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Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 1 11/02/2021

Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer

Nutrition, Hygiene and Safety



This subject is designed to develop a student in the Tourism and Hospitality, Professional Cookery, Food and Beverage and Bakery studies
Discipline with the knowledge and competences in nutritional aspects of food Hygiene practices and standards in food production. It is
imperative that the student masters sustainable competences relating to interventions in the working environment with various situations and

The aim of the subject to equip a learner with skills and attitudes to apply regulations governing Nutrition, Hygiene and Safety

Objectives of the course

By the end of the syllabus the learner should be able to:

 Demonstrate an understanding of regulations governing hygiene standards in the Catering industries

 Describe and demonstrate an understanding of safety procedures when using various equipment:
 Demonstrate hygiene practices and adhere to standards in the hospitality industry;
 Plan balanced meals to suit all nutritional requirements and age groups;
 Exercise hygiene handling of food during storage, preparation and serving;
 Apply correct methods of food storage ;
 Apply correct and sustainable methods of waste disposal

Definition of Terms used in Nutrition

 Nutrition : the science or study that deals with the intake of food by living organisms especially humans and the process by which
this food is utilized .It is a branch of science that deals with nutrients and nutrition, particularly in humans.
 Nutrients A substance that provides nourishment for growth or metabolism essential for the maintenance of life and for growth.
 Metabolism.:The chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the maintenance of life. In
metabolism some substances are broken down to yield energy for vital processes while other substances, necessary for life, are
 Sanitation: derived from the latin word `sanus` meaning “sound Health” or “clean and whole” encompasses the knowledge as well as
the acceptance and effective application of sanitary measures. These measures ensure maintenance of good health.
 Health: refers to the state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. The
art and branch of science that deals in preserving good health is hygiene derived from Hygieia, the Goddess of Health.
 Hygiene: These are conditions or practices conducive for maintaining health and preventing disease, especially through cleanliness,
personal hygiene, personal cleanliness, purity, sterility, disinfection, and sanitation, including cleanliness of the environment
 Safety: The state of being secure or the condition of being protected from, danger, risk, or injury.
 Food safety: assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and / or eaten according to its intended use
 Diet : the kinds of food that a person, animal, or community habitually eats
 Special Diet: a special course of food to which a person restricts themselves, either to lose weight or for medical reason
 Balanced Diet: balanced diet - a diet that contains adequate amounts of all the necessary nutrients required for healthy, growth and
activity in correct proportions
 Malnutrition: Poor nutrition because of an insufficient or over intake poorly balanced diet or faulty digestion or utilization of foods
 Under nutrition: Taking insufficient/ less food than required by the body resulting in kwashiorkor
 Over nutrition: Taking more food than the body requires resulting in overweight or obesity
 Food handler: any person who directly handles packaged or unpackaged food, equipment and utensils, or food contact surfaces and is
therefore expected to comply with food hygiene requirements.

Personal hygiene
Covers health, proper uniform, good grooming, habits and training of those involved in handling food. Cleanliness should be the basis of all
daily activities and should be aimed at improving the quality of one`s life. The onus is on the food handler to ensure that they practice good
personal hygiene the whole process involves the cleaning of all parts of the body ie (face, hair, body, legs and hands). The face and hair have to
be cleaned because they accumulate grime, emit bad odours and make one look dull [reflect one’s self-worth]. Skin diseases such as ringworm,
scabies, sweat fungi, etc., can also occur. The hands and finger nails have to be cleaned because the germs in between the fingers and finger nails
cause contagious diseases such as diarrhoea, and worms etc. The teeth and mouth have to be cleaned because they emit bad odours, causing
mouth and dental diseases such as cavities, gingivitis, etc., and stomach disorders due to indigestion. Thus, one’s face hair, body, legs and hands
should be cleaned thoroughly, and the teeth brushed properly. Ears, an important part of the human body, should be kept clean and carefully
protected from injury.

Practice of personal hygiene should be carried out as daily, weekly, and monthly activities. In addition to one’s personal hygiene and cleanliness
of one’s home and its surroundings is important. Drinking impure water can cause cholera, diarrheoa, dysentery, typhoid and hepatitis.
Therefore, pure drinking water free from germs and dirt, should be used. Improper sewage and garbage disposal can lead to the spreading of
By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 2 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
contagious diseases through rats, mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches and stray dogs. Only fly proof latrines should be used and garbage disposed of

The human body can provide places for disease-causing germs and parasites to grow and multiply. These places include the skin and in and
around the openings to the body. It is less likely that germs and parasites will get inside the body if people have good personal hygiene habits.

Good personal hygiene habits include:

Washing the body more often. If possible, everybody should have a shower or a bath every day. However, there may be times when this is not
possible, for example, when people are out camping or there is a shortage of water. If this happens, a swim or a wash all over the body with a
wet sponge or cloth will do. Brushing teeth after each meal is the best way of making sure that gum disease and tooth decay are avoided.
- It is very important to clean teeth after breakfast and immediately before going to bed. Wash the hair with soap or shampoo at least
once a week
- Wash hands with soap after going to the toilet
- Wash hands with soap before preparing and/or eating food. During normal daily activities, such as working and playing, disease
causing germs may get onto the hands and under the nails. If the germs are not washed off before preparing food or eating, they may
get onto the food.
- Changing into clean clothes. Dirty clothes should be washed with laundry soap before wearing them again
- Use cosmetics in moderation or not at all provided that a thorough bath is taken daily. The aim is to have a clean healthy and well
cared for skin
- Do not smoke. Smoking is bad for one`s health and can transfer germs to food and surfaces. Smoking should not be permitted near
food preparation services
- sneezing.

Washing the body helps keep it free of disease-causing germs

Cleaning teeth helps keep gums and teeth healthy.

Washing hands after going to the toilet helps stop the spread of germs.

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 3 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer

Washing hands before preparing food helps keep germs out of our bodies.

Washing hands before eating food helps stop germs getting into our bodies

Washing clothes helps keep them free of disease-causing germs. Hang washed clothes in the sun to dry.
The sun's rays will kill some disease-causing germs and parasites

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 4 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer

Do not handle food when you feel ill. Report any symptoms of any form of illness to you supervisor especially when suffering from vomiting,
diarrhoea, a sore throat or a cold. If this is not done, droplets of liquid containing germs from the nose and mouth will be spread in the air and
other people can breathe them in, or the droplets can get onto food
Turn away from other people and covering the nose and mouth with a tissue or the hand when coughing or sneezing. Covering the nose and
mouth when sneezing helps stop the spread of germs.

Personal cleanliness tendencies

Self respect is necessary in every food-handler because a pride in ones appearance promotes a high standard of cleanliness and physical fitness.
Persons suffering from ill health or who are not clean about themselves should not handle food.
Regular bathing at least once a day is essential otherwise germs can be transferred on to the clothes and so on to food.
If Hands are not kept clean can be a great source of danger as they can so easily transfer harmful bacteria on to the food. Rings watches jewelry
should not be worn where food is handled. Particles of food may be caught under a ring and germs could multiply there until they are transferred
into the food
Watches should not be worn because foodstuffs e.g. salads and cabbage which have to be plunged into plenty of water may not be properly
washed because a watch is worn. Jewelry must not be worn since it may fall off into the food.
These should always be kept clean (no varnish) and short as dirt can easily lodge under the nail and be dislodged when for example making
pastry, so introducing bacteria into the food. Nails should be cleaned with a nail brush.
Hair should be washed regularly and be kept covered where food is being handled. Hair which is not cared for is likely to come out or shed
dandruff which may fall of into the food. Men’s hair should be kept short as it is easier to keep clean, it also looks neater. Women’s hair should
be kept covered as much as possible. The hair should never be scratched, combed or touched in the kitchen, as germs could be transferred via the
hands into the food.
The nose should not be touched when food is being handled. Ideally a paper handkerchiefs should be used and then destroyed, the hands should
being washed afterwards. The nose is an area where there are vast numbers of bacteria, it is therefore very important that neither food, people
nor working surfaces are sneezed over, so spreading germs.
There are many germs in the area of the mouth, therefore the mouth and lips should not be touched by the hands or utensils which may come into
contact with the food. No cooking utensils should be used for tasting food nor fingers used for this purpose as germs may be transferred into the
food. A clean spoon should be used for tasting and washed afterwards. Coughing over food or working areas should be avoided as germs spread
over long distances
The ear-holes should not be touched during food preparation as germs can be transferred.
Sound teeth are essential to good health. They should be washed regularly and regular visits to the dentist are of utmost importance so that teeth
can be kept in good repair.
As food handlers are standing for long hours, care of the feet are important. They should be washed regularly and the toe nails kept short and
Tired feet can cause general tiredness which leads to carelessness and this results in a lowering of the standards of hygiene.

Remove jewellery (rings, watches) before starting work, jewellery makes hand washing less effective and bacteria can get under them
If suffering from an illness involving any of the following
Jaundice, fever, TB, Diarrhea, sore throat, skin rash,Vomiting, discharge from ear and other skin lesions(boils, cuts)
These individuals should be assigned to another task
Wounds on hands and arms should be carefully bandaged with water proof materials, because wounds may infected with pathogenic

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 5 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer

Prevention of infectious diseases

High standards of hygiene minimize food spoilage and help to ensure that when food is eaten it is wholesome and as free from pathogenic
bacteria, harmful viruses and moulds as possible. Many factors may affect the quality and wholesomeness of food. Among them are
 The way in which it is grown, or in the case of animals, reared and fed.
 The design and cleanliness of farm buildings, slaughterhouses and factories in which it is processed
 The premises equipment and conditions in which it is stored
 The care taken by food handlers to avoid contamination from other foods.
 The personal hygiene of food handlers

Food Hygiene

Food Hygiene is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent food borne illness. This
includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards

It includes the selection of whole some food, proper storage and protection during preparation, holding and service.
 Food can transmit disease from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning.
 In developed countries there are intricate standards for food preparation, whereas in lesser developed countries the main issue is simply
the availability of adequate safe water, which is usually a critical item. In theory food poisoning is 100% preventable.

The food industry should apply the hygienic practices set out by its country`s food regulations. This can be achieved by:
 Providing food which is safe and suitable for consumption
 Ensuring that consumers have clear and easily understood information, by ways of labeling and other appropriate means, to enable
them to protect their food from contamination and growth/ survival of food borne pathogens by storing, handling preparing it correctly
 Maintain confidence in the internationally traded food

Food hygiene objectives

- Avoid the use of areas where the environment poses a threat to the safety of food.
- Controlling contaminants, pests and diseases of animals and plants in such a way as not to pose a threat to food safety.
- Adopting practices and measures to ensure food is produced under appropriately hygienic conditions.


Appropriate Food Hygiene practices may:
Prevent food poisoning
Reduce food spoilage
Avoid prosecution
Avoid loss of business
Ensure safer working conditions
Protect the reputation of the organisation
Protect employment
Fulfil the moral obligation to public
Fulfil legal requirements of the Food Act

The five key principles of food hygiene, according to WHO, are:

 Prevent contaminating food with pathogens spreading from people, pets, and pests.
 Separate raw and cooked foods to prevent contaminating the cooked foods.
 Cook foods for the appropriate length of time and at the appropriate temperature
 Store food at the proper temperature.
 Do use safe water and raw materials

These principles are the basics that guide food handlers to minimise food contamination in Catering Establishments. The onus lies with the
establishment to try and provide appropriate working environment to achieve intended objectives. In catering establishments food can be
contaminated mainly due to primary or secondary sources. The information on how this contamination takes place must made available to all
workers in catering establishments to minimise the incidence of recurrence.

General Food Safety Tips

 Always buy meat and fish from a reliable source with very high standards of hygiene
 Store frozen, fresh and chilled foods immediately after purchase.
 Do not let raw meat juices drip on other food.
 Be careful when re-heating leftovers especially if using a microwave oven. Food should be piping hot all the way through.
 Store leftovers immediately and use within 48 hours maximum
 Always wash and dry your hands before starting to cook and after handling raw foods

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 6 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer

Figure 1.0 below shows the methods of contamination and the main sources in each category

Food can be contaminated by either:

- Primary sources or
- Secondary sources
Secondary sources - ie
Primary source – ie Man intermediators
through - contaminated utensils
- respiratory equipment
- infected skin - unprotected water
- intestinal tract - pests and untreated
- sewage
- infected animals
- improper waste
- soil and dust

Infected raw materials

Final product


Food borne illness

Figure 1.0

The basic aims of food hygiene practice can be summarized as follows

 Avoid contamination of food by bacteria , viruses and moulds
 Prevent multiplication of bacteria and moulds which nevertheless gain access to food
 Cook food thoroughly to destroy any bacteria, viruses and moulds

Avoid contamination of food by bacteria, viruses and moulds

 Our hands, work surfaces and clothes can be a medium for transferring bacteria onto food. Any opportunity microorganism get to
contact food leaves a lot to be desired in that food. Contamination should be avoided at all costs.

Prevent multiplication of microorganisms

 Keep foods hot or cold. Avoid the temperature danger zone 5 – 65 degrees Celsius in which bacteria flourish. Food should be in this
bacteria danger zone for as little time as possible. Bacteria can multiply quickly in warm food at about 40 degrees Celsius the bacteria
may double every 20 minutes. Some bacteria are more resistant than others but in general almost all pathogenic bacteria are killed in
30 minutes at temperatures above 63degrees Celsius.

Cook food thoroughly

 Cooking times and temperatures must be sufficient to ensure that all bacteria and their toxins are destroyed. If bacteria present in food
are not killed when the food is cooked they may multiply when it is cooling through the danger zone before being served.
 Keep cold dishes cold and hot dishes hot.

Food hygiene and its impact on consumers

Food hygiene is more than just cleanliness. It includes practices involved in:
 Protecting food from risk of contamination by harmful bacteria, poisons and foreign bodies.
 Preventing any bacteria present from multiplying to an extent which would result in an illness t consumers or cause spoilage in food.
 Destroying any harmful bacteria in the food through cooking and processing.

Cost for poor food hygiene

 Food poisoning outbreaks and sometimes death
 Food contamination and food complaints
 Pest infestations
 Waste food due to spoilage

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 7 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
 Closure of food premises by local authorities
 Fines and costs of legal action taken because of contravention in hygiene legislation.
 Civil action taken by food consumers
 Los of production
 Reduce the shelf life of food.

Benefits of food hygiene

 Good hygiene can prevent food consumers from becoming infected with various food borne diseases many of which can be fatal.
Good food hygiene protects the health of the consumer
 Correct food hygiene design ad practice can protect both businesses and individual food handlers from possible prosecution by local
Authority Environmental Health Officers
 Satisfied customers, good reputation and increased business
 Increased shelf life of foods.
 Good working conditions and high staff moral and lower staff turnover.
 All these contribute to higher profits

Kitchen Hygiene
Kitchen hygiene is concerned with the hygiene practices that prevent food poisoning. These are based on the five basic principles specified y
World Health Organisation (WHO) of food hygiene.


 When the kitchen is used there must be a team leader who takes responsibility for ensuring that these guidelines are followed.
 On entering the kitchen, place bags etc so that no one can trip over them. If you are serving hot beverages, be careful carrying teapot or
boiling water around the kitchen.
 Wash hands thoroughly with soap after using the toilet, changing diapers, handling pets and before handling food.
 Spillages must be mopped up immediately using the mop provided to avoid people slipping.
 Keep your kitchen surfaces, fridge, utensils, pans and dishes spotlessly and clothes clean.
 Change your tea towel and washing up cloths regularly. These are favourite breeding grounds for bacteria.
 DISINFECT the work surfaces using the kitchen surface cleaner provided.
 Protect the kitchen and food items from insects, pests and pets
 Before spraying insecticides, in the kitchen walls/cupboards, remove all the food items. Spraying should be done during the night time.
Wet mop the cupboards before storing again.
 Do not store raw foods (vegetables, dals , cereals, masala i.e powdered spices )for long periods. “First In first Out” (FIFO) practice
should be followed by all and more so in regions where humidity is high.
 Storage of items should be in airtight containers/utensils to protect them from dust, insects, and moisture.
 Separate raw, cooked food and ready to eat food while shopping, preparing or storing food.
 De-weed the green leafy vergetables and then wash them, repeatedly in clean water till they are free from dirt/ mud.
 Wash and soak the vegetables/fruits in water then scrap them . ( soaking removes pesticides, preservatives present on the surface.
Vendors polish apples with engine oil to give them a shining look, so soak and scrub them thoroughly.
 Cruciferous vegetables (cauliflower , cabbage, garden cress , broccoli, Brussels sprouts and similar green leafy vegetables) bearing
their name from the shape of their flowers, whose four petals resemble a cross, should be soaked in boiled water to remove worms
 Raw vegetables/ fruits for salads should be washed thoroughly in running water before cutting.
 Transfer the cooked food into a clean serving utensil before consuming ( this is to prevent the erosive action of salt/ turmeric/
tamarind/lemon with aluminium or brass).
 Boil milk before consuming and keep it in a cool place to prevent curdling . Don’t consume raw milk.
 Clean meat/fish /poultry thoroughly before cooking. Cook them thoroughly before consuming.
 Try and eat freshly prepared food every day.
 Refrigerate perishables foods promptly, prepared food and left over food within two hours. If refrigerator is not available then regulate
the amount of food cooked so that food does not have to be stored.
 Food must not be stored for too long in the refrigerator.
 Boil/filter the drinking water before storing it in a clean cover vessel.
 Don not use packed food beyond expiry date.
 Do not consume food in packs or tins that have dents or leaks, even if the expiry date has not elapsed.

