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Колыхалова О.А., Махмурян К.С.

Учитесь говорить по-английски: Фонетический


практикум. - М.: Гуманит. изд. центр ВЛАДОС, 1998. 232 с.
Практикум включает систему упражнений, обеспечивающих целенаправленную работу
над произношением и техникой чтения английского языка; может быть использован как ввод-
но-фонетический курс.
Практикум предназначен для студентов 1-2 курсов гуманитарных факультетов, а также
для учащихся гимназий, лицеев и школ с углубленным изучением английского языка.
Введение
ЗВУКИ
Гласные фонемы
[I] — монофтонг переднего отодвинутого назад ряда высокого подъема (широкой раз-
новидности), краткий нелабиализованный. При произнесении [I] язык находится в передней
части полости рта, средняя часть языка поднята к твердому небу, но значительно ниже, чем
при произнесении русского [и], кончик языка находится у основания нижних зубов, губы
слегка растянуты.
[i:] — долгий нелабиализованный дифтонгоид переднего ряда высокого подъема узкой
разновидности. При произнесении [i:] язык находится в передней части полости рта, средняя
часть языка поднята к твердому небу, губы слегка растянуты. В процессе артикуляции язык от
более низкого и отодвинутого назад положения переходит к более высокой и продвинутой
вперед позиции.
Следует обратить внимание на неоднородность артикуляции дифтонгоида.
[е] — монофтонг переднего ряда среднего подъема узкой разновидности, краткий нела-
биализованный. При произнесении [е] язык находится в передней части полости рта, кончик
языка — у основания нижних зубов, средняя часть языка поднята к твердому небу, губы слег-
ка растянуты. По сравнению с русским [э] звук более передний и закрытый.
[æ] — полудолгий нелабиализованный монофтонг переднего ряда низкого подъема ши-
рокой разновидности. При произнесении [æ] рот широко открыт, язык находится в передней
части полости рта, кончик языка — у основания нижних зубов, язык плоско лежит во рту,
средняя часть его несколько приподнята. Губы слегка растянуты. Подобного звука в русском
языке нет.
[а:] — долгий нелабиализованный монофтонг заднего ряда высокого подъема узкой
разновидности. При произнесении этого звука язык находится в задней части полости рта,
задняя часть языка слегка приподнята. Кончик языка оттянут от нижних зубов. Рот слегка
приоткрыт, губы нейтральны. Звук более задний, чем русское [а].
[ɒ] — краткий лабиализованный монофтонг заднего ряда низкого подъема широкой
разновидности. Язык находится в задней части полости рта, задняя часть языка приподнята.
Рот широко открыт, губы округлены, но не вытянуты вперед. Русский гласный [о] менее от-
крытый.
[ɔ:] — долгий лабиализированный монофтонг заднего ряда низкого подъема узкой раз-
новидности. Язык находится в задней части полости рта, задняя спинка языка поднята к мяг-
кому небу (выше, чем для [ɒ]). Губы округлены, но не выпячены.
[ʋ]— краткий лабиализованный монофтонг заднего продвинутого вперед ряда высокого
подъема широкой разновидности. Язык находится в задней части полости рта, но не так дале-
ко, как при артикуляции русского [у]. Задняя спинка языка слегка приподнята. Губы округле-
ны, но не вытянуты вперед.
[u:] — долгий лабиализированный дифтонгоид заднего ряда высокого подъема узкой
разновидности. Язык находится в задней части полости рта, задняя часть языка значительно
приподнята. В процессе артикуляции язык перемещается от продвинутого вперед и более
низкого положения в направлении более задней и закрытой позиции. Губы значительно ок-
руглены. По сравнению с английским русский [у] является более задним и закрытым.
[ʌ] — монофтонг смешанного ряда среднего подъема широкой разновидности, краткий
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нелабиализованный. При произнесении этого звука рот полуоткрыт, губы нейтральны, язык
несколько отодвинут назад, задняя спинка языка слегка приподнята. Английский звук более
задний и более краткий, чем русское [а].
[з:] — долгий монофтонг смешанного ряда среднего подъема узкой разновидности, не-
лабиализованный. При произнесении этого звука язык лежит плоско, кончик языка находится
у основания нижних зубов. Рот полураскрыт, зубы обнажены. Это долгий однородный звук,
при произнесении которого уклад органов речи не меняется.
[ə] — нейтральный нелабиализованный краткий монофтонг смешанного ряда среднего
подъема. При произнесении этого звука губы нейтральны, рот приоткрыт, язык находится в
средней части полости рта. В конечном положении качество звука несколько меняется.
[ei] — дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга — краткий гласный [е] переднего ряда среднего подъе-
ма узкой разновидности, нелабиализованный. После произнесения ядра язык делает легкое
движение вверх в направлении звука [i], не достигая его полного образования.
[ai] — дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга — гласный звук переднего ряда низкого подъема широ-
кой разновидности, нелабиализованный. После произнесения ядра язык делает движение
вверх в направлении звука [i].
[ɔi] — дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга — звук заднего ряда низкого подъема, лабиализован-
ный. После произнесения ядра язык делает движение вверх в направлении гласного [i].
[аʋ] — дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга — гласный переднего отодвинутого назад ряда низкого
подъема широкой разновидности, нелабиализованный. Он произносится почти так же, как
первый элемент дифтонга [ai], затем язык делает движение назад и вверх в направлении звука
[ʋ], полное звучание которого не достигается.
[зʋ] — дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга — гласный смешанного ряда среднего подъема узкой
разновидности, лабиализованный. После произнесения ядра язык делает движение вверх и на-
зад в направлении артикуляции [и], полное звучание которого не достигается.
[iə] — дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга — гласный переднего ряда высокого подъема широкой
разновидности, нелабиализованный. После произнесения ядра язык движется к центру в на-
правлении [ə].
[ɛə] — дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга — гласный переднего ряда среднего подъема широкой
разновидности, нелабиализованный, второй элемент — нейтральный гласный.
[ʋə] — дифтонг. Ядро дифтонга — гласный заднего продвинутого вперед ряда высокого
подъема широкой разновидности, слегка лабиализованный, второй элемент — нейтральный
гласный.
Согласные фонемы
[р], [b] — губно-губные смычные взрывные согласные. При их произнесении губы,
смыкаясь, образуют полную преграду. Размыкание преграды осуществляется быстро и энер-
гично, [р] — глухой согласный, произносится с аспирацией, [b] — звонкий согласный.
[k], [ɡ] — заднеязычные велярные смычные взрывные согласные. Задняя спинка языка
касается мягкого неба, образуя полную преграду, [k] — глухой звук, произносится с аспира-
цией, [ɡ] — звонкий.
[t], [d] — переднеязычные апикально-альвеолярные смычные взрывные согласные.
Кончик языка касается альвеол, образуя полную преграду, размыкаемую струей воздуха, [t] —
глухой согласный, произносится с аспирацией, [d] — звонкий.
[f], [v] — губно-зубные щелевые фрикативные согласные. Артикуляционно совпадают с
русскими согласными [ф, в]. Глухой [f] сильнее русского [ф], звонкий [v] слабее русского [в].
[s], [z] — переднеязычные апикально-альвеолярные щелевые фрикативные согласные.
При произнесении этих согласных образуется узкая щель между кончиком языка и альвеола-
ми. Английский согласный [s] сильнее русского [с], английский звонкий [z] слабее русского
[з].
[Ɵ], [ð] — переднеязычные апикально-межзубные щелевые фрикативные согласные.
При произнесении этих согласных язык не напряжен, кончик языка находится между зубами.
Зубы обнажены, струя воздуха проходит между языком и верхними зубами, [Ɵ] — глухой со-
3
гласный, [ð] — звонкий согласный.
[ʧ], [ʤ] — переднеязычные альвеолярно-палатальные смычные аффрикаты, первый
компонент — взрывной звук [t] или [d], второй — фрикативный [ʃ] или [ʒ]. При их произнесе-
нии кончик языка касается альвеол, одновременно средняя часть языка поднимается к твер-
дому небу. Постепенно кончик языка отходит от альвеол. Полная преграда переходит в не-
полную, [ʧ] — глухой согласный, [ʤ] — звонкий.
[m] — губно-губной смычный носовой сонант. Губы, смыкаясь, образуют полную пре-
граду, мягкое небо опущено, струя воздуха проходит через полость носа.
[n] — переднеязычный апикально-альвеолярный смычный носовой сонант. Кончик язы-
ка касается альвеол и образует полную преграду, мягкое небо опущено, воздух проходит че-
рез полость носа.
[ ] — заднеязычный смычный носовой сонант. При его произнесении задняя часть язы-
ка касается мягкого неба. Кончик языка не поднимается к альвеолам, а находится у основания
нижних зубов.
[ʃ], [ʒ] — переднеязычные альвеолярно-палатальные щелевые согласные. Кончик языка
находится у альвеол, а средняя часть языка поднимается к твердому небу, что придает звукам
оттенок мягкости, [ʃ] — глухой согласный, [ʒ] — звонкий.
[h] — глухой щелевой фарингальный согласный. При его произнесении в области зева
образуется неполная преграда сближением корня языка и задней стенки зева. Язык в момент
произнесения принимает положение для последующего гласного, на слух звук воспринимает-
ся лишь как выдох.
[l] — переднеязычный апикально-альвеолярный боковой сонант. Кончик языка прижат
к альвеолам, боковые края опущены, образуя проход для воздуха. Темный (твердый) оттенок
[l] звучит в конце слов и перед согласными. Светлый (палатализованный) оттенок [l] звучит
перед гласными и согласным [j].
[j] — среднеязычный щелевой срединный сонант. Средняя часть языка поднята к твер-
дому небу. Края языка прижаты к верхним зубам, образуя проход для воздуха вдоль середины
языка. Английский согласный значительно слабее русского [й].
[r] — переднеязычный заальвеолярный срединный щелевой сонант. Кончик языка под-
нят к заднему скату альвеол. В отличии от русского [р], английский согласный характеризует-
ся однородностью звучания.
[w] — губно-губной заднеязычный срединный щелевой сонант. При его произнесении
губы сильно округлены и выдвинуты вперед, образуя круглую щель. Задняя часть языка под-
нята к мягкому небу. Органы речи сразу же переходят в положение для произнесения сле-
дующего гласного звука.
ОСНОВНЫЕ ПРАВИЛА ЧТЕНИЯ ГЛАСНЫХ
Ударный слог
в открытом слоге [ei] take, place, name, cake, state
в закрытом слоге [æ] map, sat, stand, happy, apple
перед г [a:] car, art, dark, farm, party
перед rе [ɛə] care, bare, share, prepare
А Неударный слог [ə] ago, about, legal, formal
а Буквосочетания
ai, ay [ei] main, chain, day, way, play
aw, au [ɔ:] saw, law, autumn, cause
аr после w [ɔ:] war, warm, warn
аr после qu [ɔ:] quarter, quarrel
an + согласная [a:] answer, dance, chance
а + ss, st, sk [a:] class, last, ask, task
а + ft, th [a:] after, craft, bath, rather
w (h) + a [ɒ] watch, wash, was, what, want
4
Ударный слог
в открытом слоге [i:] be, he, me, see, meter, Peter
в закрытом слоге [е] best, next, left, smell
перед r [з:] her, term, verse
перед rе [iə] here, mere, severe
Неударный слог [i] begin, return, because, between
[ə] mother, father, corner, over
Е Буквосочетания
е ее, еа [i:] green, seem, sea, clean
еа + d [е] bread, head, already
Исключения: read [rid], lead [li:d]
ei + gh [ei] eight, weigh
ew [ju:], [u:] few, new, grew, blew
еу [ei] grey, obey
ее, еа + г [iə] deer, dear, hear, appear
ear + согласная [з:] learn, earth, early
Ударный слог
в открытом слоге [ai] life, five, fine, tie, time
Исключения: live [liv], give [giv]
в закрытом слоге [i] sit, lift, pick, little
I перед г [з:] bird, girl, first, circle
i перед rе [aiə] fire, tired, admire
Неударный слог [i] origin, engine
Буквосочетания
i+ Id, nd [ai] child, find, kind, mind
Исключения: children ['ʧildren],
window [‘wındзʋ]
i + gh [ai] right, light, night, high
Ударный слог
в открытом слоге [зʋ] close, note, rose, home
в закрытом слоге [ɒ] stop, long, song, copper
перед r [ɔ:] form, born, fork, border
перед rе [ɔ:] store, before, restore
Неударный слог [зʋ] photo, motto, Negro
суффиксы ous [əs] famous, various, numerous
суффиксы or [ə] doctor, tractor, conductor
О Буквосочетания
0 оа [зʋ] coat, boat, road, roast
oi, оу [ɔi] oil, noise, boy, enjoy
оо + k [ʋ] look, book, took
оо + 1, т, п, d, t [u:] cool, room, soon, food, root
оо + r [ɔ:] door, floor
ou + gh [ɔ:] bought, thought, brought
о + 1 + согласная [зʋ] old, cold, told, hold
ow + согласная [аʋ] town, brown, crowd, down
ow (на конце) [зʋ] know, grow, low, slow, show
but: now [аʋ]
or после w [з:] work, word, world, worse
Ударный слог
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в открытом слоге [ju:] tube, tune, useful
U в открытом слоге [и:] blue, true, June
u в закрытом слоге [ʌ] cut, but, hurry, hunter
перед r + согл. [з:] turn, burn, curly, hurt
перед r + гласн. [jʋə], [ʋə] pure, during, sure
Неударный слог [ə] upon, success, difficult
Ударный слог
в открытом слоге [ai] my, try, type, cycle
Y в закрытом слоге [I] symbol, system
у перед r [аiə] tyre
перед гласной [j] year, you, young, yet
Неударный слог [I] any, many, very, only

ОСНОВНЫЕ ПРАВИЛА ЧТЕНИЯ СОГЛАСНЫХ


перед е, i, у [s] face, city, bicycle
перед а, о, u [k] case, cat, cut, cool, coal
C и согласной class, fact
с Сочетания ch, ten [ʧ] watch, match, bench, chief
ck [k] clock, thick, quick
перед е, i, у [ʤ] page, age, engineer, gym
G перед а, о, u [ɡ] gate, got, gun, fog
g и согласной great
Сочетания
ng [ ] bring, sing, ring
в начале слова [s] say, such, send, stop, speak
перед глухой [s] rest, best, ask, test
согласной
после глухих [s] books, desks, asks, gets, puts
S согласных
s после звонких со- [z] beds, reads, boys, days, goes
гласных и гласных factories
между гласными [z] rise, these, please
перед суф. -ion, -иге [ʒ] occassion, pleasure, measure
в суффиксе -ous [ʒ] famous, numerous
перед гласной [w] wind, was
W перед h [w] when, where, what, why, white
w Сочетания
who [h] who, whose, whom, whole
wr [r] write, wrote, wrong
БУКВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ
bt [t] debt, doubt, subtle
ght [t] light, night, right
gn [n] sign, design, reign
kn [n] know, knife, knit
ph [f] photo, philosophy
qu [kw] queen, question
sh [ʃ] wish, show, fresh
ss + ion [ʃn] permission
ss [s] passive, possible
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В начале и в конце знамена- [Ɵ] thin, thick, month, path
тельных слов
th в начале служебных слов, [ð] the, this, that,
междометий, наречий и those, thus, they,
между гласными gather, bathe, weather
Фонетические явления
1. Палатализация — (palatalization) — смягчение согласных, возникает под влиянием
следующих за ними гласных переднего ряда. Это явление характерно для русских согласных
и выполняет смыслоразличительную функцию, например: мел — мель, тук — тюк, В англий-
ском языке большинство согласных произносится без палатализации, т. е. твердо.
2. Позиционная долгота гласных. Долгота кратких и долгих гласных находится в за-
висимости от позиции в слове; Ударные гласные являются наиболее долгими в конечной по-
зиции, несколько короче перед звонкими согласными и самыми короткими перед глухими со-
гласными.
3. Твердый приступ — задержка начала колебаний голосовых связок при артикуляции
начального гласного.
4. Ассимиляция (assimilation). Под ассимиляцией понимается качественное уподобле-
ние смежных согласных звуков. Так, альвеолярные согласные [t], [d], [n], [l], [s], [z] становятся
зубными под влиянием последующих межзубных [Ɵ], [ð]. В английском языке отсутствует
свойственная русскому языку регрессивная ассимиляция, т. е. ассимиляция, при которой пре-
дыдущий согласный оглушается или озвончается под влиянием последующего.
5. Латеральный взрыв (lateral plosion). Сонант [l] с предшествующим взрывным аль-
веолярным согласным произносится слитно, не следует отрывать кончик языка от альвеол, не
должно быть гласного призвука между ними. Взрыв альвеолярного согласного происходит в
процессе произнесения последующего сонанта [1]. Сонант в подобных случаях становится
слогообразующим. Например: little, bottle, people.
6. Носовой взрыв (nasal plosion). Сочетание взрывных альвеолярных согласных [t], [d] с
последующими носовыми сонантами [n] или [m] произносится слитно. Взрыв альвеолярного
согласного происходит в процессе произнесения последующего сонанта [n] или [m] и называ-
ется носовым взрывом. Например: pardon, garden.
7. Потеря взрыва (loss of plosion). Английские смычные согласные [р], [b], [t], [d], [k],
[g] теряют взрыв, если за ними следует другой смычный согласный или аффрикаты [ʧ], [ʤ].
Например: a good - dog, ask - Kate, a dark - garden, don't - demand, the village - champion.
8. Редукция (reduction) — процесс ослабления сокращения или исчезновения гласных
звуков в неударной позиции. Например, длительность гласных в безударных словах и место-
имениях сокращается. При сильном ослаблении гласные этих слов могут утратить свое каче-
ство. Происходит количественная и качественная редукция [а: — а — ə].
9. Аспирация (aspiration) — аспирация, придыхание.
10. Потеря аспирации (loss of aspiration) — глухие взрывные [р], [t], [k] теряют аспира-
цию в положении после согласного [s]. Например: spot.
11. Связующее г (linking r). Если за словом, оканчивающимся на согласную букву r
следует слово, начинающееся с гласного звука, то на стыке слов звучит согласный [r], кото-
рый носит название связующий r. Если эти слова разделены паузой, то связующее r исчезает.
12. Элизия (elision) — выпадение звука, часто для сохранения ритма. Например,
cu(p)board, ras(p)berry, gran(d)mother, han(d)kerchief.
PART I
UNIT 1. [i:] - [i]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
1. [i:] 2. [i] 3. [i:] — [i]
be bead beat did it beat bit

7
he heed heat bid bit seat sit
fee feed feet lid lit feet fit
see seed seat kid kit eat it
tea teas teeth pill pit cheap chip
pea peas peace nib nip leak lick
knee knees niece rib rip peak pick
read rid
deed did
lead lid
teen tin
bean bin
heel hill
peel pill
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) Pete; Pete eats; Pete eats meat; Pete eats lean meat; Steve and Pete eat lean meat; Steve and
Pete eat lean meat and green beans; please, Steve and Pete, eat lean meat and green beans.
(b) ease; with equal ease; Japanese with equal ease; Chinese and Japanese with equal ease;
speaks Chinese and Japanese with equal ease; he speaks Chinese and Japanese with equal ease.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[i:] (a) 1. Pleased to meet you.
2. Please, be seated.
3. Extreems meet.
4. Greek meets Greek.
5. How much cheese do you need?
6. It's easy to be wise after the event.
[i] (b) 1. It's the limit.
2. It isn't his business.
3. I think it's a little thick.
4. Bill's sister sings well.
5. Who sings English songs in his family?
[i:] — [i] (c) 1. Pete eats chiefly meat and Bill eats mainly fish.
2. Jimmy doesn't eat chicken. Eve doesn't eat cheese sandwiches.
3. Edith will be pleased to meet Bill, Peter and Eve.
4. Bill drinks coffee, Eve drinks tea.
5. Peter drinks whiskey, Jean drinks gin.
6. Who reads Greek myths in your family?
7. Will you still need me, will you still feed me when I am sixty-four.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twisters and learn them.
1. He went to sea to see what he could see and all he could see was sea, sea, sea.
2. I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice-cream.
Exercise V. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. In a Restaurant
Peter: What would you like to eat, Edith?
Edith: A meat sandwich.
