к.


tutor ['tju:ts] technology [tek 'n o lad 3i] enough [Tm\f]
concentrate ['konsntreit] academic ^aeka'dem ik] dom inant ['dom inant]
prize [praiz] title ['taitl]
Zholtovsky Shchusev

154 3. Zholtovsky
WORDS TO BE USED
job [d 3Db] n — работа, труд; должность
key [ki:] 1) n — ключ; 2) attr. — основной, ключевой; главный
search [s3:tj] 1) n — поиск; 2) v — искать (for)

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD
accept [ak'sept] v —принимать
accomplished [a'kAm pli/t] a — совершенный, получивший хорошее образование
affect [a'fekt] v — (воз)действовать (на что-л.); влиять
apprentice [o'prentis] n — ученик, подмастерье
elder fe ld a ] n —старший, старейшина
experience [ik'spiarions] n — (жизненный) опыт
leave [li:v] n — отпуск
outspoken [aut'sp3uk(a)n] a — искренний, откровенный, прямой
supervise ['suipavaz] v — смотреть, наблюдать (за чем-л.); надзирать
used to [u:s(t)tu] + неопред, форма —бывало (повторяющееся в прошлом действие)

Упражнение 2. П рочитайте текст и напиш ите его план на английском язы ке.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. What was Ivan Vladislavovich Zholtovsky? 2. What can you say about his education and interests?
3. Why did he often take leaves? 4. When did he start his teaching activity? 5. Why did he dislike Art Nouveau?
6. What was his trademark? 7. What did he design together with Shchusev? 8. What were his awards?

IVAN VLADISLAVOVICH ZHOLTOVSKY

Ivan Vladislavovich Zholtovsky (1867—1959) was a Russian-Soviet architect and educator. He worked
primarily in Moscow since 1898 till his death. An accomplished master of Renaissance Revival before the
Russian Revolution o f 1917, later he became a key figure of Stalinist architecture. He entered the Academy
of Arts in Saint Petersburg at the age o f 20. Degree studies took 11 years till 1898 —as he had not enough
money, Ivan used to take long leaves working as apprentice for the Saint Petersburg architectural firms. By
the time o f graduation, Zholtovsky had a first-rate practical experience in design, technology and project
management. He became a tutor in architecture at the Stroganov Art School in Moscow — a part-time job
that allowed plenty of time for professional practice.
From the very start, he joined the "traditionists" revival group (ретроспективисты), placing himself
against then-dom inant Art Nouveau (Russky M odem). His search for classic excellence took some time, as
he was equally affected by Russian classicism and Italian Renaissance. While Neoclassical revival was at this
time the second largest school in Russia (in high demand in Saint Petersburg, less so in Moscow), the Re­
naissance influence was unique to Zholtovsky, and will remain his trademark style until his death.
Practice, educator’s work and outspoken public activity in artistic world earned him the Academic title
as soon as 1909. By the time of 1917 Revolution, when he was reaching the age of 50, Zholtovsky was already
considered a master builder, an elder in his profession. As after the Revolution little was built, he concen­
trated on education teaching at VKhUTEMAS and urban planning studies. He worked together with Shchu­
sev at the project of All-Russian Agricultural Exhibition. Together with Shchusev Zholtovsky supervised the
first master plan for redevelopment o f Moscow.
In 1940, already 73 years old, Zholtovsky accepted the chair of Moscow Architectural Institute (MAR-
CHI). In summer 1945, the state founded Zholtovsky School and Workshop, where he would work till his
death. In 1950 Zholtovsky was awarded Stalin Prize, second class.

Упражнение 4. О бъясните употребление времен в предлож ении (см. Грам. справ. § 7. 5).
When he was reaching the age o f 50, Zholtovsky was already considered a master builder.

UNIT VII • Famous architects 155


Упражнение 5. П ереведите следующие словосочетания.
First-rate solution, All-Russian Agricultural Exhibition, master builder, as soon as, then-dom inant style,
part-time job, used to go, take Degree studies, accepted the chair

Упражнение 6. Объясните образование следующих слов: first-rate, part-time, traditionist, educator,


graduation, excellence, redevelopment, Academic, artistic, outspoken.

Упражнение 7. Вставьте предлоги, частицы , наречия, если нужно:


1. Не entered... the Institute ...the a g e ... eighteen. 2. The architect was aw arded... the State Prize. 3. He
searched ... a good solution. 4. It remained his trademark style ... his death. 5. She told him ... go ... the In­
stitute, ... soon ... she came ... home. 6. She u s e d ... paint her house ... every year.
( ) , as, at, of, for, to, until

Упражнение 8. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на подчеркнутые слова.


1. Не will leave Moscow next month. 2. His leave will be this month. 3. He used his pen doing this work.
4. He used to play football every evening. 5. His search for an appropriate solution took a lot of time. 6. He
searched for an appropriate solution for a long time.

Упражнение 9. Переведите текст письм енно со словарем. Скажите, на каком варианте англий­
ского язы ка (британском или ам ериканском ) написан этот текст.
After 1945, Zholtovsky personally designed only three apartment houses in Moscow. The best known,
a 1949 Bolshaya Kaluzhskaya building is an interesting illustration o f Zholtovsky’s shift from elite to the
masses, an attempt to bring mass construction to the levels o f quality expected o f Stalinist architecture and
his own Renaissance style. All apartments in this building are relatively small, with two rooms yet with plenty
of storage space. Floor plans deliberately discouraged conversion o f small-family units to overcrowded multi­
family kommunalki (the kitchen is accessible only through the family rooms). Zholtovsky’s favorite flat walls
(no bay windows, no setbacks) and modest application o f Florentine canon fit the purpose quite well.
In 1948, 80-year-old Zholtovsky became the subject of a witch-hunt (once again). Zholtovsky lost the
chair of MARCHI. In February 1949, a "professional round table" branded his Bolshaya Kaluzhskaya House
as formalist, condemned Zholtovsky’s educational efforts, and virtually excommunicated him from practice
for a year. Suddenly, fortune turned around, and in M arch for the same building that had been ostracized a
year before he was praised.

Упражнение 10. Обсудите творчество И.В. Ж олтовского.

4. SHCHUSEV

Упражнение 1. Прочтите и переведите следующ ие слова на русский язы к.


archaeological [,a:k ia ' lod 3ikl] restaurant ['re stam n t] laureate ['b :ri9 t]
Kazan [ka:'za:n]

WORDS TO BE USED
passenger ['paesin(d)39] n — пассажир
science ['sa(i)9ns] n —наука
WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD
booking office ['bukir),r»fis] n — билетная касса
Orient ['э:пэЩ ] n — восток
waiting room fw eitirjrm m ] — зал ожидания

156 4. Shchusev
Упражнение 2. П рочитайте текст и напиш ите его план.

Упражнение 3. Прочитайте текст и укажите, соответствуют ли ему следующие предложения,


начиная с It is true ..., It is quite right..., It is not quite right..., It is wrong, because..., It is a mistake....
1. Shchusev graduated from the Stroganov Art School. 2. He went to Paris to study architecture. 3. He
was interested only in construction. 4. It took him 14 years to design the Kazan Terminal. 5. In the Kazan
Terminal the architect combined Russian architectural features with those of the West. 6. The terminal was
given features common to Baroque. 7. The tower is like the Suymbek Tower in the Kazan Kremlin. 8. The
terminal is a single structure. 9. He was praised for his work.

Упражнение 4. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. Where did he study architecture? 2. What was he an admirer of? 3. Was he a good architect? 4. What
were his interests? 5. What are his most important works? 6. How much time did it take him to finish the
Kazan Terminal? 7. Why did he use Oriental features in the terminal? 8. How was he awarded for his work?

ALEKSEY VICTOROVICH SHCHUSEV

Shchusev was a graduate of the Russian Academy of Fine Arts. He was sent to study to Paris. A member
of the Russian Archaeological Society, a student and admirer of Russian national architecture, he was one
of the most gifted of his profession — a happy combination of the learned archaeologist, practical builder,
and artist. He designed the Kazan Terminal, the Academy of Sciences, the Lenin Mausoleum, etc in Moscow.
It took Shchusev 14 years to complete the Kazan Terminal (1912—26). In designing it the architect
combined the best national forms of ancient Russian architecture with those of the Orient. So the terminal
was given features common to Moscow Baroque, while the tower resembled the Suymbek Tower in the Kazan
Kremlin. The passenger waiting rooms and booking offices, restaurants, etc do not form a single structure,
but are a group of different-sized buildings, linked by the tower over the main entrance.
In 1941 he was awarded the State Prize First Class and named Laureate of the State Prize in architecture.

Упражнение 5. Найдите в тексте предложения в пассивном залоге и переведите их (см. Грам.


справ. § 8. 8).

Упражнение 6. Объясните образование следующих слов и назовите однокорневые слова:


graduation, admirer, student, different-sized.

Упражнение 7. Найдите в тексте интернациональные (заимствованные из других языков)


слова и переведите их, укажите на разницу в значении, если она есть.

UNIT VII • Famous architects 157


Упраж нение 8. П ереведите на русский язы к.
1. Student and admirer of architecture; 2. It took him 5 years to build his house; 3. Passenger waiting
rooms; 4. Different-sized buildings; 5. This feature was common to all terminals o f that time.