These are basically good food hygiene tendencies that each food handler must practice to minimise food contamination.

WASH your hands in the hand-washing basin using liquid soap.

Make sure you wash well between the fingers and scrub your nails. Remove stopper from sink before drying your hands - preferably with a
paper towel.
 1. Wet hands thoroughly with running water warm or cold water. Turn of tap
 2. Lather your hands/ use approved soap
 3. Scrub hands for at least 20 seconds by rubbing palms together
By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 8 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
 4. Rubbing the fingers and under nails
 5. Rubbing the thumbs
 6. Rinse hands thoroughly
 7. Use paper towel for drying
 8. Turn off the tap using the paper towel


 Before you start:

 Personal care: Ensure nails are short, not varnished (chips of varnish can contaminate
food, and colour hides dirt under nails), no nail extensions. Take off all jewellery
(necklaces, WATCHES, brooches, all rings except plain bands) to prevent falling into
food/bringing contaminants.
 Ensure no loose labels on clothes, etc, that might fall into food.
 Then, put on an apron to protect the food from the contaminants on your clothes.
 Consider a hairnet (even though it looks a bit odd!) if you have long hair.

Food safety
Food safety is a top concern for every commercial kitchen. Time and temperature play a huge role in whether food is safe to eat or needs to be
thrown out.

The Danger zone

The danger zone refers to the temperatures between 5 °C and 63 °C. This is the temperature range in which harmful bacteria multiply the fastest.
If perishable foods stay in the danger zone too long, the food will spoil, meaning there will be no way to kill off the bacteria present in order to
make the food safe for consumption.

121º C – Temperature that is needed to kill spores.
At least 79º C for 2 minutes recommended temperature for reheated foods and the temperature required to ensure thorough cooking of food.
63º C minimum temperature at which cooked foods must be kept hot until serving.
37º C (Body temperature) temperature at which most bacteria can grow very quickly.
5º -63º C Temperature Danger Zone. 1º -4º C temperature range for a refrigerator.
-18º – 25ºC temperature range for a freezer.


When preparing food use colour coded cutting boards. There will be a sign up in the kitchen to help you remember the colours.

 Red Raw meat

 Blue Raw fish
 Yellow Cooked meat
 Green Salad & fruit products
 Brown Vegetable products
 White Bakery & dairy products

Food Handlers `Clothing

The kitchen uniform is designed to be hygienic and protect against excessive heat. While uniforms and garments are not likely the weakest link
for a business in which food safety is imperative, operators should recognize the risks of improper care, cleaning and handling.

Clothing is a common source of contamination of food and may arise from foreign bodies e.g. buttons, fibres and debris pathogenic (harmful)
microorganisms via cross-contamination from dirty clothing. Clothing must be clean and should be changed regularly to maintain hygienic
standards and protect food from the risk of contamination. Standards of clothing may differ depending on the duties carried out. It is good
practice for ALL visitors to food preparation areas (including maintenance personnel) to wear protective clothing and hats if they present a risk
of contamination. Where open high risk foods are being handled, protective clothing must be worn. This would ordinarily include a coat, jacket
or similar garment which would cover the arms and body to below waist level. All other open food handlers should wear some protective
clothing such as an apron, or coat. Protective clothing should generally be light coloured, have no loose buttons and have as few pockets as
necessary in order to minimise the risk of foreign body contamination arising from pocket contents. Staff who handle 'high risk' foods should not
travel to and from work in their protective clothing. They should also remove protective clothing if they leave the premises for other reasons, for
example to smoke.

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 9 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer

Employees should follow these guidelines to ensure food safety:

 Uniforms, aprons, and garments should be clean at the beginning of each shift and changed regularly when necessary.
 Uniforms or aprons should not be worn outside the food-preparation area.
 Avoid using handkerchiefs for wiping or blowing noses; use disposable tissues.
 Wear disposable gloves.
 Avoid wearing jewelry while handling or preparing food.
 Do not wear damaged or deteriorating uniforms, aprons or garments.
 No pockets above the waist and no buttons on the garments

The chef `s Uniform

Apron to protect themselves from hot spillages and protects especially man whose delicate parts can be scotched by heat and this may result in
sterility over time
Chef’s Jacket which must be double breasted to protect the food handler’s chest from hot spillages
Chef’s trousers –that must be long enough to cover the legs and protect them from hot spillages and from being pricked by sharp object
Chef’s hat – must be made of cotton fabric to absorb sweat that falls from the head and prevent it from falling onto food.
Necker tie- must also be made of cotton fabric to absorb sweat and prevent it from falling onto food
Safety shoes –these must have very low heel for easy movement. The shoe must be made of rubber sole to facilitate easy movement and grip on
slippery floors.
Gloves – these must be made of cotton fabric and must be strong enough to protect the food handler from hot pots and dishes.

Restaurant Clothing
The uniform must be comfortable to wear and should reflect good taste. Popular colours are black and white. Colours can also be chosen match
the decor of the restaurant or to match the organisation`s colour scheme. Fabrics should be washable, drip dry and require minimum ironing.
Restaurant staff often wear different variations of the same uniform to distinguish their different positions. For instance wine butler will wear a
waistcoat and a table waitron an apron to indicate their position. The food and beverage manager normally wears a formal outfit to set the tone
of the restaurant. It is important that for all a comfortable shoe is worn facilitate easy movement due to long standing hours that may be
experienced in the industry.

The main legislation governing food preparation in catering establishments is laid down in Food Hygiene (General) Regulations 1970. These and
other regulations were made as a result of powers provided by the Food and Drugs Act, 1955. Some of the regulations deal with the hygiene
standards in the treatment and handling of specific food substances such as Milk and Dairies Regulations 1959, the Liquid Egg Pasteurization
Regulations, 1963, the Meat( Sterilization regulations , 1969 and the Poultry Meat hygiene regulations 1976 which are designed to eliminate
harmful bacteria from foods.. These regulations are enforced by each local hygiene authority in its own area, their Environmental Health
department working in conjunction with the local community physician, is responsible for the enforcement of the legislation and the inspection
of catering establishments.
Food and Drugs Act
It is the major piece of legislation governing food composition and labeling, and other acts and regulations were made as a result of the powers
provided by the Food and Drugs Act.
Provisions of the Act.
 To make it an offense to sell to the prejudice of the purchaser, food which is not of the nature, substance or quality demanded.
 To prohibit the use of label or advertisement that falsely describes a food or misleads as to the nature, substance or quality.
 To prohibit the addition or abstraction of any substance from food so as to render the food injurious to health

 To make it an offense to sell unsound food.
 These general provisions are baked up by many regulations which lay down detailed requirements as to the labeling of food, the
composition of the major food sin our diet, and the type and level of additives and contaminants permitted in food.
Hygiene and the Food Safety Act
Design and Construction of the Kitchen must comply with this act. The basic layout and construction should enable adequate space to be
provided in all food handling and associated areas for equipment as well as working practices and frequent cleaning to be carried out.

Food and Food Standard Act. (Chapter 15.04) (Ref to Handout)

 Adulterated and falsely described food
 Inspection seizure and disposal of food
 Legal proceedings
 Food standard Advisory Board’
The labeling of food regulations
It requires most pre packed foods to bear a common or usual name, or an appropriate designation of the food, a list of ingredients in descending
order by weight and the name and address of the packer or labeler.
Bread and flour regulations
It lays down regulations for the composition of bread, i.e. the minimum levels for flour are prescribed, the permitted bleaching and improving
agents are listed and the amount of baking powder which must be added to all flour except for self raising flour.
The Margarine Regulations
Requires amongst other things, that all margarines for retail sale must be fortified with vit A and vit D and that it must be declared on the label.
By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 10 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
Additives and Regulations
It lays down lists of permitted additives and standards of purity.
Aims of legislation
 To protect the health of the public w
 To ensure that there are no cases of food fraud e.g. wrong quantities
 To ensure that the trends in production and handling are in line with the consumers expectations.

Roles of the Environmental Health Officers in relation to the inspection and closure of catering facilities
 Carry out a quick initial inspection of all premises they visit enabling them to identify areas which might affect the production of
quality food.
 To act as an advisor and educator in the areas of food hygiene and catering premises (his/her function is to improve the existing
standard of hygiene and to advise how this may be achieved
 Organizing Environmental Health Programmes which may include talks and free literature.
 To enforce the law
 To enter upon, inspect or search premises, vehicles place or even aircraft if he/she so happen to believe that there is any food for the
purpose of sale contravening the acts.
 To inspect any store, documents upon the premises which he/she believes is contravening the act.
 Open and examine any package founding or upon the premises which he or she believes is contravening the act.
 Recommend closure of a catering establishment if it is not adhering to the Act.


Kitchens must be designed so that they can easily be managed. The management must have easy access to the areas under their control and have
good visibility in the areas which have to be supervised. Large operations should work on separate work floors for reasons of efficiency and
Product flows
This section must be subdivided into high risk and contaminated sections. High risk food is that which during the process is likely to be
contaminated. Contaminated food is that whish is contaminated on arrival before processing, unprepared vegetables raw meat.
Work flow
Food preparation rooms should be planned to allow a workflow whereby food is processed through the premises from the point of delivery to the
point of sale
The building (construction details)
Floors should withstand a considerable amount of wear and tear. They must be capable of being cleaned easily, smooth but nit slippery even
without cracks or open joints or impervious. They must be cleaned with hot soapy water at up to 80 0C. Staff must be trained to clean the floors
immediately after spillage. Floors need to be resistant to grease and salts and should slope sufficiently to drain into grease trap. The angle
between the wall and floor should be covered. Timber floors are not suitable because they are absorbent, they wear quickly and the joints can
harbor moisture and dirty. The type of floor be dependant on its use.
Walls should be strong, smooth, impervious, washable and light in color. The joint between wall and floor should be rounded for ease of
cleaning. Tiling is the best wall surface because it is easily cleaned and requires no further maintenance. Internal walls should be solid, as
cavities or spaces provide harborage for pests, localized protection of wall against damage may be needed.
Ceilings should be free from cracks and flaking. They should not be able to harbor dirt. They should be smooth, durable light colored covered at
the wall joints and easy to clean. A ceiling in the kitchen is necessary to prevent dust from the roof or floor structure above.

Doors and Windows

Doors and windows should fit correctly and be clean. The glass should be clean inside and out so as to admit maximum light. Windows provide
natural light and ventilation. In food premises require natural lighting of a minimum of 12% at the total floor area of the food preparation
premises. An area of 5% of the floor area of the food area should have windows that open for ventilation purposes. Windows may be fitted with
fly screens, but this normally cuts down the amount of light and ventilation significantly. Windows should be situated in a position that will
reduce glare and solar heat gain. Window ledges situated behind equipment are not easily accessible foe cleaning. Window seals should be
higher than equipment and should be constructed in such a way to prevent their use as shelves.
Adequate ventilation must be provided so that fumes from stoves are taken out of the kitchen and the stale air in the stores, larder, still room etc
is extracted. This will require the installation of canopies and extractor fans which should be fitted with accessible filters and grease drip trays.
This avoids cooking smells to linger in the kitchen and become stale and is deleterious to standards of quality and cleaning
Good lighting is necessary so that people working in the kitchen do not strain their eyes and cleaning can be done properly. Natural lighting is
preferable to artificial lighting.
Water systems
A properly designed kitchen is a basic to maintain high standards of cleanliness. Drains gullies, trap and overflows must be kept clean and free
flowing. Day to day maintenance and removal of food debris and blockages reported immediately. Adequate supplies of hot and cold water must
be available for keeping the kitchen clean, cleaning the equipment and for staff use. Sinks and hand basins should be kept clean and free flowing.
Water supplies to food premises must be direct from mains supply. Constant and adequate supplies of portable water are essential.
nToilets should have hand washing and drying facilities and suitable provisions that are in direct contact with any rooms in which food is
prepared or stored
Hand washing facilities

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 11 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
Hand washing facilities separated from the food preparation sinks must also be available in the kitchen with suitable means of drying the hands,
for example hot air dryer, or dry clean towel. These sinks should be fashioned with hot and cold water taps and an adequate supply of
disinfectant hand cleaner, nail brush and paper towels.
Drainage must comply with the requirements of the local authority and the systems must be designed to cope without causing leakages or
flooding. Grease raps should be incorporate and situated immediately outside the building to remove grease from kitchen waste which would
otherwise solidify to block drains.
Storage and disposal of waste
Suitable containers should be provided both inside and outside food premises. Collection of refuse from food premises should be on a daily
Hygiene of Kitchen equipment
Kitchen equipment should be designed that it can be
 Cleaned easily
 Readily inspected to see that it is clean
Failure to maintain equipment and utensils hygienically and in good repair may cause food poisoning.
Material used in the construction of equipment must be
 Hard so that it does not absorb food materials
 Smooth so as to be easily cleaned
 Resistant to rust
 Resistant to chipping
Equipment must not be made from toxic materials, for example lead, and food mist be protected from lubricants.
Easily cleaned equipment is free from unnecessary ridges screws, ornamentation, dents crevices inside square corners and has large smooth
areas. Articles of equipment which are difficult to clean for example mincers, sieves and strainers- are items where particles of food can lodge so
allowing germs to multiply and contaminate food.


Metal: As a rule all metal equipment should be cleaned immediately after use.
1. Portable items. Remove food particles and grease. Wash be immersion in hot detergent water. Thoroughly clean with a hard bristle
brush or soak till this is possible. Rinse in water 77°C.
2. Fixed Items. Remove all food and grease with a stiff brush or soak with a wet cloth using hot detergent water. Rinse with clean water.
Dry with clean cloth.

Abrasives should only be used in moderation as their scratching of the surface makes it more it more difficult to clean the article next time.
Marble. Scrub with a bristle brush and hot water and then dry.
Wood. Scrub with a bristle brush and hot detergent water rinse and dry.
China, earthen ware. Avoid extremes of heat and do not clean with an abrasive. Wash in hot water and rinse in very hot water.
Copper. Remove as much food as possible. Soak and wash in hot water with the aid of a brush. Clean outside with a paste made of sand vinegar
and flour. Wash well and rinse dry.
Aluminium. Do not wash in water containing soda as the protective film which prevents corrosion may be damaged. When water is boiled in an
aluminium pan a black stain results, this can be removed by using an acid food, e.g. rhubarb. To clean, remove food particles. Soak wash in hot
detergent water. Clean with steel wool or abrasive. Rinse and dry.
Stainless steel. It is easy to clean. Soak in hot detergent water . Clean with a brush rinse and dry.
Tin . Tin which is used to line pots and pans should be soaked, washed in detergent water rinsed and dried.
Zinc. This is used to coat storage bins of galvanized iron and should not be cleaned with a harsh abrasive.
Vitreous enamel. Clean with a damp cloth and dry. Avoid using abrasives
Equipment requiring particular care in cleaning (sieves, conical strainers, mincers, graters).
Extra attention must be paid to these items because food particles clog the holes. The clogs can be cleaned by the using the force of water from
the tap, by using a bristle brush and by moving the article, particularly a sieve, up and down the sink , so causing the water to pass through the
Whisks must be thoroughly cleaned where the wires cross.
Saws and choppers, Mandolins. These items should be cleaned in hot detergent water, dried and greased slightly
Tammy cloths, muslins and piping bags. After use they should be emptied, food particles scraped out, scrubbed carefully and boiled. They
should then be rinsed and allowed to dry. Certain piping bags made of plastic should be washed in very hot water and dried. Nylon piping bags
should be boiled.

Cleaning of large electrical equipment (Mincere, mixers, choppers, slicers, etc.)