Peter: Jean? Would you like a meat sandwich or a cheese sandwich?
Jean: A cheese sandwich, please, Peter.
Waiter: Good evening.
Peter: Good evening. We'll have one meat sandwich and two cheese sandwiches.
Edith: And three teas, please!
Waiter: (writing down the order) One meat sandwich... two cheese sandwiches... and... three
teas.
2. An Interesting Film
8
Вi11: Is Tim in?
Lyn: Is he coming to the pictures?
Mrs Smith: Tim's ill.
Bill: Here he is! Hello, Tim.
Tim: Hello, Bill.
Lyn: Are you ill, Tim?
T i m: Is it an interesting film?
Lyn: It's "Big Jim and the Indians".
Bill: And it begins in six minutes.
Mrs S m i t h: If you're ill, Tim...
T i m: Quick! Or we'll miss the beginning of the film!
3. Busy in the Kitchen
Billy: Mummy! Are you busy?
Mother: Yes, I'm in the kitchen.
Вi11y: Can I go swimming in Chichester with Jim this morning?
Mother: Jim?
Billy: Jim English. He's living with Mr and Mrs Willis in the village — Spring Cottage.
Mother: Isn't it a bit chilly to go swimming?
Billy: What's this? Can I pinch a bit of it?
Mother: Oh, Billy, you little pig! It's figgy pudding, Get your fingers out of it!
Billy: Women are so silly! I only dipped a little finger in.
Mother: Well, it's a filthy little finger. Here, tip this chicken skin into the bin and I'll give you
a biscuit.
4. Weeding's Not for Me!
Peter; This is the season for weeds. We'll each weed three metres before tea, easily.
Сe1ia: Do we kneel? My knees are weak. Do you mean all these?
Peter: Celia, my sweet, those aren't weeds, those are seedlings, Beans, peas and leeks. Can't
you see?
Се1ia: If they're green they're weeds to me. But I agree, Peter — weeding's not for me!
Peter: Well, let me see. May be we'll leave the weeds. You see these leaves? If you sweep
them into a heap under that tree I'll see to the tea.
Сe1ia: Pete, my feet are freezing. You sweep the leaves. I'll see to the tea!
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. One, two, three 2. Kitty meets Minnie
Let me see "Minnie", said Kitty
Who likes coffee "Look at my pinny.
and who likes tea. Isn't, it pretty?"
One, two, three "Very", says Minnie
Oh, I see "I like white and blue."
You like coffee "Thank you", says Kitty
And I like tea. "And I like it too."
3. Oh, swing the king and swing the queen,
Oh, swing the king and swing the queen,
Oh, swing 'em round and round the green.
Oh, swing 'em round the green.
4. Kitty's home is in the country,
Betty's home is in the city,
Kitty likes to stay with Betty,
Betty likes to stay with Kitty.
Betty likes the country best,
Kitty likes the busy city,
That is quite a lucky thing
For Betty and for Kitty.
9
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. A friend in need is a friend indeed.
2. As fit as a fiddle.
3. People meet but mountains never greet.
4. Between the devil and the deep sea.
5. A small leak will sink a great ship.
6. Honey is sweet but the bee stings.
7. Still waters run deep.
UNIT 2. [æ] - [e]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
2. [e]
Al pal hat any men get
Alma bag lap Aetna pen pet
alphabet lab nap anyhow den let
add cab back v anyway said bet
Ann pan rack anyone bread best
apple ban happen ate bed mess
ammateur ham happy red neck
Africa badge chapter bell peck
abbey fancy chatter sell left
abstract balcony catch fell press
Alice grammar gas ready settle
3. [æ] - [e]
bat — bet pat — pet
at — ate bad — bed
lad — led sad — said
mat — met Dan — den
rat — red tan — ten
rack — wreck sat — set
bag — beg man — men
shall — shell Pat — pet
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) a rat; a fat rat; catching a fat rat; a cat catching a fat rat; a black cat catching a fat rat.
(b) his hands; clapping his hands; a man clapping his hands; a fat man clapping his hands; a fat
man clapping his hands is Pat's Dad.
(c) a hat; a black hat; Pat's black hat; a cat is in Pat's black hat; a black cat is in Pat's black hat;
Pat's black cat is in Pat's black hat.
(d) Franz; friend Franz; Czech friend Franz; Jack's Czech friend Franz, Jack's Czech friend
Franz and Pat; Jack's Czech friend Franz and French friend Pat; Jack's Czech friend Franz and
Franz's French friend Pat.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[æ] (a) 1. Ann has plaits and black slacks.
2. Harry has a hacking jacket.
3. Harry and Ann are standing hand in hand.
4 Can you imagine that? That's adsolutely fantastic!
5. That's flat! That's bad! And that's that.
6. Fancy that! Dan acted on Dad's advice!
[e] (b) 1. Very well then.
2. Well said.
3. Ted meant to get ahead.
4. Ed will never get the better of Ted.
5. I expect Betty spends a pretty penny on dress.
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6. Success went to Ned's head.
[æ] — [e] (c) 1. A black cat sat on a mat and ate a fat rat.
2. Ted has Dad's hat on his head.
3. Jack has a check cap in his hand.
4. Accidents will happen in the best regulated families.
5. Can you imagine that? Success went to' Pat's head.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twisters and learn them.
1. He that hatches matches hatches catches.
2. If you, Andy, have two candies, give one candy to Sandy, Andy.
3. A black ape on a real ladder dropped a black cape on a real adder.
Exercise V. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. An Expensive Holiday
Eddie: Hello, Ellen! Hello, Ben! Hello, Jenny!
Ben: Hello, Eddie! Have a cigarette.
Eddie: Thanks, Ben.
Ellen: Help yourself to whiskey!
J e n n y: It's on the shelf.
Ben: How did you spend your holiday, Eddie?
E d d i e : I went to America with a friend.
Everybody: Well!
Ellen: We're all jealous.
Ben: Was it expensive?
Eddie: Yes. Very. I've spent everything.
Jenny: Haven't you any money left?
Eddie: Yes, Jenny! Ten pence!
2. A Bad Hijacker
Hostess Bradley: Alice! Perhaps that passenger is a hijacker!
Hostess Allen: Which passenger, Anne? That sad man with the camera? He's wearing black
slacks and a jacket.
Hostess Bradley: No. That fat lady with the big black handbag in her left hand.
Hostess Allen: Is she standing next to the lavatory?
Hostess Bradley: Yes. She's travelling to Amsterdam.
Hostess Allen: You're mad, Anne, I don't understand.
Hostess Bradley: You see, when she went into the lavatory she didn't have that handbag in her
hand, and now she's...
Fat lady: {clapping her hands) EVERYBODY STAND! I'm a hijacker. And in this handbag I
have a...
Handbag: BANG!
3. The End of the Adventure
Ken: Ted! Thank heaven! I was getting desperate. Ted: Hello there, Ken. Where are Jeff and
the rest of the men? К е n: They left me in the tent with some eggs and some bread, and off they
went.
Ted: Where were they heading?
Ken: West. In that direction. They said they'd bury the treasure under the dead elm — you re-
member, by the bend in the fence — and get back by sunset.
Ted: All ten of them went?
Ken: They said the chest was heavy.
Ted: They left — when?
Ken: Yesterday, between ten and eleven.
Ted: And you let them?
Ken: There were ten of them ...
Ted: Well, my friend, I reckon that's the end of the adventure. We'll never see the treasure
chest or any of those ten men again.
11
4. Crackle, Crackle, Galactic Static
Gran: Jack, do you have to bang and slam on that piano like that?
Jack: I'm practising for our new album. It's smashing.
Gran: An album? You mean that racket you and your gang bash out?
Jack: We're not a gang, we're a fantastic jazz band. Sally and Janet, me on the piano, Alec on
the sax — the Galactic Static. It'll be an absolute smash hit.
Gran: The Galactic Racket, if you ask me. And all you'll smash is Grandad's piano.
J а сV: Gran, we have talent. We're cool cats, man. Crackle, crackle, Galactic Static!
Gran: The young man's mad. Here. I've made you a fat ham sandwich and a crab-apple jam
flan.
Jack: Ah, Gran, you may not understand jazz but your flans are fab.
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. Ann and Andy, 2. Andy Pandy, Jack-a-dandy,
Sugar and candy, Loves plum cake and sugar candy
I say stand up! Bought it from a candy shop
And away did, hop, hop, hop!
3. Pussy-cat, Pussy-cat. If you catch,
Can you catch that bad fat rat,
that big fat rat? you will have
some milk for that.
4. Jack Sprat would eat no fat,
His wife could eat no lean,
And so between them both you see
They left the platter clean.
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. East or west, home is best.
2. All is well that ends well.
3. Good health is above wealth.
4. Better to do well than to say well.
5. If you cannot have the best, make the best of what you can.
6. Better late than never but better never late.
7. Money spent on brain is never spent in vain.
UNIT 3. [ɒ] – [ɔ:]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
ı. [ɒ] 2. [ɔ:] 3. [ɒ] - [ɔ:]
nod top or lord short cock — cork
cod stop nor ford port fog — fork
rod mop for board sort pot — port
odd cop bore horn sport Bob — born
dog copy tore torn fork Polly — Paul
job boss core born force wad — ward
Bob not folklore corn ought cod — cord
Tom cock thaw form bought odd — lord
golf stock saw storm thought
fog lock jaw reform autumn
lost dock law warm daughter
loss war order taught
all naughty
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) a dog; a hot dog; a big hot dog; a nice big hot dog.
(b) a bottle; a water bottle; a hot water bottle; don't warm a hot water bottle.
(c) horses; four horses; drawn by four horses; was drawn by four horses; the cart he bought
12
was drawn by four horses.
(d) the horse; the cart before the horse; always puts the cart before the horse; Gordon always
puts the cart before the horse.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them.
[ɒ] (a) 1. Polly wants her coffee strong.
2. Dolly wants an office job.
3. Was it not possible to stop Tom and Bob?
4. Polly's gone to the wrong shop.
5. John's dog Tobby got lost.
[ɔ:] (b) 1. Any port in a storm.
2. The calm before the storm.
3. New Lords, new laws.
4. Pride comes before a fall.
5. To put the cart before the horse.
6. A tall order.
7. You can take a horse to the water, but you can't make it drink.
8. Forewarned is forearmed.
9. All the more so.
[ɒ] — [ɔ:] (c) 1. Olive watches John put a locked strong box on a yacht in a lock at the docks.
2. Gordon wants forty-four copies of the documents.
3. Yesterday John made four copies but Bob poured a cup of coffee all over them.
4. Paul and George, stop talking.
5. Cora and Polly adore small talk.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twisters and learn them.
1. Of all the saws I ever saw
I never saw a saw saw as this saw saws.
2. Knott and Shott fought a duel.
Knott was shot and Shott was not.
It was better to be Shott than Knott.
Exercise V. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. TV Advertisement for "Onwash"
Voice A: What's wrong with you, Mrs Bloggs? Mrs Bloggs: What's wrong with me? I want a
holiday from this horrible job of washing socks!
Voice B: Buy a bottle of "Onwash", Mrs Bloggs!
Voice C: "Onwash" is so soft and strong!
Voice D: You don't want lots of hot water with "Onwash".
Voice A: It's not a long job with "Onwash".
Voice B: Use "Onwash" often.
Voice C: You won't be sorry when you've got "Onwash".
Voice D: Everybody wants "Onwash".
Everybody: "Onwash" is so popular!
2. Sports Reports from Channel 4
Announcer: This morning the Roarers football team arrived back from York. Paul Short is our
sports reporter, and he was at the airport.
Paul Short: Good morning. This is Paul Short. All the footballers are walking towards me.
Here's George Ball, the goalkeeper. Good morning, George.
George Ball: Good morning. Are you a reporter?
Paul Short: Yes, I'm from Channel 4. Please tell our audience about the football match with
York.
George Ball: Well, it was awful. We lost. And the score was four, forty-four. But it wasn't my
fault.
Paul Short: Whose fault was it?
George Ball: The forwards.
13
Paul Short: The forwards?
George Ball: Yes. The forwards. They were always falling down or losing the ball!
3. Fawns, Horses And a Tortoise
Paul: Any more of these awful autumn storms, George, and we'll be short of corn. I ought to
have bought some more in Northport.
George: This morning, just before dawn, I thought I saw signs of a thaw.. I was sure...
Paul: Ssh! Behind that door there are four fawns that were born in the storm. They're all warm
in the straw now.
George: Poor little fawns! Paul, what's that snorting next door?
Paul: Those are the horses' stalls. They're snorting at my daughter's tortoise. It always crawls
around in the straw.
George: If Claud saw us walking across his lawn... He's an awful bore about his lawn. Oh,
Lord, we're caught! There is Claud! Now we're for it!
4. I'm Afraid I Think I'm Lost
Old Lady; Excuse me. I'm terribly sorry to bother you...
Policeman: Yes? That's quite all right. Can I help you at all?
Old Lady: I don't know how to begin.
Policeman: Well, the beginning's always a good place to start.
Old Lady: But, you see, I don't know the beginning. I'm looking for a small, old-fashioned ho-
tel where I — if only I could remember the name!
Policeman: Or the name of the street?
О 1 d Lady: The street? Oh, I've no idea, I'm afraid.
Policeman: Or the area?
Old L a d y: I know it was not far from the Pier. Or could that have been last year, I wonder?
No, no, last year I went with Emily — I think.
Policeman: Did you say near the Pier? There's no pier here.
Old Lady: There must be! My hotel was near it.
Policeman: Which pier?
Old Lady: Eastbourne Pier, of course!
Policeman: Eastbourne? But this is Seaford!
Old Lady: Seaford! Really? I thought it seemed rather a long way!
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. Tommy Trot, a man of law,
Sold his bed and lay upon straw,
Sold the straw and slept on grass,
To buy his wife a looking-glass.
2. Ride a cock-horse to Banbury Cross,
To buy little Johnny a galloping horse,
It trots behind, and it ambles before,
And Johnny shall ride till he can ride no more.
3. It's raining, it's pouring.
The old man is snoring,
He got into bed
And bumped his head
And couldn't get up in the morning.
4. Grasshopper, grasshopper,
Please, will you stop?
And show me how high
A grasshopper can hop.
Oh, no, I'm in haste.
I must hop out to shop.
Hoppety, hoppety,
hoppety, hop.
14
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. A little pot is soon hot.
2. Honour and profit lie not in one sack.
3. Better unborn than untaught, but better untaught than ill-taught . ,
4. To draw in. one's horns.
5. To draw water in sieve.
6. To make a long story short.
7. Be slow to promise and quick to perform.
8. Honesty is the best policy.
9. When all comes to all.
10. Velvet paws hide sharp claws.
UNIT 4. [з:]-[ ɔ:]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
1. [з:] 2. [ɔ:] 3. [з:] - [ɔ:]
sir work four ought her — horn
fir hurt more bought bird — board
her shirt ore thought pearl — Paul
bird skirt bore daughter work — walk
heard purse tore taught turn — torn
word nurse saw nought burn — born
world first thaw talk curl — call
girl burst draw walk first— force
curl curtain straw horse curse — course
earl thirteen awed course worm — warm
pearl birthday board short shirt — short
term Thursday small shorts shirts — shorts
firm purpose wall sport
serve curve morning port
prefer worse warm quarter
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) purpose; serve no purpose; the work will serve no purpose.
(b) a girl; a circus girl; Pearl is a circus girl; Pearl is a circus girl who works; Pearl is a circus
girl who works with horses.
(c) birthday; first birthday; thirty-first birthday; pearls for her thirty-first birthday; a circlet of
pearls for her thirty-first birthday; a fur and a circlet of pearls for her thirty-first birthday; an earl
gave Pearl a fur and a circlet of pearls for her thirty-first birthday.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[з:] (а) 1. Repeat the verse word for word.
2. Bert will be thirteen next birthday.
3. Bertha preferred to turn to the Colonel whenever it was her turn to rehearse.
4. Bert and Jemima had a perfectly murderous journey from Hurlingham to Surbi-
ton on Thursday.
5. Turn down the first turning after the church — or the third, if you prefer.
6. We've searched for work all over the world, cursing the ever-worsening condi-
tions for labourers.
7. Myrtle will certainly start her journey to Germany next Thursday under the cir-
cumstances.
[э:] (b) 1. I thought George Thornhill ought to talk.
2. Paul Thornaby adores Mort Morgan's daughter Laura.
3. Nora thought that all autumn balls were boring.
4. Gordon Norton taught law to forty-four students.
5. Nora bought sausages and oranges and a tall bottle of mineral water.
15
[з:] — [о:] (с) 1. Paul and Pearl are on board a ship.
2. First call Bert and Paul.
3. Maud and Bert like to walk but they don't like to work.
4. Work without purpose is like walk without joy.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twisters and learn them.
1. Observe the observed of all observers.
2. If white chalk chalks on a black blackboard, will black chalk chalk on a white blackboard?
Exercise V. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues,
1. The Worst Nurse
Sir Herbert: Nurse!
Colonel Burton: Nurse! I'm thirsty!
Sir Herbert: Nurse! My head hurts!
Colonel Burton: NURSE!!
Sir Herbert: Curse these nurses!
Colonel Burton: Nurse Sherman always wears such dirty shirts.
Sir Herbert: And such short skirts.
Colonel Burton: She never arrives at work early.
Sir Herbert: She and... er... Nurse Turner weren't at work on Thursday, were they?
Colonel Burton: No, they weren't.
Sir Herbert: Nurse Sherman is the worst nurse in the ward, isn't she?
Colonel Burton: No, she isn't. She's the worst nurse in the world!
2. How's My Pert Little Turtledove?
1st Bird: How's my pert little turtledove this early, pearly murmuring morn?
2nd В i r d: I think I'm worse. I can't turn on my perch. And I'm permanently thirsty — burn-
ing, burning. It's murder.
1st Bird: My poor, hurt bird. The world's astir. I've heard that even the worms are turning. A
worm! You yearn for a worm!
2nd Bird: I'm allergic to worms. Ugh! Dirty, squirming worms!
1st Bird: I'll search under the fir trees and the birches. I'll circle the earth — and I'll return with
a superb firm earthworm for my perfect turtledove.
2nd Bird: What an absurd bird! You're very chirpy, Sir. I wish I were. All this fervid verse. I
find it disturbing so early. I prefer a less wordy bird.
1st Bird: No further word, then. I'm a bird with a purpose. Er — I'd better fly; it's the early bird
that catches the worm — or so I've heard!
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. There was a little girl
And she had a little curl
Right in the middle of her forehead.
When she was good,
She was very, very good,
But when she was bad,
She was horrid.
2. There was an old person of Burton,
Whose answers were very uncertain,
When they said. "How ďyou do?"
He replied, "Who are you?"
This distressing old person of Burton.
3. There was an old lady of Chertsey,
Who made a remarkable curtsey,
She twirled round and round,
Till she sunk underground,
Which distressed all the people of Chertsey.
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
16
1. First come, first served.
2. A light purse is a heavy curse.
3. Many words hurt more than swords.
4. It is the early bird that catches the worm.
5. Virtue is its own reward.
6. The work shows the workman.
7. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
8. One good turn deserves another.
9. Old birds are not caught with chaff.
UNIT 5. [ʌ] – [a:]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
1. [ʌ] 2. [a] 3. [ʌ] - [a:]
come cut far arm last duck — dark
some but are farm fast buck — bark
hum up bar hard class cut — cart
plum us car card carpet lust — last
run fuss par barn part bun — barn
fun luck mar darn party fun — farm
none duck star large tart hut — heart
done hut scar starve smart drum — drama
double shut spar carve art cuff — carve
cub cup charge cart hum — harm
tub must palm chart cup — carp
hug cuff calm mark up — harp
shut — sharp
mother—father
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) Charles; hard on Charles; rather hard on Charles; Father's rather hard on Charles.
(b) supper; bun for supper; buttered bun for supper; crusty buttered bun for supper; a lovely
crusty buttered bun for supper.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[ʌ] (a) 1. Just my luck.
2. Pluck up your courage.
3. Does the bus run every other Monday?
4. My brother Russ made mother's cup run over.
5. After Sunday comes Monday.
[a:] (b) 1. He who laughs last laughs longest.