Упражнение 9. Переведите текст на английский язы к.


Щ усев победил на конкурсе на комплекс зданий К азанского вокзала в М оскве, и в конце
1911 года его официально утвердили главным архитектором строительства. Казанский вокзал зод­
чий строил почти 30 лет, начиная с 1913 года. Для этого он переехал из Петербурга в Москву. По
замыслу заказчика, поддержанного архитектором, живописность композиции всего сооружения,
состоящего из многочисленных объемов (elements), напоминаю щих целый городок, украшенный
башней и часами, отражала характер старой Москвы. Щ усев задумал вокзал не только как функ­
циональное здание, но и как произведение архитектуры, призванное украсить и Каланчевскую
площадь, и Москву. Декор вокзала, решенного в смелых железобетонных конструкциях, напоми­
нает мотивы древнерусского нижегородского, астраханского и рязанского зодчества, а также —
Башню Сююмбеки в Казанском кремле. Использование белокаменного декора на краснокирпич­
ном фоне стен выполнено в духе русского барокко XVII века (нарыш кинского барокко).
Первая мировая война, затем революция, гражданская война прервали строительство на не­
сколько лет. Считается, что в 1926 году был завершен первый этап строительства, а второй в
1940 году. В 50-е годы был построен подземный зал для пригородных пассажиров, имеющий выход
в метрополитен. В 1990 году были построены новые залы ожидания, переходы от поездов к станци­
ям метро и на Комсомольскую площадь. Подземный тоннель, соединяющий все три железнодо­
рожных вокзала Комсомольской площади, стал самым протяженным в столице. Сегодня вокзал
является одним из крупнейших в Европе.

Упражнение 10. О пиш ите К азанский вокзал.

Упражнение 11. Расскажите биографию и опиш ите творчество Щ усева или другого русского
(российского) архитектора.

5. LE CORBUSIER

TEXT А

Упражнение 1. П рочтите и переведите следующ ие слова на русский язы к.


urbanist ['3:bonist] pioneer ^ р а Щ э'ш э ] Switzerland ['sw itsaland]
commentator ['km nanteita] criticize ['kritisaiz] m onolith ['nmnaliG]
pseudonym ['sjmdonim] career [к э'п э] decade ['dekeid]
realize ['rialaiz] scheme [skim ] Marseilles [m a:'sei]
parliament ['pcdom ant] sector ['sekto] unique [ju:'ni:k]
Europe ['ju(3)rop] administration [ad ,m in is'treijn ] Le Corbusier [la ko:'bu:ziei]

WORDS TO BE USED

attempt [a'tem (p )t] — 1) n — попытка; 2) v — пытаться, пробовать, делать попытку


citizen ['sitiz(a)n] n — 1. гражданин; гражданка; 2. горожанин; горожанка
crowded ['kraudid] а — переполненный, битком набитый
distant fd is t(a )n t] а — дальний; далекий
layout ['leiaut] n — расположение; планировка; план, разбивка, разметка (сада и т.п.)
realize ['rislaiz] v — 1. представлять себе; понимать (ясно, в деталях); 2. осуществлять; выполнять
(план, намерение)

158 5. Le Corbusier
WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD
adopt [o'dopt] v —принимать
ancestor ['asnsests] n —предок
present [pri'zent] v — представлять, являть собой
Упражнение 2. П рочтите текст о Ш арле Эдуарде Ж аннере и напиш ите его резю ме на русском
или английском язы ке и план на английском языке.

Упражнение 3. Ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. What was Le Corbusier? 2. Was Le Corbusier his real name? 3. How long did his career last? 4. What
was his purpose in architecture? 5. What buildings did he design? 5. In what countries did he work? 8. What
did he build in Moscow? 9. Did he design only buildings?
CHARLES-EDOUARD JEANNERET*
Charles-fidouard Jeanneret o r L e C o rb u sie r (1887—1965), (French, bom Swiss*), who chose to be
known as Le Corbusier was an architect, designer, urbanist, writer and painter, famous for being one of the
pioneers o f what now is called M odem architecture or the International style. He was bom in Switzerland
and became a French citizen in his thirties.
Le Corbusier adopted his pseudonym in the 1920s, allegedly* deriving it in part from the name of a distant
ancestor, "Lecorbesier".
He was a pioneer in studies of m odem design and was dedicated to providing better living conditions for
the residents of crowded cities. Later commentators have criticized Le Corbusier’s monoliths as soulless and
expressive o f his arrogance* in pioneering his form of architecture.
His career spanned five decades, with his buildings constmcted throughout central Europe, India, Russia,
and in N orth and South America. He was also an urban planner, painter, sculptor, writer, and modem
furniture designer.
His most famous works are Villa Savoye*, France, Notre Dame du Haut*, France, buildings in C han­
digarh*, India.
After World War II, Le Corbusier attempted to realize his urban planning schemes on a small scale by
constructing a series o f "Unites d ’Habitation*” (the housing units) around France. The most famous of these
was the Unitd d ’Habitation of Marseilles (1946—1952).
In the 1950s, a unique opportunity to build an ideal city on a grand scale presented itself in the construc­
tion of Chandigarh, the new capital for two Indian states and the first planned city in India. Le Corbusier
designed many administration buildings including a courthouse, parliament building and a university. He
also designed the general layout of the city dividing it into sectors.
П РИ М ЕЧ А Н И Я
1. Charles Edouard Jeanneret — Ш арль-Эдуард Ж аннере
2. Swiss [swis] —швейцарский, швейцарец
3. allegedly [3'led3idli] — будто бы, якобы; как утверждают
4. arrogance ['aersg(a)ns] — высокомерие, надменность, самонадеянность
5. Villa Savoye — вилла Савой в Пуасси, 1930
6. N otre D am e [,n 3 u tr9 'd a :m ] du H aut — к а п е л л а Н о тр -Д ам -д ю -0 в Р он ш ан е, Ф ранция,
1950-1955 гг.
7. Chandigarh —Чандигарх, город в Индии
8. Unitd d ’Habitation — жилая единица
Упражнение 4. Н айдите в тексте предлож ение с have и объясните его употребление (см. Грам.
справ. § 7. 6, 12).

UNIT VII • Famous architects 159


У п р аж н ен и е 5. Переведите предложения на русский язы к, обращая вним ание на подчеркнутые
слова.
1. The architect pioneered this style. 2. He was praised for pioneering the new m ethod o f building.
3. I realize that he is a good architect. 4. Not all o f his designed have been realized.

У п р а ж н е н и е 6. О бъясните образование следующих слов и назовите слова с этим же корнем:


soulless, layout, courthouse, criticize, powerful.

У п р а ж н е н и е 7. Н азовите английские слова от того же корня, что и следующее французское


слово: Unite.

У п р аж н ен и е 8. Подберите синонимы или варианты с тем же значением к следующ им словам:


the Second World War, urban planner, scheme, contain, realize.

TEXT В
WORDS TO BE USED

double-height a — двусветный
laundry ['b :n d ri] n - прачечная
nursery ['n3:sri] n — ясли
paddling pool ['paedlippu:!] — «лягушатник» (мелкая часть бассейна для детей)

WORDS ТО BE UNDERSTOOD

alive [a'laiv] a — живой; существующий


bakery ['beik(9)ri] n — пекарня, булочная
cleaning ['klirnirj] n — чистка, уборка
reclaim [ri'kleim ] v — поднимать (целину, заброшенные земли); проводить мелиорацию

У п р а ж н е н и е 9. П рочтите текст U nites d ’H abitation и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. When did Le Corbusier build the Unitds d’Habitation? 2. Where did he build them? 3. Which is the
most famous? 4. How many storeys and dwellings are there? 5. Are there flats there? 6. What and how many
dwelling types are there? 7. What does the building stand on? 8. Are there double-height rooms? 9. What
services are provided there? 10. Where does a ramp lead to? 11. What types of balconies (single or double­
height; projecting or recessed) are there? 12. Did Le Corbusier use his "five points of architecture" in this
building?

UNITfiS D’HABITATION

In the thirties and later Le Corbusier built his most famous residential
buildings —the Unitds d ’Habitation in a number of towns and cities of Europe.
The Unitd d ’Habitation at Marseilles was built in 1947—52. It is a 17-storey
building resting on powerful pillars (pilotis) which leave the ground free for
cars. The dwellings are mostly built on two levels (maisonettes). The block
contains 337 dwellings of 23 dwelling types built for both large families and
single persons. The living rooms extend through both storeys, having a double
height of 16 feet and glass walls. The other rooms are only 8 feet high. In the
building there are three staircases with lifts in the centre. At levels 7 and 8 the
com m on services are provided: different shops, laundry, bakery, cleaning
services, post office, restaurant, etc. On the top floor there is a kindergarten
and nursery for 150 children. From it a ramp leads to the roof terrace with a
shallow swimming pool and an area for gymnastics.

160 5. Le Corbusier
Most of Le Corbusier’s "five points of architecture" from the 1920s are alive and used in the Unitd: the
strong pilotis creating circulation space below, the free facades now with a pattern of single- and double­
height balconies projecting from fifteen different types of dwellings, and the roof terrace used for recreation
instead of the lost land below the building.