1. Switch off the machine and remove the electric plug
2. Remove particles of food with a cloth, palette knife, needle or brush.
3. Thoroughly clean with very hot detergent water all removable and fixed parts. Play particular attention to threads and plates with holes
on mincers
4. Rinse thoroughly
5. Dry and reassemble
6. While cleaning see that the exposed blades are not left uncovered or unguarded and that the guards are replaced. When cleaning is
completed. Any specific maker’s instruction must be observed.
7. Test that the machine is properly assembled by plugging in and switching on.
Most gas used today is natural gas. It comes from underground sources in the seas. Natural gas is non-toxic and odorless. When it is brought
ashore a smell is added to it. This gives it the characteristic smell so it can be easily detected. Gas passes into houses and other establishments
through a gas meter which at present records the amount used in cubic feet
There are two methods by which gas is burned:

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 12 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
1. By ignition at the burner head, when the oxygen needed for combustion is obtained from the surrounding atmosphere,
2. By ignition at the burner head when part of the air is mixed with gas before hand, this is known as primary air and trapped in a vent in
the burner itself.
Gas is a safe fuel’
Gas Safety
What to do if you smell gas
 Open the doors and windows to get rid of the gas
 Check to see if the gas has been left on, or if a pilot light has gone out. Is so turn the appliance off.
 If this is not the case turn the gas supply off at thee meter and phone the emergency service immediately

Do not attempt the following

 Do not turn any electrical switches on or off. You can use the phone to call the emergency services
 Do not smoke
 Do not use matches or naked flames.
Convenient, labour saving
Free from smoke and dirt
Easily controlled with immediate full heat and the flames are visible
Special utensils are not required
No fuel storage required

Some heat is lost into the kitchen
Regular cleaning is necessary for efficiency
If a coil of wire is joined at both ends to another length of wire and a magnet is passed rapidly backwards and forwards through the coil a current
of electricity is produced. In the electricity generating stations the magnets may be moved by turbines driven either by steam pressure or by
water power and harnessed to drive generators.
Electricity cannot be seen heard tasted or smelt. Installed correctly it is a very safe source of energy, but misused can kill or cause serious injury.
There are two kinds of electric current:
Direct current
Alternating current
The one most used is the A.C. it is then carried by cables through and transformers to local substations. The consumer takes his supply of
electricity from the substation. Electricity must have a complete circuit from the source of supply through the load. Some substances are
conductors of electricity some are insulators.
All substances allow electricity to pass through them. Those which allow electricity to flow freely are known as conductors’ e.g. metal, carbon,
tap water, damp earth. Those which do not allow electricity to freely are known as insulators e.g. glass, porcelain, wood, rubber, leather, plastic,
stone. A substance’s ability to be a good insulator depends on many things, such as its working temperature the dampness of the surrounding
area and its age. So when equipment is designed an insulator is chosen so that it does not deteriorate after prolonged use under the conditions in
which it is used. The human body also conducts electricity
Electrical terms
Watts-measure power-that is the rate at which any electrical appliance is using electric current for a given pressure (voltage)
Voltage- measure pressure flow
Amperes- measures the rate of flow of current and can be obtained by dividing the watts and the volts
Ohms- measure the resistance of the wires to the passage of the electricity and is comparable with friction offered by a water pipe t water
flowing through it
Clean to use and maintain
Easily controlled and labor saving
A good working atmosphere for working staff as no oxygen is required to burn electricity
Little heat is lost
No fuel storage is required
Time is taken to heat up
Initial cost of equipment and maintenance costs
Special utensils are required
This is a black substance. Traditionally coal was the most often used fuel for grilling and it was considered the best because of the flavor it gave
to the meat being grilled.
Low maintenance costs
Cannot meet all cooking requirements
Storage of fuel
Dirt and dust from fuel
Labor costs to move fuel
Difficulty of control of heat
Fires in hotel and catering establishments are fairly common and can result in injury or loss of life to employees and customers.

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 13 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
Sources of fire
Fires can be caused by various sources e.g. bomb explosions, fuel, oil, electrical faults

Fire prevention
The basic knowledge for prevention of fire is really important and necessary
Components necessary for a fire to start:
 Fuel- something to burn
 Air- oxygen to sustain combustion
 Heat- gas, electricity.

If one of the three components is not present then the fire does not happen or it is extinguished.
Methods of extinguishing a fire
To extinguish a fire the three principal methods are
 Starving –removing the fuel
 Smothering removing the air
 Cooling removing the heat
The fire Triangle
It is composed of the following:
 Heat – is needed for the fire to burn
 Fuel is that which burns
 Oxygen- is present in air, so if air is excluded from the heat and the fuel the fire goes out.
NB. Should the clothes of someone working in the kitchen catch alight the action to be taken is quickly to wrap the fire blanket around the
person and place them on the floor. In so doing the flames have been cut off from the source of air. In the event of a fire the door and windows
should be closed to restrict the amount of air getting to the fire.
Types of fire extinguishers
All fire extinguishers should be manufactured in accordance to the British Standard Specifications; they should be colored with a code to
indicate the type and with operating instructions on them.
 Red (water)
 Cream (foam)
 Black (Carbon dioxide)
 Blue (dry powder)
 Green- Halon (vaporizing liquid)
NB Fire Blankets (canvas in texture e.g. one used to make tents must also conform to British standards specifications.
Use of portable fire extinguishers
Water (red) fire extinguishers
 Water is used for fire in solid combustible materials such as wood plastic and paper.
 Water has better cooling properties than other agents; therefore it is especially suitable for fires that may re-ignite if they are not cooled
 Most water extinguishers contain carbon dioxide gas which expels the water.
Because water is a good conductor of electricity it must never be used in live electrical equipment
Not to be sued on fat fires because it might cause ignited fat to spread
Foam (cream) extinguishers
 It puts out fire by forming a blanket over the fire and smothering it
 It is particularly good for putting out fat fires because the foam stays in position and so stops the fire re-igniting.
 Foams can also be used on fires on solid materials
 Foam is a conductor of electricity and must not be used on live electrical equipment.
Carbon Dioxide (Black) extinguishers
 Used in fires of inflammable liquid and has the advantage that it does not conduct electricity.
 Carbon dioxide has limited cooling properties and hot fat may re-ignite
Halon (green)
 The halon known is known as BCF (Bromochlorodiflouromethane)
 This is a gas which does not conduct electricity
 If used in an enclosed situation halon gives off a black cloud which can irritate the users throat and it should not be inhaled

Other Extinguishers
Fire hoses-fire hoses are used for similar fires to those classified under water fire extinguishers. It is necessary to be familiar with the
instructions displayed by the fire hose before using it
Water Sprinkler Systems
A water system consists of an array of sprinkler heads at ceiling level connected to ma mains water supply. In the event of a fire the nearest
sprinkler head above the fire operates when the temperature at the ceiling level rises above a preset level, such as 68°C and sprays an area of 12
to 20m2. Additional heads operate later if necessary to control the fire.

First aid
This is the immediate treatment on the spot given to a person who has been injured or is ill before the arrival of a qualified practitioner.
By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 14 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer

the key aims of first aid can be summarized in three key points: [4]

 Preserve life - the overriding aim of all medical care, including first aid, is to save lives
 Prevent further harm - also sometimes called prevent the condition from worsening, or danger of further injury, this covers both
external factors, such as moving a patient away from any cause of harm, and applying first aid techniques to prevent worsening of the
condition, such as applying pressure to stop a bleed becoming dangerous.
 Promote recovery - first aid also involves trying to start the recovery process from the illness or injury, and in some cases might
involve completing a treatment, such as in the case of applying a plaster to a small wound

First aid training also involves the prevention of initial injury and responder safety, and the treatment phase

First Aid Equipment

A first aid box should contain
 A card giving general first aid guidance
 20 individually wrapped sterile adhesive, water proof dressings of various sizes
 Cotton wool
 2 triangular bandages
 2 sterile eye pads with attachment
 4 medium sized unmedicated dressings
 2 large sized unmedictaed dressings
 2 extra large sized unmedictaed dressings
 Tweezers
 Scissors
 Report book to record all injuries
All establishments should have first aid equipment and employees qualified in first aid.

First aid Procedures

Electric shock
 Switch off the power supply. Do not touch the patient until this is done.
 If this is not possible push the patient away from the appliance with a wooden handle or stick, free the person by using a dry insulating
a dry insulating material such as cloth, wood or rubber, taking care not to use the bare hands otherwise the electric shock may be
 If breathing has stopped give artificial respiration and send for a doctor.
 All cuts should be covered immediately with a waterproof dressing after the skin round the cut has been washed.
 When there is considerable bleeding it should be stopped as soon as possible
 Bleeding may be controlled by direct pressure by bandaging firmly on the cut.
 It may be possible to stop bleeding from a cut artery by pressing the artery with a thumb against the underlying bone, such pressure
may be applied while a dressing or bandage is being prepared for application but not for more than 15 minutes
Fainting may occur after a long period of standing in a hot, badly ventilated kitchen. The signs of an impending faint are whiteness, giddiness
sweating. A faint should be treated by raising the legs slightly above the level of the head and when the person recovers consciousness, putting
the person in the fresh air for a while and making sure the person has not incurred an injury in fainting.
 A series of sharp blows between the shoulder blades may dislodge the obstruction. Try to get the person to bent over so that the head is
lower than the chest.
 If this does not work try to hook out the obstruction with a finger
 Small children should be turned upside down and hit in the back
 As a last resort the Heimlich maneuver. Stand or kneel behind the person with one arm around their abdomen Hold your fist with your
other hand. Pull both hands towards you quickly thrusting your elbows inwards and upward to compress the patient’s abdomen. The
aim is to push out and dislodge the obstruction NB This may be injurious to a young child and should only be used for older children
and adults
Heavy bleeding
 Lie patient down and raise injured part to reduce blood flow
 Press a clean pad onto wound and maintain pressure for 10 minutes until clot forms
 Remove loose dirt but do not probe wound.
 Apply a clean dressing firmly to the wound. If anything is lodged in put a dressing around it.
Nose bleeds
 Sit the person down with the head forward. Loosen clothing around the neck and chest
 Ask them to breathe through the mouth and to pinch the sift part of the nose
 After 10 minutes release the pressure, warn the person not to blow the nose after several hours
 If the bleeding has not stopped continue for a further 10 minutes
 If the bleeding has not stopped then , or recurs in 30 minutes obtain medical assistance

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 15 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
Burns and scalds
 Place the injured part gently under slowly running water or immerse in cool water , keeping it there for at least 10 minutes or until the
pain ceases in order to kill the pain and reduce risk of blistering.
 Do not remove clothing that has been burnt. Remove clothing that has been immersed in corrosive material. Remove jewellery if
possible as the area may swell. Cover the area with a clean cloth to reduce the risk of an infection. Lie patient down and keep them
 Badly burned patients may be given sips of water. Protect blisters do no burst them
 If clothing catches fire throw patient to the floor and smother flames with a rug or blanket.
 Do not use adhesive dressings apply lotions or ointments or break blisters.

Fractures or broken bones

There are three types:
Open fractures- Bone is protruding through skin
Closed fractures- no open wound may be internal damage to the organs
Dislocation-One or more bones pulled out of joint.
 Do not move the patient make them comfortable. Cover open wounds bandage it for support
 If possible raise the injured part to prevent swelling and pain, loosen clothing, cover patient with blanket do not give patient anything
to eat and drink.

Growth of microorganism in Food

Bacteria are minute, single celled organisms which can only be seen under a microscope. They are everywhere in our surroundings, and as most
bacteria cannot move around by themselves they are transferred to something by coming into direct contact with it. Some bacteria are spore
forming and these can withstand high temperatures for long periods of time and these later grow and multiply once the conditions are favorable.
Some bacteria produce exotoxins (toxins outside their cells).these toxins mix with the food and symptoms of food poisoning follow within a few
hours. Other bacteria cause food poisoning by virtue of large numbers of bacteria in food entering the digestive system these normally produce
endotoxins. Once these live bacteria die in the gut the endotoxins are released in the gut and this result in food poisoning.

Conditions conducive for bacterial growth

Temperature - Food poisoning bacteria grow rapidly at body temperature 37°C. They grow between temperatures of 10°C and 63°C. This is
similar to a badly ventilated kitchen and for this reason foods should not be kept in the kitchen but kept in the refrigerator or larder. Luke warm
water is an ideal heat for bacteria to grow in. Washing up must not take place in warm water as the bacteria are not killed and the conditions are
ideal for their growth and there cooking utensils may become contaminated. Hot water must be used for washing up. Boiling water will kill
bacteria in a few seconds, but to destroy toxins boiling for half an hour is necessary. To kill the most heat resistant spores, 4to 5 hours of boiling
is required. Bacteria are not killed by cold temperatures but the rate of bacterial multiplication is reduced considerably.
Microorganisms can be classified into three groups on basis on their temperature requirements.
 Psychrophiles Cold loving organisms- Can grow well at temperatures below 20°C. optimum growth 10-20°C e.g. pseudomonas
 Mesophiles-organisms liking moderate temperatures- have an optimum growth of between 20-40°C e.g Esherichia coli
 Thermophiles –organisms liking higher temperatures- can grow at temperature above 45°C e.g Clostrudium botulinum.
Moisture - Bacteria require moisture for growth. They cannot multiply on dry food. Ideal foods for their growth due to their high moisture
content are meats custard, creams sauces etc.
Time - Under ideal conditions one bacterium divides into two every 20 minutes. In 6 to 7 hours millions of bacteria will have been produced.
Small numbers of bacteria may have little effect, but in a comparatively short time sufficient numbers can be produced to cause food poisoning.
Particular care therefore is required with foods stored overnight especially if adequate refrigerated space is not available.
In 3 hours one bacteria can become 1 000 000.

Bacterial Growth Curve

Lag phase-the bacteria are growing at a very slow rate because they are trying to adapt to a new environment

Log phase- the microorganisms are growing at a very rapid rate since the are sufficient nutrients to support growth
Stationary phase-the media has reached the maximum carrying capacity
Decline phase- there is depletion in the number of micro organisms due to :
 Accumulation of toxic substances
 Decline of nutrients
 Alteration of pH due to different by-products
 Competition for oxygen

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 16 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
 Maximum

pH- most microorganisms grow best under neutral conditions (neutrophiles) and their growth is usually inhibited by acids. Some bacteria will
tolerate very low pH e.g Lactobacilli which causes souring in milk with the production of lactic acid and Acetobacter which converts ethyl
alcohol to acetic acid. These are known as acidophiles. The basophiles are the microorganisms which grow best under alkali conditions.

Oxygen- The amount of oxygen available affects the growth of microorganisms. Moulds are aerobic i.e. they require oxygen, while yeasts are
either aerobic or anaerobic depending on the conditions.
Bacteria are classified into four groups according to their oxygen requirements.
Obligate aerobes- Can only grow best if there is plentiful supply of oxygen
Facultative aerobes- grow best if there is plenty of oxygen available but can grow anaerobically.
Obligate anaerobes- Can grow if there is no oxygen present
Facultative anaerobes- grow best if there is no oxygen present but can also grow aerobically


Definition ‘Those conditions caused by the ingestion of contaminated food or drink in which the main symptoms are usually diarrhoea and
vomiting, singularly or together, often accompanied by nausea (`feeling sick') and stomach pains.’ The definition of food poisoning includes, in
addition, some food-borne and water-borne infections that may have different symptoms. Food poisoning is weakening and extremely
unpleasant, even to healthy people. However, infants, pregnant women, elderly people and those having weakened immunity to kill pathogens
are more affected.

Food poisoning can occur at the following food handling stages:

o Production
o Packaging
o Storage
o Delivery
o Preparation
o Presentation

Symptoms of food poisoning

 Abdominal pains
By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 17 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
 Vomiting
 Diarrhea

Main reasons for Food Poisoning

 Food is prepared too far in advance and stored at a warm temperature (in the danger zone 5 º– 63º C) Food is cooled too slowly before
being refrigerated
 Food is not reheated to a high enough temperature to kill the bacteria in it i.e. above 63º C
 Food is undercooked i.e. core temperature remains below 63º C
 Raw poultry is not thawed completely before being cooked Hot food is kept warm at a temperature of less that 63º C Contaminated
canned food Raw food consumed
 Use of left-over’s inappropriately prepared
 Too greater quantities prepared Food handlers pass on infections when handling the food
 Cooked food is contaminated by raw food

Keep food Clean, Cool and Covered

Types of food poisoning

 Chemical food poisoning
(i) Enzyme activity
(ii) Chemical contamination
 Biological food poisoning
(i)Bacterial food poisoning
(ii)Viral food poisoning
 Physical damage
Chemical food poisoning
Chemical changes may occur due to be due to Enzyme activity that results from ripening of fruits leading to over ripening and spoilage

 It is caused by the presence of toxic chemicals in food e.g. agricultural chemicals which are used in crop production and carelessness
in the home or industrial establishments
 Metallic poisons may arise from faulty cans, but this is rare
 Poisoning may also be caused by accumulation of certain chemicals in the body e.g. mercury and cadmium which are usually found in
fish taken from waters polluted by industrial waste and lead poisoning has arisen as a result of drinking water that has passed through
led pipes.
 Food poisoning may be caused by chemicals accidentally added to foods during preparation and cooking.