2. One is nearer God's heart in a garden.
3. Cold hands, warm heart.
4. Part and parcel.
5. Barbara Barton is art and part of the party.
6. Cars can't be parked here after dark.
7. Aunt Martha lives near Marble Arch.
6. Margaret and Charles are dancing in the garden under the stars.
[ʌ] — [a:] (c) 1. Charles puts some mustard in his mother's custard.
2. Charles' brother wonders why father doesn't love his other son.
3. Margaret loves Charles, Charles loves Marcia.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twister and learn it.
I wonder why my cousin doesn't have a proper cup of coffee in a proper coffee cup.
Exercise V. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. I Love You
Russ: Honey, why are you so sad? (Janet says nothing)
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Russ: Honey, why are you so unhappy? I don't understand. Janet: You don't love me, Russ!
R u s s: But, honey, I love you very much.
Janet: That's untrue. You love my cousin, Sunny. You think she's lovely and I'm ugly.
R u s s: Janet, just once last month I took Sunny out for lunch. You mustn't worry. I like your
company much better than Sunny's.
Janet: Oh, shut up, Russ.
R u s s: But, honey, I.think you're wonderful. You mustn't...
Janet: Oh, shut up!
2. At a Party
Margaret: Where's your glass, Barbara?
В а г b a r a: It's on the bar.
Martin: Barbara! Margaret! Come into the garden! Martha and Charles are dancing in the dark.
M a r g a r e t: In the garden? What a laugh! Barbara: So they are! They're dancing on the
grass!
Margaret: They're dancing under the stars!
Martin: And Arnold's playing his guitar.
Barbara: Doesn't Martha look smart!
Margaret: Look at Charles! What a marvellous dancer!
Barbara: Ah! Let's take a photograph of Martha and Charles.
Martin: We can't., It's too dark.
3. Making a Pass at Martha
Charlie: The dance doesn't start till half past, Martha. Let's park the car under the arch by Far-
mer Palmer's barn. It's not far. Ah, here we are. There's the farm cart.
Martha: Ooh, Charlie, it's dark!
Charlie: The stars are sparkling. My heart is enchanted. Martha you are — marvellous!
Martha: Your father's car's draughty, Charlie. Pass me my scarf.
Charlie: Rather let me clasp you in my arms, Martha, my darling.
Martha: Ah, Charlie! Your moustache is all nasty and sharp. I can't help laughing. Aren't you
starved? Here, have half a Mars Bar. Ssh! There's a car passing.
Charlie: Keep calm, can't you? It's only Sergent Barker. He plays darts in the bar of the Star
and Garter. Martha... darling...
Martha: Don't be daft, Charlie! You can't start making a pass till after the dance!
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. Hiccup, snickup, Rise up, right up,
Three drops in a cup, Are good for the hiccup.
2. There was a young lady of Parma,
Whose conduct grew calmer and calmer,
When they said, "Are you dumb?"
She merely said, "Hum!"
That provoking young lady of Parma.
3. There was an old man in a garden,
Who always begged every one's pardon,
When they asked him, "What for?",
He replied, "You are a bore! .
And I trust you'll go out of my garden."
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. As snug as a bug in a rug.
2. Grasp all, lose all.
3. He laughs best who laughs last.
4. Well begun is half done.
5. Well done, soon done.
6. The highest art is artlessness.
7. Every country has it customs.
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8. Don't trouble trouble until trouble troubles you.
9. A wonder lasts but nine days.
10. What's done cannot be undone.
11. Winter's thunder is summer's wonder.
UNIT 6. [ʋ] - [u:]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
1. [ʋ] 2. [u:] 3. [ʋ]- [u:]
wood look Пи shoot look — Luke
hood cook woo loop pull — pool
good book two boot full — fool
could took who loose book — boot
would shook pool moose took — tooth
should rook fool tooth foot — food
pudding foot cool fruit cook — cool
sugar put food nook — noon
bull puss noon hook — who
full soot moon
wool hook goose
stool
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) book; cookery-book; look at the cookery-book; the cook looks at the cookery-book.
(b) spoon; a wooden spoon; a good wooden spoon; a good blue wooden spoon; choose a good
blue wooden spoon.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[ʋ] (a). 1. It looks good.
2. She puts some sugar in the pudding.
3. Could you help the woman if you could?
4. A book about woodwork? What about "Woodwork for Beginners" by Peter Bull?
[u:] (b) 1. Hugh's tooth is loose.
2. Hugh shoots a moose and loses his loose tooth.
3. Ruth can't say boo to a goose.
[ʋ] — [u:] (с) 1. Could I have some fruit juice?
2. This foolish, bookish Duke is too full of good food to move a foot.
3. Look at Luke pulling a poor fool out of the pool in the wood.
4. Look at this blue woolen suit. It's good, isn't it? Yes, it looks good.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twister and learn it.
How much wood would a wood-chuck chuck
If a wood-chuck could chuck wood?
Exercise V. Complete the following sentences working in pairs.
1. — Could you cook a gooseberry pudding without putting sugar in? — No, I couldn't cook a
gooseberry pudding without putting sugar in.
2. — Could you pull a camel who was miserable, looked awful and said he didn't want to tra-
vel, all the way from Fulham to Naples? — No, I couldn't pull ...
3. — Could you walk through a wood, knowing it was full of horrible wolves, and not pull
your hood up and wish you didn't look edible? — No, I couldn't walk ...
Exercise VI. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act on the dialogues.
1. A Lost Book
Mr Cook: Woman! Could you tell me where you've put my book?
Mrs Cook: Isn't it on the bookshelf?
Mr Cook: No. The bookshelf is full of your cookery books.
Mrs Cook: Then you should look in the bedroom, shouldn't you?
Mr Cook: I've looked. You took that book and put it somewhere, didn't you?
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Mrs Cook: The living-room?
Mr Cook: No. I've looked. I'm going to put all my books in a box and lock it!
Mrs Cook: Look, Mr Cook! It's on the floor next to your foot.
Mr Cook: Ah! Good!
2. In a Good School
Miss Luke: Good afternoon, girls.
Girls: Good afternoon, Miss Luke.
Miss Luke: This afternoon we're going to learn how to cook soup. Open your books at unit
ţwenty-two.
P r u e: Excuse me, Miss Luke.
Miss Luke: Yes, Prue?
P r u e: There's some chewing gum on your shoe.
Miss Luke: Who threw their chewing gum on the floor? Was it you, Prue?
Prue: No, Miss Luke. It was June.
Miss Luke: Who?
Prue: June Cook.
June: It wasn't me, stupid. It was Sue.
Sue: It was you!
June: It wasn't me, you stupid fool. My mouth's full of chewing gum. Look, Miss Luke!
Sue: Stop pulling my hair, June. It was you!
June: You!
Sue: You!
Miss Luke: Excuse me! You're being very rude. You two nuisances can stay in school this af-
ternoon instead of going to the swimming pool.
3. Where Are You, Hugh?
Lucy: Hugh? Hugh! Where are you?
Hugh: I'm in the loo. Where are you?
Lucy: Removing my boots. I've got news for you.
Hugh: News? Amusing news?
Lucy: Well, I saw June in Kėw. You know how moody and rude she is as a rule? Hugh, are
you still in the loo? What are you doing?
Hugh: Well, you see, Lucy, I was using the new foolproof screwdriver on the Hoover and it
blew a fuse.
Lucy: You fool! I knew that if I left it to you, you'd do something stupid. You usually do.
Hugh: And then I dropped the screwdriver down the loo.
Lucy: Hugh, look at your shoes! And your new blue suit! It's ruined! And you — you're wet
through!
H u g h: To tell you the truth, Lucy — I fell into the loo, too.
4. Miss Woodfulľlł Be Furious!
Rachel: "How much wood would a woodpecker peck if a woodpecker could peck wood?"
Goodness, that's difficult!
Mabel: Looks a good book. Let me have a look.
Rachel: It's full of puzzles, and riddles, and —
Mabel: Let me look, Rachel!
Rachel: Mabel! You are awful! You just took it!
Mabel: I asked if I could have a look. Now push off. I'm looking at the book.
Rachel: You're a horrible bully!
Mabel: And you're just a miserable pudding!
R а с h e 1: I shoulďve kept it in my room.
Mabel: Oh shush, for goodness' sake! Anyway, I shouldn't have thought you could have un-
derstood the book, you're so backward.
Rachel: You're hateful! Give me my book! Oh careful, Mabel! It's Miss Woodfulľs book. I'll
get into terrible trouble if you — oh look! you are awful! She'll be-furious!
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Mabel: Well, you shouldn't have pulled, should you?
Exercise VII. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. There was an Old Person of Loo,
Who said, "What on earth shall I do?"
When they said, "Go away!"
She continued to stay,
That foolish old person of Loo.
2. There was an old man of Peru,
Who dreamt he was eating his shoe,
He awoke in the night
In a terrible fright :
And found it was perfectly true!
3. I would if I could
If I couldn't how could I?
I couldn't without I could, could I?
Could you, without you could, could ye?
Could ye? Could ye?
Could you, without you could, could ye?
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. By hook or by crook.
2. A fool and his money are soon parted.
3. The proof of the pudding is in the eating.
4. A good wife makes a good husband.
5. A good name is sooner lost than won.
6. The exception proves the rule.
7. Soon learnt, soon forgotten.
8. The boot is on the wrong foot.
9. Too good to be true.
UNIT 7. [ə] - [i]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
1. [ə] 2. [ə] - [i]
obey perhaps sooner affect — effect
allow entertain measure accept — except
adore amateur Africa armour — army
attend comfortable Persia waiter — weighty
obstruct ignorant flatterer sitter — city
achieve understand colour razors — raises
account terrible picture battered — batted
annoy permanent murderer mitre — mighty
approve characters sailor offers — office
appear component collar officers — offices
offence glamourous America better — Betty
fisher — fishy
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) a photograph; a photograph of her mother; a photograph of her mother and father; a photo-
graph of her mother, father and brother; a photograph of her mother, father and younger brother.
(b) America; about South America; a book about South America; a beautiful book about South
America.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[ə] (a) 1. Walter is older than Thomas.
2. Amelia speaks German better than Japanese.
3. Marcia is going to visit Persia in August.
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4. Peter has never been to London.
5. Perhaps we'll come to them on Saturday afternoon. .
6. London is beautiful in such weather.
[э] — [i] (b) 1. Peter was offered a job of a manager in his father's office.
2. Betty knows London better than Manchester.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twister and learn it.
An adventurous professor and a professional astronomer are posing in front of the camera of a
fashionable photographer.
Exercise V. Read the following texts.
(a) Alderman Sir Edward Anderson is a prosperous government official at the Treasury. Sir
Edward Anderson's apartment at Aldeburgh is comfortable and fashionable. A professional burglar
has entered the apartment by a ladder that was at the back of the house. But an observant amateur
photographer has focussed his camera on the burglar and summoned a police-constable. As the bur-
glar leaves there is a policeman at the bottom of the ladder.
(b) Barbara spent Saturday afternoon looking at a beautiful book about South America.
"I want to go to South America," she said to herself.
The next morning, when Barbara woke up it was six o'clock, and her brothers and sisters were
still asleep.
Barbara looked at them, and closed her eyes again.
Then she quietly got out of bed and started to pack her suitcase.
She took some comfortable clothes out of the cupboard.
She packed a pair of binoculars and her sister's camera. She packed a photograph of herself
and one of her mother and father.
"I mustn't forget to have some breakfast," she said to herself. But then she looked at the clock.
It was a quarter to seven.
"I'll just drink a glass of water," she said.
"A glass of water," she said.
"Water," she said, and opened her eyes.
She was still in her bed, and her brothers and sisters were laughing at her.
"Tell us what you were dreaming about," they said to her.
But Barbara didn't answer. She was thinking about her wonderful journey to South America.
Exercise VI. Read the dialogue, mark the stresses and tunes. Act it out.
Comfort, Culture or Adventure?
Christopher: Going anywhere different for your vacation, Theresa?
Theresa: Ah, that's a million dollar question, Chistopher. Perhaps you can provide us with the
decision. Edward demands his creature comforts — proper heating, constant hot water, comfortable
beds, colour television...
Christopher: What about you, Theresa? Or aren't you too particular?
Theresa: Normally, yes. And usually we combine the open air and exercise with a bit of cul-
ture. Last year, for instance, we covered the Cheltenham Festival. The year before, it was Edinburgh.
Edward adores Scotland.
Christopher: You fortunate characters! Are you complaining?
Theresa: No, but I long to go further afield — something more dangerous — and where the
temperature's hotter!
Christopher: I wonder if this would interest you. It arrived today. "A Specialised Tour of
South America for Photographers. Canoeing up the Amazon. Alligators. And other hazardous adven-
tures."
Theresa: Christopher, how marvellous! It sounds wonderful.
Christopher: No creature comforts for Edward!
Theresa: Separate holidays are an excellent idea — occasionally! Edward can go to Scotland
alone.
Exercise VII. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. Tinker, Rich man,
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Tailor, Poor man,
Soldier, Beggar man,
Sailor, Thief.
2. Rub-a-dub dub,
Three men in a tub,
The butcher, the baker,
The candlestick maker,
They all jumped over a rotten potato!
Exercise VIII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. Adversity is a great headmaster.
2. Beggars can't be choosers.
3. Better an egg today than a hen tomorrow.
4. Better be alone than in bad company.
5. Christmas comes but once a year.
6. Take us as you find us.
7. As like as two peas.
UNIT 8. [ɛə] - [iə]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
l. [ɛə] 2. [iə] 3. [ɛə] - [iə]
hare despair era appear hare — here
dare compare zero adhere bear — beer
pair repair here veneer air — ear
air declare dear endear fair — fear
mare affair ear career rare — rear
care prepare shear sincere pear — pier
hair impair mere museum dare — dear
fair aware beer material chair — cheer
Clare — clear
stare — steer
spare — spear
rarely — really
mayor — mere
a pair — appear
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) share; fair share; their fair share; it's their fair share.
(b) there; down there; Mary down there; there's Mary down there; I swear there's Mary down
there; I dare swear there's Mary down there.
(c) Can you hear? Can you hear clearly? Can you hear clearly from here?
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[iə] (a) 1. Here, here!
2. Here today, gone tomorrow.
3. He that has ears to hear, let him hear.
4. There's none so queer as folk.
5. All the world is queer save thee and me and even thee's a little queer.
[ɛə] (b) 1. All's fair in love and war.
2. Fair's fair.
3. Share and share alike.
4. There, there!
5. Hair of the dog that bit you.
6. To bear a grudge.
7. As mad as a March hare.
8. If the cap fits, wear it.
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9. Mary, Mary, quite contrary.
[ɛə] — [iə] (c) 1. The steering wheel needs repairing.
2. And the radio aerial doesn't work.
3. The gear box is really bad.
4. And would you repair the spare wheel? The air comes out.
5. The theatre is somewhere near here.
6. I don't care whether I live upstairs or downstairs.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twisters and learn them.
1. Mary is scared of fairies in the dairy.
2. Fair-haired Sarah stares warily at the hairy bear, glaring from his lair.
Exercise V. Read the text.
A dreary peer sneers in the grand tier of the theatre. At the rear they hear the peer and jeer. But
here, clearly the cheers for the hero are really fierce. The weary hero King Lear is nearly in tears.
Exercise VI. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. A Pair of Hairbrushes
Mary: I've lost two small hairbrushes, Claire. They're a pair.
Claire: Have you looked carefully everywhere?
Mary: Yes. They're nowhere here.
Claire: Have you looked upstairs?
Mary: Yes. I've looked everywhere upstairs and downstairs. They aren't anywhere.
Claire: Hh! Are they square, Mary?
Mary: Yes. They're square hairbrushes. Have you seen them anywhere?
Claire: Well, you're wearing one of them in your hair!
Mary: Oh! Then where's the other one?
Claire: It's over there under the chair.
2. A Bearded Mountaineer
(Mr and Mrs Lear are on holiday in Austria)
Mr Lear: Let's have a beer here, dear.
Mrs Lear: What a good idea! They have very good beer here. We came here last year.
Mr Lear: The atmosphere here is very clear.
Mrs Lear: And it's windier than last year.
Mr Lear: (speaking to the waiter) Two beers, please.
Mrs Lear: Look, dear! Look at that mountaineer drinking beer.
Mr Lear: His beard is in his beer.
Mrs Lear: His beard has nearly disappeared into his beer!
Mr L e a r: Sh, dear! He might hear.
Waiter: (bringing the beer) Here you are, sir. Two beers.
Mr Lear: (drinking his beer) Cheers, dear!
Mrs Lear: Cheers! Here's to the bearded moutaineer!
3. It's Eerie in Here
Aaron: Oh Piers, it's eerie in here — there's a sort of mysterious atmosphere — as if nobody's
been here for years.
Piers: That's queer. Look, Aaron — over there. There's a weird light, like hundreds of pairs of
eyes staring. I think we're in some animal's lair.
Aaron: Where?
Piers: There. They're coming nearer. My God, Aaron, they're giant bats.
Aaron: Oh no! I can feel them in my hair. They're tearing my beard! I can't bear it. Piers.
Piers: What if they're vampires? They're everywhere. Let's get out of here. We could try and
climb higher.
Aaron: No fear! I'm not going anywhere. I'm staying here.
Piers: Aaron! There's a kind of iron staircase. Over here. Only take care. There's a sheer drop.
(Sounds of panting)
Aaron: God, I'm weary. We must have been climbing these stairs for hours.
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Piers: Cheer up, Aaron, I can see a square of light and smell fresh air and flowers. We're near-
ly there!
Exercise VII. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. Here's a body — there's a bed,
There's a pillow — here's a head,
There's a curtain — here's a light!
There's a puff — and so good night!
2. What is this life if, Full of care,
We have no time To stand and stare.
3. There was an old man with the beard,
Who said "It is just as I feared! —
Two owls and a hen,
Four larks and a wren,
Have all built their nest in my beard."
4. The Wind and the Moon (by G. Macdonald)
Said the Wind to the Moon, "I will blow you out,
You stare in the air
Like a ghost in a chair."
He blew a great blast, and the thread was gone.
In the air
Nowhere
Was a moonbeam bare.
Exercise VIII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. It's late to tear your hair.
2. Hares may pull dead lions by the beard.
3. Neither here nor there.
4. Experience is the mother of wisdom.
5. Who fears to suffer, suffers to fear.
UNIT 9. [аʋ] — [зʋ]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
1. [аʋ] 2. [зʋ] 3. [аʋ] — [зʋ]
owl mouse show hole boat now — know
wow house snow role both loud — load
vow south low bowl coast found — phoned
now mouth toe cold vote row — row
loud doubt Joe home smoke {quarrel) (line)
crowd shout foe tone soap doubt — dote
down rout doe shoulder coat town — tone
gown pouch go toad soak
round scout so road throat
how stout no load boast
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) Rose; know Rose; you know Rose; suppose you know Rose; don't suppose you know
Rose; I don't suppose you know Rose.
(b) ground; mouse on the ground; a brown mouse on the ground; found a brown mouse on the
ground; this owl has found a brown mouse on the ground.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[зʋ] (а) 1. Joan is combing her golden hair.
2. Joe has a noble Roman nose.
3. Joe and Joan go for a stroll.
4. Joe shows Joan his roses.
5. Joan won't go home alone, so Joe goes home with Joan.
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[аʋ] (b) 1. Just outside the town, to the south, is Louwater House.
2. Fountains Hotel is opposite the Town Hall.
3. We saw a hound with a grouse in its mouth.
4. Without doubt our scout will make photoes of mountains and fountains.
5. To be down and out.
6. Ne'er cast a clout till May is out.
7. They've eaten me out of house and home.
8. To make a mountain out of a molehill.
9. You can't make a silk purse out of a sow's ear.
10. Out and about.
11. When in doubt, leave it out.
[аʋ] — [зʋ] (с) 1. Joe has a round house, an old coastal boat, a cow and a goat.
2. South Beach Hotel is close to the Lighthouse. It has a beautiful flower garden,
and underground car park and children's playground. There is a telephone in
every room.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twisters and learn them.
1. Moses supposes his toeses1 are roses,
But Moses supposes erroneously,
For nobody's toeses are posies of roses
As Moses supposes his toeses to be.
2. Soames never boasts of what he knows but Rose never knows of what she boasts.
Exercise V. Complete the following sentences working in pars.
1. — Won't you row the old boat over the ocean from Dover to Stow-in-the-Wold if I load it
with gold?
