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Transformer is an ac machine that (i) transfers electrical energy from one electrical

circuit to another, (ii) does so without a change of frequency, (iii) does so by the

principle of electro-magnetic induction, and (iv) has electric circuits that are linked

by a common magnetic circuit. The energy transfer usually takes place with a change

of voltage, although this is not always necessary. Since its basic construction

requires so moving part, so it is often called “static transformer” and it is very

rugged machine requiring the minimum amount of repair and maintenance. When

the transformer raises the voltage i.e. when the output voltage of a transformer is

higher than its input voltage, it is called the step-up transformer and when it lowers,

it is called the step-down transformer.

An elementary transformer consists of a soft iron or silicon steel core and two

windings, placed on it. The windings are insulated from both the core and each

other. The core is built up of thin soft iron or low reluctance to the magnetic flux. The

winding connected to the magnetic flux. The winding connected to the supply main is

called the primary and the winding connected to the load circuit is called the

secondary. Although in the actual construction the two windings are usually wound

one over the other, for the sake of simplicity, the figures for analyzing transformer

theory show the windings on opposite sides of the core, as shown below

Simple Transformer

When the primary winding is connected to an ac supply mains, current flows through

it. Since this winding links with an iron core, so current flowing through this winding

produces an alternating flux in the core. Since this flux is alternating and links with

the secondary winding also, so induces an emf in the secondary winding. The

frequency of induced emf in secondary winding is the same as that of the flux or that

of the s supply voltage. The induced emf in the secondary winding enables it to

deliver current to an external load connected across it. Thus the energy is

transformed from primary winding to the secondary winding by means of electro-

magnetic induction without any change in frequency. The flux Ø of the iron core links

not only with the secondary winding but also with the primary winding, so produces

self-induced emf in the primary winding: This induced in the primary winding

opposes the applied voltage and therefore sometimes it is known as back emf of the

primary. In fact the induced emf in the primary winding limits the primary current in

much the same way that the back emf in a dc motor limits the armature

current.

winding of a transformer is connected to a dc supply mains, the flux produced will

not vary but remain constant in magnitude and therefore no emf will be induced in

the secondary winding except at the moment of switching on. Thus the transformer

can not be employed for raising or lowering the dc voltage. Also there will be no back

induced emf in the primary winding and therefore a heavy current will be drawn from

the supply mains which may result in the burning out of the winding.

and Working Principle of Transformer

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12/25/2010 justaneng

INTRODUCTION

The invention of the power transformer in the latter part of the nineteenth century made

possible the development of the modern constant voltage AC supply system, with power

stations often located many miles from the centers of electrical load. Before that, in the

early days, the supplies were DC systems with generation, of necessity close to the point

of loading.

The amount of auxiliary plant needing electrical supply in a large power station requires

five or possibly six different voltage levels, requiring 60 or more transformers to provide

the interconnections.

The transformer interconnects and transfers power between systems at different voltages.

It does this at very high efficiency, at 99% or higher.

Transformers in power stations are generally three phase and double wound, i.e. they

have electrically separate primary and secondary windings

In figure 1, an ac generator connected to circuit 1 , referred to as PRIMARY, transfers

energy to the magnetic circuit, which in turn transfers this energy to circuit 2, referred to

as SECONDARY. The flux in the core φM is common to both circuits, and is

responsible for this transfer of energy.

In an ideal transformer, there are no losses in the core and the windings have no

resistance or leakage reactance.

Consequently, the voltage V1 applied at the primary terminals will be used to circulate

the primary current I1 against the opposing emf induced by the main flux. This

INDUCED EMF e1 can be calculated by the following equation:

e1 = N1 x change in flux

where N1 is the number of primary turns.

Similarly, the secondary winding is linked by the same flux as the primary winding and

will have an emf e2 induced in it,

e2 = N2 x change in flux ( 2 )

In the above e1 and e2 are instantaneous values of induced voltage. However it is usual

and more convenient to use rms ( root mean square) values. It can be shown that, as a

general formula

E = 4.44 N φM f ( 3 )

where

E = rms induced voltage

N = number of turns

φM = rms value of flux

f = system frequency ( 60 cps)

In an ideal transformers, the losses which are normally small are ignored, and then

V1 / V2 = N1 / N2 = I2 / I1 ( 4 )

suitable iron core as shown in figure 1. A magnetizing reactive current flows in the coil,

establishing flux φM in the core (and small additional fluxes elsewhere, neglected for a

first consideration).

2. The flux φM, is such that it induces in the primary coil an emf E1, by self induction

to counter the applied voltage V1 and establish electrical balance. If a secondary coil of

N2 turns is linked by the same flux, then by mutual induction, an emf E2, is developed in

this coil. If a load is connected to the secondary coil, a current I2 will flow in the

secondary circuit under the influence of induced voltage E2. This induced voltage E2

appears across the secondary terminals as V2.

Voltage Rating

The selection of the cable insulation level to be used in a particular installation shall be made on the basis

of the applicable phase to phase voltage and the general system category as outlined below:

100 Percent Level - Cables in this category may be applied where system is provided with relay protection

such that ground faults will be cleared as rapidly as possible, but in any case within 1 minute. While these

cables are applicable to the great majority of cable installations which are on grounded systems, they may

be used also on other systems for which the application of cables is acceptable **provided the above

clearing requirements are met in completely de-energizing the faulted section.