Biological food poisoning

Micro-organism activity
Water – if you use water that has not come from a mains tap it could contain harmful bacteria.
Cross contamination due to mixing of cooked and uncooked food resulting in transfer of micro organism that will spoil food
 Caused by eating plants containing occurring substances which are harmful e.g mushrooms of the Amanita variety. These contain a
toxin called amanitin which deactivate metabolic enzymes and this leads to fatal results.
 Green potatoes contain a substance called solanine which causes stomach cramps, or even lead to death if eaten in large quantities.
 Oxalic acid found in rhubarb and spinach can also be dangerous if taken large quantities. Oxalates also interfere with calcium
 Some fish and shell fish are poisonous, some of then at certain times of the year
 Datura stramonium,this is a weed and commonly grows in maize and sorghum fields. When the weed accidentally gets into sorghum
during harvesting it can cause poisoning. Sorghum is used for beer brewing.
 Spinach when spinach is cooked and then cooled and then reheated, this converts the nitrites present in to nitrates, in babies nitrates
can be absorbed by haemoglobin in the blood thus preventing the haemoglobin from absorbing oxygen. This condition is known as
methanoglobinaemia of blue baby syndrome
Viral Food Poisoning
 Certain viruses that cause vomiting and diarrheoa can be transmitted by water and food. Viruses require living tissue for growth and
therefore will not multiply in food. The food is only a means of transport into the human body. They are destroyed by temperatures
reached by food during cooking.
Fungal food poisoning
Some fungi produce mycotoxins which are poisonous to both plants and animals. Aspergillus flavus found in groundnuts and other cereals
produce and aflotoxin which affects poultry, cattle, pigs, sheep as well as humans.
Bacterial food poisoning

The bacteria most frequently responsible for food poisoning are organisms of the Salmonalla group, Staphylococcus aureus,
Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, listeria monocytogens, campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli and bacillus
Physical damage – this could be glass, small pieces of machinery, jewellery, plasters etc. Contact - with work-surfaces and equipment

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 18 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer

Reasons for the increase in food poisoning cases:

 Increase in the number of meals eaten away from home i.e. in canteens restaurants, so if food in a catering establishment is
contaminated with food poisoning bacteria large numbers of people may be affected.
 Catering establishments now produce more varied menus and this often involves keeping dishes warm until they are required.
 There has been an increase in the number of establishments selling take way foods.
 There is some evidence that intensive farming methods results in more food being contaminated with food poisoning bacteria e.g. there
has been an incidence of salmonella in frozen chickens in recent years.
There are two main ways of biological food poisoning
Infective food poisoning;- which is caused by eating food containing a large number of living bacteria. After being eaten the bacteria establish
themselves in the elementary canal and when they die they release an endotoxin e.g Salmonella poisoning
Toxic food poisoning; - This is the type of food poisoning caused by eating food containing an exotoxin. The toxin is released into the food
while the bacteria are growing and multiplying in the food. The bacteria themselves may be dead when the food is eaten e.g. staphylococcal
Table 1. Bacterial Food Poisoning
Bacteria responsible Source and foods Illness
commonly affected
Infective food poisoning Incubation period Duration
Salmonella, especially Raw or inadequately 6-72hrs but usually 12-30 1-8 days
salmonella typhimurium, cooked meat, milk, eggs, hours
Salmonella enteritidis poultry, carried by pets
and rodents
Listeria monocytogens Precooked chilled cooked
foods. Untreated dairy
Escherichia coli Excreta, polluted water, 10-72 hrs but usually 12 1-5 days
raw or inadequately -24 hrs
cooked meat and poultry
Campylobacter jejuni Raw and inadequately 3-5 days 2-3 days
cooked meat, raw ad
inadequately heated milk
Toxic food poisoning
Staphylococcus aureus Human nose mouth, skin, 2-6hrs 6-48hrshrs
boils and cuts. Raw milk
and cheeses
Bacillus cereus Rice cornflour vegetables, 1-6hrs 24hrs
dairy products
Clostridiumm perfringens Animal and human 8-22hrs 12-48hrs
excreta, soil, dust,
poultry, stews, gravies
Clostridium botulinum Soil, meat, fish and 6hrs-8days Death in 7 days or slow
vegetables inadequately recovery
canned foods

 Food poisoning caused by the salmonella group of bacteria is called salmonellosis.
 Salmonella group causes food poisoning by invasion of the body. They reach food directly or indirectly from animal sources
 There are many different strains of salmonella, some of which their names originate from the places where they were first observed.
 Salmonalla typhimurium, salmonalla enteritidis, salmonalla Newport, salmonella Dublin and salmonella eastborne.
 The bacteria can survive outside the body for long periods and on warm moist food. Food must be grossly infected with a large
number of live bacteria before illness occurs.

Mode of transmission
 Excreta at the time of slaughter, human excreta
 From water (sewage)
 In the kitchen may be transferred from raw to cooked foods by hands
 Surfaces and utensils
 Illness is most likely to occur when the organisms are ingested in large numbers when they are allowed to keep multiplying in food
 They can also be found in eggs

 Headache
 Fever
 General pain of the limbs
 Diarrhea
 Vomiting
Cases can be fatal especially in infants, elderly and sick people. The duration of the illness is 1-7 days
By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 19 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
Reservoir –is domestic and wild animals including poultry, rodents and domestic cats, dogs as well as men

 Multiplication of salmonalla can be prevented by keeping food below 5°C and cooking food thoroughly.
 The foods most infected are poultry, eggs, custard cakes, trifles and artificial cream.
 Avoid raw eggs and do not use dirty or crushed eggs
 Education of food handlers and home makers regarding hand washing, refrigeration cleaning and protection of food against
 Recognition, control and prevention of salmonella outbreak among domestic animals
 Adequate cooking and heat treatment followed by measures to avoid recontamination and animal feed
 Protect food from contamination with rat and mouse faeces and from contact with house flies
 Periodic meat and poultry inspection by trained personnel with supervision of abattoirs, as well as federal inspection

This organism may cause the disease listeriosis.
Listeria bacteria can multiply at temperatures below those found in many domestic refrigerators and commercial chilled food cabinets.
They may stay dormant for several daysat these temperatures and then multiply rapidly. Some pre-cooked chilled foods have been
found to be dangerously contaminated by the organism. Cook chill food should not be stored for more than five days at 40°C and they
should be eaten within 12 hrs if the temperature has reached 5°C. listeria bacteria are also fairly heat resistant and may sometimes be
present in pasteurized milk.
Listeria bacteria produce a toxic enzyme which may cause a serious illness if it enters the blood stream.
Listeriosis is especially dangerous to pregnant women and it may lead to abortion or the premature birth of a baby itself infected with the
Other vulnerable classes of people are the very young and elderly and those whose immune system has been compromised by the illness.

This organism is a common and normally harmless inhabitant of our intestines. There are many strains, however there are some strains that may
cause illness called Entero haemorrhagic.
Stomach cramps, acute blood diarrhea lasting 4-10 days.
Incubation period Is between 12-72 hours and the symptoms may be similar to those of other typical food poisoning or they may be dysentery
like with prolonged diarrheoa and blood an mucus with the stools
Preventative measures
 Sanitary supervision of processing, preparation and serving of food stuffs especially those to be eaten raw
 Provision of safe water supplies

Causes a disease called campylobacter enteritis. Campylobacter can survive and multiply in the intestines and so it possible to become ill after
eating food which not heavily contaminated. Campylobacter can be present in a large number of foods, particularly poultry, unpasteurised milk
and untreated water. The symptoms are fever abdominal pain, watery or blood diarrhea.

These are facultative aerobes and therefore are able to survive without oxygen. They are not spore forming bacteria. Staphylococcal poisoning is
an intoxication not an infection. The skin and nose normally harbor Staphylococcus due to purulent discharges and cooked foods such as meats,
poultry intended to be eaten cold and custards, trifles and creams are readily contaminated by hands. The toxin is formed by the organism
growing in the food before it is eaten and not after it has entered thus the incubation period can be as short as 2 hours but is usually between 4-6
hours there is rapid onset of symptoms.

nausea, vomiting, stomach cramps, diarrhea – sometimes followed by collapse.
Mode of Transmission
S. aureus is spread by food handlers during the cooking and preparation of food. Handling food rather than using the appropriate utensils is
perhaps the most common means of spread, particularly if the food handler is infected with sores on his hands. Staphylococci are easily killed by
heat, but the exotoxin they release into food is more heat resistant and can withstand up to 30 minutes boiling point. In order to reduce the risk of
staphylococcal poisoning food handlers should take the following precautions.
 A high standard of personal hygiene must be maintained.
 Foods should be handled as little as possible. Tongs should be used for cooked meats.
 Foods likely to cause food poisoning should be kept in a refrigerator e.g. sliced chopped meat, salads, custards
 Temporary exclusion from food handling of any person suffering from pyogenic, skin, eye and respiratory infections
 Education of food handlers in sanitation, proper refrigeration, hand washing and the dangers of working with skin, eye or respiratory
Illness caused: perfringens
It is an anaerobic spore forming bacillus. The illness caused by this bacterium is due to the eating of food containing a large number of living
bacteria which subsequently release a toxin in the alimentary canal. The symptoms are nausea, abdominal pains and diarrhea. The majority of C.
perfringens outbreaks are caused by reheated meat and poultry and by dishes such as mince and stews. The anaerobic conditions required for the
multiplication of the bacterium are found in foods cooked in bulk. The bacteria are able to survive most cooking processes by forming spores,
though the heat resistance varies depending on the particular strain of C. Perfringens. Some strains can survive for hours but others can survive
for a few minutes. Spores that survive germinate and start to multiply if the food is kept warm after or if the food is cooled slowly.
By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 20 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
Since C. perfringens forms heat resistant spores it cannot be assumed that the bacteria are killed during cooking. In order to reduce the risk of C.
perfringens poisoning, food handlers should take the following precautions
 Joints of meat weighing more than 2.7kg should be cut into smaller pieces before cooking
 Cooked meat and poultry should be cooled rapidly and stored in the refrigerator it may be necessary to divide large volumes of meat in
to smaller portions during storage.
 Serve meat dishes hot as soon as they are cooked or cool rapidly.
 Do not partially cook meat and poultry and reheat the next day
 Educate food handlers regarding the large scale cooking of meat dishes
Clostridium Botulinum
C. botulinum is not able to grow below ph 4.5 so botulism is not caused by acid foods such as fruits. The spores of some strains can resist
boiling. Botulism reaches in height in 1to 8 days and death often occurs as a result of paralysis of respiratory centre; the fatality rate is about
70%. Life may be saved if the botulism antitoxin is given in the early stages of the illness.
Sources. C. botulinum is found in the soil, particularly in marine muds and on the beds of fresh water lakes. It is found on some fish and some
vegetables. Since the organism is a strict anaerobe, it is only able to grow and multiply in an oxygen free environment, such as is found in
canned, bottled and packed foods. It also has been found in the centre of large sausages and cheeses.
Food spoilage or contamination
Food spoilage occurs mainly as a result of chemical reactions involved in the process of ageing and decaying, through the action no
microorganisms or through a combination of both.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
This organism has been isolated from fish shellfish and other seafoods. A period of inadequate refrigeration is generally required to allow for
proliferation of bacteria to levels infectious to men
Disease caused:-Vibrio parahaemolyticus, gastroenteritis
Incuabtion period:- 16-48hrs
Profuse watery diarrhea free from blood or mucus, abdominal pain, vomiting fever, headaches cramps
Foods commonly associated with outbreak:- shellfish and seafoods
Preventive measures
 Cooked sea foods must reach a temperature adequate to kill organisms. V.Parahaemolyitcus may surviv cooking 80°C for 15 minutes
 Prevent contamination between raw and cooked foods

Bacillus Cereus
A gastrointestinal disorder, characterized by sudden onset of diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. It usually lasts 24 hours and is very fatal. The
incubation period varies from 1-6 hours. B.Cereus is an anaerobic spore former whose spores are resistant to heat. It is found in the soil and
spores are often found in cereals and other foods. Some spores may survive cooking and germinate into bacilli which under warm conditions
(produce spores) grow and produce toxins Outbreaks are normally associated with rice, vegetables and meat dishes

Preventive measures
 Foods which may have been contaminated with B.Cereus such as grain and vegetables should be coked and refrigerated quickly
 Leftover food should be refrigerated and preheating should be performed rapidly to avoid contamination
Shigella sonei
It causes a disease called shigellosis
Incubation period:- 1-7 days
Symptoms:- fever abdominal pain, vomiting, watery diarrhea Foods associated with outbreak;- egg salads puddings and Hawaiian paste
Yersinia enterocolitica
Causes a disease called yersiniosis
Incubation period:- 16-48 hours
Symptoms:- abdominal pains diarrhea and fever.

Food poisoning prevention

1. high standard of personal hygiene
2. Attention to physical fitness
3. Maintaining good clean working conditions
4. Maintaining equipment in good repair and clean condition
5. Adequate provision of cleaning facilities and cleaning equipment
6. Correct storage of food stuffs at the right temperature
7. Correct reheating of food
8. Quick cooling of food prior to storage
9. protection of food from vermin and insects
10. Hygienic washing up procedure
11. Food handlers knowing how food poisoning is caused
12. Food handlers not only knowing but carrying out procedures to prevent food poisoning
Hygienic handling of food
Hygienic handling and storage of food is of prime importance if food poisoning is to be prevented.
Handling of food
Direct handling of food should be avoided whenever possible; food should be handled with utensils and should be washed regularly to avoid
cross-contamination. Food particularly meat and poultry should be cooked thoroughly to ensure that all pathogenic bacteria and their toxins are
destroyed. Special care should be taken with large joints of meat cooked in the oven. Ideally these joints should not exceed 2.5kg. the cooking
time should be long enough to ensure that the entire joint reaches the temperature required for the destruction of bacteria and their spores. If food
By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 21 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
is kept hot before serving, the temperature should be above 63°Cto ensure that bacteria do not multiply within the food. Cold dishes should not
be stored at room temperature but should be held at below 10°Cuntil they are served. A well ventilated larder is a suitable place for storing cold
dishes. The larder should be designed so that any windows face north, thereby excluding light. If hot food is to be re-used later it should be
cooked quickly before placing it in the refrigerator. Hot food should not be placed directly in the refrigerator since heat will pass to other food
stored there and cause an increase in the multiplication of bacteria. When the food is reheated it should be reheated quickly and thoroughly to
ensure that any bacteria or toxins which may be present are destroyed.
Storage of food
Whenever possible food, other than canned, preserved or dried food should be stored in a refrigerator, since refrigeration is the most practical
method of controlling bacterial growth. Most refrigerators operate at a temperature between 1-5°C and can be used for the short term storage of
various foods. Most pathogenic bacteria are only able to multiply at a slow rate at temperatures below 10°C therefore food stored in the
refrigerator is reasonably safe. Many spoilage microorganisms can grow fairly well at a temperature of about 5°C and spoilage can occur even
within the refrigerator.
High protein foods with high moisture content such as meat fish milk and eggs should be stored at the coldest part of the refrigerator that is just
below the cooling unit.
Other foods such as fruits and vegetables are best stored at a slightly higher temperature and these should be placed at the bottom of the
refrigerator. Care must be taken to ensure that frozen foods particularly chickens and joints of meat are thawed correctly prior to cooking. They
must not be thawed in water or in a warm room since this will encourage bacterial growth.
Cross contamination between cooked and uncooked foods
Raw and uncooked foods should be kept separate. The same working surfaces and equipment should not e used for both raw and ready to eat
foods. Surfaces and equipment used for raw foods should be thoroughly afterwards.

Food borne diseases

Cholera, typhoid and paratyphoid are diseases caused by harmful bacteria carried in food and water. Scarlet fever, tuberculosis and dysentery
may be caused by drinking milk which has not been pasteurized. To prevent diseases being spread by food and water the following measures
should be taken
1. water supplies must be purified
2. milk and milk products must be pasteurized
carriers should be excluded food preparation rooms
FOOD SPOILAGE: Spoiled foods are those which look, smell and taste different from how the consumer expected them to be.


1. Improper storage temperature and humidity levels.
2. Incorrect or excessive storage times.
3. Unsuitable storage areas.
4. Poor stock rotation practices.
5. Excessive or careless handling.
6. Inadequate sanitation of storage areas.
7. Rodent, insect or bird damage.
 Bacteria High risk foods are usually moist and high in protein and include: Cooked poultry Cooked meats Dairy produce (milk,
cream, etc.) Soups, sauces and stocks Shellfish, seafood Cooked rice Raw eggs in food such as mayonnaise or mousse.

Chemical Spoilage
 Almost all of the food is produced by living organisms whether they are animals or plants and these are made up organic compounds.
 These organic compounds are involved in a variety of complex and carefully controlled chemical reactions which depend on enzymes.
 When the plant is harvested or when an animal is killed, the enzymes will still be active and will continue catalyzing reactions which will
affect the quality of the food.
 Fruit : when it is picked growth stops, but it will be alive and ripening.. Once ripe the fruit will deteriorate quickly due to enzymes and
 Vegetables: remain alive after harvesting and they are prone to deterioration due to enzymes and microorganisms as well
 Meat: if meat is kept for too long at room temperature it becomes soggy and unwholesome, partly owing to the break down of tits protein
by proteolytic enzymes. Putrefaction will eventually set in with production of slime and foul odors caused by Pseudomonas bacilli the meat
will be offensive and inedible
 In addition to spoilage caused by protein breakdown, meat may also suffer through oxidation of fats which are always present. Unsaturated
fats are most likely to become rancid through oxidation and therefore poultry, pork, lamb and veal cannot be kept as long as because they
have a high proportion of unsaturated fats. Oxidized fats are one of the main causes of off flavors in cooked meats.
Microbial Food Spoilage
Microorganisms are extremely small living things; they can be seen by using an electron microscope.
 Microorganisms need water and nutrients before they cam multiply. They canot multiply on clean dry surfaces.
 Aerobes need oxygen for respiration, anaerobes don’t need oxygen for respiration
 Moist food kept in a warm place is most likely to be attacked my microbes which will feed on it and grow on its surface, Microbes
don’t multiply in low temperatures and they are killed in high temperatures.
 Some microbes produce toxins which are harmful to human beings and if food is contaminated it often results in food poisoning
 Food that has been attacked by microorganisms may look offensive or have a peculiar smell. In many instances its not possible to tell
by looking at the food. In fact the food may still look wholesome but heavily infected.
 The presence of microbes is not always harmful
 The microbes responsible for food spoilage are moulds bacteria and yeasts.