Упражнение 10. П рочтите текст "Marseilles U nite d ’Habitation", сравните его с предыдущим
текстом и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:
1. What new information is there? 2. Does the second text contradict the first one? 3. Is everything clear
to you? 4. Are the same rooms and facilities called in the same way in both texts? 5. Are both texts written in
the same version of the English language?
MARSEILLES U N ITE D ’HABITATION, developed with Corbusier’s designers Shadrach Woods and
George Candilis, comprises 337 apartments arranged over twelve stories, all supported by large pilotis. The
building also incorporates shops, sporting, medical and educational facilities, a hotel, and a gastronomic
restaurant. The flat roof is designed as a communal terrace, a running track, and a shallow paddling pool for
children. The roof, where a number of theatrical performances had taken place, underwent renovation in
2010. It has unobstructed views of the Mediterranean and Marseilles.
Inside, corridors run through the center of the long axis o f every third floor of the building, with each
apartment occupying two levels, and stretching from one side o f the building to the other, with a balcony.
Unlike many of the inferior prefabricated blocks it inspired, which lack the original’s generous proportions,
communal facilities and parkland setting, the Unit6 is popular with its residents and is now mainly occupied
by upper middle-class professionals.
The building is constructed in bdton brut (rough-cast concrete), as the hoped-for steel frame proved too
expensive in light of post-War shortages.
Упражнение 11. Н азовите соответствующ ие британские и ам ериканские варианты для следу­
ющих слов: этаж, квартира, двухэтажная квартира.

Упражнение 12. П ереведите на русский язы к следующ ие словосочетания.


Double height room, roof terrace, post office, service industry, educational facilities, communal facilities,
running track, the hoped-for steel frame
Упражнение 13. П ереведите на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание на подчеркнутые слова.
I. The swimming pool is situated near the post-office. 2. The roof is supported by 6 posts. 3. What is his
post? — He is the chief of this office
Упражнение 14. Обсудите (в виде диалога) ж илые единицы в М арселе.

6. FRANK LLOYD W R IG H T A N D THE G U G G EN H EIM M USEUM


Упражнение 1. П рочтите и переведите следующие слова на русский язы к.
European [Ju sra 'p h a n ] idea [ai'dis] mile [mail]
elevator ['eliveita] spiral ['spair(s)l] reflect [ri'flekt]
industrialist [in'dAstrialist] patron ['peitr(9)n] skylight ['skailait]
horizon [h s'raizn] prairie ['ргеэп ] Wright [rait]

WORDS TO BE USED
elevator ['eliveita] n — лифт (амер.)
fit [fit] 1) a — годный, подходящий; 2) v — соответствовать, годиться
frank [fraenk] — откровенный, искренний
ribbon ['п Ь (э)п ] n — лента; узкая полоска

UNIT VII • Famous architects 161


WORD TO BE UNDERSTOOD
curl [кз:1] v —виться
У п р а ж н е н и е 2. П рочтите текст и ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. Why is Wright called the greatest American architect? 2. What is the difference between buildings in
America and England? 3. How is Wright’s architecture called and why? 4. Was he proud of his work? 5. Why
did he say that he was always frank? 6. What are his most famous buildings? 7. What is the Guggenheim
Museum like? 8. Is it a big building?

У п р а ж н е н и е 3. П рочтите текст и укажите соответствуют ли тексту следующ ие предложения.


1. Wright is called the greatest American architect because he built in classical style. 2. His ideas have
been forgotten. 3. His buildings correspond to the environment. 4. He preferred vertical lines in his buildings.
5. He thought that brick had to look like brick. 6. A well-known writer commissioned him to build the mu­
seum. 7. Paintings are hung on sloping walls.

FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT


Frank Lloyd Wright is called the greatest American architect because he started an American style in
architecture. Most of the architecture in the United States before Wright was really European, not American.
Wright’s buildings have their own style. His ideas are still being used in the United States and in other parts
of the world.
His buildings fit their purpose and the land around them. He uses horizontal parallel lines while in
England they preferred vertical lines that formed right angles with the horizon. He believed that the
architecture had to be honest and concrete had to look like concrete, not like stones and bricks. He is the
father of Organic architecture.
He was bom in 1869 and died in 1959. He built his famous Prairie Houses, e.g. Kaufman House or
“ Falling Water” , the Larkin office building, the Guggenheim Museum and many other buildings. All his
buildings are functional and have their own style. His houses are often called “prairie houses” because their
lines are similar to those of the prairies parallel to the horizon.
He said about himself “ I am Frank Lloyd Wright, America’s greatest architect” and “ Maybe I was not
always right, but I was always frank”.

THE GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM


In 1937, Solomon Guggenheim, industrialist, patron of art and music, asked Wright to design a museum
to house contemporary art. In the late 50s (1959) the museum was opened. From the street, the building

162 6. Frank Lloyd Wright and the Guggenheim Museum


looks approximately like a white ribbon curled into a cylinder. The windowless exterior reflects the spiral form
of the interior. In the building visitors take an elevator to the top floor and then walk down three quarters of
a mile of continuous curving ramp. The ramp increased in diameter from 100 ft. at the ground level to 129 ft.
at the topmost level. The paintings are hung on the sloping walls and are lit mainly by daylight from the vast
dome above. The exhibition area accommodates 1,500 people and the auditorium in the basement seats 277.
For Wright the museum was a symbol o f freedom and beauty.

Упражнение 4. О бъясните употребление использованного времени в следующем предложении


(см. Грам. справ. § 8. 8).
His ideas are still being used.

Упражнение 5. П одберите синоним ы к следующим словам: begin, to name, large, cupola, lift.

Упражнение 6. О бъясните образование следующих слов: European, daylight, sloping, painting,


curving, windowless, skylight, basement.

Упражнение 7. Расскажите о творчестве Ф. Райта и о музее Гуггенхейма.

Упражнение 8. Расскажите о каком -нибудь другом здании, построенном Ф. Райтом.

7. N O RM A N FOSTER

TEXT А

Упражнение 1. Прочтите и переведите следующие слова на русский язы к.


Manchester ['m aentfists] Yale [jeil] UK [jm 'naitid'kirjdam ]
Hong Kong ['hDrj'kDrj] Shanghai ['Jaerj'hai] Tokyo [Чэикюи]
Baltic ['bo:ltik] millennium [п п Т еш эт]]

Упражнение 2. П рочтите текст и напиш ите его резю ме на русском или английском язы ке.
Озаглавьте текст. Переведите текст письм енно со словарем.
Norman Robert Foster was bom in M anchester in June 1935. He was naturally gifted and performed
well at school. At the same time he took an interest in architecture, particularly in the works of Frank Lloyd
Wright (1867—1959) and the Modernist master Le Corbusier.
At 21 years o f age he began his architectural studies at Manchester University. He won practically every
prize and scholarship available. A number o f these enabled him to visit Europe and study its architecture.
Foster’s academic successes at M anchester won him a Henry Fellowship to pursue graduate studies at
Yale University, USA. There he met Richard Rogers and they began a life-long friendship. After graduating
from Yale, Foster travelled throughout the United States for a year, and returned to England in 1962.
In 1967 N orm an formed Foster Associates, now known as Foster & Partners.
An important early breakthrough for Foster’s own practice was the Willis Faber & Dumas headquarters
in Ipswich, UK. This was a pioneering piece o f social architecture completed in 1974. The client was an
insurance company. Foster was able to bring fresh creativity and innovation to a building type long thought
to have been fully investigated by other architects. This was proof positive that a major talent had arrived,
and led to further commissions.
Among these was the 50-storey Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank headquarters (Hong Kong, 1979—86),
at the time rumoured to be the most expensive building ever constructed. The building was innovative in that
whereas a traditional skyscraper would be built outwards from a central sohd core, Foster placed the load-
bearing masts and struts on the exterior o f the building. This allows the central space to serve as a vertical
daylit atrium, providing natural light and considerable drama to each office floor. The concept was so

UNIT VII • Famous architects 163


successful that Foster re-used elements of it in the designs for the Commerzbank headquarters in Frankfurt,
the earthquake-proof Century Tower in Tokyo, and the Millennium Tower once proposed for the site of the
bombed Baltic Exchange in the City of London.

TEXT В

У п р а ж н е н и е 3. Переведите текст письм енно со словарем.

FOSTER IN THE CITY OF LONDON

Foster’s impact on the skyline and cityscape of London is considerable. The Baltic Exchange site was used
for the 180-metre Swiss Re Insurance headquarters. This is Foster’s second-tallest building in London after
the 200-metre HSBC tower at Canary Wharf. Foster & Partners designed City Hall — the Mayor of London’s
new offices — along with a further office development directly adjacent to Tower Bridge. They co-designed
the London Millennium Bridge with engineer Chris Wise and the eminent sculptor Sir Anthony Caro, and
are currently working on the Wembley Stadium redevelopment in collaboration with HOK Sport.

TEXT C

У п р а ж н е н и е 4. Переведите текст письм енно со словарем.

