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Transformer is an ac machine that (i) transfers electrical energy from one electrical
circuit to another, (ii) does so without a change of frequency, (iii) does so by the
principle of electro-magnetic induction, and (iv) has electric circuits that are linked
by a common magnetic circuit. The energy transfer usually takes place with a change
of voltage, although this is not always necessary. Since its basic construction
requires so moving part, so it is often called “static transformer” and it is very
rugged machine requiring the minimum amount of repair and maintenance. When
the transformer raises the voltage i.e. when the output voltage of a transformer is
higher than its input voltage, it is called the step-up transformer and when it lowers,
it is called the step-down transformer.

Basic Construction and Working Principle of Transformer

An elementary transformer consists of a soft iron or silicon steel core and two
windings, placed on it. The windings are insulated from both the core and each
other. The core is built up of thin soft iron or low reluctance to the magnetic flux. The
winding connected to the magnetic flux. The winding connected to the supply main is
called the primary and the winding connected to the load circuit is called the
secondary. Although in the actual construction the two windings are usually wound
one over the other, for the sake of simplicity, the figures for analyzing transformer
theory show the windings on opposite sides of the core, as shown below

Simple Transformer

When the primary winding is connected to an ac supply mains, current flows through
it. Since this winding links with an iron core, so current flowing through this winding
produces an alternating flux in the core. Since this flux is alternating and links with
the secondary winding also, so induces an emf in the secondary winding. The
frequency of induced emf in secondary winding is the same as that of the flux or that
of the s supply voltage. The induced emf in the secondary winding enables it to
deliver current to an external load connected across it. Thus the energy is
transformed from primary winding to the secondary winding by means of electro-
magnetic induction without any change in frequency. The flux Ø of the iron core links
not only with the secondary winding but also with the primary winding, so produces
self-induced emf in the primary winding: This induced in the primary winding
opposes the applied voltage and therefore sometimes it is known as back emf of the
primary. In fact the induced emf in the primary winding limits the primary current in
much the same way that the back emf in a dc motor limits the armature

Caution. Transformer must not be connected to a direct source. If the primary

winding of a transformer is connected to a dc supply mains, the flux produced will
not vary but remain constant in magnitude and therefore no emf will be induced in
the secondary winding except at the moment of switching on. Thus the transformer
can not be employed for raising or lowering the dc voltage. Also there will be no back
induced emf in the primary winding and therefore a heavy current will be drawn from
the supply mains which may result in the burning out of the winding.

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12/25/2010 justaneng
The invention of the power transformer in the latter part of the nineteenth century made
possible the development of the modern constant voltage AC supply system, with power
stations often located many miles from the centers of electrical load. Before that, in the
early days, the supplies were DC systems with generation, of necessity close to the point
of loading.

The amount of auxiliary plant needing electrical supply in a large power station requires
five or possibly six different voltage levels, requiring 60 or more transformers to provide
the interconnections.

The transformer interconnects and transfers power between systems at different voltages.
It does this at very high efficiency, at 99% or higher.

Transformers in power stations are generally three phase and double wound, i.e. they
have electrically separate primary and secondary windings


In figure 1, an ac generator connected to circuit 1 , referred to as PRIMARY, transfers
energy to the magnetic circuit, which in turn transfers this energy to circuit 2, referred to
as SECONDARY. The flux in the core φM is common to both circuits, and is
responsible for this transfer of energy.

Fig. 1.1. Ideal transformer

In an ideal transformer, there are no losses in the core and the windings have no
resistance or leakage reactance.

Consequently, the voltage V1 applied at the primary terminals will be used to circulate
the primary current I1 against the opposing emf induced by the main flux. This
INDUCED EMF e1 can be calculated by the following equation:

e1 = N1 x change in flux

or e1 = N1 x change in flux / change in t ( 1 )

where N1 is the number of primary turns.
Similarly, the secondary winding is linked by the same flux as the primary winding and
will have an emf e2 induced in it,

e2 = N2 x change in flux ( 2 )

where N2 is the number of secondary turns.

In the above e1 and e2 are instantaneous values of induced voltage. However it is usual
and more convenient to use rms ( root mean square) values. It can be shown that, as a
general formula
E = 4.44 N φM f ( 3 )

E = rms induced voltage
N = number of turns
φM = rms value of flux
f = system frequency ( 60 cps)

In an ideal transformers, the losses which are normally small are ignored, and then

V1 / V2 = N1 / N2 = I2 / I1 ( 4 )

This important relationship must be clearly understood and memorized.

The operation of the transformer can be summarized as follows:

1. When an alternating voltage V1 is applied to a primary coil of N1 turns linking a

suitable iron core as shown in figure 1. A magnetizing reactive current flows in the coil,
establishing flux φM in the core (and small additional fluxes elsewhere, neglected for a
first consideration).

2. The flux φM, is such that it induces in the primary coil an emf E1, by self induction
to counter the applied voltage V1 and establish electrical balance. If a secondary coil of
N2 turns is linked by the same flux, then by mutual induction, an emf E2, is developed in
this coil. If a load is connected to the secondary coil, a current I2 will flow in the
secondary circuit under the influence of induced voltage E2. This induced voltage E2
appears across the secondary terminals as V2.
Voltage Rating

The selection of the cable insulation level to be used in a particular installation shall be made on the basis
of the applicable phase to phase voltage and the general system category as outlined below:

100 Percent Level - Cables in this category may be applied where system is provided with relay protection
such that ground faults will be cleared as rapidly as possible, but in any case within 1 minute. While these
cables are applicable to the great majority of cable installations which are on grounded systems, they may
be used also on other systems for which the application of cables is acceptable **provided the above
clearing requirements are met in completely de-energizing the faulted section.