 Moulds are a form of fungi. They are multi-cellular organisms

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Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
 They grow as fine threads or filaments which extend in length and eventually form a complex branched network.
 Moulds also produce spores and can e carried considerable distances by air currents and in this infect food .
 Most moulds require oxygen for development and this is why they are found on the surfaces of the food. Meat, cheese and sweet food
are especially likely to be attacked by moulds
 Moulds grow best at ph 4-6 and temperature 30°C, as the temperatures decrease so does the rate of growth.
 It is difficult to kill moulds and their spores by heat treatment. To ensure complete destruction of all moulds of their spores.
Sterilization under pressure is necessary (i.e. above 100°C) OR the food may be heated to 70 -80°Cfor 2 or more days so that any
spores germinating between the heat treatments will be destroyed..
 Poisonous mycotoxins are produced and these can be harmful if present
 Bacteria are single cellular microorganisms. They are either spherical (cocci, rod shaped (bacilli) or spiral (spirulla)
 Bacteria a re widely distributed, they are found in soil, air and humans as well as animal bodies. Uncooked food will certainly be
contaminated with bacteria
 Bacteria reproduce by binary fission i.e. the parent organism splits to form new ones. In favorable conditions this fission may occur
every 20 minutes and in 12hour a single bacterium can provide a colony of 10¹º bacteria.

Vegetables and fruit

 These have dry, relatively non- porous skins and
their cell juices are mildly acidic. They are thus
more likely to suffer from the growth of moulds
and yeasts than from an attack from bacteria..
Yeasts and moulds are always present in the air but
intact fruit and vegetables are not at risk. However
if they are overripe and damaged so that cell fluids
leak into the surface, mould yeast growth is highly
likely. If other conditions are favorable the food
will deteriorate quickly.
 Fruits and vegetables will remain in good condition
for the maximum possible time if they are kept
clean, kept cool and handled with care.

Meat Spoilage
 Caused by bacteria and moulds.
 The surface is usually contaminated by bacteria
from the hide and intestines when the animal is
slaughtered and when the carcass is cut up. Poultry
is particularly prone to bacterial contamination and
the skin and interior surface usually harbor a large
number of bacteria
 When microbes grow on the surface of the meat,
they break down the protein molecules and grow to
form a bacterial slime, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and ammonia are formed and the surface of the meat becomes grayish brown in
colour owing to the conversion of myoglobin to metmyoglobin. As putrefaction continues hydrogen sulphide, mercaptans and amines
all of which are foul smelling are formed and collectively demonstrate the inedible taste of meat.
Food contamination
Food contamination occurs when food is not cooked properly or contaminants, such as bacteria or toxic pesticides, get onto food. Food
contamination can happen at several different locations where food is bought and consumed---grocery stores, restaurants, delis and homes.

Definition of Food Contamination

Food contamination occurs when food is not cooked properly or contaminants, such as bacteria or toxic pesticides, get onto food. Food
contamination can happen at several different locations where food is bought and consumed---grocery stores, restaurants, delis and

1. Environmental Contaminants
o These are chemicals that are present where the food is grown and processed. They can include contaminants from the air,
water, and soil. Some examples are arsenic, mercury and nitrates.


o There are many pesticides used that are a danger to human health. Additionally, even though many pesticides are banned due
to food safety regulations, some are still used illegally on food crops. These have been discovered during investigations by
organizations such as Green Peace and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These banned pesticides include
formaldehyde, and Lindane and Aldicarb.

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 23 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
Human Contamination

o Food contamination also occurs when human hair, skin, nails, or other materials are found in food. Food quality regulations
require workers to cover their hair, but human material can still make its way into food. Hair is not digestible and should not
be ingested.

Contaminants During Processing

o During heating and processing, some types of food can become contaminated. These contaminants that aren't present in raw
material can become present during the cooking process. Some of these contaminants include histamine, amines, and

Pathogenic Contaminants

o These food contaminants include bacteria like salmonella and e.coli. Besides the bacteria causing infections, other toxins can
cause illnesses. Some of these toxins include Bacillus cereus and Kojic acid.

Food preservation
 Microorganisms are present in the air, dust , soil, sewage and on the hands and other parts of the body. They are also widely
distributed on the food. Therefore food preservation is essential. This can be achieved by killing microbes and storing food where
further infection is impossible or by creating an environment which slows down or stops their growth.
Refrigeration and freezing
 Microorganisms do not multiply nearly as rapidly at low temperatures as at normal temperatures. This is taken advantage of in the
domestic refrigerator. The temperature of the refrigerator is normally 4-5°C, which is sufficient to chill the food and reduce the activity
of microorganisms but insufficient ot give along life. This is because microorganisms are not killed and can still grow and reproduce
but at a much slower rate. Moreover enzyme action continues although at a slower rate, leading to chemical changes in food and loss
in quality.
 Examples of food s that can be chilled are meat, vegetables, fruits and eggs.
 When meat is chilled the temperature is reduced to about 1°C and it remains in good condition for up to a month.
 Although chilling to about 5°Cenables food to be stored for short periods, it must be frozen and stored at a lower temperature if long
term storage is required. Microorganisms are the main storage agents and they become inactive at about -10°C while enzymes which
cause chemical spoilage and consequent loss of quality are largely inactivated below -18°C but a temperature of -29°C is employed
commercially to ensure high quality and a long storage life
 Most fresh foods contain at least 60% water, some of which is bound water- is tightly attached to constituent cells. The rest is available
water or freezable water being mobile. On average plant cells contain 6% bound water and animals cells 12%
 The rate at which water is frozen is important. Good quality is if freezing is quick
When frozen foods are thawed there is often loss of liquid known as drip which causes losses of soluble nutrients in food. The extent at which
drip occurs depends on the rate at which freezing is carried out, the duration and temperature of storage and the cellular nature of the food. Plant
material is most liable to drip because plant cells have larger vacuoles containing more available water.
Chemical Preservatives
Chemicals have been used in the preservation of foods for many centuries, NaCl, sodium and potassium nitrate, sugars, vinegar, alcohol, wood
smoke, and various spices have come to be regarded as traditional preservatives.
The preservative action of concentrated sugar solutions.
 Sugar acts as a preservative when it is present in food in high concentration because it makes water unavailable to microorganisms.
The sugar present in sweets and jams acts in this way and helps spoilage through mould growth.
 Condensed sweetened milk, which contains large amounts of sugar is another example of this principle, it can be kept for several
weeks after opening the can without growth of microorganisms occurring. Microorganisms cannot tolerate high concentrations of
alcohol and this is why fortified wines such as sherry keep better than unfortified wines.
 Similarly vinegar discourages the growth of many microorganisms and it performs this function in pickled food.
Preservation by salting and smoking
Curing is the method of preservation by salting and drying.
Lighter cures are used in bacon.
 Curing changes the colour of uncooked meat as a result of partial conversion of the protein myoglobin, to the redder nitrosomyoglobin
by nitrites present in the curing liquor.
 In the wet curing process, a concentrated salt solution, or brine is used. Sodium nitrate is traditionally added to the brine and some of it
is reduced to sodium nitrite during the curing process. It is actually nitrite which acts as a preservative and sometimes sodium nitrite is
often used in the place of sodium nitrate.
 Although nitrite ions (NO2-), are the main antimicrobial agents in cured meats the other salts present also help because they dissolve in
the meat fluids to form a concentrated solution in which microbes cannot flourish.
 The dissolved salts ‘capture’ some of the water molecules so making them unavailable to microorganisms. The apparent water content
(as far as the microorganisms are concerned) is lower than the actual water content. The amount available is expressed as the water
activity (aw) of a sample of food. Water itself has a water activity of 1.00 and a saturated solution has an aw value of 0.75.

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 24 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer

Water content and water activity of some foodstuffs.

Foodstuff Water Content (%) Typical aw value
Uncooked meat 55-60 0.98
Cheese 35-40 0.97
Bread 38-40 0.95
Jam 33-35 0.95
Cured meat 30-35 0.83
Honey 20-23 0.75
Dried food 18-20 0.76
Flour 14-16 0.75

Bacteria flourish best on food with high aw value, provided the other conditions are favorable. Many bacteria will not grow below an aw value
of 0.95 and an aw value of 0.91 is the lowest water activity level tolerable by normal bacteria . Yeast and moulds can tolerate much lower aw
values than bacteria. The minimum aw value tolerable by normal yeasts and moulds are 0.88 and 0.80 respectively.
 Smoking is another ancient technique of preservation. Smoking is carried out by hanging meat/fish (usually heavily salted) above
smouldering wood chips in smoke houses.
 Smoked food has an outer layer consisting of condensed tars, phenols and aldehydes which have a powerful antimicrobial effect as
well as a characteristic taste. The preservative effect is more or less limited to the surface of the food but spoilage of the interior is
delayed because the outer layer acts as a bactericidal skin.
 Smoke contains many organic compounds. Polycyclic hydrocarbons are carcinogenic.
 Microorganism require water to survive, preservation by dehydration makes use of this facts. The water content is reduced to below a
certain critical value.
 Drying is usually accomplished by passing air of carefully regulated Temperature and humidity over or through the food in tray driers,
tunnel type driers or rotating drum driers. Heated vacuum driers are also used|: the temperature necessary for dehydration under
reduced pressure is much lower than that which would be required at ordinary pressures.
 In vacuum drying the atmosphere above the food contains a much lower concentration of oxygen than the normal methods of drying
and this reduces the extent to which oxidative changes occur,
 Fruits and vegetables can also be dried in the sun
 A modern development of vacuum drying is freeze drying in which food is dried under a high vacuum. Freeze drying is particularly
attractive for drying heat sensitive food. Dehydration occurs without discoloration and sensitive nutrients e.g. vitamins remain
unharmed. Freeze dried foods practically remain without any moisture
 Multiplication of microorganisms should not occur in properly processed dehydrated food, but they are not immune to other types of
food spoilage
 Those containing fats are prone to rancidity.
Preservation by heating
 The food is sealed in a can which is then heated to such a temperature that all harmful microorganisms and spores capable of growth
during storage of the can at normal temperature are destroyed.
 No microorganism can gain access to food while the can remains closed, decomposition does not occur.
 Almost any type of food can be canned. Food is first cleaned and inedible parts such as fruit stones, peels or bones are removed.
 Fruit and vegetables may be subjected to preliminary blanching before canning in order to soften them and enable a larger amount to
be pressed without being damaged.
 The lid is then loosely placed in position and the can and its contents are heated to about 95°C by hot water or steam. The process
known as exhausting causes the air in the headspace of the can to expand and displace any remaining air from the fruit or vegetable
tissues. Exhausting also reduces strain on the can during subsequent heat treatment, it also reduces the amount of oxygen in the
headspace so minimizes internal corrosion of the can and oxidation of nutrients, particularly ascorbic acid after sealing. The can is
sealed when exhausting is complete and it then ready for heat sterilization or processing.
 Most canned food is processed in batch type cookers (which are large scale pressure cookers.)
 Processing conditions must be severe enough to ensure that all harmful microorganisms in the canned food are destroyed. Bacterial
spores are easily killed by heating in acidic conditions.
 Canned vegetables and meat are usually processed at 115°C, whereas fruits can be processed in boiling water.
HTST Canning
By substantially increasing the temperature at which it is carried out it is possible to reduce the duration of heat processing. Sterilization is a
carried out at about 120°C in special equipment designed to achieve a high rate of heat transfer. The food is the n cooled somewhat before
sealing into cans which have been previously sterilized with superheated steam. This procedure is known as aseptic canning. This can be used
only for liquid or semi-solid foods. The heating time varies from 6 secs to about 6min depending on the type of food being canned.
 The food is cooked in thin layers there is less likelihood of some of it being over processed to ensure that all of it is adequately
 Large cans convenient for large scale catering can be used, because there are no problems about heat penetration to the centre of the
Heat resistant microorganisms
 Bacterial spores are very heat resistant at high temperatures. The death of bacterial spores in heat treated food follows a logarithmic
course in which equal proportions of surviving cells die in each successive unit of time. Thus if 10000 spores were present per unit

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Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
volume were initially present and 9000were killed by exposure to a particular temperature for one minute, 900 would be killed in the
second minute , 90 in the 3rd minute , 9 in the 4th minute etc. One thousand many spores would be killed during the 1 st minute of
exposure as during the fourth.
 Nutritive value of canned foods- Some nutrient losses occurs during heat processing and more thiamine is lost during meat during
 Reduction of ascorbic content also occurs during processing.
 Spoilage of canned food- Properly canned food remains edible for very long periods of the cans are not corroded
 Yeasts are unicellular microscopic fungi, they reproduce themselves by budding, i.e. by formation of a small off shoot which becomes
detached from the parent yeast cell when it reaches a certain size and assumes an independent existence.
 Yeasts can also form spores but these are far less heat resistant than mould spores and bacterial spores.
 Yeasts occur in the soil and on the surface of the fruits.
 Yeasts grow in acid food (pH 4-4.5) with reasonable moisture content. Most yeast grow best in the presence of oxygen between 20-
 Yeasts and yeast spores can easily be killed by heating to 100°C
 Yeast is also used for making bread, brewing beer and vinegar.
 They cause spoilage of many foods including fruit, fruit juices, jam wines and meat. Although they spoil food yeasts are not
Waste disposal
Waste material is a potential threat to food safety because it is a source of food contamination which can provide food for a variety of pests.
Waste can be divided into five groups.
 Dry non-food waste:-This comes mainly from packaging wood, cardboard, plastic, some of which cane be sorted for resale.
Cardboard, paper, glass can be recycled.
 Dry-food waste:- They can either be disposed off at source in a waste disposal unit which grinds the waste into small particles, mixed
with water and flushed into the drainage system. b) stored in galvanized steel bins with close fitting lids for disposal to swill collectors
 Unsavory offensive food waste:- This should be disposed off immediately where possible using a waste disposal unit
 Waste cooking oils and fats. Large quantities have a resale value, small quantities can be absorbed into dry food waste
 Bulky waste:- This can be disposed off either by a)incineration only by using specific equipment or in isolated areas or b) by
The refuse site should be clean, located in an easy to clean area with a water supply for washing down and adequate drainage. For general
internal rubbish plastic or paper lined bins which can be destroyed with the rubbish are preferable to other types of bins.

Nutrition: Nutrition is the sum total of the processes involved in the taking in and the utilization of food substances by which growth repair and
maintenance of the body are accomplished. It involves ingestion, digestion, absorption and assimilation. Nutrients are stored by the body in
various forms and drawn upon when food intake is not sufficient.
Appetite: an instinctive physical desire for food and drink.
Nutrients: any substance that is assimilated (taken in) by an organism that is needed for the organism to live, grow breathe move excrete waste
or reproduce e.g. proteins, vitamins etc.
Diet: A diet is the usual selection of food eaten by a person or animal.
Malnutrition: Malnutrition is the condition that develops when the body does not get the right amount of nutrients he/she needs to maintain
healthy tissues and organ function.
Protein molecules consist of chains of hundreds or even thousands of amino acids joined together. The proteins are classified into 2 major groups
the fibrous proteins and globular proteins.
These are much simpler than globular proteins, are made up of individual zigzag polypeptide chains which are held together by cross links to
form elongated or fibrous molecules with a fairly stable but elastic nature (there are some fibrous proteins that are inelastic in nature. They are
characterized by being rather insoluble substances.

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Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer

Table 1: Simple classification of proteins

Type Solubility and function Examples and sources
Fibrous  Insoluble, elastic proteins forming the structural Keratin (hair), collagen (connective
part of tissues. tissue), elastin (tendons arteries)
 There are elastic and non elastic fibrous proteins myosin (muscles)
e.g. ά-keratin is the elastic form and β-keratin is
the non-elastic form.

Inelastic fibrous protein Elastic fibrous protein

Globular  Relatively soluble. Part of all fluids of all body Enzymes, protein hormones,
cells. Many food proteins. enzyme albumins, globulins (blood)
 These are more complex than fibrous proteins Casein (milk), albumin (egg-white)
because the helix chain is folded into a more
complex irregular bulky shape.


Plant 
Glutelins  Insoluble in neutral solutions. Soluble in acids Glutenin (wheat), hordenin (barley)
and alkalis oryzenin (rice)
Prolamines  Insoluble in water. Soluble in alcohol Gliadin (wheat), zein (maize)

Protein is an essential part of all living matter; it is therefore needed for the growth of the body and for the repair of body tissues. There are two
kinds of proteins.