THE REICHSTAG, BERLIN

Foster’s work has by no means been confined to the


British Isles. Perhaps the m ost prestigious commission
completed to date was the rebuilding o f the Reichstag — the
German parliament building in Berlin. This was part con­
servation project, part new build.
The original building dates from 1884. It had been
ravaged by fire and by war, and rem ained forlorn and
neglected until the decision was made to relocate the
German parliament from Bonn to Berlin during the 1990s.
Foster rose to the challenge in style, successfully preserving
the original exterior, the 19th century frescoes and the
Soviet-era paintings, while creating an entirely new interior

164 7. Norman Foster


suitable for housing the parliament of a nation far into
the 21st century.
True to Foster’s ongoing dedication to "green"
architecture1, the finished building is entirely energy
self-sufficient, burning only renewable fuels such as
rapeseed oil to provide both heating and electricity, and
storing excess heat deep belowground in summer, ready
for use in winter. The new parliament is crowned with
an enormous glass dome, which simultaneously makes
historical reference to the building’s original 76-metre
dome, and acts as an evocative symbol of democracy.
The dome is accessible to the public, and the German
people are welcome to enter and to gaze out across their city or down from the helical access ramps into the
main chamber, to watch their parliament in session.

TEXT D

У праж нение 5. Н апиш ите резю ме текста на русском или английском язы ке.

THE PRESENT DAY

Today Foster & Partners are one of the very largest architectural practices in the world, employing roughly
500 people. They maintain offices in Hong Kong and Berlin, along with their headquarters on the South
Bank of the Thames next to Battersea Park — the studio itself being a Foster creation. The firm’s output is
phenomenal and shows no sign of abating.
As quickly as the buildings roll out, the honours and awards roll in. Foster was knighted in 1990, and in
1993 was awarded the prestigious Royal Gold Medal by the Royal Institute o f British Architects. In 1998 his
American Air Museum building at Duxford, UK, was awarded the Stirling Prize, while in 1999 he became
both a Pritzker Laureate and a Life Peer, assuming the title of Lord Foster of Thames Bank.
Of course, in a practice with such a prolific turnover of projects, it would be unrealistic to expect one
man to design each and every building the firm creates. Despite his talents, Norm an Foster is no exception,
and these days is content to oversee the work of his team and his senior partners.
Foster ceaselessly travels, frequently in aircraft piloted by himself, casting a watchful eye over his
numerous projects. His ambition is to reduce energy consumption.

У праж нение 6. К аковы главные черты архитектуры Н. Ф остера?

У праж нение 7. О пиш ите здание Ф остера, которое вам больше нравится.

У праж нение 8. Расскаж ите о творчестве ваш его лю бимого архитектора.

I
Green Architecture is a term used to describe economical, energy-saving, environmentally-friendly, sustainable development.
UNIT VIII
LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE,
ECOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE,
ENERGY EFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE

1. LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

TEXT A

Упражнение 1. Прочтите и переведите на русский язы к следующ ие слова.


aesthetic [i:s'0etik] systematic [,sist3'm aetik] social ['saufl]
ecological [,i:k3'k>d3ikl] process['prsuses] intervention L in ta'v en fn ]
produce ['prodjuis] visual ['\чги(э)1] infrastructure ['infra,strA kt/a]
to produce [pra'dju:s] practitioner [praek'tijna] geology [d 3T o b d 3i]
incorporate [in'ko:p(3)rat] botany ['bDt(3)ni] contribution [,kD ntri'bju:Jn]
corporate ['ko:p(3)r3t] aspect ['aespekt] audit [b id it]
psychology [saTkDbd 3i] activities [aek'tivatiz] resource [rTzo:s]
civil ['sivl] degrade [di'greid] concept ['konsept]
generate ['бзепэгей] idea [ai'dia] technical ['tekm kl]
detailed ['dirteild] contract ['kontraekt] specification [,spes3fi'keijn]

WORDS TO BE USED

campus ['kaempss] n — кампус, территория университета, колледжа или школы (двор, городок
и т.п .)
earth science — землеведение
environment [in'vair(3)nm 3nt] n — окружение, окружающая обстановка, окружающая среда
green [gri:n] а — 1. зеленый; 2. связанный с движением защитников окружающей среды, под­
держивающий движение защитников окружающей среды; 3. экологичный
industrial design — художественное конструирование, промышленная эстетика
infrastructure [T nfrs^trA ktJs] n — инфраструктура
proposal [prs'psuzl] n — предложение
reclamation L rekta'm eifn] n — 1. освоение (неудобных, целинных, заброшенных земель); мели­
орация; 2. утилизация, использование отходов
resource [ri'zo:s] n — 1. (обыкн. pi) возможность, способ, средство; 2. (обыкн. pi) ресурсы, средства
restoration [,rest3 'reijn ] n — восстановление; реконструкция, реставрация

WORDS ТО BE UNDERSTOOD

assessment [a'sesm snt] n — оценка


horticulture ['hoitikAltJs] n — садоводство; огородничество
inquiries [in'kwairiz] n — (обыкн. pi) расследование, следствие; запрос; исследование
investigation [in,vesti'geijn] n — 1. (научное) исследование; 2. расследование, следствие
involve [in'volv] v — повлечь, влечь за собой
issue [ iju:] n — проблема
management ['maemd3m 3nt] n — управление
outcome ['autkAm] n — результат, последствие

166 1. Landscape architecture


practitioner [praek'tijna] n — практикующий
review [ri'vju:] v — обозревать; осматривать
scope [skaup] n — масштаб
specifications [,spesafi'keijnz] n pi — задание, технические требования
visual ['vizu(a)l] a — зрительный, видимый, наглядный
witness ['w itnas] n — свидетель
wilderness ['w ildanis] n — дикая местность; девственная природа

Упражнение 2. Переведите текст письм енно со словарем. В ыпиш ите терм ины , необходимые
для о писания л андш аф тной архитектуры. И спользуйте при обсуждении эти термины .

LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor and public spaces to achieve environmental, socio-
behavioral, and/or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic investigation of existing social, ecological,
and geological conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions that will produce
the desired outcome. The scope of the profession includes: urban design; site planning; town or urban
planning; environmental restoration; parks and recreation planning; green infrastructure planning and
provision; and private estate and residence landscape master planning and design; all at varying scales of
design, planning and management. A practitioner in the profession o f landscape architecture is called a
landscape architect.
Landscape architecture incorporates aspects of: botany, horticulture, the fine arts, architecture, industrial
design, geology and the earth sciences, environmental psychology, and ecology. The activities of a landscape
architect can range from the creation o f public parks and parkways to site planning for campuses and corporate
office parks, from the design of residential estates to the design of civil infrastructure and the management
of large wilderness areas or reclamation o f degraded landscapes such as mines or landfills*. Landscape
architects work on all types o f structures and external space — large or small, urban, suburban and rural, and
with "hard" (built) and "soft" (planted) materials, while integrating ecological sustainability. The most valuable
contribution can be made at the first stage of a project to generate ideas with technical understanding and
creative flair for the design, organization, and use of spaces. The landscape architect can conceive the overall
concept and prepare the master plan, from which detailed design drawings and technical specifications are
prepared. They can also review proposals to authorize and supervise contracts for the construction work.
Other skills include preparing design assessments, conducting environmental assessments and audits, and
serving as an expert witness at inquiries on land use issues.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ

landfill [Taendfil] n амер. — 1. закапывание мусора, отходов; (тж. sanitary landfill); 2.свалка мусора,
мусорная свалка

Упражнение 3. П еречислите все виды planning и переведите их на русский язы к.

Упражнение 4. От каких слов образованы следующ ие слова и каким способом, переведите их:
Creative, detailed, environmental, outdoor, review, valuable

Упражнение 5. Переведите на английский язык: землеведение, изящные искусства, землеполь­


зование.

Упражнение 6. Ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. What is landscape architecture? 2. What does a landscape architect do? 3. What subjects does landscape
architecture incorporate? 4. What public spaces do you know? 5. What do “hard” and “soft” materials mean?

UNIT VIII • Landscape architecture, ecological architecture, energy efficient architecture 167
Упражнение 7. Подберите синоним ы к следующим словам: recreation, urban, outcome, rural.

TEXT В

Упражнение 8. Прочтите и переведите на русский язы к следующие слова.


focus ['faukas] flora ['fb:ra] facilities [fa'silatiz]
Chinese [,tjai'n i:z] golf course ['gDlfko:s] botanical [ba'taenikl]
Japanese [,d 3aepa'ni:z] safari [sa'fa:ri] theme [0i:m]
regional ['гЫ зпэ1] Alpine ['aelpain] elegance ['eligans]
charm [tfa:m ] symmetrical [si'm etrikl] fountain ['fauntin]
manicured ['maemkjuad] rhododendron [/rau d a'd en d r(a)n ] giraffe [d 3i'ra:f]

WORDS TO BE USED

arboretum [,a:b a'ri:tam ] (pi тж. -ta) n — 1. древесный питомник; 2. дендрарий


clip [klip] v — обрезать
focal point['faukTpaint] — композиционный центр
kitchen garden ^ k itfin 'g ard n ] = vegetable garden — огород
knot garden ['nD t,ga:dn] — сад с регулярно разбитыми клумбами
lake [leik] n — озеро
nation fn e ijn ] n — народ, нация; государство, страна
path [pa:0], pi paths [pa:9z] n — тропинка, тропа; дорожка
preserve [pri'z3:v] = reserve [ri'z3:v] 1) v — сохранять, охранять, оберегать, хранить; 2) n — запо­
ведник
public garden = public square —сквер
rain garden — сад, растения в котором поливаются дождем, либо благодаря разным уровням
земли, либо через отверстия в потолке
safari [sa'farri] park — парк сафари
sense [sens] n — 1. чувство; ощущение; 2. смысл, значение
topiary fts u p ia ri] n — 1. искусство фигурной стрижки садовых деревьев; 2. сад с подстрижен­
ными деревьями

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

bloom [blu:m] n — цвет, цветение


prune [pru:n] v — обрезать; подрезать (деревья и т.п.)
species ['spi:/i:z] n (pi без измен.) — род; порода, вид, разновидность
vegetable garden [,ved3(i)t9b(3)l'ga:dn] = kitchen garden — огород

Упражнение 9. П рочтите текст и ответьте на вопросы:


1. Why do architects lay out different recreation facilities and parks? 2. What facilities and parks do they
lay out? 3. What is a formal park? 4. What is a landscape park?