— No, no, I won't row the old boat over the ocean from Dover to Stow-in-the-Wold if you
load it with gold.
2. — Won't you show Joan where you're going to grow a whole row of roses when you've sold
her those potatoes and tomatoes?
— No, no, I won't...
3. — Won't you blow your noble Roman nose before you pose for your photo tomorrow? —
No, no, I won't...
Exercise VI. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. A Mouse in the House
Mrs Brown: (shouting loudly) I've found a mouse!!
Mr Brown: Ow! You're shouting too loudly. Sit down and don't shout.
Mrs Brown: (sitting down) I've found a mouse in the house.
Mr В г о wn: A brown mouse?
Mrs Brown: Yes. A little round mouse. It's running around in the lounge.
Mr Brown: On the ground?
Mrs Brown: Yes. It's under the couch now.
Mr Brown: Well, get it out.
Mrs Brown: How?
Mr Brown: Turn the couch upside-down. Get it out somehow. We don't want a mouse in our
house. Ours is the cleanest house in the town!
2. Snow in October
(Joe Jones is sleeping, but Joan woke up a few minutes ago.)
Joan: Joe! Joe! Joe! Hello!
Joe: (groans) Oh! What is it Joan?
Joan: Look out of the window.
Joe: No. My eyes are closed, and I'm going to go to sleep again.
J о an: Don't go to sleep, Joe. Look at the snow.

1
toes: toeses used here to from a rhyme.
26
Joe: Snow? But it's only October. I know there's no snow.
Joan: Come over to the window, Joe.'
Joe: You're joking, Joan. There's no snow.
Joan: OK. I'll put my coat on and go out and make a snowball and throw it at your nose, Joe
Jones!
3. Howard's Found an Owl
Howard: Brownie, if you vow not to make a sound, I'll show you an owl that I've found.
Brownie: An owl? You've found an owl?
Howard: Don't shout so loudly. We don't want a crowd to gather round the house. Tie that
hound up outside the cowshed. He's so bouncy and he's bound to growl.
Brownie: There. I've wound his lead round the plough. No amount of bouncing will get him
out now.
Howard: Now, not a sound. It's down by the fountain Where the cows browse.
Brownie: Wow, Howard! It's a brown mountain owl! It's worth about a thousand pounds down
in the town.
Howard: No doubt. But my proud owl is homeward bound — south to the Drowned Mouse
Mountains.
4. No Wonder the Boat Was Low!
Miss Jones: So the boatman put the goat and the roses and the load of coal into the boat —
Toby: I hope the goat won't eat the roses. Goats eat most things, you know. Miss Jones.
Miss Jones: They told the boatman so. But oh no, the goat and the roses both had to go in the
boat.
Toby: Was it a rowing boat. Miss Jones? Was the boatman going to row?
Miss Jones: No, they told the boatman rowing would be too slow. So the postman sold him an
old motor mower and he roped it to the boat. And so, you see, Toby, he had a motor boat.
Toby: Did the boat go?
Miss Jones: It was a bit low, with the goat and the coal and the roses and the boatman —
Toby: And the postman and Rover, I suppose — Miss Jones: Oh no, there was no room for the
postman and Rover. They went home by road. And then it began to snow...
Exercise VII. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. Little mouse, little mouse,
Will you come out of your house?
Thank you, pussy! says the mouse
I won't leave my little house!
2. See-saw, See-saw
Up and down,
Up and down,
This is the way
To London town.
3. Mr Brown, Mr Brown,
Are you going down town,
Could you stop and take me down,
Thank you kindly, Mr Brown.
4. There was an Old Man who supposed
That the street door was partially closed,
But some very large rats
Ate his coats and his hats.
While that futile Old Gentleman dozed.
5. There was an Old Man in a boat,
Who said. "I'm afloat! I'm afloat!"
When they said, "Not You ain't!"
He was ready to ,faint,
That unhappy Old Man in a boat.
27
6. There was an Old Man who said, "How
Shall I flee from this horrible cow?"
I will sit on this stile,
And continue to smile,
Which may soften the heart of that cow.
Exercise VIII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. Great boast, small roast.
2. Little strokes fell great oaks.
3. Man proposes, God disposes.
4. To know everything is to know nothing.
5. Stones grow old.
6. To hope against hope.
7. Out of sight, out of mind.
8. Burn not your house to rid it of your mouse.
9. As you sow you shall mow.
10. These is no place like home.
11. In a roundabout way.
UNIT 10. [ai] — [ei]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
1. [ai] 2. [ei] 3. [ai] — [ei]
I idea kite pay pain make white — wait
my ride right day gain take rice — race
tie oblige sight say vain rake like — lake
rye rhyme night lay rain sake lied — laid
bye time bright ray again shape rise — raise
by kind like bay game cape file — fail
pie nine life stay fame face light — late
lie wild wife way famous lace might — mate
die mild rice may lain late isle — ale
shy while mice weigh sane waste while — whale
sky child white eight David pace bike — bake
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) days; eight days; eighty-eight days; takes eighty-eight days; it takes eighty-eight days; they
say it takes eighty-eight days.
(b) station; a railway station; waiting at a railway station; a train waiting at a railway station; a
train waiting at a railway station on a rainy day; a train waiting at a railway station on a grey rainy
day.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[ai] (a) 1. Mike's white kite is flying high in the sky.
2. Clive climbs high spires at night.
3. Diana is quite nice but frightfully shy.
4. Clive decides to invite Diana to dine. He tries to find a fine white wine.
5. Diana decides she would like to dine with Clive and arrives on time, but politely de-
clines the white wine.
[ei] (b) 1. A sailor and a mate watch a baby whale playing on a great wave at daybreak.
2. James plays with trains and planes.
3. Jane bakes eight cakes.
4. James takes a cake from Jane's plate.
[ai] — [ei] (c) 1. The lake that I like is on the isle.
2. David baits his hook and a whiting bites it.
3. Save your pains, Mike.
4. Name the day, Myra.
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Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twisters and learn them.
1. Three grey geese in a green field grazing.
Grey were the geese and green was the grazing.
2. There's no need to light a night light on a light night like tonight.
Exercise V. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. At the Railway Station
(Mr Grey is waiting at the railway station for a train)
Mr Grey: Hey! This train's late! I've been waiting here for ages.
Porter: Which train, sir?
Mr Grey: The 8.18 to Baker Street.
Porter: The 8.18? I'm afraid you've made a mistake, sir.
Mr G r ey: A mistake? My timetable says: Baker Street train — 8.18.
Porter: Oh no, sir. The Baker Street train leaves at 8.08.
Mr Grey: At 8.08?
Porter: You see, sir, they changed the timetable at the end of April. It's the first of May today.
Mr Grey: Changed it? May I see the new timetable? What does it say?
P о r t e r: It says: Baker Street train — 8.08.
Mr Grey: Hh! So the train isn't late. I'm late.
2. Mike, Myra and Violet
(Myra and Violet are typists in the library)
Myra: (smiling) Hello, Mike!
Mike: Hello, Myra. Hello, Violet. You're looking nice, Violet.
(silence)
Mike: Would you like some ice-cream, Violet?
Violet: No thanks, Mike. I'm busy typing. Talk to me some other time. I have ninety-nine pag-
es to type by Friday.
Mike: Never mind. Do you like riding, Violet? Violet: Sometimes.
Mike: Would you like to come riding with we tonight, Violet?
Violet: Not tonight, Mike. I'm going for a drive with Nigel.
Mike: What about Friday?
Violet: I'm going climbing with Miles.
Mike: Hm! Oh, all right. Bye!
Myra: Violet, he's put something behind your typewriter.
V i о 1 e t: Is it something nice, Myra?
Myra: No. It's a spider.
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. Rain, rain, go away, Come again another day, Little Johnny wants to play.
2. Rain, rain, go to Spain, Never show your face again.
3. This is the way the ladies ride,
Nim, nim, nim, nim.
This is the way the gentlemen ride,
Trim, trim, trim, trim.
This is the way the fanners ride,
Trot, trot, trot, trot.
This is the way the huntsmen ride,
A-gallop, a-gallop, a-gallop, a-gallop.
This is the way the ploughboys ride,
Hobble-dy-gee, hobble-dy-gee.
4. There was a young lady whose eyes
Were unique as to colour and size,
When she opened them wide,
People all turned aside.
And started away in surprise.
29
5. There was a fat man of Bombay
Who was smoking one sunshine day,
When a bird called a snipe
Flew away with his pipe,
Which vexed the fat man of Bombay.
6. There was a young lady of Norway.
Who casually sat on a doorway.
When the door squeezed her flat,
She exclaimed, "What of that?"
That courageous young lady of Norway.
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. He who fights and runs away may live to fight another day.
2. If things were to be done twice, all would be wise.
3. No pains, no gains.
4. When the cat is away, the mice will play.
5. After dinner sit awhile after supper walk a mile.
6. Haste makes waste.
7. To make hay while the sun shines.
8. The blind leading the blind.
9. A stitch in time saves nine.
10. An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
11. A cat has nine lives.
12. Out of sight, out of mind.
13. To call a spade a spade.
UNIT 11. [ɔi] - [ai]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
1. [ɔi] 2. [ai] 3. [ɔi] - [ai]
boy- join roister my hide height boy — buy
joy point hoist why wide tight toy — tie
enjoy joint hoik try wide white oil — isle
employ coin coif rye ride right voice — vice
destroy soil adroit sigh side sight Roy — rye
toy oil voice high lied light point — pint
coy foil choice fly tried trite foil — file
Roy spoil moist buy fried fright poise — pies
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) Mike; Mike and Myra; Mike and Myra take; Mike and Myra take enjoyment; Mike and
Myra take enjoyment in spoiling; Mike and Myra take enjoyment in spoiling toys.
(b) oil; point of oil; boiling point of oil; What's the boiling point of oil?
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[oi] (a) 1. Join me in the voyage, Roy.
2. Boys will be boys.
3. Mr Hoyle toils the soil.
4. The boy is adroit with his quoit.
5. Roy is a loyal royalist.
6. Joice enjoys annoying Roy.
[ai] (b) 1. The time is flying.
2. My child Mike is bright.
3. I quite like the Whites.
4. Why, the pleasure is entirely mine.
[oi] — [ai] с) 1. Roy and Mike are fine but noisy boys,
2. Ida is spoilt and coy.
30
Exercise IV. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. What kind of noise annoys an oyster?
A noisy noise annoys an oyster.
2. Smile a while and while you smile,
others'll smile and then there'll be miles of smiles.
Exercise V. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. Joyce's Rolls Royce
{Joyce takes her Rolls Royce to the garage) .
Garage boy: What a terrible noise.
Joyce: Eh?
Garage boy: {raising his voice) What a terrible noise! This is the noisiest Rolls Royce I've ever
heard.
Joyce: {pointing) It's out of oil.
Garage boy: Out of oil? And look! The water's boiling. Madam, a Rolls Royce isn't a toy. Per-
haps you've spoilt the motor or even destroyed it.
Joyce: How annoying! While you're changing the oil, I'll go and visit my boyfriend, Roy.
2. A Painting of a Boy
J a y: Do you like painting?
Joy: Yes. I'm trying to paint a boy lying beside a lake. Do you like it?
Jay: Hm ... Why don't you buy some oil paints?
J о у: I don't enjoy painting with oils.
Jay: Your painting is quite nice, but why are you painting the boy's face grey?
Joy: {pointing) It isn't grey. It's white.
3. James Doyle and the Boilermakers' Strike
Old Gentleman: I say, boy! What's all that frightful noise? Boy: It's the boilermakers from Ty-
neside. They're on strike. I'm on my way to join them.
Old Gentleman: You a boilermaker?
Boy: Me? No, I slave for United Alloys. But I'll add my voice to anyone fighting for his rights.
Old Gentleman: Wait! Why are they striking this time?
В о у: A rise in wages mainly — and overtime for nights.
Old Gentleman: Why don't they use their brains? A rise in pay means rising prices and greater
inflation. What's the point? Who gains?
Boy: That's blackmail, mate. There's high unemployment in Tyneside and the employers ex-
ploit the situation. They pay a highly trained boilermaker starvation wages. It's a disgrace.
Old Gentleman: What's your name?
Boy: James Doyle. I come from a line of fighters. My Aunt Jane chained herself to the railings
in 1809. She was quite famous.
Old Gentleman: I'll be highly annoyed if you tie yourself to mine!
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. Taffy was born
On a moonshiny night,
His head in a pipkin,
His heels upright.
2. Cry, baby, cry,
Put your finger in your eye,
And tell your mother it wasn't I.
3. This is the grave of Mike O'Day,
Who died, maintaining his right of way.
His right was clear, his will was strong
But he's just as dead as if he'd been'wrong.
4. There was a young lady of Niger
Who smiled as she rode on a tiger,
They returned from the ride
31
With the lady inside,
And the smile on the face of the tiger.
5. There was an old person of Troy,
Whose drink was warm brandy and soy,
Which he took with a spoon,
By the light of the moon, In sight of the city of Troy.
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. Let bygones be bygones..
2. A blind leader of the blind.
3. He gives twice who gives in a trice.
4. No joy without alloy.
5. Since Adam was a boy.
6. The voice of one man is the voice of no one.
7. Choice of the end covers the choice of means.
UNIT 12. [p] - [b]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to the sounds [p] — [b].
1. [p] 2. [b] 3. [p] - [b]
pen cap pepper bag cab lobby pin — bin
pin nap copper bug rub rubber pen — Ben
pan cop paper beg rob hobby pear — bear
pond top helpful big rib robin cap — cab
pub lip apple bit sob member pup — pub
pony cup spoon bid Bob submit pit — bit
part puppy stupid block club submarine pond — bond
please lap sport band crib table pun — bun
pig — big
prim — brim
pack — back
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) a passenger; a purposeful passenger; a prosperous purposeful passenger; a plump, prosper-
ous, purposeful passenger; portrait of a plump, prosperous, purposeful passenger; portrait of a plump,
prosperous, purposeful passenger with a pipe.
(b) beer; brown beer; best brown beer; a bottle of best brown beer; bring a bottle of best brown
beer; Bob, bring a bottle of best brown beer.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[b] (a) 1. Barbara is a beautiful blonde with bright blue eyes.
2. Barbara is bathing blissfully in a bubble-bath.
3. Barbara's baby brother Bobby is bouncing a big beach ball.
4. Bessie, the beautiful blond barmaid is bringing a bottle of best brown beer from the
bar at the back of the "Bull and Bush".
[p] (b) 1. Pretty Polly Perkins has a pair of pretty plaits.
2. Pat peeps at Pip playing the piano.
[b] — [p] (c) 1. A bold spy put a big bomb in a pork pie.
2. The pork pie blew up a politician with a big bang in a public bar.
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper,
A peck of pickled pepper Peter Piper picked,
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled pepper,
Where is the peck of pickled pepper Peter Piper picked?
2. The bear could not bear the boar
The boar thought a bear a bore.
3. A big black bug bit a big black bear.
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A big black bear bit a big black bug.
4. Bill had a billboard and also a board bill.
But the board bill bored Bill so
That he sold the billboard to pay the board bill.
Exercise V. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. Passports, Please
(Mr and Mrs Tupman are at the airport. They have just got off the plane from Paris.)
О f f i с а 1: Passports, please!
Mr Tupman:! think I've lost the passports, Poppy.
Mrs Tupman: How stupid of you, Peter!. Didn't you put them in your pocket?
Mr Tupman: (emptying his pockets) Here's a pen... a pencil... my pipe... a postcard... an
envelope... a stamp... a pin...
Mrs Tupman: Oh, stop taking things put of your pockets. Perhaps you put them in the plastic
bag.
Mr Tupman: {emptying the plastic bag) Here's a newspaper... an apple... a pear... a plastic
cup... a spoon... some paper plates... a piece of pork pie... a pepper pot...
Mrs Tupman: Oh, stop pulling things out of the plastic bag, Peter. These people are getting
impatient.
Mr Tupman: Well, help me, Poppy.
Mrs Tupman: We've lost our passports. Perhaps we dropped them on the plane.
Official: Then let the other passengers pass, please.
Mr Tupman: Poppy, why don't you help? You aren't being very helpful. Put the things in the
plastic bag.
Official: Your name, please?
Mr Tupman: Tupman.
Official: Please go upstairs with this policeman, Mr Tupman.
2. Happy Birthday
Bob: Hello, Barbara.
Barbara: Hello, Bob. It's my birthday today.
Bob: Oh, yes. Your birthday! Happy birthday, Barbara!
Barbara: Thanks, Bob. Somebody gave me this blouse for my birthday.
Bob: What a beautiful blouse! It's got brown and blue butterflies on it.
Barbara: And big black buttons.
Bob: Did Ruby buy it for you?
Barbara: Yes. And my brother gave we a hairbrush and a book about baby birds.
Bob: I didn't remember your birthday, Barbara, I'm terribly sorry.
Barbara: Well, you can buy me a big bottle of perfume, Bob!
Bob: I've got a better idea. We'll get into a cab and go to a pub, and I'll buy you a bottle of
beer!
3. Brandy in the Baby's Bottle!
{Telephone rings.) Bob: Bob Batterby.
В a b s: Oh Bob, this is Babs. I'm baby-sitting for Betty and my brother Bill. I'm sorry to both-
er you but...
Bob: What's the trouble? No problem's too big when Bob's on the job!
В a b s: Oh stop being stupid. Bob. It's baby. I put her on the balcony on a blanket with a bis-
cuit to bite on and I think a bit of biscuit... She can't breathe.
Bob: Bang her on the back, between the shoulder blades.
В a b s: I've banged her till she's black and blue.
Bob: Try putting a bit of brandy in her bottle.
В a b s: Brandy in the baby's bottle! Oh Bob!
Bob: Sorry, Babs. Sounds bad. I'd better bicycle over. Be with you before you can say "bread
and butter".
Babs: Bless you, Bob. Bye-bye. Be quick.
33
4. A Bit of Beef at the Picnic
Paul: Picnics! I detest picnics!
Kate: Paul, do stop grumbling and get the basket out of the car. We couldn't stay indoors to-
day. It's beautiful!
Paul: I do like a proper Sunday dinner. What I like is roast pork with apple sauce and gravy,
peas and carrots and cabbage, and treacle tart for pudding...
Kate: Here's a perfect spot! Spread the rug behind this bush. Good. Look, we've got brown
bread and butter and pâté and cold chicken ...
Paul: Blast! I'm sitting on an ant's nest! Picnics!
Kate: And the salad's got tomatoes, peppers, lettuce, cucumber, beetroot...
Paul: Rabbit food! Oh, for a plate of boiled beef and dumplings!
Kate: Oh dear! Paul, I do believe your bit of beef is coming this way! Isn't that a bull?
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. Apples, peaches, pears and plums
Tell me when your birthday comes.
2. One potato, two potatoes,
Three potatoes, four,
Five potatoes, six potatoes,
Seven potatoes more.
3. Two little sausages
Frying in a pan,
One went pop
And the other went bam!
4. Betty Batter bought some butter
But she said, "My butter's bitter.
If I put it in my batter,
It will make my batter bitter.
If I buy some better butter,
It'll make my batter better."
So she bought some better butter
And it made her batter better.
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. Business before pleasure.
2. Betwixt and between.
3. Better be alone than in bad company.
4. Barking dogs seldom bite.
5. Praise is not pudding.
6. Practise what you preach.
Exercise VIII. Pronounce the following sentences with aspiration.
1. Пошла Поля полоть в поле.
2. Поля поле поливает, полет и перепалывает.
3. Папа Петру пирожок пек.
4. Петр Петрович Перепелович продал телку купил перепелку.
5. В пруду у Поликарпа плавали пять карпов.
6. У бабушки Богдана болит бок.
7. Борис, будешь банан?
8. Бей в барабаны, бей в барабаны быстрей.