1. Animal protein found in meat, game, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese.
2. Vegetable protein found mainly in the seed of vegetables. The proportion of protein in green and root vegetables is small. Peas, beans
and nuts contain most protein and the grains of cereals such as wheat have a useful amount because of the large quantity eaten.
 Protein is composed of amino acids., and the protein of cheese is different from the protein of meat because the number and
arrangements of the amino acids are not the same . A certain number of the amino acids are essential to the body and have to
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Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
be provided by the food. Non-essential aa are those that the body can synthesize. Proteins containing all the essential amino
acids are said to be of high biological values.
Table 3: Essential and non-essential amino acids
Essential amino acids Non-essential amino acids
Valine Glycine.
Leucine Alanine
Isoleucine Norleucine
Phenylanine Tyrosine
Threonine Serine
Methionine Cysteine
Tryptophan Cystine
Lysine Ornithine

Aspartic acid
Glutamic acid

 The human body is capable of changing the other kinds of aa to suit its needs.
 It is preferable that the body has both animal and vegetable protein so that the complete variety of the necessary aa are
Function in the body
 Proteins are vital to basic cellular functions, including cellular regeneration and reproduction.
 Cellular and tissue provisioning.-Protein is an essential component for every type of cell in the body including muscles, bones, etc
and protein is required since the body is constantly undergoing renewal and repair of tissues.
 Hormone and enzyme production.-Amino acid are the basic components of hormones, which are essential chemicals responsible for
regulating bodily functions and processes e.g. insulin. Enzymes play an essential role as biological catalysts in biological reactions.
 Fluid balance: - The presence of blood protein molecules such as albumins and globulins are critical factors in maintaining fluid
balance in the body to prevent edema.
 Energy provision:- Protein is not a significant source of energy of the body, but however if there is not enough carbohydrates being
ingested, protein is used as energy needs for the body.
During digestion proteins are broken down into amino acids. Peptidases are the hydrolyzing enzymes which operate by catalyzing the
hydrolysis of the peptide links in the protein molecule so breaking down the protein into smaller units. In the stomach the gastric glands secrete
pepsinogen which at pH2 becomes activated forming the enzyme pepsin. The action of pepsin is extremely specific it produces peptones. The
enzyme rennin is also present and brings about the coagulation casein in milk.
In the small intestines enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin continue the hydrolysis of peptones to dipeptides which are broken down into
amino acids by a series of dipeptidases. Proteins are thus completely hydrolyzed to amino acids before passing from the small intestines into the
Effects of protein deficiency
Protein enrgy malnutrition constitutes the largest health problems in developing countries. In such countries PEM is the largest cause of death
and many as half the children do not reach the age of 5.
 Protein deficiency can lead to reduced intelligence or mental retardation.
 Kwashiorkor is a malnutrition disease which arises after a period of breast feeding, children are weaned into a diet in which the staple
food is the main part of the meal and is lacking in protein. The symptoms include apathy, swollen liver, reddish hair, stunted growth,
flaky skin, and edema of the belly and the legs.
 Pellagra is associated with PEM due to deficiency to niacin. It is characterized by muscle wasting.
 Marasmus- while it is caused by lack of food it is made worse by susceptibility to repeated infections caused by poor hygiene.
Marasmus produces shrunken dehydrated children with wasted muscles, it iis often accompanied by diarrhea.
 PEM is as a result of poverty and ignorance. Tradition also plays aprt resulting in the father of a family being given meat or any other
protein available while the rest of the family having to make do with other food remains.
 Both of these conditions are common in developing countries due to the general shortage of food. This condition can be counteracted
by eating protein rich foods e.g. peanut butter, meat, milk, eggs, milk etc.
Excessive protein consumption
 The body is unable to store excessive protein. Proteins are digested into amino acids which enter the blood stream. Excess proteins are
then converted into usable molecules by the liver in a process called deamination. Deamination converts nitrogen from amino acids to
ammonia which is then converted to urea in the kidneys and the urea is then later excreted as urea in the urea.
 Excessive protein also results in demineralization of the bone and a deterioration of kidney function in patients with kidney disease.
Effects of cooking on protein
Protein is coagulated by heat. The process is gradual for example when heat is applied to egg white it thickens, becomes opaque and then firm.
Overheating will harden the protein making it tough unpalatable and shrunken. This characteristic coagulation of protein when heated is
employed in its use as a coating for deep and shallow fried foods and in the development of crust in bread formed by the protein gluten in wheat.
Ways of denaturing proteins
 Heat: Normal cooking methods
 Salting by adding salt
 Mechanical action: whipping eggs
 Enzymes meat tenderizers
 Acid by adding acid

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Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer

Effect of heat on proteins

As heat is increased the kinetic energy of the protein molecules increase and therefore the bonds are broken due to the increased vibration.
Therefore the protein chains start to unfold and may come into contact with other chains and new weak bonds are formed. The effect of heat on
most globular proteins e.g egg albumin is coagulation to form a gel like structure. However when fibrous proteins are heated they contract and
squeeze out the associated water e.g when fillet steak is heated the protein myosin coagulates at about 71°C. If the temperature continues to
increase the protein contracts and squeezes much of the water associated with it and thus becomes drier and eating quality is impaired.
Effects of acid on proteins
Proteins can also be denatured by acids. E.g. in the precipitation of casein from milk the pH of the milk is lowered by the addition of the
microorganism lactobacillus which ferments the disaccharide o lactic acid. As lactic acid accumulates in the system, the pH is lowered to
approximately 5.4. It is at this ph That casein coagulates and it precipitates out of solution. This process is applied in the making of cheese,
yoghurt and sour cream.
This is also evident if vinegar is added to water for poaching eggs
Effect of mechanical action on proteins
The bonds that maintain the shape of protein molecules are so weak that they can easily be broken by physically agitating them. E.g in making
meringues. By whipping egg whites air is incorporated and also the physical action causes the protein to unfold and take on a new form. (Foam
structure is formed).
Gluten gives bread dough both elasticity and plasticity. Gluten is formed by two proteins gliadin and glutenin. During kneading the gluten
molecules are rearranged from a tangled mass to a series of parallel sheets.
 There are 3 major categories namely
- Monosaccharides,
- Disaccharides and
- Polysaccharides.
Functions in the body
 The function of carbohydrates is to provide the body with most of its energy and heat. Starch is composed of a number of glucose
molecules and during digestion the starch is broken down into glucose which is later broken down during the process of respiration
into energy, carbon dioxide and water.
 Facilitate in the metabolism fats
 Excess carbohydrates can be stored as glycogen, an energy reserve in the liver and muscles
 If there is some reserve it is converted to fats and stored under the skin as adipose tissue
 Can be regarded as a `protein sparer` ie they function as proteins only in the absence of proteins
 Cellulose provide roughage which reduces constipation and promote bowel movement
 The central nervous system utilize carbohydrates only, so the supply must be adequate
These are single sugar units very simple ( e.g. glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose etc).
 Glucose and fructose are the only monosaccharide present to any extent in an average diet. They occur in honey in roughly
equal amounts and in glucose syrup which are extensively used by food manufacturers for sweetening in the production of
 Honey consists of about 20% water and about 76% glucose and fructose. 4% is made p small amounts of unconverted
sucrose and some other disaccharides and minor quantities of minerals, vitamins and flavor producing compounds.
 Fructose is the sweetest carbohydrate.
These are sugars with 2 subunits joined together
 Sweet
 Made of two subunits
e.g. maltose glucose + glucose,
sucrose glucose + fructose
Lactose galactose + glucose.
 Sucrose is found in cane sugar and beet
 Lactose is found in milk
 Maltose is found in cereals. It is produced naturally during the germination of grain.
These are complex carbohydrates made up of many sugar units joined together by glycosidic bonds through repeated condensation processes.
Examples starch, Dextrin, pectin, glycogen, and cellulose
 Not sweet
 Insoluble
 Whole grains: rice, oats, barley, tapioca,
 Powdered grains: Flour, corn flour, ground rice.
 Vegetables potatoes, peas, beans.
 Unripe fruit: Bananas, apples, cooking pears.
 Cereals: Cornflakes, shredded wheat etc.
 Cooked starch: cakes biscuits
 Pastes: Macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli.

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Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer

Cellulose /Fibre
This is the courser structure of vegetables and cereals which is not digested but is used as roughage in the intestine. Dietary fibre can be
described as a non starch polysaccharide because of it indestibility
Digestion of starch starts in the mouth; the enzymes responsible for the breakdown of starch are the amylase enzymes which breakdown starch to
maltose. Further breakdown of starch occurs in the small intestine where the pancreatic juices released by the pancreas contain amylase which
breaks down the undigested starch to maltose. The intestines also release intestinal juices which contain the following enzymes sucrase, maltase
and lactase. The enzymes catalyze the following reactions respectively.
Sucrose glucose +fructose
Maltose glucose+ glucose
Lactose glucose + galactose

Cooking effects on carbohydrates

Thorough cooking is essential if starch is to be absorbed, uncooked starch granules are not digestible. For example, insufficiently cooked pastry
or bread. When coked the starch granules swell and burst and then the starch can be digested. Fooods containing starch have starch granules
covered with cellulose walls which break down when heated or made moist. When browned as with crust of bread. Toast roast potatoes, the
starch forms dextrins and these taste sweeter. On heating with milk or water the starch grains swell and burst, thus thickening the product. This
thickening process is known as the gelatinization of starch.
There are 2 main groups of fats. Animal and vegetable fats.
Fats can be divided into:
 Solid fat
 Oils (fat which is liquid at room temperature).
Fats are obtained from the following foods:
Animal origin: - dripping butter, lard, cheese, bacon, meat fat. Oily fish which are rich in omega 3 polyunsaturated fats
Vegetable origin:- margarine., cookig fat, nuts soya bean
Oils are obtained from the following foods:
Animal origin: - cod liver oil Vegetable origin:- from seeds and nuts.
Fatty Acids
 Fatty acids are those organic acids which are found in fats chemically bound with glycerol
 The commonest fatty acids contain 16 and 18 carbon atoms.
 The fatty acids can be classified as:
1. Saturated fatty acids in which the carbon atoms are linked together by single bonds e.g. stearic acid.
2. Mono-unsaturated acids in which there is only one double bond in the carbon chain e.g. oleic acid
3. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in which there are two or more double bonds in the carbon chains e.g. linoleic acid, contains 2
double bonds.
 The more the double bonds that carbon hydrogen chain posses the greater are its degree of unsaturation.
 The degree of unsaturation is important in determining its properties
 All natural fats contain both saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, but the greater the proportion of the unsaturated fatty acids the lower
the melting point of the fat.
 Fats which are high in unsaturated fatty acids (e.g. olive oil, sunflower seed oil) are therefore liquid at room temperature e.g. butter.
Table 2: Sources 0f saturated and ply-unsaturated fats
High in saturated fats Dairy products and other products Butter, cream, milk, cheese, liver,
lamb, beef, pork, coconut oil
High in poly-unsaturated fats Vegetable oils Corn oil, soya oil, sunflower seed
Nuts oil

Essential fatty acids (EFAs)

 These are essential to the body and cannot be made by the body and so must be supplied in the food
 There are 2 Essential Fatty Acids, linoleicacid and linolenic acid
 Most vegetable oils and some fish oils are good sources of essential fatty acids
EFAs have important functions in the body. They form part of the structure of all cell membrane; they provide the raw materials from which the
raw materials from the hormones known as prostaglandins .
Function of fats on the body
 The function of fat is to protect vital organs of the body,
 to provide heat and energy,
 and certain fats also provide vitamins ADEK.
 Some essential fatty acids form part of the cellular membranes,
 Required for the formation of hormones such as prostaglandins
Digestion of fats
 The liver secretes bile which is then secreted into the bile duct. Bile emulsifies fat into smaller fat droplets . some bile is stored by the
gall bladder.

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Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
 Small intestines:- Pancreatic lipases brings about the partial hydrolysis of some fat molecules into glycerol and fatty acids. These free
fatty acids and glycerol are absorbed through the villi into the lymph vessel where they are re-sysnthesised into fat molecules that are
more suitable for use by the body.
Effects of deficiency
The amount of essential fatty acids required by the body is relatively very small therefore there is no known deficiency. If the amount supplied in
the diet is reduced the body compensates by making more itself. The body normal has more cholesterol than it needs and some of the excess is
made into bile salts which help the digestion of fats.
Effects of excessive intake
 Fats accumulate in the body due to excessive intake of foods. Fats if consumed in excess is stored under the skin because they cannot
all be absorbed into the bloodstream. Or else the person will have high cholesterol level.
 Obesity, this is the state when a person has an excessive amount of body fat. Obese people are more likely to suffer from diabetes than
slimmer people and this may lead to kidney failure and blindness.
 Coronary heart disease is associated with the high build p of fatty material especially cholesterol in the blood.
Cooking effects of fats
The nutritive value of fat is not affected by cooking. During cooking processes a certain amount of fat may be lost from the food as with the
grilling of meat for example.
Effects of heat on fats
1. Slip point: this is the temperature at which the fats melt into a liquid fat the temperature ranges from between 30-40°C
2. If the temperature is too high 135°C-245°C the smoke point of that fats may be reached at which temperature blue smoke containing
acrolein appears indicating incipient decomposition.
3. If the temperature is raised above the smoke point the rate of decomposition increase rapidly. This may result in a fire this is called the
flash point.
One way that rancidity develops is when the fat molecules are split by a reaction with water that releases fatty acids and glycerol. The reaction
involves an enzyme (lipases) and its called hydrolytic rancidity
 Hydrolytic rancidity occurs when water splits fatty acid chains away from the glycerol backbone into glycerides.
 Oxidative rancidity occurs when the double bonds of an unsaturated fatty acid reacts chemically with oxygen.
 Microbial rancidity refers to a process in which microorganisms such as bacteria use their enzymes, including lipases, to break down
chemical structures in fat.
 In each case these chemical reactions result in undesirable odors and flavors.
 Free fatty acids produced by hydrolysis can undergo auto-oxidation. Oxidation primarily occurs in unsaturated fats by free-radical
mediated processes. These processes can generate highly reactive molecules in rancid food and oils which are responsible for
producing unpleasant and noxious odors and flavors. These chemical reactions can also destroy nutrients in food. Under some
conditions, rancidity and the destruction of vitamins occurs very quickly.
Table: Factors affecting rancidity in fats
Factor Effect
Water Necessary for development of rancidity by hydrolysis
Heat Speeds most chemical reactions including development of rancidity
Lipases Present in certain foods and causes rancidity
Metal ions Speeds up development of rancidity in fats
Light Speeds up oxidative rancidity
Salt food particles Speeds up development of rancidity

Prevention of rancidity
 Antioxidants are often added to fat containing foods in order to delay the onset or slow the development of rancidity due to
oxidation. Natural antioxidants include flavonoids, polyphenols, ascorbic acids (vitamin C) and tocopherols (vitamin E).
Synthetic antioxidants include butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene(BHT), propyl gallate and
ethoxyquin. The natural antioxidants tend to be short lived, so synthetic anti oxidants are used when longer shelf life is required.
 In addition, rancidity can be decreased but not completely eliminated by storing fats in cool dark places with little exposure to
oxygen, since heat and light accelerate the rate of reaction of fats with oxygen. The addition of anti microbial agent can also delay
or prevent rancidity due to the growth of bacteria or other microbes.

Effects of heat on fats

When fats are heated these are the following changes that take place
 Slip point the temperature at which the solid fat melts into a liquid fat. The temperature
Vitamins are chemical substances which are vital for life, and if diet is deficient in any vitamin ill health results. As they are chemical substances
they can be produced synthetically.
To assist the regulation of body processes e.g.
1. To help the growth of children
2. To protect against diseases.

Vitamin A -Retinol
Cod-liver oil, Kidney, butter, cheese, eggs, milk, herring, carrots, spinach, watercress, tomatoes, apricots
1. Assists in the growth of children

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Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
2. Helps the body to resist infection
3. Enables people to see better in the dark
4. Necessary for healthy skin and also for normal growth and development
NB. Carotenes found in vegetables can be converted to retinol in the wall of the small intestines during absorption and hence vegetables have
considerable vitamin A activity. B- carotene is also an antioxidant and protect easily oxidized nutrients e.g. PUFAs from oxidation.
Vitamin A is fat soluble therefore it is found in fatty foods. It can be made in the body from β-carotene, the yellow substance found in many
fruits and vegetables. Dark green vegetables are a good source of vit A, the green color of chlorophyll masking the yellow of carotene.
Fish liver oils have the most vitamins A. The amount of vit A in dairy produce varies. Because cattle eat fresh grass in summer and stored
feeding stuffs in winter, the dairy produce contains the highest amount of vitamin A in the summer.
Kidney and liver are also useful sources of vitamins A.
Effects of deficiency
A long term deficiency of vitamin a may lead to a condition known as night blindness which makes it difficult to see in dim light. Night
blindness is caused by a shortage of a retinol derivative called rhodopsin or visual purple which is essential for the proper functioning of the
retina at the back of the eye. Night blindness is common in some parts of Asia and Africa where the diet is deficient in vitamin A. An adequate
intake of vitamin A is essential for the maintenance of healthy skin and other surface tissues such as mucous membranes. Long term deficiency
may cause an eye disease known as xeropthalmia in which dead cells accumulate on the surface of the eyes causing them to become opaque. The
cornea may become ulcerated and infected a condition known as keratomalacia and blindness is a common sequel.