PARKS AND GARDENS

People need recreation facilities. So architects lay out different parks, gardens, public squares (or public
gardens). Very popular are theme parks, natural parks, safari parks, nature preserves, arboretums, botanical
gardens, historic gardens, rain gardens, topiary gardens, knot gardens, playgrounds, golf courses, and other
sports facilities. There are also many other kinds of gardens and parks. E.g. there is a set o f garden types based
on either a historical period of the nation, such as Chinese garden, Italian garden and Japanese garden, or
on national or regional flora, for example American garden. Gardens may also focus on and be named after

168 1. Landscape architecture


a group of plant species, such as a rhododendron garden, rose garden. Sometimes they take their names from
what grows or is grown in them , e.g. vegetable garden (= kitchen garden).
A formal garden (or a French, or regular garden) is remarkable for its sense of elegance and charm. The
formal garden is symmetrical on all sides and has perfectly pruned borders that encircle beds or form geometric
configurations. Flowers are in bloom most of the time and well manicured. Topiary plants are a popular part
of a formal garden clipped into geometric shapes or shapes like animals, fish and other objects. A focal point
is important in a formal garden and can be a fountain or a cool pool. They also contain statues and other
ornamentation. G arden paths are common in a formal garden as well as garden benches.
Landscape or English garden is a park with irregular plantation of trees, usually on undulating ground
with winding waterways designed to realize a natural landscape

У п р аж н ен и е 10. а) П рочтите и переведите сп и сок видов парков и садов, данны х в уп раж н е­


нии I, укажите, есть ли среди них синонимы ; определите, для каких из них дано описание в II;
Ь) объясните (п о -ан гл и й ски ), что означаю т все эти виды.
I. alpine garden, Biblical garden, botanical garden, container garden, cottage garden, desert garden,
English garden, flower garden, French landscape garden, hanging garden, kitchen garden, knot garden, native
plant garden, public garden, rock garden, roof garden, rose garden, sculpture garden, sustainable garden,
topiary garden, vegetable garden, wildlife garden, zoological garden
***

II. 1......gardening is the practice of growing plants exclusively in containers instead of planting them in
the ground. Pots, traditionally made o f terracotta, but now more commonly plastic, and window boxes have
been the most commonly seen.
2..... garden is a garden which takes advantage of rainfall and stormwater (ливневая вода) to water plants
growing lower (due to the fall of the ground) or through openings in the ceiling.
3 ..garden, also called English landscape park usually included a lake, sweeps of gently rolling lawns
set against groves (рощи) of trees, and recreations of classical temples, Gothic ruins, bridges, and other
picturesque architectural features, designed to recreate an idyllic pastoral landscape replacing the more for­
mal, symmetrical Garden к la franchise of the 17th century as the principal gardening style of Europe.4

Parterres of the Orangerie of the Chateau of Versailles

4..... formal garden, also called jardin a la frangaise (garden in the French style), is a style of garden based
on symmetry and the principle of imposing order over nature. It reached its apogee in the 17th century with
the creation of the Gardens o f Versailles, designed for Louis [Tu:i] XIV by the landscape architect Andrd Le
Notre. The style was widely copied by other courts of Europe.
5. ... is the horticultural practice o f training o f live perennial (многолетний) plants, by clipping the
foliage and twigs o f trees, shrubs and subshrubs to develop and maintain clearly defined shapes, perhaps
geometric or fanciful; and plants which have been shaped in this way. It can be an art and is a form of living
sculpture.

UNIT VIII • Landscape architecture, ecological architecture, energy efficient architecture 169
Topiary

6.. .. sometimes known as a wildlife park, is a zoo-like commercial tourist


attraction where visitors can drive in their own vehicles or ride in vehicles provided
by the facility to observe freely walking animals. The m ain attractions are
frequently large animals from Sub-Saharan Africa such as giraffes, lions,
rhinoceros, elephants, zebras, and antelopes.
7..... garden where plants which are mentioned in the Bible grow.
8 .. .. garden is a distinct style o f garden that uses an inform al design,
Knot Garden
traditional materials, dense plantings, and a mixture of ornamental and edible
plants, perennial and annual.
9. ... park is an amusement park organized round
an idea or a group of ideas. Ideas or themes from his­
tory, geography are represented by buildings, statues.
tow ard
Site grading slopes
aw ay from house The term may also be used to refer to open-air archi­
tow ard rain garden
tectural museums.

Rain gardens are depressed or “bowl-shaped”


landscaped areas that function as miniature wetlands.
Typically planted with wildflowers and other native
vegetation, a rain garden provides a place
Rain garden in
permeable soil for stormwater to infiltrate, allowing approximately
30% more water to soak into the ground

У п р а ж н е н и е 11. Н айдите ан гли й ски е экви вален ты русским


терминам.
Веточка, прут; густая растительность; дикий; листва; много­
летний; направлять рост растений; наружный ящ ик для растений;
обрезать; однолетний; полукустарник; съедобный
Annual ['aenju(s)l]; clip [klip]; dense [dens] planting; edible
['edabl]; foliage [Тэи1ш1з]; perennial [рэТешэ1]; subshrub ['sAb/глЬ];
train [trein]; twig [twig]; wild ['w aild]; window box

У п р а ж н е н и е 12. Подберите: а) синоним ы к следующим словам: member, sort, broad, prune, veg­
etable garden;

170 1. Landscape architecture


б) антонимы: fauna ['fo:na], natural, wide.

Упражнение 13. О бъясните образование следующих слов, приведите подобны е примеры.


Japanese, national, regional

Упражнение 14. Н апиш ите все значения (или ом оним ы ) для следующих слов: plant, since,
member, kind.

Упражнение 15. Переведите следующ ие словосочетания и предлож ения, обращ ая внимание


на подчеркнутые слова.
I 1 like to grow different kinds o f plants. 2. He works at a metallurgical plant. 3 . 1 planted roses last year.
4. He is a very kind man. 5. It is very kind of you to help me. 6. 1 have not seen him since last month since
he was not in Moscow. 7. He is a member o f our group. 8. Beam is a constructive member.

TEXT C

Упражнение 16. Прочтите и переведите на русский язы к следующие слова:


idealize [ai'dialaiz] ruin ['ru:in] idyllic [fdilik]
pastoral ['pa:str(g)l] advantage [9d'va:ntid3] exotic [ig'zotik]
popular ['p o p ju b ] alley['aeli] parterre [pa:'teg]
isolated ['aisaleitid] canal [ka'nael] pagoda[pa'gauda]
wind [wind] Palladian [pa'leidian] winding ['waindirj]
to wind [waind]

WORDS TO BE USED

countryside ['Lvntrisaid] n — сельская местность


grove fgrauv] n — роща, лесок
lawn [b:n] n — лужайка, газон
parterre [ра:Чеэ] n — партер, цветник
rolling ['гэийг)] a — холмистый
spring [sprig] n — источник, родник
stream [stri:m] n — поток, река, ручей
winding ['waindirj] a — извилистый

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

eliminate [Tlimineit] v — уничтожать, ликвидировать


extensive [ik'stensiv] a — обширный, пространный
gently ['d 3entli] adv — 1. мягко, нежно, кротко; тихо; 2. спокойно; осторожно; умеренно
mock [пшк] а — поддельный

Упражнение 17. П рочтите текст и напиш ите его план на английском язы ке.

Упражнение 18. Ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. Is the English garden a formal garden? 2. How else is it called? 3. Why is it called the English garden?
4. When did it appear? 5. What garden did it replace? 6. Does it occur only in England? 7. Why is it called
the landscape garden? 8. What did it include? 9. How was it simplified? 10. What did it try to create? 11. Was
a Japanese house built in England as early as 1738? 12. Was the Chinese style popular only in England?