UNIT 13. [t] - [d]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
ı. [t] 2. [d]
time what between do read rider
town late water day road ladder
34
torn night after dog side already
taxi port writer dreary old ready
telephone don't empty drab head Monday
trousers liked stool drive add holiday
tell hoped storm date afraid idea
twelve asked temptation daughter loaded lady
twenty passed Anthony dinner acted body
Theresa bite Chatham dirty waited study
Thames late Betty danger lived under
3. [t]-[d]
tie — die trunk — drunk time — dime set — said
mate — made ton — done mat — mad . bet — bed
heart — hard late — laid coat — code two — do torn — dawn
4. Silent t Silent d
christen chestnut handsome
listen Christmas handkerchief
glisten exactly handcuff
castle soften grandmother
wrestle often grandfather
whistle mustn't Wednesday
cabaret ballet
croquet
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) eight; to eight; a quarter to eight; till a quarter to eight; arrive till a quarter to eight; won't
arrive till a quarter to eight; the train won't arrive till a quarter to eight.
b) concert; to the concert; straight to the concert; taxi straight to the concert; take a taxi
straight to the concert; you'd better take a taxi straight to the concert.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[t] (a) 1. On the tip of your tongue.
2. Temptations are like tramps, let one in and he returns with his friends.
3. To fall between two stools.
4. Can he take out two books or ten books?
5. Don't take it to heart.
[d] (b) 1. Dan's Dad is a good driver.
2. Deidre is the dowdy daughter of the Duke of Dundas.
3. Deidre is dreaming a dreadful dream.
4. She dreams of her dear old darling Daddy, held deep down in a dark, dank, dirty
dungeon, doomed to die on her wedding day.
[t] — [d] (c) 1. David and Daniel are two terrible twins.
2. Diana brought a tea tray with toasts, tarts and a pot of hot strong tea to tempt the
twins.
3. Don't answer the telephone until I tell you to, Dick.
4. If at first you don't succeed, try, try and try again.
5. These trousers are tight. Why don't you try them, Dave?
6. It was at a minute or two to two that Dick Dandy was shot in the cabaret.
Exercise IV. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. When a twister twisting would twist a twist,
For twisting a twist three twists he will twist,
But if one of the twists untwists from the twist,
The twist untwisting untwists the twist.
2. Never trouble trouble
Till trouble troubles you,
It only doubles trouble
35
And troubles others too.
3. If a doctor is doctoring a doctor, does the doctor doing the doctoring have to doctor the doc-
tor the way the doctor being doctored wants to be doctored or does the doctor doctor the way he
usually doctors?
Exercise V. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. A Damaged Telephone
Daisy: Dunstone 238-8282.
Donald: Hello, Daisy. This is Donald.
D i a s y: Oh hello, darling.
Donald: What did you do yesterday, Daisy? You forgot our date, didn't you?
D i a s y: Well, it rained all day, Donald, and I have a bad cold, so I decided to stay at home.
Donald: Did you? I telephoned twenty times and nobody answered.
D i a s y: Oh, the telephone was damaged. They repaired it today.
Donald: What did David do yesterday? Did he and Dotty go dancing?
Daisy: No. They stayed at home and played cards with the children.
Donald: And what did you do? Did you play cards too?
Daisy: No. Sidney and I listened to the radio and studied. What did you do yesterday, Donald?
Donald: I've just told you, Daisy, I tried to phone you twenty times!
2. Waiting for Templetons
Tessa: What time did you tell Templetons to get here, Martin?
Martin: Any time between 10 and 12.
Tessa: But it's after two! They're terribly late!
Martin: Why didn't you contact United Transport as I told you?
Tessa: Peter Thompson said that Templetons were better.
Martin: Tessa! Peter Thompson's a director of Templetons. Oh! blast it! I've torn my trousers
on the radiator.
Tessa: Oh Martin, do take care! ... Hadn't we better telephone?
Martin: I've tried. The telephone's not connected yet.
Tessa: And the water's still cut off. We can't just wait here all afternoon in an empty flat with
no water and no telephone.
Martin: How uninviting an empty flat is.
Tessa: And it seems tiny, too, now, doesn't it?
Martin: I'm tempted to take a taxi straight into town and stay the night in a hotel.
Tessa: How extravagant! But what a delightful thought!
3. All Dressed Up like á Dog's Dinner
Sam: Jack, for Pete's sake! Who's that girl all dressed up like a dog's dinner — red hat, red
dress, red gloves — ah! but what's this? Blue shoes!
Jack: Take that back, Sam Boyd. Dog's dinner indeed!
Sam: You're quite right! My dog hates raw meat! He'd have ten fits if I gave him a red mess
like that for dinner.
Jack: It's her best dress. To impress you, you rude creature! She's sweet, rich, clever — and a
good cook!
Sam: Lord save us, the man's mad! Don't say you're in love with the red maiden?
Jack: Yes, Sam. I am. What's more — we're engaged. This time next week we'll be man and
wife.
S a m: I did really put my big foot in it, didn't I? All I can say now is — good luck, old man!
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. Twinkle, twinkle, little star
How I wonder what you are
Up above the world so high,
Like a diamond in the sky.
2. Hoddley, poddley, puddle and fogs,
Cats are to marry the poodle dogs,
36
Cats in the blue jackets and dogs in red hats,
What will become of the mice and the rats?
3. Hey, diddle, diddle! The cat and the fiddle,
The cow jumped over the moon,
The little dog laughed
To see such sport,
And the dish ran away with the spoon.
4. Little Miss Muffet, Sat on a tuffet,
Eating her curds and whey.
There came a big spider,
Who sat down beside her
And frightened Miss Muffet away.
5. A tutor who tooted a flute
Tried to tutor two tooters to toot.
Said the two to the tutor
"Is it harder to toot or
To tutor two tooters to toot?"
(C. Wells.)
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. A storm in a teacup.
2. Better late than never.
3. When children stay still, they have done ill.
4. Dead as a door nail.
5. Dull as. ditch water.
6. Never say die until you're dead.
7. Between the devil and the deep blue sea.
Exercise VIII. Pronounce the following sentences with aspiration.
1. Ткет ткач ткани на платки Тане.
2. У пенька опять пять опят.
3. Трое трубачей трубили в трубы.
4. Тут-тук-тук, кто там? Почтальон Печкин.
5. От топота копыт пыль по полю летит.
6. Дай девочке дядины подарки.
7. Давай достанем деньги из деревянной шкатулки.
UNIT 14. [k] – [g]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
1. [k] 2. [g]
can book because go bag ago
car back become get big agree
саге black breakfast gate dig angry
case break excuse garden frog again
caused. dark pocket grow log against
kind drink second good leg forget
kill lake secret grass rug forgive
kitten like local green flag regular
kitchen make weaker great plug August
coat lock thicker guess drug together
call neck market gun dog tiger
cold music walking game smog longer
3. [k] - [g]
cot — got coat — goat ankle — angle
cave — gave clue — glue crow — grow
37
cards — guards curl — girl back — bag
cold — gold class — glass cap — gap
could — good leak — league coal — goal
pick — pig lock — log
4. Silent k before n Silent g
know knife gnaw gnat
knock knew gnome sign
knee knight campaign foreign
poignant cognac
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) August; school in August; a language school in August; to go to a language school in Au-
gust; idea to go to a language school in August; great idea to go to a language school in August; it's a
great idea to go to a language school in August.
(b) awake; to keep me awake; coffee to keep me awake; cups of coffee to keep me awake; a
couple of cups of coffee to keep me awake; I have a couple of cups of coffee to keep me awake.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[k] (a) 1. Ken quite likes Kate. Kate doesn't care for Ken.
2. Ken catches Kate and kisses her quickly.
3. Kate cries, kicks and screams.
4. Ken cures Kate with a quick cup of coffee and a cream cake.
5. To kill a wife with kindness.
6. The king was in his counting house counting out his money.
[g] (b) 1. One of my favourite guessing games is the Bag Game.
2. It's a good game at the beginning to get to know each other.
3. The girlguide is giggling at a glum guardman guarding the gate.
4. A garden is overgrown with grass.
5. Go and teach your grandmother, Gordon.
[k] — [g] (c) 1. Cats keep coming into my garden.
2. Carol's cousin had broken his leg.
3. I've broken a glass in the kitchen.
4. There's a cow in my garden.
5. Cut the grass.
6. This girl has golden curls.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twisters and learn them.
1. Three crooked cripples
Went through Cripplegate,
And through Cripplegate
Went three crooked cripples.
2. Three grey geese in a green field grazing.
Grey were the geese and green was the grazing.
3. A canner, exceedingly canny,
One morning remarked to his granny
"A canner can can
Anything that he can.
But a canner can't can a can, can he?"
Exercise V. Complete the following sentences working in pairs.
1. — Can you talk in Cockney to a crowd in Connaught Square?
— Of course I can talk in Cockney to a crowd in Connaught Square.
2. — Can you coat a coffee cake with Cornish clotted cream?
— Of course I can...
3. — Can you quickly kick a crooked Coca-Cola can?
— Of course I can...
4. — Can you catch a cuckoo in a broken wicker cage?
38
— Of course I can...
Exercise VI. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. Guests in August
Craig: I've just got a telegram from Margaret and Greg.
Carol: Are they coming to England again?
Craig: Yes. At the beginning of August.
Carol: Good. We can all get together again.
Craig: I'm glad they're coming in August. We can take the dog and go for walks together.
С а г о 1: Yes. And we can give a garden party.
Craig: And Margaret can play her guitar in the garden and sing Greek songs again. ,
Carol: Yes. August is a good time to come to England.
2. The Cuckoo Clock
Mrs Cook: Would you like some cream in your coffee, Mrs Clark?
Mrs С 1 a r k: No thank you. But I'd like a little milk.
Mrs Cook: Would you like some chocolate cakes?
Mrs Clark: Thank you.
Mrs Cook: Take two. Here's a cake fork, and here's a...
Mrs Clark: Excuse me, Mrs Cook. But what's that next to your bookshelf? Is it a clock?
Mrs Coo k:Yes. It's an American cuckoo clock.
Mrs С 1 a r k: Is it plastic?
Mrs Cook: Oh, no, Mrs Clark. It's a very expensive clock. It's an electric clock.
Mrs Clark: Well, it's exactly six o'clock now, and it's very quiet. Doesn't it say 'cuckoo'?
Mrs С о о к: Of course, Mrs Clark. Look!
Clock: Cuckoo! Cuckoo! Cuckoo! Cuckoo! Cuckoo! Cuckoo!
Mrs Clark: How exciting! What a clever clock!
Clock: Cuckoo!
3. Eggs from the Greek Grocer
Gladys: Gran, I'm hungry. Can we go home?
Granny: Grumbling again, Gladys! A great big girl like you. Now take my grey bag and go
and get some eggs from the grocer, there's a good girl.
Gladys: But Gran...
Granny: I'm going to send a telegram to your grandfather. Oh, give me my glasses before you
go. In the green and gold grosgrain case.
Gladys: But Granny...
Granny: Don't giggle, girl, I'm beginning to get angry. Go and get the eggs.
Gladys: But Gran, it's no good my going to the grocer. He's gone away. He goes back to
Greece every August, He is Greek.
Granny: Gone to Greece? How disgraceful!
4. Cash in the Ice-Cream Carton
Colin: OK, Mike. At six o'clock you take a taxi to the bank. Max will come out with the cash
in a cream-coloured case...
Mike: I'm to collect the cash?
Colin: Of course. Don't ask questions. Just concentrate.
Mike: Colin, if they catch me I'll confess.
Colin: Keep quiet, can't you? At a quarter to six Coco will be parked at the corner of the Mar-
ket Square.
Mike: I'll scream. I'm a coward. The kids at school called me...
Colin: Pack the cash in the ice-cream carton in the back of the car and make your way as
quickly as you can back to the cafe.
Mike: Colin, I'm scared.
Colin: Oh, crikey, Mike! You do make me sick!
Exercise VII. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. We all work together with a wiggle and a giggle,
39
We all work together with a giggle and a grin,
With a wiggle and a giggle and a google and a woogle,
A jigger and a jagger and a giggle and a grin.
2. There was an old man of Columbia,
Who was thirsty, and called out for some beer,
But they brought it quite hot,
In a small copper pot,
Which disgusted that man of Columbia.
3. There was an old person of Cromer,
Who stood on one leg to read Homer,
When he found he grew stiff,
He jumped over the cliff,
Which concluded that old person of Cromer.
4. There was a crooked man, and he walked a crooked mile,
He found a crooked sixpence against a crooked stile,
He bought a crooked cat which caught a crooked mouse,
And they all lived together in a little crooked house.
5. Golden Hour (by J. Keats)
Golden in the garden Golden in the tree tops
Golden in the glen Golden in the sky
Golden, golden, golden Golden, golden, golden
September's here again. September's passing by.
Exercise VIII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. Curiosity killed the cat.
2. To cut your coat according to your cloth.
3. Cool as a cucumber.
4. The pot calling the kettle black.
5. A cat may look at a king.
6. Catch as catch can.
7. To kill the goose that lays the golden eggs.
8. All that glitters is not gold.
9. As good as gold.
10. To give as good as you get.
Exercise IX. Pronounce the following sentences with aspiration.
1. Кукушка кукушонку купила капюшон.
2. Капа, купи кипу пик.
3. Коваль колокол ковал, ковал и перековывал.
4. В нашей покупке крупы и крупки.
5. Королева кавалеру каравеллу подарила.
6. Карл у Клары украл кораллы.
7. У кошки в лукошке пряники, коврижки, пироги да пышки.
UNIT 15. [n] - [m]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to - correct pronunciation.
1. [n] 2. [m]
no button snow me him smile
now cotton ninth more ham smoke
near often tenth my hem memory
nor sun panther meal bum member
new noon unreal may sum woman
name ten sunrise miss rum family
need learn sunset mess room German
never on event mister tram James
40
nose in offence milk warm remember
north man send money form remarkable
neither down Sunday mind farm memorable
3. [n] - [m]
sun — sum new — mew
run — rum none — mum
bun — bum need — meed
4. Silent n
column solemn autumn
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) Memphis; museum at Memphis; mammoth in the museum at Memphis; an immense
mammoth in the museum at Memphis.
(b) line; pen line; a fine pen line; again with a fine pen line; again and again with a fine pen
line; his name again and again with a fine pen line; sign his name again and again with a fine pen
line; Brown signs his name again and again with a fine pen line; Norman Brown signs his name
again and again with a fine pen line.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[m] (a) 1. Marmaduke and Mary have mumps.
2. "They mustn't munch marmalade sandwiches at the moment", says Mummy.
3. The museum has many memorable monuments to the memory of some remarkable
members of the Moslem community.
4. Martha always makes a mountain out of a molehill.
5. Just a moment, Mathew.
6. If my memory serves me...
[n] b) 1. Nick is no genius.
2. No doubt Nickolas knows Nigel.
3. Naughty, Nancy has bent the knitting needles and knotted Nanny's knitting.
4. Henry hands his nephew Nigel a brand-new pound note on Sundays.
[n] — [m] c) 1. No offence meant.
2. It's no concern of mine.
3. The name slipped my memory.
4. Money spent on the brain is never spent in vain.
5. You mustn't mind about me, Mike.
6. Nick knows no more about the murder than the man in the moon.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twisters and learn them.
1. Miss, miss, little Miss, miss,
When she misses, she misses like this.
2. I need not your needles
They are needless to me.
Exercise V. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. At an Accommodation Agency
Mr Mason: Good morning. I want an apartment in central London.
Manager: Certainly, sir. How much rent did you want to pay?
Mr Mason: No more than $27 a month.
Manager: $27 a month? We don't often have apartments as inexpensive as that. We have one
apartment for $29 a month in Northend Avenue. It's down near the station.
Mr M a s о n: Is it furnished?
Manager: No, It's unfurnished. The kitchen has no oven. It's forbidden to use the garden. No
friends in the apartment after eleven in the evening. No noise and no television after 11.15. No...
Mr Mason: No thank you! I want an apartment, not a prison!
2. Mum's Crumpets
Jim: Mum, may Tom Mitcham come home with we for tea\ tomorrow?
Mrs S m i t h: Of course, Jim. Have I met Tom before?
41
Jim: You met him in the summer. He's very small and smart.
Mrs Smith: Oh yes. I remember Tom. Does his family come from Cambridge?
J i m: Yes. Oh, Mum! Will you make some home-made crumpets tomorrow?
Mrs Smith: Mm... maybe. If I have time.
J i m: I told Tom about your crumpets, Mum. That's why he's coming for tea tomorrow!
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. Needles and pins, needles and pins,
When a man marries, his troubles begin.
2. Tom, Tom, the piper's son,
Stole a pig, and away he run,
The pig was eat2,
And Tom was beat.
And Tom ran crying down the street.
3. The man in the moon 4. Taffy was a Welshman, Came down too soon, Taffy was a
sham,
And asked his way to Norwich, Taffy came to my house
He went by the south And stole a leg of lamb.
And burnt his mouth With supping cold plum porridge.
5. Little Johnny Morgan, Gentleman of Wales, Came riding on a nanny goat, Selling off pigs'
tails.
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. One man, no man.
2. Many men, many minds.
3. To make a mountain out of a molehill.
4. To make both ends meet.
5. To find a mare's nest.
6. Money is a good servant but a bad master.
7. Money often unmakes the men who make it.
8. Money begets money.
UNIT 16. [n] - [ŋ]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
1. [n] 2. [ŋ] [ŋg] [ŋk]
knit ban panel thing anger ink-
nest pin channel song finger sink
gnat pen parents king hungry mink
nasty darn bananas wrong language link
nut upon country young English wink
nook born funny restaurant linger drink
nurse fun dinner ring singular think
now June enough morning single rink
noise burn finish evening thank
3. [n] - [ŋ] [ŋk] - [ŋ] [ŋg] - [ŋ]
sin — sing sink — sing longer — long
thin — thing think — thing stronger — strong
kin — king wink — wing hungry — hung
win — wing link — long finger — thing
ran -— rang rink — ring younger — young
son — song ban — bang gone — gong
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) songs; spring songs; singing spring songs; birds singing spring songs; listening to birds
singing spring songs; like listening to birds singing spring songs; nothing like listening to birds sing-
2
eat – used here to form a rhyme.
42
ing spring songs; there is nothing like listening to birds singing spring songs.
(b) hungry; is hungry; Ben is .angry; Ben is angry when he is hungry.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[ŋ] (a) 1. Everything is going wrong.
2. A strong young monk is beating a hanging gong.
3. English rankers marching along singing a rousing drinking song.
4. Good evening. My guest tonight is the young singer Kay King.
5. Kay King was recording a song called "Bells Are Ringing."
[n] b) 1. No nonsense now.
2. Nick wants to watch television at ten to seven.
3. Ned wants to watch the nine o'clock news.
4. And now here are the main points of the news again.
[n] — [ŋ] (c) 1. In the north there'll be rain and snow in the morning.
2. Central districts will have rain and snow showers with a little sun.
3. Anything is better than going on doing nothing,
4. No one likes Franklin for saying the wrong things.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twisters and learn them.
1. Oh, swing the king and swing the queen,
Oh, swing them round and round the green.
2. Engine, engine number nine,
Running on Chicago Line,
If it's polished, it will shine,
Engine, engine number nine.
Exercise V. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. Noisy Neighbours
Mr P r i n g: (angrily) Bang! Bang! Bang! What are the Kings doing at seven o'clock on Sun-
day morning?
Mrs P r i n g: Well, Mr King is singing.
Mr P r i n g: Yes, but what's the banging noise?
Mrs P r i n g: (looking out of the window) He's standing on a ladder and banging some nails in-
to the wall with a hammer. Now he's hanging some strong string on the nails.
Mr P r i n g: And what's Mrs King doing?
Mrs P r i n g: She's bringing something pink for Mr King to drink. Now she's putting it under
the ladder, and... Ohh!
Mr P r i n g: What's happening?
Mrs P r i n g: The ladder's falling.
Mr P r i n g: What's Mr King doing?
Mrs P r i n g: He's hanging from the string. He's holding the string in his fingers and he's
shouting to Mrs King.
Mr P r i n g: And is she helping him?
Mrs P r i n g: No. She's running to our house. Now she's ringing our bell.
Mr P r i n g: I'm not going to answer it. I'm sleeping.
2. A King and a Song
I n g r i d: There once was a king —
Mungo: King of England?
I n g r i d: No. This king's kingdom was far-flung, stretching along the banks of every winding
river, spreading into all the angles of the world.
Mungo: He must have been a very strong king. The strongest! Did everything belong to him?
I n g r i d: Almost everything. One evening he was sitting on the bank of his longest river,
watching the sun sink behind the weeping willows —
Mungo: And the nightingales calling from the darkening branches.