Effects of excessive intake

Retinol is not soluble in water and an excess above the body’s need is not excreted in the urine but accumulates in the liver. This is why animal
liver is such a valuable source of vit A. The liver of a well nourished person may contain sufficient retinol to permit subsistence for several
months without further intake of retinol or carotene. Because retinol accumulates in this way an excessive intake should be avoided. Mothers
who give their babies vita supplements in the form of fish liver oil should take particular care not to exceed the recommended dose. Including
adults who take the vit A pill should not overdose. Headache, hypertension, high cholesterol, diarrhea
Effects of cooking
Retinol and carotenes are highly unsaturated and so t hey are easily destroyed by oxidation, especially at high temperatures. They are much more
susceptible to oxidation after extraction from food than when in animal or plant tissues. Losses due to oxidation processes during cooking are
small, but considerable losses may occur during storage of dehydrated food if precautions are not taken to exclude oxygen. Apart from this
sensitivity to oxidation, retinol and carotenes are reasonably stable and are slowly destroyed at the temperatures used for cooking. They are
almost insoluble in water and so there is little or no loss by extraction during boiling of vegetables.
Vitamin D- cholecalciferol
This vitamin controls the absorption of calcium. It is therefore necessary for healthy bones and teeth.
Like vitamin A. it is fat soluble.
Sources of vitamin D
An important source of vitamin D is on the action of sunlight on the deeper layers of skin
Fish liver oils, oily fish, Margarine to which vit D is added, dairy produce, egg yolk
Compared with vit A there are fewer sources of vit D., the fish liver oils being the most important.
Functions in the body
Vitamin D is need for the absorption of calcium and phosphorous in the body. In its absence the body is unable to make use of these elements
and they are lost in the feaces. Phosphorous and calcium are both needed in the formation of bones and teeth.
Effects of deficiency
Deficiency of vitamin D causes rickets in the young, and the related bone disease is osteomalacia in those whom bone growth has ceased.
Rickets is characterized by curvature of the bones in the limbs. The disease has been successfully treated by exposure to long periods in the sun.
Rickets is often found in conjunction with dental caries because vit D is necessary for the proper calcification o teeth.
Effects of excessive intake
Excessive intake of vt D can be harmful. Too much calcium can be absorbed from the diet and the excess is deposited in the kidneys where it
causes damage and eventually death can result. There is a particular danger in that babies who are given vit D in the form of fish liver oil could
receive an excessive intake unless the recommended dosage is carefully observed.
Fragile bones, hypertension, high cholesterol levels, diarrhea
VITAMIN E -Tocopherols
Sources- plant seed oils
Function in the body
 Vit E protects easily oxidized nutrients such as unsaturated fatty acids, retinol and vitC from oxidation.
 Helps prevent the occurrence of serious eye disease called retrolental fibroplasia which affects premature babies. This disease is
caused by the action of oxygen on the developing blood vessels in the baby’s eyes
Effects of deficiency- results in the development of retrolental fibroplasia in premature babies.
Effects of excessive intake: blurred vision headaches
VITAMIN K- Naphtoquinones
Sources- vitamin K is present in most foods but green leafy vegetables are the richest source. Bacterial synthesis in the bowel provides humans
with vitamin K in addition to that obtained from food stuffs.
Function in the body
Its essential for normal blood clotting, without vitamin K the liver is unable to synthesize prothrombin which is the precursor of the blood
clotting enzyme thrombin.
Effects of deficiency
There’s is little danger of vitamin K deficiency. But in the absence of vitamin K a life threatening hemorrhagic disease may occur in new born
babies since they lack the bacteria which produces vitamin K in the gut and may are given supplements.

Effects of excessive intake: Jaundice in infants, liver damage

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Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
Vitamin B
The B group of vitamins comprises of several vitamins which have similar functions. In the body they are largely concerned with the release of
energy from carbohydrates. They are all soluble to a greater extent in water and since the body lacks the capacity of storing them any excess is
excreted in the urine. The members of the B group vitamins are
 Thiamine (vit B1)
 Riboflavin (vitB2)
 Niacin (nicotinic acid)
 Pyrodoxine (vit B6)
 Pantothenic acid
 Biotin
 Cobalamine
 Folate
Thiamine (vit B1)
Sources:- yeast, bacon, oatmeal, pea, whole meal bread
Vitamin B is required to:
 Utilise carbohydrates by living cells. As a result its present in all natural foods to some extent. Unfortunately it’s often absent from
processed foods because it has been removed or destroyed in the preparation of the food for the market.
 Promotes normal appetite and growth
Effects of deficiency
The deficiency disease beri-beri which is caused by a deficiency of thiamine.
Symptoms being loss of appetite, emaciation and enlargement of the heart. A deficiency of thiamine causes a check in the growth of children
together with the loss of appetite and other symptoms such as irritability, fatigue and dizziness.
Anxiety, hysteria, nausea
Effects of excessive intake
In common with other water soluble vitamins. Thiamin is not is not stored by the body and any excess is rapidly excreted in urine. E regular and
adequate supply of the vitamin is essential.
Effects of cooking
Thiamin is water soluble, as much as 50% may be lost when vegetables are boiled. Potatoes boiled in their skins retain up to 90% of their
thiamin compared with retention of about 75% in the case of boiled potatoes. Thiamin decomposes on heating though it is fairly stable at the
boiling point of water and little loses occurs at this temperature in acidic conditions. In neutral or alkaline conditions break down is more rapid.
Foods which have been subjected to higher temperatures as in roasting or n processing during canning may have a large proportion of their
thiamin destroyed. Meat loses about15-40% of its thiamin when boiled, 40-50% when roasted and 75% when canned.

Riboflavin (vit B2)

Sources:- Rioflavin is widely distributed in plant and animal tissues. Liver, kidney, fortified cornflakes, cheese, eggs beef, milk, bread, liver,
kidney, beer, cabbage, potatoes
Function in the body
In the body riboflavin is esterified with phosphoric acid or pyrophosphoric acid and forms part of the coenzymes involved in the variety of
oxidation-reduction processes concerned with the release of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrate in living cells.
Effects of deficiency
A deficiency of riboflavin produces a check in the growth of children and lesions on the lips and scaliness at the corners of the mouth may occur.
The tongue and eyes may also become irritated.
Excessive intake
When riboflavin is eaten it is stored temporarily in the liver until its need by the body. It is not possible to store large amount in this way,
however it is necessary for regular and adequate amounts to be eaten.

Effects of cooking
Heating causes little breakdown of riboflavin and little or no loss during canning. Meat loses about amino acid quarter of it riboflavin during
roasting. Greater losses occur if riboflavin is heated under alkaline conditions such as occur when bicarbonate of soda is added to the water used
for boiling vegetables. Although riboflavin is stable to heat it is sensitive to light especially in milk. Up to three quarters of the riboflavin may be
destroyed by exposure to direct sunlight for 3 hours. The substances produced when riboflavin breaks down in this way are oxidizing agents
capable of destroying the vitamin C present in milk. The fats in the milk may be oxidized producing unpleasant off-flavors.
Niacin (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide)
Sources; Found in both animal and plant tissues. Main sources are meat, potatoes, bread and fortified cereals.
Functions in the body
Nicotinamide occurs in the body as part of two essential enzymes concerned in a large number of oxidation processes involved in the utilization
of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Aids nerve function and digestion
A severe deficiency of niacin can cause the disease pellagra which is characterized by dermatitis, diarrheoa and symptoms of mental disorder.
Less severe deficiencies can produce one or more of these symptoms. Pellagra has long been associated, like many other deficiency diseases
with a low standard of living. In particular pellagra result from subsistence on a diet consisting mainly of maize.
Excessive intake;- Skin flushing
Pyridoxin or vitamin B6
Pyridoxine is the name given to a group of three pyridine derivatives, pyridoxal, pyridoxal pyridoxamine. All three compounds are inter-
convertible in the body and they are equally potent as vitamins. Vitamin B6 is found in foods which contain the other B vitamins. The main
sources in the diet are potatoes and other vegetables, milk and meat. Symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency in animals can be produced by feeding
them with a diet devoid of the vitamin. It is not easy to do the same things with humans although various skin lesions are reputed to be caused by
By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 33 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
vitamin B6 deficiency. Infants fed on milk powders devoid of vitamin B6 were found to suffer from convulsions but responded quickly to
treatment with the vitamin.
Vitamin B6 functions as a coenzyme for a large number of enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism
Effects of deficiency:- Depression, confusion and convulsions in infants

Pantothenic acid
This vitamin is a pale yellow oil. It is found in a wide variety of plant and animal tissues. It is soluble in water and it is rapidly destroyed by
treatment with acids and alkalis or by heating in the dry state. Pantothenic acid is an essential constituent of coenzyme A which is concerned in
all metabolic processes involving addition or removal of an acetyl group. Such processes are of great importance in the many complex
transformations occurring within the human body, especially those concerned with the release of energy from carbohydrate, protein and fat.
Biotin is another widely distributed vitamin which is required in minute amounts as a coenzyme involved in the metabolism of fats and
carbohydrates. Many foods contain biotin. Liver and kidney are good dietary sources and smaller amounts are found in egg yolk, milk and
bananas. Such small amounts of biotin are required by the body that sufficient amounts may be produced by the microorganisms present in the
large intestines. Consequently dietary sources and there is no evidence of biotin deficiency. Except in infants where it results in sclay skin,
fatigue and pain. Raw egg white contains a protein like substance called avidin which combines with the biotin of the yolk to form a stable
compound. This is not absorbed from the intestinal tract and therefore the biotin is not available to the body.
Cobalamin or vitamin B12
Cobalamin is a deep red crystalline substance. The presence of cobalt gives this vitamin its characteristic red color. Cobalamin is found in small
quantities in all animal tissues but it absent from foods of vegetable origin. It is required by the body in extremely minute amounts and
vegetarians usually obtain sufficient from eggs and milk. Vegans who abstain from foods of animal origin including dairy foods may suffer from
a deficiency. Fortunately , cobalamin can be made from a mould used to produce the antibiotic streptomycin and supplies are available for
vegans from this source.
Coabalamin plays a part in the production of nucleic acids and in the complex process of cell division in the body. It is especially important in
conjunction with folate and iron, for the formation of red blood cells. It is also involved in the formation of the myelin tube or sheath which
surrounds each nerve fibre.
Some people are unable to absorb cobalamin from their diet suffer from a serious disease known as pernicious anaemia, in which extreme
anaemia is accompanied by degeneration of the nerve tracts in the spinal chord. Pernicious anaemia is caused by the absence from the gut of an
intrinsic factor which is essential for the absorption of cobalamin. It is NOT a deficiency disease because if the intrinsic factor is absent, it will
occur even when the diet contains sufficient cobalamin.
Folate is the name given to a group of closely related compounds derived from folic acid, Folates are involved in the body in conjunction with
cobalamin in the production of nucleic acids and in particular in the formation of red blood cells. A deficiency of folate may cause a particular
type of anaemia called megaloblatic anaemia. This is similar to the anaemia caused by the non-absorption of cobalamin but it is not accompanied
by degeneration of nerve cells which is a feature of pernicious anaemia. Pregnant women are prone to develop this type of anaemia. Folate
deficiency during pregnancy may lead to premature birth and low birthweight. If a mothers diet is deficient in folate before conception or during
the early stages of pregnancy there is evidence of an increased risk that the baby will be born with neural tube defects such as spina bifida.
Folates are found in small amounts a wide variety of foods, liver, green vegetables potatoes. Fortified cornflakes are good sources of the vitamin.
Folates are easily destroyed during cooking and a good deal can be lost in the water used for cooking vegetables. Even greater losses occur if
sodium bicarbonate is added to the water to preserve the green colour of green vegetables.

A human contains about 20-25g and most of it is found in the bones as magnesium phosphate. Magnesium is also present in ionic form in all
tissues where it plays a part in many reactions involved in energy utilization.
Magnesium occurs widely in foods. It is present in green vegetables as a part of the chlorophyll molecule and vegetables provide two-thirds of
magnesium in an average diet. Meat is also a good source as a consequence of animals eating grass and other vegetation.
An adequate intake of zinc is essential for the maintenance of good health. It forms part of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase found in red blood
cells, which assists in releasing carbon dioxide from venous blood passing through the lungs. Zinc is also a constituent of several other enzymes,
and it plays a part in protein and carbohydrate metabolism. Prolonged absence of zinc can lead to retarded physical and mental development in

Other mineral elements

The body requires small quantities of other mineral elements and these are referred to as trace elements. Normal diets provide a sufficient supply
of all the trace minerals except for fluorine and iodine.
Sources- milk, sea food, iodized salt
Function in the body
Iodine is carried around the body in blood as iodide and is absorbed in the thyroid in the neck where it is converted to the hormones thyroxine
and tri-iodothryonine. These two hormones are concerned with the general metabolic metabolic activity of the body and control the rate of
energy production of cells.
Effects of deficiency
When the diet provides insufficient iodine, the thyroid gland may increase in size in an attempt to compensate for the deficiency a condition
known as goitre. Some vegetables are known to be goitrogenic i.e. capable of causing goitre e.g. cabbages and cauliflower contains toxins called

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 34 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
Traces of fluoride in the diet are beneficial in protecting teeth against decay especially in children below the age of 8 years. Dietary fluoride
hardens tooth enamel. Fluoridation of water reduces the incidences of dental caries, particularly in young children.

Table 2 Some trace elements

Element Approximate Average adult Main food sources Functions in the body
average daily body content
Cobalt (Co) 0.3mg 1.5mg Liver and other meat Required for formation of red blood cells
Copper (Cu) 3.5mg 75mg Green vegetables fish, liver Component of many enzymeAAs.
Necessary for haemoglobin formation
Chromium (Cr) 0.15mg 1mg Liver, cereals beer yeast Contained in all tissues. Involved in
glucose metabolism
Flourine (F) 1.8mg 2.5g Tea, seafood water Required for bone and tooth formation
Iodine (I) 0.2mg 25mg Milk seafood, iodized salt Component of thyroid hormones
Manganese (Mn) 3.5mg 15mg Tea, cereals pulses, nuts Forms part of some enzyme systems
Molybdenum 0.15mg ? Kidney cereals, vegetables Enzyme activation
Selenium (Se) 0.2mg 25mg Cereals, meat, fish Present in some enzymes. Associated
with vitamin E activity

Non-starch polysaccharides Dietary fibre

Dietary fibre comes from the cell walls which form the structural support of the plant from which the food originated. E.g cellulose,
hemicellulose, pectins, lignin. NSPs differ from starch in that they cannot be digested by the enzymes in the small intestinesand they enter the
bowel unchanged.
Sources: wheat, maize, rice, oats, barley, rye, vegetables
Functions of NSPs
 Prevents constipation-NSPs absob water in the small intestines leading to formation of softer and larger stools.
 NSPs speeds the passage of food through the alimentary tract
 Helps prevent many bowel diseases such as appendicitis,diverticular diseases in which distended pockets are formed in the bowel
 They are of value to diabetes mellitus sufferers in which the concentration of glucose in the blood exceeds the normal levels. Diet high
in fibre slow down the release of glucose in the blood stream and in this way the symptoms of diabetes are minmised.
 Lowers the blood cholesterol levels in some individualstherefore the risk of coronary heart disease is reduced.
Digestion of dietary fibre
NSPs are unaffected by the enzymes of the digestive system and it passes more or less unchanged to the large intestines. Once there it is attacked
and broken down by harmless bacteria which inhabit the bowel and is partlty converted to short chain fatty acids, carbon dioxide hydrogen and
methane. The short chain fatty acids are absorbed into the blood stream and hence contribute to the body’s energy intake. The hydrogen formed
during NSP breakdown is absorbed and subsequently expired in the breath.
The carbon dioxide and methane are not absorbed however it results in flatulence.
Effects of deficiency
Constipation is characterized by longer transit of food through the intestinal tract and formation of hard small stools.
May result in bowel diseases such as diverticular diseases
Effects of excess intake
Diets with a high NSP content may also have high phytate (natural toxin) content. This toxin complexes with iron and calcium and may interfere
with their absorption.

Sources:- water, beverages and food.
Water is unlike other essential nutrients in that most of it does not undergo chemical changes within the body
 Transports nutrients through the body
 To dissolve substances or to hold them in colloidal suspension
 Water remains liquid over a wide temperature range and this property enables water to provide a liquid medium in which thousands of
reactions necessary to life can occur.
 Some water is involved in chemical changes e.g. enzymic and hydrolytic breakdown of nutrients during digestion
Deficiency- feel faint, thirsty all these are signs of dehydration
Excess intake- most of it lost through urine and sweat
Dietary needs of special groups
Babies’ diet-Mother’s milk is the ideal food for the baby and all mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed. It is desirable that breast feeding
continues throughout the first year of a baby’s life. Mother’s milk provides the correct balance of nutrients for the baby’s needs except for
vitamin C. The infant’s requirements of energy and protein over the first six months of life are provided by breastfeeding and no nutrient
supplement should be required as long a the mother is receiving an adequate diet. Nursing mothers are advised to take vitamin supplements to
increase calcium intake.
Another advantage of breastfeeding is that the milk is available at the right temperature and in the right quantity. Also with breast feeding the
risk of infection is decreased compared to bottle feeding, the young baby is protected by antibodies and other substances in the mother’s milk at
a time when its own protective mechanisms are not properly developed. Breastfeeding reduces te risk of diarrhea from contaminated milk
because the milk passes from mother to baby without any external contact. Non-nutritional advantages of breastfeeding include fostering of a
close physical relationship between mother and baby and a beneficial effect on the health of the mother.