UNIT VIII • Landscape architecture, ecological architecture, energy efficient architecture 171
EN G LISH GARDEN

The English garden, also called English landscape park is a style o f landscape garden which appeared in
England in the early 18th century, and spread across Europe, replacing the more formal, symmetrical French
garden of the 17th century as the principal gardening style of Europe.
It is an informal garden lacking symmetry. These gardens attempt to imitate nature with winding paths,
naturally shaped ponds, plantings in informal masses etc. This design is the opposite o f the formal garden.
The English garden presented an idealized view of nature. It usually included a lake, gently rolling lawns
set against groves of trees, and recreations of classical temples, Gothic ruins, bridges, and other picturesque
objects of architecture, designed to recreate an idyllic pastoral landscape.
The later contribution was to simplify the garden by eliminating geometric structures, alleys, and parterres
near the house and replacing them with rolling lawns and extensive views out to isolated groups of trees,
making the landscape seem even larger. It was an attempt to create an ideal landscape out of the English
countryside with artificial lakes and canals to transform streams or springs into the illusion that a river flowed
through the garden.
The English Garden style also had the advantage of requiring fewer gardeners, and was easier to maintain,
than the French garden and it spread to the Continent.

The Kew Gardens Pagoda at the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London

As early as 1738 a Chinese house was built, starting a fashion for exotic architecture in gardens. In the
gardens pagodas and Chinese houses came to be built. The Anglo-Chinese Garden style became popular in
the late 18th century, and Chinese pavilions appeared in English gardens all across Europe.
The style also spread rapidly to Russia, where in 1774 Catherine the Great adapted the new style in the
park of her palace at Tsarskoye Selo, complete with a mock Chinese village and a Palladian bridge.

У п р а ж н е н и е 19. Подберите синонимы к следующим словам: to eliminate, curvilinear, to copy, to


attempt, to transform, formal garden, English garden.

У п р а ж н е н и е 20. Объясните образование следующих слов: recreation, simplify, countryside,


gardener, requirement, picturesque, informal.

У п р а ж н е н и е 21. Напишите все значения (или омографы — слова, пишущиеся одинаково) для
следующих слов: spring, wind.

У п р а ж н е н и е 22. П ереведите следующ ие предлож ения, обращ ая вним ан и е н а подчеркнутые


слова.
I. It makes the landscape seem more natural. 2. It came to be used very often. 3. It was easier to maintain
the park this year, than the last one. 4. The house was built as early as 1798.

172 1. Landscape architecture


Упражнение 23. Распределите следующие слова по группам в зависимости от их значения.
Avenue, bank, block of flats, cat, church, circus, crocodile, crossing, dog, forest, giraffe, grove, house,
lake, lane, lawn, lion, ocean, pagoda, path, pond, pool, river, sea, shore, spring, square, stream, street, temple,
terrace houses, tiger, wood

Упражнение 24. С равните английский и ф ранцузский парки.

Упражнение 25. Переведите письм енно со словарем следующ ий текст.

NATIONAL PARKS OF RUSSIA


According to the law on the protected areas o f Russia, national parks are areas of land and water devoted
to nature protection, ecological education, and scientific research. They contain sites of particular ecological,
historical and aesthetic value. Regulated tourism is permitted.
The area o f each park is divided into zones according to various functions. There should be a strictly
protected area managed as a zapovednik (natural preserve), and also recreational and buffer zones in which
economic activity is allowed, such as tourism, traditional land use, and various forms of agriculture and
forestry.

2. ECOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE

TEXT A

Упражнение 1. Прочтите и переведите на русский язы к следующие слова:


planet ['plaemt] cycle fsa ik l] generate ['d 3enareit]
regulate ['regjuleit] ecology [TkD bd 3i] medicines ['m edsnz]
anatomy [a'nastam i] genetics [d 3o'netiks] gene [d 3i:n]
erosion [T гэизп] Haeckel [' hekol] Aristotle ['aeristD,t(3)l]
Hippocrates [hi'pDkrati:z] hierarchy ['haircuki] ecosystem [' i:kq(V), slstqm]

WORDS TO BE USED

human ['hjuim on] a — человеческий


scientific [/sa(i)on'tifik] a — научный
soil [soil] n — почва
sustain [so'stein] v — поддерживать, подкреплять
well-being [,wel'bi:irj] n — благополучие; процветание, благосостояние

WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD

behaviour [bi'heivja] n — поведение, манеры


feedback ['fi:dbaek] n — обратная связь
food [fu:d] n — пища, питание; еда, корм
treatise ['tri:tiz] n — трактат

Упражнение 2. П рочтите текст и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. What does ecology mean? 2. Who was the first to use this term? 3. Who was among the earliest to study
the natural history of plants and animals? 4. Why is ecology important for people?

Упражнение 3. П ереведите текст письм енно со словарем.

UNIT VIII • Landscape architecture, ecological architecture, energy efficient architecture 173
ECOLOGY

Ecology (from Greek: oTxkog, "house"; -’koyia, "study o f ) is the scientific study o f the relation o f living
organisms to each other and their surroundings. Ecosystems are defined by a network o f individuals that ar­
range into a self-organized and complex hierarchy of pattern and process. Ecosystems create a biophysical*
feedback between living (biotic)* and nonliving (abiotic)* components o f an environment that generates and
regulates the biogeochemical cycles o f the planet. Ecosystems provide goods and services that sustain human
societies and general well-being. Ecosystems are sustained by biodiversity within them. Biodiversity is the
full-scale o f life and its processes, including genes, species and ecosystems forming lineages that integrate
into a complex and regenerative spatial arrangement of types, forms, and interactions.
Ecology is a sub-discipline of biology, the study of life. The word "ecology" ("oekologie") was coined in
1866 by the German scientist Ernst Haeckel (1834—1919). Haeckel was a zoologist, artist, writer, and later
in life a professor of comparative anatomy. Ancient philosophers o f Greece, including Hippocrates and Ar­
istotle, were among the earliest to record notes and observations on the natural history of plants and animals;
the early rudiments of m odem ecology. M odem ecology mostly branched out of natural history science that
flourished in the late 19th century. Charles Darwin’s evolutionary treatise and the concept of adaptation as it
was introduced in 1859 is a pivotal cornerstone in m odem ecological theory.
Ecology is not synonymous with environment, environmentalism, natural history or environmental sci­
ence. Ecology is closely related to the biological disciplines o f physiology, evolution, genetics and behavior.
An understanding o f how biodiversity affects ecological function is an important focus area in ecological
studies. Ecosystems sustain every life-supporting function on the planet, including climate regulation, water
filtration, soil formation, food, medicines, erosion control, and many other natural features o f historical,
spiritual or scientific value.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. biophysics [,bai3u'fiziks] — биофизика


2. biotic [bai'Dtik] — жизненный, живой, биотический; взаимозависимый
3. abiotic [,eibai'D tik] — абиотический; неживой; нежизненный

Упражнение 4. О бъясните образование следующ их слов: biotic, abiotic, biophysical, feedback,


well-being, sub-discipline, cornerstone.

TEXT В

Упражнение 5. Прочтите и переведите на русский язы к следующ ие слова:


drainage ['d re in id 3] financial [fai'naenjl] m em brane ['m em brein]
barrier ['Ьэепэ] technology [tek'nDlad3i] module ['mDdju:l]
debate [di'beit] container [k an 'tein a] absorb [ab'so:b]
flora ['Аэ.тэ] fauna ['fo:na] photovoltaic[' foutauvol' tenk]

WORDS TO BE USED

black water — сточная вода (из туалета)


cause [ko:z] 1) n — причина, мотив (for); 2) v — быть причиной, причинять, вызывать
cool roof — неотапливаемая крыша, холодная крыша
fauna [Тэ:пэ] n (pi -ае, -as [-эг]) — фауна
flood [fUd] n — наводнение
flora ['fb :ra ] n (pi -ae, -as [-az]) — флора
graywater, greywater — сточная вода (не из туалета), которую можно вернуть в оборот
green roof — зеленая крыша
harm [ha:m] n — вред; ущерб

174 2. Ecological architecture


improve [im 'pruiv] v — улучшать(ся)
layer ['leis] n — слой
living roof — живая крыша
plant [plaint] 1) n — растение; 2) v — сажать (растения)
planting ['plaintirj] n — насаждение, озеленение
pot [pDt] n — цветочный горшок
refer [ri'f3i] v — относиться
shingle ['Jiggl] n — кровельная дранка; гонт
sod [sod] roof — дерновая крыша
vegetation [,ved33'teijn] n — растительность
waterproof ['w oitspruif] a — водонепроницаемый, непромокаемый
wildlife ['w ail(d)laif] n — живая природа (лес, поле, пустыня, океан и их обитатели)

WORDS ТО BE UNDERSTOOD

combat ['kDmbaet] v — сражаться, бороться (against — против чего-л.; for — за что-л.)


concern [kan's3:n] v — касаться, иметь отношение
environmentalism [in/vair3n'm ent(3)ls3m ] n — энвайронментализм (учение об окружающей
среде)
habitat ['haebitaet] n — родина, место распространения, среда обитания (животного, растения);
естественная среда
heat island effect — тепловой остров, тепловой купол (над городом)
manage ['таепк1з] v — руководить, управлять
trend [trend] n — тенденция
urban heat island (U H I) — городская территория, в которой значительно теплее, чем в сельской
местности
***

sustainable [ss'stein sb al] — 1. устойчивый; жизнеспособный; 2. (экологически) устойчивый,


экоустойчивый (не наносящ ий ущерба окружающей среде)
ecologically sustainable development — экологически устойчивое развитие
sustainable agriculture — экологически рациональное сельское хозяйство, устойчивое сельское
хозяйство
sustainable economic growth — устойчивый экономический рост
sustainable forestry — экологически рациональное лесопользование, устойчивое лесопользование
sustainable use o f natural resources — рациональное использование природных ресурсов
sustainability [ss, stein s'b ilati] — устойчивость; устойчивое развитие
ecological / environmental sustainability — экологическая устойчивость, устойчивость окружающей
среды (предполагает поддержание экологической целостности и запасов природных ресурсов)
economic sustainability — экономическая устойчивость
financial sustainability — финансовая устойчивость
the Royal Award for Sustainability — Королевская премия за устойчивое развитие (государствен­
ная награда в Великобритании; вручается предпринимателям)

Упражнение 6. П рочтите текст и напиш ите его резю ме на русском или английском языке.