I n g r i d: Only they weren't nightingales. They were two monks ringing a tinkling bell, sing-
ing a sad lingering song in a strange tongue no longer known among the younger subjects of his far-
43
flung kingdom.
M u n g o: It's beginning to be interesting. But I'm getting hungry. Can you bring me some-
thing to eat and drink, do you think, Ingrid?
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. One busy housewife sweeping the floor,
Two busy housewives polishing the door,
Three busy housewives washing the socks,
Four busy housewives winding the clocks,
Five busy housewives cleaning with the broom,
Six busy housewives tidying up the room,
Seven busy housewives washing in the sink,
Eight busy housewives giving the cat a drink,
Nine busy housewives cooking dinner too,
Ten busy housewives with nothing else to do.
2. As I was getting along, along, along,
And singing a comical song, song, song,
The lane that I went
Was long, long, long,
And the song that I sang
Was as long, long, long,
And so I went singing a song.
3. Hush, little baby, don't say a word,
Papa's going to buy you a mocking bird.
If the mocking bird doesn't sing,
Papa's going to buy you a diamond ring,
If the diamond ring turns to brass,
Papa's going to buy you a looking-glass.
If the looking glass gets broke,
Papa's going to buy you a billy-goat,
If that billy-goat runs away,
Papa's going to buy you another today.
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. No news is good news.
2. No sooner said that done.
3. Saying and doing are two things.
4. A creaking door hangs long on its hinges.
5. What's done cannot be undone.
UNIT 17. [fl — [v]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
ı. [f] 2. [v]
fit leaf coffee vicar cave rival
fat safe fifteen vain grave review
fort life Africa vast brave over
farm knife telephone veal wave lover
feel deaf ruffian very save ever
fair proof sofa veil verve forever
full half safer view cover
four calf refuse veer savour
five enough sniffing vile vivacious
fee rough different village divide
3. [v] —[f]
van — fan veil — fail
44
veal — feel vine — fine
vast — fast alive — a life
believe — belief prove — proof
Exercise II. Read the following sense-group, mind the rhythm and intonation.
vicar; a village vicar; versus a village vicar; devils versus a village vicar; evil devils versus a
village vicar; seven evil devils versus a village vicar.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[v] (a) 1. Seven evil devils have no virtue.
2. Every evening Victor and Vivian visit Eve.
3. Both vow to love Eve forever.
4. But Eve is very vain.
5. Vivienne is vivacious and full of nerve.
6. Eventually Victor gives Eve up and goes over to Vivienne leaving Eve to Vivian.
[f] b) 1. The rough, tough ruffians make fierce faces to frighten the four friends.
2. The friends fight off the ruffians.
3. Four oafs fall flat on the floor and the rest flee in fear.
4. It's Phillip's fourth birthday on Friday.
5. That's funny. Phillip is fifteen.
6. But it's his fourth birthday. Phillip was born on February 29th.
[v] — [f] (c) 1. My father's job involves travelling.
2. We've lived in five different places in the last seven years.
3. I love it. I've got friends I can visit in all five places.
4. Five of the men v/ere carrying knives.
5. I grow flowers and vegetables in an old farmhouse outside the village.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twisters and learn them.
1. Fancy that Fan is full of fads and fancies.
2. Five fit fishers shipped six thick fish dishes.
3. That fish has a fat fin, this fish is a fish that has a thinner fin than that fish.
Exercise V. Read the text.
This is a photograph of a fat farmer arriving at a village in the valley. He's driving a van. It's a
fine day, but it's November, and the leaves have fallen from the vine in the front of the photograph.
Exercise VI. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialotues.
1. At the Photographeťs
Phillip: I want a photograph of myself and my wife.
Photographer: Please fill in this form, sir. Would you prefer a full front photograph or a pro-
file?
P h i 11 i p: A full front, don't you think, Phillippa?
P h i 11 i p p a: Yes. A full front photograph.
Photographer: Please sit on this sofa. Is it comfortable, Mrs Puffin?
P h i 11 i p p a: Yes. It feels fine.
Photographer: Mr Puffin, please give a friendly laugh.
Phillip: That's difficult. If you say something funny, I can laugh.
Photographer: And, Mrs Puffin, please look soft and beautiful.
Phillip: (laughs)
P h i 11 i p p a: Is it finished?
Photographer: Yes.
Phillip: Will the photograph be ready for the first of February?
Photographer: Yes. Please phone my office after five days, Mr Puffin.
2. A Fine View
V e r a: Has your family lived here for very long?
Victor: Five and a half years. We arrived on the first of February.
V e r a: What a fine view you have! Victor: Yes. I love living here.
V e r a: Look! You can see the village down in the valley. Victor: Yes. It's a lovely view.
45
3. A Fine, Flashy Fox Fur
Felicity: That's a fine, flashy fox fur you've flung on the sofa, Daphne.
Daphne: Yes, I found it on Friday afternoon in Iffley Forest.
Felicity: But, Daphne! That's Fiona's fox fur — her fiftieth birthday gift from Freddie. You are
awful! Fiona will be furious.
Daphne: Well, if Fiona left her fur in the forest...
Felicity: Fiona leaves her fabulous fox fur in the forest? Stuff and nonsense! You're a thief!
Take it off!
Daphne: Felicity! What a fuss over a faded bit of fluff! Anyway, fancy Fiona in a fur! She's far
too fat!
Exercise VII. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. Taffy was a Welshman,
Taffy was a thief,
Taffy came to my house
And stole a piece of beef.
2. Cock-adoodle-doo!
My dame will dance with you.
While master fiddles his fiddling-stick
For dame and doodle-doo!
3. Once upon a time, in a little wee house,
Lived a funny old man and his wife,
And he said something funny to make her laugh
Every day of his life.
One day he said a very funny thing,
That she shook and screamed with laughter,
But the poor old soul, she couldn't leave off
For at least three whole days after.
4. Why does a fire eat big sticks of wood?
I shouldn't like to have that for my food
But the flames all lick their lips —
It must taste good.
5. A wilful young fisher named Gabriel Fisher,
Once fished for some fish in a fissure,
Till a fish with a grin
Pulled the fisherman in
Now they are fishing the fissure for Fisher.
6. A flea and a fly in a flue
Were caught so what could they do?
Said the fly, "Let us flee!"
"Let us fly", said the flea,
And they flew through a flaw in the flue.
Exercise VIII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. Faint heart never won fair lady.
2. Fine feathers make fine birds.
3. Feast today and fast tomorrow.
4. Fools seldom differ.
5. Far from eye, far from heart.
6. Fair without, foul (false) within.
7. An iron hand in a velvet glove.
8. The fat is in the fire.
UNIT 18. [v] - [w]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
46
1. [v] 2. [w] 3. [v] - [w]
velvet leave never weave twenty via — wire
Victor approve ever wave twice vile — while
vivid wave travel wheal twist vine — wine
violet five university white sweet vein — wane
vodka drive over wear twins veil — wail
verse give envious worn queen Veal — wheel
vote have advice word quite vend — wend
vest of even world Gwendolen
4. Silent w
wrong, whole, who, whose, wrist, wrap.
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) improve; I'll improve; eventually I'll improve, over again eventually I'll improve; over and
over again eventually I'll imrove; if I say it over and over again eventually I'll improve.
(b) wardrobe; woodwork of his wardrobe; worm in the woodwork of his wardrobe; woodworm
in the woodwork of his wardrobe; worried about woodworm in the woodwork of his wardrobe; Wil-
liam is worried about woodworm in the woodwork of his wardrobe.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[v] (a) 1. I've given Steve the best advice.
2. They've never approved of Val.
3. Victor is in the Navy.
4. Vera is my only surviving relative.
[w] (b) 1. The sweater will wear well.
2. I wonder what's worrying Willy?
3. Winnie is as weak as water.
4. Why wouldnFt Walter wash with water that wasn't warm?
5. William was watching a TV film about the Wild West and a wicked woman.
[w] — [v] (c) 1. Why is the worse verse worse than the first verse?
2. William always wears a very warm woolen vest in winter.
3. Victor, however, will never wear woolen underwear, even in the Wild West.
4. We'll wed on Wednesday if you buy me that white vase.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twisters and learn them.
1. Walter works at a waxworks and wax won't wash off without warm water.
2. Which is this switch? Which switch is which?
3. Why do you cry, Willy, 4. Oh that I were
Why do you cry? Where I would be,
Why, Willy? Why, Willy? Then would I be
Why, Willy? Why? Where I am not,
Whenever we meet But where I am
There's a tear in your eye There I must be,
Why, Willy? Why, Willy? And where I would be
Why, Willy? Why? I cannot.
Exercise V. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. A Walk in the Woods
G w e n: Did you see Victor on Wednesday, Wendy?
Wendy: Yes. We went for a walk in the woods near the railway.
G w e n: Wasn't it cold on Wednesday?
Wendy: Yes. It was very cold and wet. We wore warm clothes and walked quickly to keep
warm.
G w e n: It's lovely and quiet in the woods.
Wendy: Yes. Further away from the railway it was very quiet, and there were wild squirrels
everywhere. We counted twenty squirrels.
Gwen: How wonderful! Twenty squirrels! And did you take lunch with you?
47
Wendy: Yes. About twelve we had veal sandwiches and sweet white wine, and we watched
the squirrels. It was a very nice walk.
2. A Visit to Vladivostok
Oliver: Victor, have you ever visited Vladivostok?
Victor: Never. In fact, I haven't travelled further than Liverpool.
Oliver: I've had an invitation from the University of Vladivostok to give a survey of my own
creative verse.
Victor: How marvellous!
Oliver: Will my navy overcoat be heavy enough, I wonder? It's long-sleeved ,and reversible.
And I've got a pair of velvet Levis — rather a vivid violet! Do you think they'll approve?
Victor: I should think the professors will view violet Levis with violent disapproval. When do
you leave?
Oliver: On the 7th of November.
Victor: I don't advise you to travel on the 7th. It's the anniversary of the Valentine Invasion.
And for heaven's sake, Oliver, don't overdo the caviar. Or the vodka.
Oliver: Victor, I do believe you're envious!
3. Rowena, Are You Awake?
Edward: Rowena! Are you awake?
Rowena: What? Edward, what's wrong? What time is it?
Edward: Oh, about two o'clock.
Rowena: In the morning? Oh, go away! What are you doing?
Edward: Come to the window, Rowena. Look, the whole world's white, there's a wicked wind
blowing through Orwell Wood, whispering in the willows, whipping the water into waves, while
over in the West...
Rowena: Oh, waxing poetical! You are off your head! I always knew it! Why are you wearing
your Wellingtons?
Edward: I want to go out and wander in the woods. Come with me, Rowena! I can't wait to go
walking in that wild and wonderful weather!
Rowena: I wish you wouldn't wake me up at two in the morning to go on a wild-goose chase!
Edward: Oh, woman, woman! Stop whining! What a wet blanket you are!
4. Twenty Foreign Visitors
W i 1 m a: What are you giving your foreign visitors on Wednesday evening, Winnie? How
many — twelve, is it?
Winnie: Twenty. Twelve of William's Swedish representatives, eight of them with wives.
W i 1 m a: And what will you feed them on?
Winnie: Well, we'll start with watercress soup, then fish in a white wine souce flavoured with
fennel and chives, followed by stuffed veal served with cauliflower and... oh, a very wide variety of
vegetables.
W i 1 m a: Mmm... My mouth's watering!
Winnie: For sweet we'll have fresh fruit souffle covered with walnuts. And lots of whipped
cream, of course, and vanilla wafers. And we'll finish with devilled soft roes.
W i 1 m a: And finally coffee? What a feast! I wish I was going to be with you!
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. The south wind brings wet weather,
The north wind wet and cold together,
The west wind always brings us rain,
The east wind blows it back again.
2. If all the world were water,
And all the sea were drink,
What should we do for bread and jam?
What should we do for drink?
3. The Vine
V was once a little vine
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Viny,
Winy,
Twiny,
Viny,
Twisty-twiny
Little vine.
4. Oh, wind, why do you never rest?
Wandering, whistling to and fro?
Bringing rain out of the west
From the dim north bringing snow?
5. Whether the weather be fine,
Whether the weather be not,
Whether the weather be cold,
Whether the weather be hot,
We'll weather the weather
Whatever the weather
Whether we like it or not.
6. When the weather is wet,
We must not fret,
When the weather is cold,
We must not scold.
When the weather is warm,
We must not storm,
But be joyful together,
Whatever the weather.
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. Virtue is its own reward.
2. All is fair in love and war.
3. When the wind is in the west, the weather's always best.
4. One word to the wise.
5. Time works wonders.
6. Wilful waste makes woeful want.
7. One never knows with the weather.
8. Wealth is nothing without health.
9. No sweet without some sweat.
UNIT 19. [s] – [z]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
1. [s] 2. [z] 3. [s] — [z]
seem serious most zebra is lazy hiss — his
soft yes waste zone was dizzy ice — eyes
slow miss ask zeal has busy rice — rise
skin glass sister zero his easy race — raise
sweet looks sensible zenith buzz rosy lice — lies
city wants accent zip breeze nosy once — one's
cinema nice possible zoo freeze dozen false — falls
loose — lose
advice — advise
4. Silent s:
aisle; island; Grosvenor, Carlisle; chassis
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) smile; an irresistible smile; has an irresistible smile; Sally has an irresistible smile; Sam
thinks Sally has an irresistible smile.
49
(b) roses; over the roses; flying over the roses; bees are flying over the roses; the busy bees are
flying over the roses.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[s] (a) 1. Better safe than sorry.
2. A lisping lass is good to kiss.
3. Last but not least.
4 Sue will certainly see the sights of Sydney.
5. Sing a song of seasons.
[z] (b) 1. As soon as he can.
2. A lazy zebra called Desmond is dozing at the zoo.
3. He feels flies buzzing round his eyes, ears and nose.
4. He rouses, opens his eyes, rises and goes to Zoe.
5. Zoe is wearing a rose on her blouse.
6. Zoe gives Desmond the buns, but he prefers the rose on her blouse.
[s] — [z] (c) 1. Last summer I saw Susan and Bessy in Cyprus.
2. I'm sorry Miss Bessy Castle is busy.
3. Susan and Cecily seem to be fond of ice-cream.
4. Susie is a secretary in a famous agency.
5. She is responsible for ads.
6. Her boss Sam Smith thinks she is lazy.
Exercise IV. Read,the tongue-twisters and learn them.
1. Swan swam over the sea,
Swim, swan, swim.
Swan swam back again,
Well swum, swan!
2. Moses supposes his toeses are roses,
But Moses supposes erroneously.
Exercise V. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. It's Expensive
Sam: Let's go to the seaside on Sunday.
Alice: Yes! Let's go sailing and water-skiing. That's exciting.
Sam: It's expensive too. Let's just sit in the sun and go swimming instead.
Alice: Let's stay in the Six Star Hotel and spend Sunday there too.
Sam: Be sensible, Alice. It's too expensive. Let's sleep outside instead.
Alice: Yes. Let's sleep on the sand. That's more exciting.
2. Surprises in the Post Office
Mns Smith: This parcel smells, Mrs Jones.
M r s\ Jones: Something's written on it.
M r s \ S m i t h: What does it say?
Mrs!Jones:It says: This parcel contains six mice.
MrsiSmith: Pooh!
Mrs Jones: Listen! What' s in this sack?
İM r s Smith: It's making a strange hissing noise.
Sack: {hisses) Sssssssssssss!
Mrs Jones: Mrs Smith! It's a sack of snakes!
Mrs S m i t h: So it is! And what's in this box, Mrs Jones?
Mrs Jones: It's making a buzzing sound.
Box: (buzzes) Zzzzzzzzzzzzzzz!
Mrs S m i th: These are bees!
Mrs Smith: A parcel of mice! And a sack of snakes! And a box of bees! This is very surpris-
ing.
Mrs Jones: It's amazing! This isn't a post office, Mrs Jones. It's a zoo!
3. The Zoology Exam's on Thursday
50
Ezra: How's things these days, Lizzie?
Lizzie: I'm exhausted. Revising for the zoology exam!
Ezra: You've got bags under your eyes, Lizzie. Take it easy!
Lizzie: It's all very well for you to advise, Ezra, but I'm going crazy. One of those miserable
Zeno boys, two houses down, plays his transistor as if he was as far away as Mars!
Ezra: Boys will be boys. These days everyone plays transistors.
Lizzie: But he refuses to close the windows!
Ezra: Then close your ears to the noise, Lizzie. One learns to ignore these things, as if they
didn't exist.
Lizzie: Please, Ezra. The exam's on Thursday.
Ezra: And today's Tuesday! That only leaves two days! You'd better get busy, Lizzie!
4. A Sweet Siamese Student
Sam: That Siamese student seems a nice sort of person.
Stan: Yes. serious, sensible — a bit insecure, perhaps. Eldest of six — the rest still at school.
S a m: I see her sister sometimes. I saw her yesterday.
Stan: Soft skin, silky voice, sleepy eyes, sort of slow, sexy smile.
Sam: Sounds like Siew Sang.
Stan: Yes, That's it — Siew Sang. She's so sweet.
Sam: Waxing ecstatic, Stan? I must say, I strongly disapprove of senior staff taking fancies to
innocent students. You're supposed to be embracing serious linguistic research, not soft-skinned stu-
dents. Most unsuitable. And silly, when you're just starting to make a success of this place...
Stan: For goodness’ sake, Sam. Who says I'm smitten? The kid's sweet but still only 26. I shall
be 60 in September!
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. Elizabeth, Lizzy, Betsy and Bess,
They all went together to seek a bird's nest,
They found a bird's nest with five eggs in,
They all took one, and left four in.
2. Sneeze on Monday, sneeze for danger,
Sneeze on Tuesday, meet a stranger,
Sneeze on Wednesday, get a letter,
Sneeze on Thursday, something better,
Sneeze on Friday, no more sorrow,
Sneeze on Saturday see your true friend tomorrow.
3. First we skip, skip, skip,
Then we hop, hop, hop,
Then we turn round as fast as we can
And now we stop, stop, stop.
4. "Quack, quack!"
Said seven ducks at dawn
While night dew
Sparkled on the grass ...
And in my bed
I settled back
And slept to tunes
Of "Quack, quack, quack!"
5. I saw a ship a-sailing,
A-sailing on the sea,
And, oh? it was all laden
With pretty things for thee.
There were comfits in the cabin,
And apples in the hold,
The sails were made of silk
51
And the masts were made of gold.
The four-and-twenty sailors
That stood between the decks.
Were four-and-twenty white mice
With chains about their necks.
The captain was a duck,
With a packet on his back,
And when the ship began to move,
The captain said "Quack, quack!"
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. One swallow doesn't make a summer.
2. It's a silly goose that comes to a fox's sermon.
3. He who sups with a devil must use a long spoon.
4. Speech is silver, but silence is gold.
5. If its and ans were pots and pans.
6. Silence gives consent.
7. Stolen pleasures are sweetest.
UNIT 20 [s] – [ʃ]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
1. [s] 2. [ʃ]
see gas sister show splash assurance
sit us necessary ship English insurance
sat miss policy shame Spanish machine
said sense policeman shore Danish pressure
sum mouse ransom share moustache special
stiff bus bisquit shell slush partial
song alas spinster sure swoosh patience
since house basket sugar squash musician
certain promise masterpiece academician
3 [s] – [ʃ]
save — shave sock — shock puss — push
mess — mesh crust — crushed sort — short
sip — ship see — she person — Percian
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) dishes; wash dishes; don't wash dishes; wishes don't wash dishes.
(b) seawards; surer seawards; sail surer seawards; should sail surer seawards; sails should sail
surer seawards; short sails should sail surer seawards.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[s] (a) 1. An endless fence across an endless fence.
2. A few pens costing a few pence.
3. Sue and Cecily are sisters.
4. Sue is sixteen this summer.
5. Cecily was seventeen last Sunday.
6. Sue sees Cecily asleep with a glass of cyder and a nice sixpence ice by her side.
7. Sue is sowing grass seed.
8. Cecily gets such a surprise when she wakes.
[ʃ] b) 1. Shut up, Sheila!
2. She is a shy fish.
3. Share and share alike.
4. Ship to shore communications.
5. Shirley has just finished washing this sheet in the washing machine.
[s] — [ʃ] (с) 1. She saw a shell-shocked soldier.