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 35 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer

Bottle feeding:- For many mothers there may often be a good reason why they cannot breast feed in which case they will bottle feed their baby
using commercial baby milk. Cow’s milk has a composition very different from that of human milk and on its own is an incomplete food for
babies; hence has been modified to make it equivalent to breast milk. Although such attempts have not been successful there are many
commercial products that are satisfactory. Commercial baby milks are normally in concentrated form –either dried or evaporated and are
reconstituted by the addition of water. Cow’s milk is modified in a number of ways so that it more closely resembles human milk. The main
objects are to reduce the mineral and protein content and increase the lactose content. In addition such products are easily fortified with vitamin
D as neither mother’s milk nor cows’ milk contains sufficient amounts for the baby’s needs. In some products the animal fat of cows’ milk is
replaced by vegetable oils. Ordinary skimmed milk is not good for the babies as it contains less vitamin A and has lower energy content than
cows milk

Nutritional requirements for infants

Recommended Dietary requirements
Age Calcium Magnesium Phosphorous Iron mg/day Vitamin D Vitamin K
mg/day mg/day mg/day IU/day mcg/day
0-6 months 400 40 300 6 300 5
6-12mths 600 60 500 10 400 10
1-3 years 800 80 800 10 400 15
Calcium, phosphorous, vitamin D
Formula fed infants generally consume more than the recommended daily allowance of calcium, phosphorous and vitamin D, breat fed infants
consume less total calcium from breast milk but retain similar amounts to formula fed babies because of better absorption of calcium from breast
Iron deficiency
Breast fed infants are at risk for iron deficiency because while iron in breast milk is well absorbed, iron level in breast milk are inadequate about
a fifth of unsupplemented breast fed babies develop evidence of iron deficiency by nine months of age. Iron fortified cereals starting around 4 to
6 months greatly reduces the risk of Iron deficiency.
Vitamin K
Breast milk is low in vitamin K. Before mamdated use of vitamin K in the new born baby, the devastating hemorrhagic disease of the new born
occurs in 1in 200 babies. The condition has been almost eliminated by vitamin K use at birth.
While adequate dietary fluoride helps prevent tooth decay an unsightly mettling and structural and structural weakening of permanent teeth
known as flourosis has become more prevalent. Younger children get a significant amount of fluoride from water supplied and swallowing

Nutritional requirements for children

Nutrition guidelines recommended for adults are inappropriate for most children under the age of five, because children have small stomachs and
so need plenty of calories and nutrients in a small amount of food to ensure they grow properly.
While low fat diets are recommended for older children and adults, toddlers need diet that contains good amounts of fats. This fat should come
from food that contains plenty of other nutrients, like meat, fish and full fat milk rather than high fat food that contains few vitamins and and
minerals for example cakes, biscuits and chocolates. They should not eat too much fibre rich food as they may fill them up so much that they
cannot eat enough ot provide them with adequate calories and nutrients
Nutritional requirements for children
Nutrition guidelines recommended for adults are inappropriate for most children under the age of five. This is because young children only have
small tummies and so need plenty of calories and nutrients in a small amount of food to ensure they grow properly. As a child grows milk alone
is insufficient. At four moths or later solids should be introduced to a childs diet. The child should continue to have plenty of milk while he or
she is gradually let itnot the family’s diet.
Points to remember
 Alaways introduce new foods gradually
 Serve small portions of food, however should be as nourishing as possible and make it as attractive as possible.
 Encourage children to be sel-reliantand start teaching them good table manners at an early stage. Introduce them to their own plate and
cutlery to encourage sense of ownership
 Do not give your children rich spicy or greasy foods. It is too much for their digestive systems
 Sugar is not good for childrens teeth and sweet things in between meals soil their appetite.
While low fat diets are recommended for older children and adults, under five need diet that contain good amounts of fats.
This fat should come from food that contains plenty of other nutrients like meat, dry fish and full fat milk rather than from high fat food that
contains few vitamins and minerals e.g. cakes, biscuits and chocolates.
Meanwhile young children should not eat too many fibre rich foods as these may fill them up so much that they cannot eat enough to provide
them with adequate calories and nutrient.
School children
As kids approach school age they should gradually move towards a diet that’s lower in fat and higher in fibre and by the age of five their diets
should be low in fat, sugar salt and high in fibre with five fruits and vegetables per day just like adults. Fortunately whatever their age children
can easily get a balanced diet and lower the risk of becoming obese by eating a variety of foods from the four main groups. Children in this age
group are very active and grow very fast. Consequently their meals should include energy foods as well as food for growth. The choice of food is
widened as they grow older
Bread, other cereals, potatoesthese starch foods which include pasta provide energy fibre, vitamins and minerals.
Fruits and vegetables- these provide fibre, vitamins minerals and are a source of antioxidants.
Milk and dairy products- these provide calcium for healthy bones teeth, proteins for growth, vitamins and minerals.
Meat, fish, pulses, eggs- these foods provide proteins and vitamins and minerals especially iron. Pulses contain fibre.

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 36 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
Teenage years are a period of rapid physical and emotional growth and changes. At this stage they are encouraged to eat a variety of foods and
regular exercise. Rapid growth, greater needs, body image influences and erratic eating means good food is as important in the teen years. Some
nutrients are especially important at this stage. E.g. teens should eat iron rich foods and the equivalent of a pint of milk daily, yoghurt, cheese,
baked beans leafy vegetables and fortified breakfast cereals will contribute to the body’s iron needs. Girls start to menstruate at thiststage and
this regular loss of blood may trigger anaemia. They should eat foods rich in iron
Aim for five portions of fruits and vegetables every day and eight glasses of water. Encourage five meals per day from all the food groups and
healthy snacks in between meals.
The physical changes of adolescence have direct influence on a person’s nutritional need. Teenagers need additional calories, protein, calcium
and iron.
Adolescence need additional calories to provide energy for growth and activity. Boys aged between 11-18 years need between 2000-2800
calorires per day. Adolescent girls need 2200 calories each day. This is a significant increase from childhood requirement. To meet this calorie
need teens should choose a variety of healthy foods such as lean protein sources, low fat dairy products, whole grain foods, fruits and vegetables.
Protein is important for growth and maintenance of muscles. Teens need between 45-60g of protein each day by eating pork beef, chicken, eggs
and dairy products. Protein is also available from certain vegetable sources including, soy food beans and nuts.
Adequate calcium intake is essential for development for strong dense bones during the adolescent years and young adulthood years. Inadequate
intake of calcium during teenage years puts individuals at risk for developing osteoporosis later in life. Teenagers are encouraged to consume
three to four servings of calcium rich food every day e.g. milk yoghurt, cheese, cereals etc.
As adolescents gain muscle mass, more iron is needed to help their new muscle cells obtain oxygen for energy. A deficiency in iron causes
anemia which leads to fatigue confusion and weakness.
Pregnant and lactating women
 4-6 servings of carbohydrate
 5-6 servings of vegetables
 4 servings of fruits
 2 servings from milk dairy
 2 servings from meat
Energy requirements
Energy requirements are increased with pregnancy due to the growth of the unborn baby and placenta.
Physical activity has health benefits for the mother prepares the body for childbirth. Healthy eating is important for the pregnant women and
their unborn babies. There are many nutritional issues to consider ensuring good health of both woman and baby during and after pregnancy. A
wide varied diet is vital in supporting the growth and development of the fetus and the maintenance of the woman’s own health
During pregnancy there is increased requirement for most nutrients. Energy, iron, folate, iodine, zinc, vitamin C. Her diet should include foods
which contain plenty of dietary fiber to guard against constipation
for the safety of the unborn baby a pregnant mother should be mindful of listeria, mercury, alcohol, caffeine.
The increased needs of pregnancy and lactation can normally be satisfied from the body’s iron stores in the absence of losses through
menstruation. Supplementation of the dietary intake is usually only required when the maternal iron stores are low at the start of the pregnancy.
Pregnant women are prone to develop megalobalstic aneamia. Folate deficiency during pregnancy may lead to premature birth and low birth
weight. If a mothers diet is deficient in folate before conception there is a probability that the baby will be born with neural tube defects such as
spina bifida. Therefore pregnant women are encouraged to take supplements.
Vitamin A
This vitamin is responsible for the normal growth and development of the baby. Pregnant women need this vitamin in large quantities
Sedentary workers
Nature demands from every form of life a certain amount of activity or motion. Intestinal congestion which is almost universal in sedentary
workers is caused in nearly all cases by consuming a quantity of food in excess of physical demand. The diets therefore have to be light. The diet
may include foods such as fruits, fish, and vegetable and should be a little low on fat and carbohydrates. Ailments suffered from sedentary
workers are indigestion, constipation and anemia. In dealing with each and all of these conditions including obesity which is normally as a result
of sedentary habits, the first thing is to limit the quantity of food to the normal requirement of the body and in extreme cases a diet below the
normal should be observed. Then with proper care as to the selection, combination and proportions of food and an increased amount of exercise
and deep breathing, a person of sedentary habits should be made as healthy and strong as the manual laborer.
Manual workers
Manual workers need a diet high in energy giving foods than sedentary workers. Adults need less body building foods than children. Energy
foods should contain more fats than carbohydrates because carbohydrates are difficult to digest while one is doing physical work. They need
more water and salt to replace that which has been lost through sweat
Children seem to get sick very suddenly. Invalids are people who have been weak through illness or injury. Convalescents are people recovering
from serious illness or an operation. Both invalids and convalescents have specific dietary needs. It is important to follow the doctor’s
instructions when looking after a sick person. During an illness the patient may run a very high temperature. They consequently loose their
appetite and it is not necessary to give them solid food. A fluid diet is ideal.
The main concern with children is their high risk dehydration through loss of fluids with vomiting and diarrhea. This is also true with adults, but
due to body size it takes longer to be dehydrated. The main aim is to get fluids into the child. It is best to encourage small sips they will not
tolerate large volumes in one go including fluids with some energy value is worth trying if they can tolerate it. If the child has been sick for
along period of time try an oral dehydration fluid. These fluids have the right balance of sugar and salts and these are an important source of
electrolytes sodium and potassium. Which are lost through vomiting and diarrhea.
Introducing food for invalids

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 37 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
As invalids get better slowly introduce food back into the diet. keep the rough fibrous type of food low initially. Bland foods are also better
tolerated than rich food. It is best to offer things frequently and in small amounts. Some children will bounce back easily and resume a normal
diet quickly. Others may take sometime before they start feeling comfortable with a wide range of food
Breads for invalid food
Use white bread and use only a scraping of butter or margarine. Adding marmite is a good way of replacing salt. Dry toast is also a good option
Fruit and vegetables
Fruits – try bananas, stewed fruits such as apples peaches. Apply
Vegetables- try boiled or mashed root vegetables which could be easier to tolerate e.g. potatoes, pumpkin, and carrots.
Protein choice natural
Egg- poached boiled scramble
Fish steamed
Plain chicken
Plain lean roast meat

Elderly people
Elderly people may suffer from an inadequate diet for a variety of reasons including loneliness, poverty, reduced enjoyment of food due to loss
of taste and smell mental and physical lethargy, or illness or inability to chew and digest food properly , For these reasons elderly people often
suffer from malnutrition than the rest of the population. Energy needs decreases with age because of the reduction of physical activity therefore
carbohydrates should not be excessive. There elderly need a high protein diet to repair worn and torn tissues. Old people suffer from loss of
calcium from a bone disease called osteoporosis. Although this condition cannot be prevented or remedied by diet, foods which are rich in
calcium such as milk and cheese should be included in the diet of the elderly. Among those elderly who are malnourished, the nutrients most
likely to be deficient are vitamin C, D and folate. Many old people have inadequate intakes of folate and this may be because they eat few green
leafy vegetables. There are some particular hazards for older people e.g. old people who have difficulty in peeling fruits or cooking potatoes may
lack sufficient vitamin C, while the housebound will have little or no chance of being in the sunshine and consequently may lack vitamin D.
Vitamin supplements may well be beneficial

Food habits for Zimbabwe’s different cultural groups

A number of cultural groups exist in Zimbabwe and each has their own traditional way of eating their food. The differences arise from the
different types of foods how they are prepared and cooked and eating habits. Indigenous Zimbabweans for example, sit on mats or mud stoeps
and eat their food from the same plate, with or without individual side plates. This approach is slowly falling away and a more individual
approach is being adopted i.e. food is either dished into single plates or spooned from a common big plate into individual smaller ones. The
Moslems buy their meat from special Halal butcheries. This is because these butcheries kill the animals and chickens in a special way.
Special Diets
Vegetarian diets
There are three main types of vegetarian regime, the ova-lacto-vegetarian diet, which consists of foods of plant origin together with eggs and
dairy products; the lacto vegetarian diet which is similar but excludes eggs and the vegan diet which excludes all foods not of plant origin.
Vegetarians in the first two categories get animal protein from eggs and dairy products and can easily obtain a nutritionally adequate diet if care
is taken to eat a sufficient variety and quantity of food. Vegans can also achieve a diet which is satisfactory in most respects, but unless care is
taken it is difficult for them to receive sufficient vitamin B12, and possibly vitamin D from their very restrictive diet.
Although a carefully contrived vegetarian diet can be nutritionally adequate, it should be borne in mind that plant proteins are usually of lower
biological value than animal proteins unless a variety of plant proteins are eaten on the same day, preferably as a part of the same meal so that
the absence of an essential amino acid in the proteins of one food can be complemented by its presence in another. The table below shows the
amino acid strength and weaknesses of the food which figure prominently in vegetarian diets.
Table 4: Essential amino acids composition of vegetarian food groups
Food groups Weaknesses Strengths
Pulses or legumes Tryptophan, methionine, cysteine* Lysine
Cereals Lysine, isoleucine Tryptophan,methionine, cysteine*
Seeds and nuts Lysine Tryptophan, methionine, cysteine*
Other vegetable foods Isoleucine, methionine Tryptophan,lysine cysteine*
Eggs None Tryptophan, lyisine, methionine,
Dairy foods None lysine
Cysteine* is not an essential amino acid because the body can make from mentioning but its presence spares methionine

The maximum nutritional benefit will be obtained by combining foods in such a way that the amino acid weaknesses of one group are
compensated by the strength of another. For example, when food of cereal origin is eaten at the same time as a pulse, as in the case of bake
beans on toast, the two proteins combined provide high quality protein. It is important that young children are provided with high quality protein
to sustain a high rate of growth so proteins in the diets of vegetarian children and especially vegan children should be from mixed sources.
Lacto-vegetarian diets usually contain more fat because of the amount of milk and other dairy products consumed. Vegetarian and vegan diets
are normally richer in EFA linoleic acid than the diet of non-vegetarians. The calcium intake of lacto and ovo-lacto vegetarian is usually high but
that of vegans very low. Most vegans do not eat white bread and hence do not have the benefit of calcium carbonate which is added to flour.
Iron is normally poorly absorbed from plan sources and so the iron content of a vegetarian diet needs to be higher than that of a non-vegetarian
diet to provide the same amount of iron to the body. Vegetarians who consume milk and dairy products usually have an adequate vitamin intake
and are unlikely to suffer from vitamin deficiencies but vegan diets may lack vitamin D and vitamin B12. Natural vitamin D is found in dairy
products which are not eaten by vegans. A deficiency may be avoided by eating margarine which is fortified with synthetic vitamin D.
Cobalamin can be attained from commercially growing bacteria which produces streptomycin.

By. Mrs K Ngwenya B-Tech office Flat 1 Page 38 11/02/2021
Nutrition and Hygiene Lecturer
Low fat diets exclude or severely limit foods which are high in fat but allow other foods to be eaten freely. Fats have more than twice the
energy value than carbohydrates or proteins, so that a low fat diet is likely to be a low energy diet. This type of diet is currently recommended by
many doctors because lowering fat intake, and particularly lowering saturated fats is considered to be healthy and may be a way of reducing
coronary heart diseases.
High fiber diet:- (whole food diet) are very popular and aim at establishing a diet that has a low energy value but a high NSP content. Whole
food is rich in NSPs have the advantage that they have a low energy value while because of their capacity to hold considerable amounts of water,
they provide bulk which gives a feeling of fullness. Moreover it is believed that an increased intake of NSPs lowers the blood cholesterol levels
and therefore lowers the risk of obesity. Another advantage is that whole foods are eaten in place of refined convenience foods.
Gluten free diet;-
A glutei free diet is a diet completely free from ingredients derived from glutein containing cereals;- wheat, barley, rye etc as well as the use of
gluten as a food additive in the form of flavoring, stabilizing or thickening agent. It is recommended amongst other things in the treatment of
coelic disease, migraines. Additionally the diet may exclude oats. Gluten free foods e.g. corn, potatoes, rice and cassava