Упражнение 7. П рочтите текст и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы:


1. What is sustainable landscape architecture? 2. What does it include? 3 Why is the design of a sustainable
urban drainage system very important? 4. What roofs are sustainable? 5. What roofs are referred to as “green
roofs”? 6. What is a “container garden” 7. How is greywater used? 8. What else does the living roof serve?
9. What is the sod roof covered with? 10. What are the two types of green roofs?

UNIT VIII • Landscape architecture, ecological architecture, energy efficient architecture 175
SUSTAINABLE LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

Sustainable landscape architecture is a category of sustainable design


concerned with the planning and design o f outdoor space.
This can include ecological, social and econom ic aspects of
sustainability. For example, the design of a sustainable urban drainage
system can improve habitats for fauna and flora; improve recreational
facilities, because floods cause severe financial harm.
The design of a green roof or a roof garden can also contribute to the
sustainability of a landscape architecture project. The roof will help
sod roofs manage surface water, provide for wildlife and provide for recreation.
Green roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation, planted over a
waterproofing membrane. It may also include additional layers such as a root barrier and drainage and
irrigation systems. (The use of “green” refers to the growing trend of environmentalism and does not refer
to roofs which are merely colored green, as with green roof tiles or roof shingles.) On the sod roof sod is
planted.
The term green roof may also be used to indicate roofs that use some form o f "green" technology, such
as a cool roof, a roof with solar thermal collectors or photovoltaic modules. Green roofs are also referred to
as eco-roofs, vegetated roofs, living roofs.
Container gardens on roofs, where plants are maintained in pots, are not generally considered to be true
green roofs, although this is an area of debate. Rooftop ponds are another form of green roofs which are used
to treat greywater.
Also known as “living roofs” , green roofs serve several purposes for a building, such as absorbing
rainwater, providing insulation, creating a habitat for wildlife, and helping to lower urban air temperatures
and combat the heat island effect (An urban heat island (U H I) is a metropolitan area which is significantly
warmer than its surrounding rural areas).
There are two types of green roofs: intensive roofs, which are thicker and can support a wider variety of
plants but are heavier and require more maintenance, and extensive roofs, which are covered in a light layer
of vegetation and are lighter than an intensive green roof.

Упражнение 8. Используйте словосочетания c sustainability и sustainable при обсуждении лан­


дшафтной архитектуры. Объясните (по-английски), что они означают.

Упражнение 9. Объясните образование следующих слов: waterproofing, greywater, rainwater, con­


tainer, rooftop.

Упражнение 10. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на подчеркнутые слова.


I. The church is lower than the tower. 2. The architect had to lower the roof. 3. There are many plants in
the garden. 4. This tree was planted last year.

Упражнение 11. К аки е виды кры ш вы знаете? О пиш ите их п о -ан гли й ски . К акая разница
между ним и?

3. ENERGY EFFICIENT ARCHITECTURE

TEXT A

Упражнение 1. Прочтите и переведите на русский язык следующие слова.


techniques [tek'ni:ks] filter ['filta] terminal [Т з:mini]
control [kan'trsul] fluorescent [flo:'resnt] energy ['e n a d 3i]
traditional [tr3 'd ijn (a)l] illumination [ijm m i'n e ijn ] mechanism [ 'т е к э п к ( э ) т ]

176 3. Energy efficient architecture


WORDS TO BE USED
by means of — посредством, при помощи
efficiency [i'fij(a)nsi] n — эффективность
efficient [i'fij(a)nt] a — эффективный; energy-efficient [,enad3ii'fij(9)nt] a — энергосберегающий
hemisphere ['hem isfis] n — полушарие
need [ni:d] 1) n — необходимость, недостаток, нехватка; 2) v — нуждаться (в чем-л.); иметь по­
требность, требоваться
network ['netw 3:k] n — сеть
renewable [ri'nju:ab(a)l] а — восстановимый, возобновляемый (о природных ресурсах и т.п.)
restrict [ri'strikt] v — ограничивать; ставить предел
shade [Jeid] 1) n — тень; 2) v — заслонять от света; затенять ; shading ['Jeidir)] n — затенение
skylight ['skailait] n — верхний свет; застекленная крыша, фонарь
waste [weist] n — отбросы, отходы

WORDS ТО BE UNDERSTOOD

am ount [s'm aunt] n — количество


attain [a'tein] v — достигнуть, добиться
awning ['э:пн)] n — навес, тент
bulb [Ьл1Ь] n — лампочка
capture ['kaept/э] v — захватывать
effort ['efat] n — усилие
gain [gein] n — увеличение
goal [gaul] n — цель, задача
humidity [hju'm idati] n — сырость, влажность; влага
relieve [riTi:v] v — облегчать, уменьшать (тяжесть, давление)
stale [steil] a — несвежий, спертый

Упражнение 2. П рочтите текст и напиш ите его резю ме на русском или английском языке.

Упражнение 3. П рочтите текст и ответьте на следующ ие вопросы.


1. What is the goal o f efficient energy? 2. What must be done to achieve and maintain a comfortable
temperature and illumination? 3. What is the most important goal of sustainable architecture? 4. What does
HVAC stand for? 5. To what does it refer? 6. How are they provided for? 7. What is EfW? 8. What is the aim
of passive solar building design? 9. What does the active solar design use? 10. What methods are used to warm
or cool the building?

EFFICIENT ENERGY USE


P a rti

Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal of efforts to reduce the amount
of energy required to provide products and services. For example, insulating a home allows a building to use
less heating and cooling energy to achieve and maintain a comfortable temperature. Installing fluorescent
lights or natural skylights reduces the amount o f energy required to attain the same level o f illumination
compared to using traditional incandescent light bulbs*. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are said to
be the twin pillars of sustainable energy policy.
Energy efficiency over the entire life cycle of a building is the single most important goal of sustainable
architecture. Architects use many different techniques to reduce the energy needs o f buildings and increase
their ability to capture or generate their own energy.
HVAC stands for heating, ventilation and air conditioning and refers to the equipment, distribution
network and terminals used either collectively or individually to provide fresh filtered air, heating, cooling

UNIT VIII • Landscape architecture, ecological architecture, energy efficient architecture 177
and humidity control in a building. Site and building orientation have some major effects on a building’s
HVAC efficiency.
The energy recycling technologies can effectively recapture energy from waste hot water and stale air and
transfer that energy into incoming fresh cold water or fresh air.
Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) is the process of creating energy in the form of
electricity or heat from the incineration* o f waste source.
Passive solar building design allows buildings to use the energy of the sun efficiently without the use of
any active solar mechanisms. Typically passive solar building designs incorporate materials that retain heat
effectively and strong insulation that works to prevent heat escape. Active solar design uses electrical or me­
chanical equipment, such as pumps and fans.
Low energy designs also require the use o f solar shading, by means of awnings, blinds or shutters, to
relieve the solar heat gain in summer and to reduce the need for artificial cooling. In the northern hemisphere
a large number of south-facing windows are installed to collect direct sun while restricting the number of
north-facing windows. Certain window types, such as double or triple glazed insulated windows with gas
filled spaces provide much better insulation than single-pane glass windows.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЯ

1. incandescent [, inkaen' desnt] light bulb — лампа накаливания


2. incineration [in ^ in a 're ijn ] — сжигание; кремация

Упражнение 4. О бъясните образование следующих слов: distribution, cooling, skylight, efficiency,


renewable, recapture, heating, shading, incoming.

Упражнение 5. Подберите синонимы : goal, amount, wet, need.

Упражнение 6. Замените подчеркнутые слова. Поставьте заменяю щ ие слова в нужную форму.


Возможны варианты. Переведите на русский язы к.
Low energy design stands for the design that saves energy. 2. Site and building orientation have effects
on a building’s HVAC efficiency. 3. Efficient energy use is the goal o f efforts to reduce the amount o f energy
required to provide products and services. 4. HVAC means heating, ventilation and air conditioning.
5. Renewable energy is said to be very important.

aim, energy efficiency, influence, it is said that, mean, purpose, quantity, refer to, signify, stand for

Упражнение 7. Переведите на русский язы к, обращ ая вним ание н а подчеркнуты е слова.


1. Waste water stands for water from baths, sinks, toilets. 2. Energy efficiency is the most important goal
of sustainable architecture. 3. The energy recycling technologies can effectively recapture energy from waste
hot water. 4. Renewable energy is said to be necessary. 5. We need new materials. 6. Do you need to go there?