2. Short and sweet and the shorter, the sweeter.
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3. She speaks English and Danish, Polish and Spanish.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twisters and learn them.
1. She sells shells on the seashore,
The shells that she sells are seashore shells I'm sure.
For if she sells seashells on the seashore,
Then I'm sure she sells seashore shells.
2. He sighed, she sighed, they both sighed
side by side down beside the river side.
Exercise V. Read the text.
The Smile of a Snake
She speaks slowly, and smokes special, expensive cigarettes. As she steps upstairs, her long
skirt sweeps over her silver slippers. She is small and smart and sweet-smelling. Her skin is like
snow.
"You have stolen my heart!" I once said stupidly, and she smiled. But when she smiled, she
smiled the smile of a snake.
Exercise VI. Read the dialogue, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn it. Act out the dialogue.
A Special Washing Machine
Mrs Marsh: Does this shop sell washing machines?
Mr Shaw: Yes. This is the newest washing machine, madam.
Mrs M a r s h: Is it Swedish?
Mr Shaw: No, madam. It's English.
Mrs M а г sh: Please show me how it washes.
Mr Shaw: Shall I give you a demonstration? Here are some sheets and shirts. You put them in
the machine. You shut the door. And you push this button.
Mrs Marsh: The machine shouldn't shake like that, should it?
Mr Shaw: Washing machines always shake, madam. Ah! It's finished now.
Mrs Marsh: But the sheets have shrunk, and so have the shirts.
Mr S h a w: Do you wish to buy this machine, madam?
Mrs Marsh: I'm not sure.
Exercise VII. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. Wash your hands, wash,
Do you know how?
If you want to wash your hands
Wash your hands now.
2. See-saw, Margery Daw,
Jenny shall have a new master,
She shall have but a penny a day
Because she can't work any faster.
3. The shoemaker's shop is shut today,
Oh, what shall I do with my shoes?
The shoemaker's shop is shut, I say.
And there are big holes in my shoes.
The holes in my shoes may stop my play,
Oh, what shall I do with my shoes?
4. There was a young lady of station,
"I love men» was her sole exclamation.
But when men cried, "You flatter!"
She replied, "Oh, no matter!"
Isle of Man is the true explanation.
5. Thirty thirsty sailors
Sipping pop in pint pots,
At a seaside shop,
And shaking sandy seashells
53
On saucy seagulls.
Exercise VIII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. Slow and steady wins the race.
2. Sink or swim.
3. Slow but sure.
4. Shallow streams make most din.
5. Slanders-by see more than gamesters.
6. Salt water and absence wash away love.
7. Rats desert a sinking ship.
UNIT 21. [ʧ] – [ʃ]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
1. [ʧ] 2. [ʃ]
chew witch fortune she cash nation
chop watch future shy wish mission
chair catch kitchen short ash ocean
chance each nature shock leash mention
cheap much picture shame fish station
chief reach question shoot crush patient
child speech teacher shot fresh position
choice teach preacher shine push motion
choose touch reaches sure rush anxious
church which lecture shape dish revolution
3. [ʧ] - [ʃ]
witch — wish cheap — sheep catch — cash
match — mesh chair — share watch — wash
chop — shop chew — shoe chips — ships
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) watch chain; Dutch cheese; catch Charles; catch a chill; such chips.
(b) dispatches; matches and dispatches; catches, matches and dispatches; hatches, catches,
matches and dispatches.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[ʧ] (a) 1. Charles is not much of a catch.
2. Here are two pictures which are a match. Nothing much to choose between them.
3. Charles is a cheerful chicken farmer.
4. Charles is scratching his itching chin.
5. A poacher is watching Charles' chickens choosing which to snatch.
6. He chuckles at the chance of a choice chicken to chew for his lunch.
7. But the chuckle reaches Charles who chases the poacher and catches him.
[ʃ] (b) 1. She is an accomplished musician.
2. This shop is a fish shop.
3. Patricia Fisher is a traditional politician.
4. Shear your sheep in May, you shear them all away.
5. They saw a mission station in the bush.
[ʧ] — [ʃ] (c) 1. Shirley and Charles are a match.
2. She is an accomplished liar.
3. Charles made a substantial contribution to literature.
4. Sheila is a beautiful creature with most unusual features.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twister and learn it.
A thatcher of Thatchwood went to Thatchet a-thatching.
Exercise V. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. At the Butcheťs Shop
Butcher: Good morning, Mrs Church.
Mrs Church: Good morning, Mr Cheshire. I'd like some chops for the children's lunch.
54
Butcher: Chump chops or shoulder chops, Mrs Church?
Mrs Church: I'll have four shoulder chops, and I want a small chicken.
Butcher: Would you like to choose a chicken, Mrs Church?
Mrs Church: Which one is cheaper?
Butcher: This one's the cheapest. It's a delicious chicken.
Mrs С h u г с h: How much is all that? I haven't got cash. Can I pay by cheque?
2. life Is a Question of Choice or Chance?
— If you could recapture your childhood, Richard, would you change much?
— Life is a sort of arch. Arrival to departure. You can't switch directions, Charles. Each cen-
tury brings changes but actually, nature doesn't change.
— But you can reach different decisions. With television, you can choose which channel to
watch, switch to another picture. You could catch a different train. Given a chance, Richard, would
you change trains?
— Life is a rich adventure and largely a question of chance. You don't choose your future as
you choose a chocolate or a piece of cheese.
— But, Richard, you do choose. You forge your own fortune — a butcher? a cellist? a teach-
er? a merchant? Each choice suggests a further choice — which tree, which branch, which twig?
— Let's adjourn to the kitchen for chicken and chips. No choice for lunch, you see Charles.
— But you actually chose chicken and chips! Chops would have been much cheaper.
3. Which Do You Prefer?
— Hello, Avril, it's me!
— Hello, Jane, come in.
— Oh, holiday brochures at Christmas.
— Yes, the weather's been awful, I want to cheer myself up, so I'm thinking about my summer
holiday.
— Mm, I know what you mean. Let's have a look.
— For me it's a choice between Portugal and Morocco. Have you ever been to Portugal? It
looks very pretty there.
— Yes, I have. I like it very much. It's very beautiful.
— Mm, and how about Morocco? That looks interesting too. Have you ever been there?
— No, I haven't. I've never been to Morocco but I've been to Algeria, which is quite similar in
some ways.
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. If wishes were horses, beggars would ride,
If turnips were watches.
I'd wear one by my side.
2. I often sit and wish that I
Could be a kite up in the sky,
And ride upon the breeze and go
Whatever way it chanced to go.
3. There was a man in our town,
And he was wondrous wise,
He jumped into a bramble bush,
And scratched out both his eyes.
But when he saw his eyes were out,
With all his might and main,
He jumped into another bush,
And scratched them in again.
4. If I'd as much money as I could spend,
I never would try old chairs to mend,
Old chairs to mend, old chairs to mend,
I never would try old chairs to mend.
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
55
1. Cheek brings success.
2. Children are poor men's riches.
3. Choose an author as you choose your friend.
4. Charity begins at home.
5. Misfortunes tell us what fortune is.
6. That's where the shoe pinches.
UNIT 22. [ʒ] – [ʤ]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
1. [ʒ] 2. [ʤ]
pleasure beige jaw age pigeon
measure rouge jump judge ledger
treasure garage joy arrange lodger
leisure barrage June bridge major
erasure mirage joke edge danger
closure general large region
vision gentleman page soldier
television gin manage imagine
revision generous message subject
gem stage stranger
3. [ʒ] – [ʤ]
leisure — ledger vision — region
measure — major barrage — marriage
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) junior; Jones junior; John Jones junior; John Jones junior is a gentleman; John Jones junior
is a joyful gentleman; John Jones junior is a joyful gentleman who likes jokes; John Jones junior is a
joyful gentleman who likes jokes and jam.
b) language; the German language; learning the German language; Jim learning the German
language; Jack and Jim learning the German language; Just imagine Jack and Jim learning the Ger-
man language.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[ʤ] (a) 1. The aged judge urged the jury to be just but generous.
2. Jeremy Jones has a large jug, a juicy orange, a jelly, a gingerbread.
3. Just you wait, Jacob, just you wait.
4. Hello, Janice. This is John Johnson. Is Jenny in?
[ʒ ] (b) 1. Did you watch "Treasure Ireland" on television yesterday?
2. Her pleasure and joy knew no measure.
3. Conversation is a pleasure but it wants leisure.
4. The unusual confusion surrounding the revision of the decision regarding the seizure
and closure of the garage is surely due to some measure of collusion.
[ʤ] – [ʒ] (c) 1. After much persuasion John and Joice took a decision.
2. Imagine at her age Jenny wears Parisian rouge.
3. I've just got a message from Gerald and Jack. They are in Leisure and Pleasure Gen-
eral Stores.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twisters and learn them.
1. Julia Jamestone will marry judge Jeffreys in June or July.
2. Can you imagine an imaginary menagerie manager imagining managing an imaginary me-
nagerie?
Exercise V. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. George Churchill
Jerry: Just outside this village there's a very dangerous bridge.
John: Yes. Charles told me two jeeps crashed on it in January. What happened?
Jerry: Well George Churchill was the driver of the larger jeep, and he was driving very dange-
56
rously, He'd been drinking gin.
John: George Churchill? Do I know George Churchill?
Jerry: Yes. That ginger-haired chap. He's the manager of the travel agency in Chester.
John: Oh, yes. I remember George. He's always telling jokes. Well, was anybody injured?
Jerry: Oh, yes. The other jeep went over the edge of the bridge, and two children and another
passenger were badly injured.
John: Were both the jeeps damaged?
Jerry: Oh, yes.
John: And what happened to George?
Jerry: George? He's telling jokes in jail now, I suppose.
2. George's Jaw
— Ah, George, jolly good. Just exchange your jacket and jeans for these pyjamas, while I jot
down your injuries in my register. Age, religion, that's the usual procedure.
— Well, Doctor Jones, I was just driving over the bridge on the edge of the village...
— Half a jiffy. Let's adjourn to the surgery. I've got a large sandwich and a jar of orange juice
in the fridge. Join me?
— Jeepers! My indigestion... and my jaw! I shan't manage...
— A generous measure of gin — just the job!
— It's my jaw, Doctor. I was on the bridge at the edge of the village. I was just adjusting the
engine when this soldier jumped out of the hedge...
— Imagine! He damaged your jaw, did he? I suggest an injection into the joint. Just a jiffy. I'll
change the syringe.
— Oh jeepers! Gently, Dr Jones!
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. I measure from top of my head to my toes,
I measure my arms starting here by the nose.
I measure my legs and I measure me all,
I measure to see if I am growing tall.
2. Jumping this way, jumping that,
Jumping gently like a cat,
Jumping sideways, jumping tall,
Jumping high like a bouncing ball.
3. Just and Unjust
The rain it rainth on the just
And also on the unjust fella,
But chiefly on the just because
The unjust steals the just's umbrella.
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. Measure for measure.
2. Eat at pleasure, drink with measure.
3. Jackdaw in peacock's feathers.
4. Jack of all trades and master of none.
5. Business before pleasure.
6. To measure another man's foot by one's own last.
UNIT 23. [1] - [r]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
1. [1] 2. [r]
lady all allow rain agree
land able along rather arrange
last fall almost reach borrow
late feel already read bread
laugh full always real bring
57
lead girl colour red direct
learn meal yellow rest drink
long mile early right every
lack people eleven road foreign
3. [1] – [r]
light — right belly — berry
low — row collect — correct
lead — read alive — arrive
lock — rock long — wrong
lip — rip list — wrist
law — raw lap — wrap
led — red fly — fry
clash — crash
4. Silent i
final position: car, fur, near, poor, later, prefer
before consonant: harm, bird, turn, fierce, short, pearl
before silent e: there, shore, care, pure, fire, here
N. В.: iron, ironmonger, ironing
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) lake; a lovely lake; island in a lovely lake; a large island in a lovely lake; a hill on a large
island in a lovely lake; a low hill on a large island in a lovely lake; lying on a low hill on a large isl-
and in
a lovely lake; a pool lying on a low hill on a large island in a lovely lake; a small pool lying on
a low hill on a large island in a lovely lake.
(b) the track; across the track; a tree-trunk across the track; trapped by a tree-trunk across the
track; trucks are trapped by a tree-trunk across the track; this train and its trucks are trapped by a
tree-trunk across the track.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[1] (a) 1. Ladies and gentlemen, on your left you will see Lumley Castle.
2. This belongs to Lord and Lady Lumley, who live here with their family.
3. All the land on the left of the road belongs to the Lumleys.
4. They have a famous collection of wild animals, including lions, so please do not
leave the coach until we are safely inside the car park.
5. We are lucky: Lord Lumley is allowing us to leave the grounds and go inside this
beautiful stately home.
[r] (b) 1. Is that Richmond Travel Agency? — No, this is British Rail Enquiries.
2. Sorry, wrong number.
3. Can I borrow your ruler? — Sorry, Ruth borrowed it yesterday, and she hasn't re-
turned it yet.
4. The librarian reports that three hundred readers used the library reading-room in the
period from February to April.
5. Round the rugged rock the ragged rascal ran.
6. The hand that rocks the cradle rules the world.
7. Run rabbit, run rabbit, run, run, run.
8. Ring-a-ring o'roses.
[1] — [r] (c) 1. This little girl called Ruth, left all alone, loves her small doll Rosa.
2. Mary had a little lamb.
3. Rack your brains, Lucy.
4. I'm looking for a raincoat, please.
5. I'd rather have a brown raincoat. I look terrible in blue.
6. I'm sorry, that's the only brown one left, and it's a very large size.
7. This year the fashionable colours are black, brown, cream, blue and yellow.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twisters and learn them.
58
1. Strawberries, raspberries and red-currepts with real cream are really very refreshing.
2. Robert Rowley rolled a round roll round, A round roll Robert Rowley rolled round, Where
rolled the round roll Robert Rowley rolled round?
3. Eleven local lads and lasses dancing round the village Maypole to a tuneful old melody.
4. The tall pole topples and falls but all the people laugh and the lads and girls are still able to
smile.
5. The rate collecter correctly collected the late rates at a great rate.
Exercise V. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. Early for Lunch
Mr Alien: Hello, Lily. You're looking lovely today.
Waitress: Hello, Mr Alien. You're early for lunch. It's only eleven o'clock.
Mr Alien: When I come later there's usually nothing left.
Wa i tr e s s: What would you like?
Mr Alien: Leg of lamb, please.
Waitress: And would you like a plate of salad? It's lettuce with black olives.
Mr Alien: Marvellous! I love olives.
Waitress: And would you like a glass of lemonade?
Mr Alien: Yes please, Lily. And a slice of melon and some yellow jelly.
2. A Spoilt Little Boy in a Bicycle Shop
Paul: What a beautiful bicycle!
Uncle Bill: Paul! Be careful!
Salesman: Excuse me, sir. This child is too small to ride this bicycle. It's a very difficult bi-
cycle to...
Uncle В i 11: Be careful, Paul!
Paul: You always tell me to be careful. Don't help me. I won't fall.
Salesman: But, sir. This is a very special bicycle. It's... Paul: Don't pull the bicycle, Uncle Bill.
I'll do it myself.
Uncle В i 11: Be sensible, Paul. This gentleman says it's, a... (Paul falls)
P a u 1: It was Uncle Bill's fault. He was holding the bicycle.
3. A Proud Parent
Mrs Randal: Are" all the children grown up now, Ruth?
Mrs R e e d: Oh yes. Laura is the cleverest one. She's a librarian in the public library.
Mrs Randal: Very interesting. And what about Rita?
Mrs Reed: She's a secretary at the railway station.
Mrs Randal: And what about Rosemary? She was always a very pretty child.
Mrs Reed: Rosemary is a waitress in a restaurant in Paris. She's married to an electrician.
Mrs Randal: And what about Jerry and Roland?
Mrs Reed: Jerry drives a lorry. He drives everywhere in Europe.
Mrs Randal: Really? Which countries does he drive to?
Mrs Reed: France and Austria and Greece and Russia.
Mrs Randal: And does Roland drive a lorry too?
Mrs Reed: Oh, no. Roland is a pilot.
Mrs Randal: Really? Which countries does he fly to?
Mrs Reed: Australia and America.
4. A Lovely Little lion
Billy: I love wild life in its natural element. Look at all your lovely animals, Lucy. Lots and
lots.
Lucy: Eleven, actually.
Billy: And look! Here's a lovely little lion — a real live black lion asleep on the lawn.
Lucy: That's a leopard, actually.
Billy: I don't believe it! Leopards are yellow. Look, Lucy, he's laughing! Do animals under-
stand the English language?
Lucy: Leave him alone, Billy. He's licking his lips.
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Billy: Would you like a lettuce leaf, little lion?
Lucy: Billy, be careful — Oh Lord!
Billy: Let go! Help, Lucy, he's got my leg!
Lucy: Actually, that's how I lost my left leg. You wouldn't listen, you silly fool. Well, let's
limp over and look at the gorillas.
5. The Respective Merits of Frogs and Rabbits
Roger: My rabbit can roar like a rhinoceros.
Barry: Rubbish! Rabbits don't roar, Roger.
Roger: You're wrong, Barry. My rabbit's an Arabian rabbit. They're very rare. When he's an-
gry he races round and round his rabbit run. And if he's in a real rage he rushes on to the roof and
roars.
Barry: How horrid! Really, I prefer my frog. I've christened him Fred.
Roger: Freddie Frog! How ridiculous! '
Barry: An abbreviation for Frederick. Well, you remember when I rescued him from the river
last February? He was crying like a canary. He was drowning.
R о g e r: Really, Barry! Frogs don't drown.
6. A Dreadful Train Crash
P r u e: Weren't you in that train crash on Friday, Fred?
Fred: Oh Prue, it's like a dreadful dream.
P r u e: A tractor — isn t that right? — crossing a bridge with a trailer of fresh fruit crashed
through the brick wall in front of the train?
Fred: Yes. The train driver's a friend of my brother's. I was travelling up front with him. I was
thrown through the windscreen on to the grass, but he was trapped under a huge great crate. I could
hear him groaning.
Prue: Fred! How grim!
F r e d: I was pretty frightened, Prue. I can promise you! I crawled through the broken crates
and tried to drag him free. His throat was crushed. He couldn't breathe properly, but he menaged a
grin.
Prue: How incredibly brave!
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. One, one, one
Little dog, run,
Two, two, two
Cats, see you,
Three, three, three
Birds on a tree,
Four, four, four
Rats on the floor. .
2. The men in the wilderness asked of me
How many strawberries grew in the sea.
I answered him as I thought good,
As many as red herrings grew in the wood.
3. Tweedle-Dum and Tweedle-Dee
Resolved to have a battle,
For Tweedle-Dum said Tweedle-Dee
Had spoiled his nice new rattle.
Just then flew by a monstrous crow,
As big as a tar barrel,
Which frightened both the heroes so
They quite forgot their quarrel.
4. There was an old woman,
And she sold puddings and pies,
She went to the mill,
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And the dust flew in her eyes,
Hot pies and cold pies to sell!
Wherever she goes,
You can follow her by the smell.
5. Little Lady Lilly lost her lovely locket
Lazy little Lucy found the lovely locket
Lovely little locket lay in Lucy's pocket
Lazy little Lucy lost the lovely locket.
6. A right-handed fellow named Wright
In writing "write" always wrote "right"
Where he meant to write right,
If he'd written "write" right,
Wright would not have wrought rot writing "rite".
7. The little black dog ran round the house
And set the bull a-roaring,
And drove the monkey in the boat,
Who set the oars a-rowing,
And scared the cock upon the rock,
Who cracked his throat with crowing.
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. Little friends may prove great fiends.
2. There is neither rhyme nor reason in it.
3. Who won't be ruled by the rudder must be ruled by the rock.
4. When angry, count a hundred.
5. Truth is stranger than fiction.
6. Live and learn.
7. Live and let live.
8. Let sleeping dogs lie.
9. Let well alone.
10. Love me, love my dog.
UNIT 24. [Ɵ] - [ð]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
1. [Ɵ] 2. [ð]
thank both healthy the with mother
think bath wealthy this breathe father
thin breath something that smooth brother
thing cloth anything these bathe either
thirsty earth nothing those loathe further
thousand faith birthday there writhe clothes
three health author then booth leather
throw month Arthur they scythe weather
Thursday north Martha them clothe together
3. [Ɵ] - [ð]
bath — bathe earthy — worthy
breath — breathe Martha — mother
author — other Bertha — further
Arthur — rather
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) that; than that; rather than that; anything rather than that; I'll do anything rather than that.