133 Percent Level - This insulation level corresponds to that formerly designated for ungrounded systems.
Cables in this category may be applied in those situations where the clearing time requirements of the 100
percent level category cannot be met, and yet there is adequate assurance that the faulted section will be de-
energized in a time not exceeding 1 hour. Also they may be used when additional insulation strength over
the 100 percent level category is desirable.

173 Percent Level - Cables in this category should be applied on systems where the time required to de-
energize a grounded section is indefinite. Their use is recommended also for resonant grounded systems.
Consult the manufacturer for insulation thickness.

**In common with other electrical equipment, the use of cables is not recommended on systems where the
ratio of the zero to positive phase reactance of the system at the point of cable application lies between -1
and -40 since excessively high voltages may be encountered in the case of ground faults.

Electrical formulas for determining amperes,

horsepower, kilowatts and kilovolt-amperes
Single-Phase Three-Phase
Amperes when kva x 1000 kva x 1000 kva x 1000 kva x 1000
kva is shown E 2xE 1.73 x E E
Amperes when kw x 1000 kw x 1000 kw x 1000 kw x 1000
kilowatts are shown E x pf 2 x E x pf 1.73 x E x pf E
Amperes when hp x 746 hp x 746 hp x 746 hp x 746
horsepower is shown E x %Eff x pf 2 x E x %Eff x pf 1.73 x E x %Eff x pf E x %Eff
Kilovolt-Amperes IxE IxEx2 I x E x 1.73 IxE
1000 1000 1000 1000
Kilowatts I x E x pf I x E x 2 pf I x E x 1.73 x pf IxE
1000 1000 1000 1000
Horsepower I x E x %Eff x pf I x E x 2 x %Eff x pf I x E x 1.73 x %Eff x pf I x E x %Eff
746 746 746 746

*In three-wire, two phase balanced circuits, the current in the common conductor is 1.41 times that in either
of the other conductors.

E = volts Ø-Ø; I = amperes; % Eff = percent efficiency in decimals; pf = power factor in decimals;
kva = kilovolt-ampere; hp = horsepower; kw = kilowatts
CIRCUIT (dissipated on
ELEMENT absolute complex instantaneous RMS values for R or stored in
value form values sinusoidal signals L, C)
RESISTANCE R R v=i×R Vrms=Irms×R E=Irms2R×t
INDUCTANCE 2πfL jωL v=L×di/dt Vrms=Irms×2πfL E=Li2/2
CAPACITANCE 1/(2πfC) 1/jωC i=C×dv/dt Vrms=Irms/(2πfC) E=Cv2/2
R- resistance in ohms, L- inductance in henrys, C- capacitance in farads, f - frequency in
hertz, t- time in seconds, π≈3.14159;
ω=2πf - angular frequency;
j - imaginary unit ( j2=-1 )
Euler's formula: ejx=cosx+jsinx


Lseries= Lparallel=
L1+L2+... 1/(1/L1+1/L2+...)






• Volt - unit of electrical potential or motive force - potential is required to send

one ampere of current through one ohm of resistance
• Ohm - unit of resistance - one ohm is the resistance offered to the passage of one
ampere when impelled by one volt
• Ampere - units of current - one ampere is the current which one volt can send
through a resistance of one ohm
• Watt - unit of electrical energy or power - one watt is the product of one ampere
and one volt - one ampere of current flowing under the force of one volt gives one
watt of energy
• Volt Ampere - product of volts and amperes as shown by a voltmeter and
ammeter - in direct current systems the volt ampere is the same as watts or the
energy delivered - in alternating current systems - the volts and amperes may or
may not be 100% synchronous - when synchronous the volt amperes equals the
watts on a wattmeter - when not synchronous volt amperes exceed watts - reactive
• Kilovolt Ampere - one kilovolt ampere - KVA - is equal to 1,000 volt amperes
• Power Factor - ratio of watts to volt amperes

Electric Power Formulas

W=EI (1a)

W = R I2 (1b)

W = E2/ R (1c)


W = power (Watts)

E = voltage (Volts)

I = current (Amperes)

R = resistance (Ohms)
Electric Current Formulas

I=E/R (2a)

I=W/E (2b)

I = (W / R)1/2 (2c)

Electric Resistance Formulas

R=E/I (3a)

R = E2/ W (3b)

R = W / I2 (3c)

Electrical Potential Formulas - Ohms Law

Ohms law can be expressed as:

E=RI (4a)

E=W/I (4b)

E = (W R)1/2 (4c)

Example - Ohm's law

A 12 volt battery supplies power to a resistance of 18 ohms.

I = (12 Volts) / (18 ohms)

= 0.67 Ampere

Electrical Motor Formulas

Electrical Motor Efficiency

μ = 746 Php / Winput (5)


μ = efficiency

Php = output horsepower (hp)

Winput = input electrical power (Watts)

or alternatively

μ = 746 Php / (1.732 E I PF) (5b)

Electrical Motor - Power

W3-phase = (E I PF 1.732) / 1,000 (6)


W3-phase = electrical power 3-phase motor (kW)

PF = power factor electrical motor

Electrical Motor - Amps

I3-phase = (746 Php) / (1.732 E μ PF) (7)


I3-phase = electrical current 3-phase motor (Amps)

PF = power factor electrical motor