TEXT В

Упражнение 8. П рочтите и переведите на русский язы к следующие слова,


excess [ik'ses] convert [kan'v3:t] solar fsaula]
WORDS TO BE USED
avoid [a'void] v — избегать
light shelf — световая полка
loss [Ids] n — потеря убыток; ущерб

178 3. Energy efficient architecture


WORDS TO BE UNDERSTOOD
coniferous [ks'nif(3)r9s] a — хвойный
deciduous [di'sidjuss] a — лиственный, листопадный
evergreen ['evagrim ] a — вечнозеленый
fossil fuel ['fo s lf ju:al] — ископаемое топливо
heating plant ['hi:tir),pla:nt] — отопительная установка
pump [рлшр] n — насос; помпа
ratio ['reijisu ] (pi -os [-auz]) n — отношение, пропорция; коэффициент; соотношение
sprawl [sprorl] v — растянуть(ся)

Упражнение 9. П рочтите текст и напиш ите его резю мена русском или английском языке.

Упражнение 10. П рочтите текст и ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. What prevents excess solar gain in summer? 2. What kinds of plants do you know? 3. What protects
against cold wind? 4. What is important for sustainable architecture in cold countries? 5. What kinds of energy
do you know? 6. What is the difference between solar and passive energies? 7. Why are multi-winged building
designs often avoided?
EFFICIENT ENERGY USE
Part II
Preventing excess solar gain by means of solar shading devices in the summer months is important. Deciduous
trees are often planted in front of windows to block excessive sun in summer with their leaves, but allow light
through in winter when their leaves fall off. Louvers or light shelves1are installed to allow the sunlight in during
the winter (when the sun is lower in the sky) and keep it out in the summer (when the sun is high in the sky).
Coniferous or evergreen plants are often planted to the north of buildings to protect against cold north winds.
In colder climates, heating systems are a primary focus for sustainable architecture. In climates with four
seasons, an integrated energy system will increase in efficiency: when the building is well insulated, when it is
sited to work with the forces of nature, when heat is recaptured (to be used immediately or stored), when the
heat plant relying on fossil fuels or electricity is greater than 100% efficient, and when renewable energy is used.

light shelves
Active solar technologies are employed to convert solar energy into usable light, heat, cause air-movement
for ventilation or cooling, or store heat for future use. They use electrical or mechanical equipment, such as
pumps and fans, to increase the usable heat in a system. Solar energy collection and utilization systems that
do not use external energy, are classified as passive solar technologies.
In passive solar building design, windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, and distribute solar
energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is called passive solar design
or climatic design because, unlike active solar heating systems, it doesn’t involve the use of mechanical and
electrical devices.
The key to designing a passive solar building is to take advantage o f the local climate. Elements to be
considered include window placement (fenestration) and glazing type, thermal insulation, and shading. Pas­

1 A lig h t s h e lf is an architectural elem ent that allows daylight to penetrate deep into a building. This horizontal light-reflecting overhang is placed
above eye-level and has a high-reflectance upper surface.

UNIT VIII • Landscape architecture, ecological architecture, energy efficient architecture 179
sive solar design techniques can be applied most easily to new buildings, but existing buildings can be
adapted or modified.
Low energy buildings typically have a very low surface area to volume ratio to minimize heat loss. This
means that sprawling multi-winged building designs (often thought to look more "organic") are often avoid­
ed to be replaced by more centralized structures.
Windows are placed to maximize the input of heat-creating light while minimizing the loss of heat through
glass, a poor insulator.
Упражнение 11. О бъясните образование следующих слов: multi-winged, maximize, insulator, re­
newable, usable, excessive.
Упражнение 12. Подберите антонимы к следующим словам: maximize, passive, gain.

Упражнение 13. Переведите на русский язы к следующие словосочетания.


1. Take advantage of the climate; 2. elements to be considered; 3. a very low surface area to volume ratio;
4. renewable energy; 5. are often avoided to be replaced by more centralized structures.
Упражнение 14. О пиш ите energy efficient architecture и energy-efficient landscape design.
UNIT IX
ADDITIONAL TEXTS

TO U N IT I. M O SCO W

TEXT A. THE CATHEDRAL O F THE INTERCESSION

Упражнение 1. Прочтите текст и напиш ите его резюме на русском или английском языке.

Упражнение 2. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:


1. Why did Ivan the Terrible decide to build this church? 2. Who built it? 3. O f what material is it built?
4. What is the popular name of the cathedral and why? What is the form of the plan like? 5. What typically
Russian features are there?

THE CATHEDRAL OF THE INTERCESSION OF THE VIRGIN


ON THE MOAT
(Pokrovsky chto na rvu)

The Cathedral o f St. Basil stands on the southeast end of Red


Square. It is uniquely medieval Russian in form, technique, and
decoration.
It is a votive*church built by Ivan IV to commemorate the conquest
of Kazan. With the church as the central, dom inant elem ent, he
planned eight smaller but separate churches of wood, replaced later by
masonry, each with its own altar and iconostasis, dedicated to a saint
whose feast day coincided with one of the days of the eight important
victories over the Tatars.
Begun in 1553, the cathedral was finished and consecrated in 1560.
It was designed by Russian architects Barma and Postnik Yakovlev. In
1588 another church was added on the northeast side to house the
grave o f St. Basil the Blessed, afterwards the whole cathedral came to
be named after him.
Basically the cathedral is a cross-shaped church, around a square
centre — the main church, over which rises the central tower with a
shatyor (high octagonal pyramidal roof) and crowned with a gilt
cupola. At each arm of the cross, along the principal axes, are four
octagonal churches (or chapels). Four smaller, lower in height
churches (two square and two of irregular outline) are along the
diagonal axes. All these elem ents are placed over a tall vaulted
substructure — the typical Russian podklet. The pyramidal belfry at
the southeast corner is separated from the church.
The main church is o f stone and brick and covered with stucco.
Originally it was white, but in the 17th century it was painted. The
church is decorated with interspaced (v perebezhku) tiers of ornate
kokoshniki. The eight cupolas are all different in design.
The external gallery is approached by covered staircases with porches topped with small pyramidal spires.
It forms a sort of ambulatory (gulbishche).

UNIT IX • Additional texts 181


ПРИМ ЕЧАНИЕ

Votive fvsutiv] — вотивная, т.е. построенная по обету

Упражнение 3. Подберите синоним ы или антонимы к следующим словам: cross-shaped, at first,


brick and stone, smaller, dominant, belfry, topped.

Упражнение 4. В ыпиш ите интернациональны е слова и укажите, есть ли у них разни ц а в зна­
чении с русскими словами.

Упражнение 5. О пиш ите собор Василия Блаж енного.

TEXT В.1. КОЛОМЕНСКОЕ. ДЕРЕВЯННЫЙ ДВОРЕЦ

Упражнение 1. П рочтите текст и опиш ите дворец. П ользуйтесь «Тематическим алфавитным


русско-английским словарем терминов по русской архитектуре».

К О ЛО М ЕНС КОЕ

Наиболее ярким примером деревянной двор­


цовой архитектуры был дворец в селе Коломен­
ском под Москвой. Построенный в 1667—1668 гг.
мастерами Семеном Петровым и Иваном Михай­
ловым, он был частично перестроен в 1681 г. Сав­
вой Даментьевым, заменившим башню-повалушу
царских хором новой столовой избой. Спустя
100 лет после его постройки дворец был разобран
«за ветхостью»
Коломенский дворец состоял из семи хором:
для царя, для царевича, для царицы и четырех для

из
Д во р ец в К оломенском
(1667— 1691 гг.) близ
М осквы
а — юго-вост очный фа­
сад;
6 — северо-вост очный
ф асад;
а — план второго атажа
Х ором ы
1 — цари;
2 — царевича;
3 — царицы;
План дворца 4 — царевен

182 То UNIT I. Moscow


царевен. Все хоромы были связаны переходами между собой, а также с подсобными помещениями и
дворцовой церковью. Каждые из этих хором были трех- или четырех-этажными, состояли из ряда
клетей со своими сенями, наружными крыльцами и разнообразными покрытиями — шатрами, по­
ставленными нередко по два и по три, простыми и крещатыми, бочками и кубами. Живописности и
сложности композиций здания отвечала обработка фасадов, где были богато украшены резьбой под­
зоры кровель, крыльца, галереи и наличники окон. В хоромах царя, царицы и царевича фасады были
обшиты тесом, что в народной деревянной архитектуре тогда не применялось.
Окруженный каменной оградой, дворец вблизи мог быть обозреваем только по частям, и то
одна, то другая часть его приобретала значение композиционного центра, создавая разнообразные,
сменявшие одна другую картины, объединенные между собой повторением деталей. Единству ар­
хитектурного облика дворца способствовала и композиция фасадов всех хором, с мощными нижни­
ми этажами-подклетами, со стенами, прорезанными волоковыми и красными окнами, с более
легкими благодаря применению только красных окон вторыми этажами и совсем легкими третьи­
ми этажами — чердаками с каркасными стенами и сплошным рядом окон, разделенных тонкими
стойками. Такая композиция фасадов наделяла хоромы большой легкостью, а сложность плана и
объемной композиций, разнообразие покрытий, богатство наружных украшений и раскраска в
разные цвета этих украшений и крыш придавали дворцу сказочное великолепие.

TEXT В.2. KOLOMENSKOYE. THE ASCENSION CHU