133 Percent Level - This insulation level corresponds to that formerly designated for ungrounded systems.

Cables in this category may be applied in those situations where the clearing time requirements of the 100

percent level category cannot be met, and yet there is adequate assurance that the faulted section will be de-

energized in a time not exceeding 1 hour. Also they may be used when additional insulation strength over

the 100 percent level category is desirable.

173 Percent Level - Cables in this category should be applied on systems where the time required to de-

energize a grounded section is indefinite. Their use is recommended also for resonant grounded systems.

Consult the manufacturer for insulation thickness.

**In common with other electrical equipment, the use of cables is not recommended on systems where the

ratio of the zero to positive phase reactance of the system at the point of cable application lies between -1

and -40 since excessively high voltages may be encountered in the case of ground faults.

horsepower, kilowatts and kilovolt-amperes

ALTERNATING CURRENT

DESIRED DIRECT

DATA Two-Phase* CURRENT

Single-Phase Three-Phase

Four-Wire

Amperes when kva x 1000 kva x 1000 kva x 1000 kva x 1000

kva is shown E 2xE 1.73 x E E

Amperes when kw x 1000 kw x 1000 kw x 1000 kw x 1000

kilowatts are shown E x pf 2 x E x pf 1.73 x E x pf E

Amperes when hp x 746 hp x 746 hp x 746 hp x 746

horsepower is shown E x %Eff x pf 2 x E x %Eff x pf 1.73 x E x %Eff x pf E x %Eff

Kilovolt-Amperes IxE IxEx2 I x E x 1.73 IxE

1000 1000 1000 1000

Kilowatts I x E x pf I x E x 2 pf I x E x 1.73 x pf IxE

1000 1000 1000 1000

Horsepower I x E x %Eff x pf I x E x 2 x %Eff x pf I x E x 1.73 x %Eff x pf I x E x %Eff

746 746 746 746

*In three-wire, two phase balanced circuits, the current in the common conductor is 1.41 times that in either

of the other conductors.

E = volts Ø-Ø; I = amperes; % Eff = percent efficiency in decimals; pf = power factor in decimals;

kva = kilovolt-ampere; hp = horsepower; kw = kilowatts

FORMULAS FOR THE BASIC CIRCUIT

COMPONENTS

IMPEDANCE VOLT-AMP EQUATIONS ENERGY

CIRCUIT (dissipated on

ELEMENT absolute complex instantaneous RMS values for R or stored in

value form values sinusoidal signals L, C)

RESISTANCE R R v=i×R Vrms=Irms×R E=Irms2R×t

INDUCTANCE 2πfL jωL v=L×di/dt Vrms=Irms×2πfL E=Li2/2

CAPACITANCE 1/(2πfC) 1/jωC i=C×dv/dt Vrms=Irms/(2πfC) E=Cv2/2

Notes:

R- resistance in ohms, L- inductance in henrys, C- capacitance in farads, f - frequency in

hertz, t- time in seconds, π≈3.14159;

ω=2πf - angular frequency;

j - imaginary unit ( j2=-1 )

Euler's formula: ejx=cosx+jsinx

CONNECTIONS

CIRCUIT SERIES PARALLEL

ELEMENT CONNECTION CONNECTION

Rparallel=

Rseries=

RESISTANCE 1/

R1+R2+...

(1/R1+1/R2+...)

Lseries= Lparallel=

INDUCTANCE

L1+L2+... 1/(1/L1+1/L2+...)

Cseries=

Cparallel=

CAPACITANCE 1/

C1+C2+...

(1/C1+1/C2+...)

IMPEDANCES

CIRCUIT CONNECTION COMPLEX FORM ABSOLUTE VALUE

Z=R+jωL+1/jωC

Series

Z=

1/(1/R+1/jωL+jωC)

Parallel

one ampere of current through one ohm of resistance

• Ohm - unit of resistance - one ohm is the resistance offered to the passage of one

ampere when impelled by one volt

• Ampere - units of current - one ampere is the current which one volt can send

through a resistance of one ohm

• Watt - unit of electrical energy or power - one watt is the product of one ampere

and one volt - one ampere of current flowing under the force of one volt gives one

watt of energy

• Volt Ampere - product of volts and amperes as shown by a voltmeter and

ammeter - in direct current systems the volt ampere is the same as watts or the

energy delivered - in alternating current systems - the volts and amperes may or

may not be 100% synchronous - when synchronous the volt amperes equals the

watts on a wattmeter - when not synchronous volt amperes exceed watts - reactive

power

• Kilovolt Ampere - one kilovolt ampere - KVA - is equal to 1,000 volt amperes

• Power Factor - ratio of watts to volt amperes

W=EI (1a)

W = R I2 (1b)

W = E2/ R (1c)

where

W = power (Watts)

E = voltage (Volts)

I = current (Amperes)

R = resistance (Ohms)

Electric Current Formulas

I=E/R (2a)

I=W/E (2b)

I = (W / R)1/2 (2c)

R=E/I (3a)

R = E2/ W (3b)

R = W / I2 (3c)

E=RI (4a)

E=W/I (4b)

E = (W R)1/2 (4c)

= 0.67 Ampere

where

μ = efficiency

Winput = input electrical power (Watts)

or alternatively

where

where

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