(b) both, thanks to you both, a thousand thanks to you both.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences. Practise reading them in pairs.
[Ɵ] (a) 1. The third Thursday of this month is the sixteenth.
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2. Arthur Smith, a thick-set, healthy athlete sees three thieves throw a thing round
Thea's throat and threaten to throttle her.
3. He throws one thug to earth with a thud that shakes his teeth.
4. Both the other thieves run off with a filthy oath.
5. Thea thanks Arthur for'thrashing the three thugs.
[ð] (b) 1. These bathers are breathing through their mouths.
2. Smooth breathing is rather soothing.
3. There are three brothers. These are their father and mother. This is their other brother.
4. I don't wish them other than they are.
[Ɵ] — [ð] (c) 1. I'll do anything rather than that.
2. They are always bothering Father and Mother to do things for them.
3. That means nothing other than the usual thing.
4. The Smiths keep themselves to themselves.
5. Father has a thousand and one things to ask you, Martha.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twisters and learn them.
1. A thatcher of Thatchwood went to Thatchet a-thatching. Did a thatcher of Thatchwood go to
Thatchet a-thatching? If a thatcher of Thatchwood went to Thatchet a-thatching, Where's the thatch-
ing the thatcher of Thatchwood has thatched?
2. Theo thrust a thumb through two or three thick straw thatches.
Exercise V. Read the dialogues, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn them. Act out the dialogues.
1. Gossips
Judith: Edith Smith is only thirty. Ethel: Is she? I thought, she was thirty-three. Judith: Edith's
birthday was last Thursday. Ethel: Was it? 1 thought it was last month.
Judith: The Smiths' house is worth thirty thousand pounds. Ethel: Is it? I thought it was worth
three thousand.
Judith: Mr Smith is the author of a book about moths. E t h e 1: Is he? I thought he was a ma-
thematician.
Judith: I'm so thirsty.
Ethel: Are you? I thought you drank something at the Smiths'.
Judith: No, Edith gave me nothing to drink.
Ethel: Shall I buy you a drink?
Judith: Thank you.
2. The Hat in the Window
Miss Brothers: I want to buy the hat in the window.
Assistant: There are three hats together in the window, madam. Do you want the one with the
feathers?
Miss Brothers: No. The other one.
Assistant: The small one for three pounds?
Miss Brothers: No. Not that one either. That one over there. The leather оле.
Assistant: Ah! The leather one. Now this is another leather hat, madam. It's better than the one
in the window. It's a smoother leather.
Miss Brothers: I'd rather have the one in the window. It goes with my clothes.
Assistant: Certainly, madam. But we don't take anything out of the window until three o'clock
on Thursday.
3. My Birthday's on Thursday
— It's my birthday on Thursday. My sixth birthday.
— My seventh birthday's on the 13th of next month, so I'm — let me think — 333 days older
than you, Ruth.
— Do you always put your thumb in your mouth when you're doing arithmetic, Arthur?
— My tooth's loose, Ruth. See? I like Maths. I came fourth out of thirty-three. My father's a
mathematician.
— My father's an author. He writes for the theatre. We're very wealthy. When I'm thirty I'll
have a thousand pounds.
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— I'm going to be an Olympic athlete. I may be thin but Mr Smith says I've got the strength of
three. Watch me. I'll throw this thing the length of the path.
— Oh Arthur! You've thrown earth all over us both. I'm filthy! Now they'll make me have a
bath!
4. I'd Rather Be a Mother Than a Father
Father: Where are the others?
Mother: They've gone bathing. Heather and her brother called for them.
Father: Heather Feather?
Mother: No, the other Heather — Heather Mather. I told them to stay together, and not to go
further than Northern Cove.
Father: Why didn't you go with them?
M о t h e r: I'd rather get on with the ironing without them.
Father: In this weather? There's a southerly breeze. One can hardly breathe indoors.
Mother: Go and have a bathe, then.
Father: Another bathe? I can't be bothered. I'll go with you, though.
Mother: But all these clothes... who'd be a mother!
Father: I'd rather be a mother than a father! All those hungry mouths?
Exercise VI. Read the rhymes and learn them.
1. This is used for one thing near,
That means one thing over there,
These and those mean two or more,
Those are far and these are near.
2. I can think of six thin things.
Six thin things, can you?
Yes, I can think of six thin things
And of six thick things, too.
3. There was an old woman,
And nothing she had,
And so this old woman
Was said to be mad.
She'd nothing to eat,
She'd nothing to wear,
She'd nothing to lose,
She'd nothing to share,
She'd nothing to ask,
And nothing to give,
And when she did die
She'd nothing to leave.
4. I am thankful for a thousand things...
For faithful earth, for birth and breath
For thought and health and strength and mirth
And, may be, when it comes for death.
Exercise VII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. When three Thursdays come together.
2. Thread and thrum.
3. That's neither here nor there.
4. There's nothing like leather.
5. One law for the rich, another for the poor.
6. Nothing venture, nothing have.
7. There is no smoke without fire.
8. Those who live in glass houses should not throw stones.
9. Wealth is nothing without health.
UNIT 25. [h] - no [h]
Exercise I. Read the following words paying special attention to correct pronunciation.
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1. [h] 2. silent h 3. [h] — no [h]
half behind heir exhibition hand — and
hand anyhow hour forehead hall — all
hat greenhouse honest shepherd . hear — ear
head manhole honour silhouette high — eye
hear inhale vehicle Birmingham hate — eight
heart rehearse rhubarb Blenheim heart — art
heavy coherent rhyme where hair — air
hide household rhythm what heels — eels
high beforehand exhaust when heat — eat
Exercise II. Read the following sense-groups, mind the rhythm and intonation.
(a) a hammer; a heavy hammer; herself with a heavy hammer; hit herself with a heavy ham-
mer; Hilda hit herself with a heavy hammer.
(b) the horn; the horn of the hunter; the hoim of the hunter was heard; the horn of the hunter
was heard on the hill.
Exercise III. Transcribe and intone the following sentences.
Practise reading them in pairs.
[h] 1. Humble, hairy Herbert has his hand on his heart.
2. Henry's horse has hurt his hoof in a hole while hunting.
3. Henry helps him to hobble home.
4. It's not the hopping over hedges that hurts the horses' hooves; it's the hammer, ham-
mer, hammer on the hard high road.
5. He is head over heels in love.
6. Our hands have met but not our hearts, our hands will never meet again.
7. A helicopter has hit Allen's house.
8. Andrew spent all his holiday in hospital.
9. Ellen's husband is ill in hospital.
10. I've hurt my hand and can't hold anything.
11. I've hurt my eye and can't see anything.
Exercise IV. Read the tongue-twisters and learn them.
1. In Hertford, Hereford and Hampshire, hurricanes hardly ever happen.
2. The hammerman hammers the hammer on the hard highroads.
Exercise V. Read the text.
Dear Harriet,
I'm having a horrible holiday here! The hotel is huge and high up on a hill. I hurt my heel and
had to go to hospital. The weather's too hot, and I'm hungry. Harry's quite happy, however! Next
summer, I shall stay at home. Harry can go on holiday by himself.
Exercise VI. Read the dialogue, mark the stresses and tunes. Learn it. Act outthe dialogue.
A Horrible Accident
Helen: Hello, Ellen.
Ellen: Hello, Helen. Have you heard? There's been a horrible accident.
Helen: Oh dear! What's happened?
Ellen: Hilda Higgins' husband has had an accident on his horse.
Helen: How awful! Is he injured?
Ellen: Yes. An ambulance has taken him to hospital.
Helen: How did it happen?
Ellen: He was hit by an express train. It was on the crossing just behind his house.
Helen: How horrible!
Ellen: He's having an important operation in hospital now. Poor Hilda! She's so unhappy!
Helen: Perhaps he'll be all right.
E 11 e n: I hope so.
Exercise VII. Read the rhymes and learn them.
Humpty-Dumpty sat on a wall,
Humpty-Dumpty had a great fall,
All the king's horses and all the king's men
Couldn't put Humpty-Dumpty together again.
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My Heart in the Highlands
(by R. Burns)
My heart's in the Highlands, my heart is not here,
My heart's in the Highlands, a-chasing the deer,
A-chasing the wild deer, and following the roe —
My heart's in the Highlands whenever I go!
Farewell to the Highlands, farewell to the North,
The birth place of valour, the country of worth!
Wherever I wander, wherever I rove,
The hills of the Highlands forever I love.
To a False Friend
(by Th. Hood)
Our hands have met, but not our hearts;
Our hands will never meet again.
Friends, if we have ever been,
Friends, we cannot now remain;
I only know I loved you once,
I only know I loved in vain.
Our hands have met, but not our hearts.
Our hands will never meet again.
Exercise VIII. Transcribe the proverbs and learn them.
1. Handsome is as handsome does.
2. He that has ears to hear let him hear.
3. Heaven helps him who helps himself.
4. He that has an ill name is half hanged.
5. Come hell or high water.
6. Cold hands, warm heart.
7. Habit cures habit.
UNIT 26. WEAK FORMS OF WORDS
The use of weak forms is an essential part of English speech and you must learn to use the
weak forms of 33 English words if you want your English to sound English. Some words have more
than one weak form and the follolwing list tells you when to use one and when the other.
Word Weak Form Examples
and ən Black and white.
as əz As good as gold.
but bət But why not?
than ðən Better than ever.
that ðət I admit that I did it.
(The word that in phrases like that man, that's good is always pronounced [ðæt] and
never weakened.)
he i: Did he win?
him im Give him two.
his iz I like his tie.
her з: Take her home.
(At the beginning of word groups the forms [hi;], [him], [hiz], [hз:] should be used:
He likes it. Her face is red.)
them ðəm Send them by. post.
us s (only in: let's) Let's do it now.
əs He would let us do it.
do də How do they know?
[də] is only used before consonants. Before vowels, use the strong form [du:]: How
do I know?)
does dəz When does the train leave?
am m (after I) I'm afraid.
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əm (elsewhere) When am I to be there?

are ə
(before consonants) The girls are beautiful.
ər
(before vowels) The men are ugly.
be bi Don't be rude.
is s That's fine.
(after [p, t, k, f])
z John's here.
(after vowels and voiced con-
sonants except [z, ʒ, ʤ] )
(After [s, z, ʃ, ʒ, ʧ, ʤ] the
strong form [iz] is always used:
Which is right?)
was has wəz The weather was terrible!
əz The place has changed.
(after [s, z, ʃ, ʒ, ʧ, ʤ])
s (after [p, t, k, f, Ɵ]) Jack's gone.
z (elsewhere) John's been sick.
have v (after I, we, you, they) You've broken it.
əv (elsewhere) The men have gone.
had d (after I, she, he, we, you, they) They'd left home.
əd (elsewhere) The day had been fine.
(At the beginning of word groups the forms [hæz, hæv, hæd] should be used: Has an-
yone found? When has, have, had are full verbs they should always be pronounced
[hæz, hæv, hæd]: I have two brothers.)
can kən How can I help?
shall ʃl I shall be cross.
will l They'll give it away.
(after I, he, she,
we, you, they)
l (after consonants This'll do.
except [1])
əl . The boy will lose and the girs will win.
a ə (before conso- A shilling a dozen
nants)
an ən Have an apple!
(before vowels)
the ðə (before conso- The more the merrier.
nants)
(Before vowels the strong form [ði:] should be used: The aunts and the uncles.)
some səm I need some paper.
(When some means a certain quantity it is always stressed and therefore pronounced
[sʌm]: Some of my friends.
at for ət Come at once. Come for tea.

(before conso-
nants)
fər (before vowels) Come for a meal.
from frəm I sent it from London,
of əv the Queen of England.
to tə (before conso- To stay or to go?
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nants)
(Before vowels the strong form [tu:] should be used: I wanted to ask you.)
Exercise I. Practise the following:
A- Weak forms (shwa) I B. Strong forms (full value)
I swallowed a fly. You say a book, a child,
An alligator bit him. but an apple, an elephant.
What am I doing? What am I to do?
I'm singing a song. Am I serious? Yes, I'm afraid lam!
Bread and butter. Trifle or jelly? Trifle and jelly, please!
Over and over and over again. And she's gossiping ...
Where are my glasses? They are mine, they are, they are.
Her cakes are awful! Are you alone?
I'm as happy as a king! ] As I pour it on, you stir it.
Well, as far as I can see... As I was saying before you interrupted.
I got it at a cheap shop. He is selling it — but at a price.
We're here at last! What are you staring at?
I'm ugly but intelligent! But me no 'buts'.
They say they are, but they are not. But for me, you would all be dead.
If you can do it, so can I. Can I come too?
I can see a star. Mother says I can.
She said she could come. Could you possibly help me?
I'm so angry I could swear. There! I told you I could!
When do we begin? Do look at that funny man!
D'you understand? What do you do all day long?
What time does it arrive? Does it work? Of course it does.
What does 2 and 2 make? Oh, she does look nice!
II
My sister's prettier than yours! not really possible
It's easier than I expected.
He said that I could have it. That's the man who shot him.
Tell her that I shan't be coming. That book belongs to me. I know that.
The tiger ate the hunter. Are you the William Shakespeare?
They dragged the body into the house. My dear, they had the most awful row.
Tell them I'm just coming. Don't give it to us, give it to them.
She gave them each a pound. Them as asks no questions, hears no lies!
Is there a party tonight? Look, there he is, over there!
There's a burglar in my bedroom. There goes my last penny.
I went to London to see the Queen. Who are you giving those flowers to ?
I wanted to go to the cinema. They got up to all kinds of mischief.
He told us to come back later. So you told the Joneses, but not us!
What do you want us to do? He's not going with you, he's coming with us.
It was a dark and stormy night. Was there any left in the bottle?
I looked, but no one was there. I told you there was.
They were telling us about it. Were you talking to me?
Hundreds of people were drowned. I didn't know where you were.
I'd like to have a word with you. Would you mind controlling your dog?
Well, what would you have done? Yes, I jolly well would!

67
Where are you qoing? You think you know everything.
What have you done with it? No one was talking to you.
Could you buy one on your way home? Your apples are rather small.
Don't put your hands in your pockets. I wouldn't like to be in your shoes.
Exercise II. Transcribe, intone and read the following dialogues.
1. What a Boring Book You're Reading!
Jonathan: What are you doing, Elizabeth?
Elizabeth: What am ĩ doing? I'm reading. What does it look as though I'm doing?
Jonathan: What are you reading?
Elizabeth: A book, silly. What do you think? You can see I'm reading a book.
Jonathan: I wish I could have a look at it. Do you think I could have a look at it, Elizabeth?
Elizabeth, is it an interesting book?
Elizabeth; Yes, a very interesting book. But an adult book. OK, come and have a look at it and
then go away and leave me alone.
Jonathan: But what an awful book! It looks as boring as anything. How can you look at a book
like that? What does it say?
Elizabeth: Jonathan! You're an awfully boring and annoying little boÿ! Go away!
2. What Have You Done with Mabel?
Serena: Barnabas, what have you done with that packet of biscuits?
Barnabas: Well, there's a sort of an alligator in a cage over there. He looked sort of hungry.
Serena: Barnabas, you didn't ...? But you must never feed an animal in a cage. I should think
you've given it a bit of a stomach ache.
Barnabas: He's been brought here from America.
Serena: And anyway, I bought those biscuits for tea. What shall I tell Mother?
Barnabas: I wish I'd got some cake for him as well, Serena. He's a nice alligator.
Serena: But, my goodness, what have you done with little Mabel? Where's she gone?
Barnabas: Well, she's... sort of... gone. He did look so sad so far from America, and very hun-
gry.
3. There's Nowhere to Go in the Jungle
Chris: Hi, Pete. All set for the final scene? Hey, what's the matter? You look as pale as a glass
of vodka!
Pete: Barry and John have gone. Just upped and gone. While you were looking for the lake. I
tried to stop them but there was nothing at all I could do — nothing that any of us could do.
Chris: What do you mean, gone? There's nowhere to go. In the middle of a Bolivian jungle?
How would they get out?
Pete: They said there was a man who'd take them to the river — for an enormous fee — and
that anything was better than dying of heat and mosquito bites in a South American jungle.
Chris: The miserable bastards! Well, go and get your camera, Pete. And the rest of the crew.
We can survive without them. And I hope there's an alligator waiting for them at the river!
Exercise III. Transcribe and read the following:
1. Hello, is that you, Peter? — Yes, is that you, Betty? — Yes, can you hear me? — No, I
can't. Can you speak louder? — Is that better? — Yes, that's fine. Can you come over today? — I
can't come today but I can come tomorrow.
2. One day two friends went for a walk. One of them had a dog. "See here, John," one of the
men said. "I'm going to put this coin here in the ground. My dog must find it. My dog is small but
clever. He is as clever as I am. There goes my dog!"
UNIT 27. WORD STRESS
In English there are three degrees of word stress: stressed syllables (primary stress)., half-
stressed syllables (secondary stress) and weak or unstressed syllables. A large group of polysyllabic
simple words wear both primary and the secondary stresses:
e. g. ,demon'stration.
Different stressing can change the meaning of a word or make it completely unrecognisable.
A Few General Rules
(a) Always stress the syllable before one that's pronounced [fn] -ssion/-tion, [fs] -cious/-tious,
68
[fl] -cial/-tíal, etc.
e. g. a'ttention 'spacious ,arti'ficial.
permission ,consci'entious sub’stantial
(b) In words ending in -ic, -ical, -ically the stress is on the syllable before -ic (historic — his-
torical — historically),
except 'Arabic, a'rithmetic, 'lunatic, 'heretic, 'politics, 'rhetoric (but in adjectives; .arith'metic,
he'retical, po'litical, rhe'torical).
(c) A great many words are stressed on the last syllable but two. e. g. i'lluminate, ther'mome-
ter, ge'ology, phi'losopher.

Words ending in -ology, -onomy, -osophy, -ologist, etc. always follow this rule.

(d) Words ending in -ese have the stress on this syllable, e. g. Chinese, journa'lese.
The following groups of words have two primary stresses:
1. Polysyllables with separable prefixes having a distinct meaning of their own:
Negative prefixes un-, dis-, поп-, in-, ir-, -il, im-; mis-:
‘ un'able, 'disa'ppear, ʼnon-'smoker, 'in'accurate, 'illegal, 'i'rregular, 'i'mmoral, 'misunderstand.
but: un'usual, im'possible, mi'stake.
2. Numerals from 13 to 19.
3. Compound numerals, e. g. 'twenty-'three.
4. Compound adjectives, e. g. 'well-'known, 'absent-'minded.
5. Compound verbs, e.g. to 'give 'in, to 'take 'off, to 'try 'on.
The majority of compound nouns are usually single-stressed: 'reading-room, 'apple-tree,
'raincoat, 'blackboard.
Double-stressed compound nouns are rare; e. g. 'gas-'stove, 'gas-'ring, 'absent-'mindedness,
'ice-'cream.
Compound adjectives have generally two stresses: 'clean-'shaven, Vell-'bred, 'first-'class.
Compound adjectives with only one stress on the first element occur when the second element
is semantically weak, e. g. 'springlike, 'oval-shaped.
Exercise I. Read the following:
(a) un'aided, Warmed, 'anticy'clonic, ʼnon-'resident, 're'pack, 'ex-'minister, 'pre'paid, 'mi'sspell,
'mis'place, ʼnnder'dressed, Vice-'admiral, 'pre-'history, 'ultra-'fashionable.
(b) 'good-'looking, 'old-'fashioned, 'bad-'tempered, 'absent-'minded, 'home-'made, 'yeĩlowish-
'looking, 'square-'shaped.
(c) 'carry 'out, 'come a'cross, "get 'up, 'see 'off, 'go 'on, 'point 'out, 'sit 'down, 'fall 'out, 'blow
'out, 'fall 'back, 'bring 'forth.
(d) 'apple-tree, 'bystander, 'daybreak, 'birthday, 'pillow-case, 'schoolboy, 'suitcase, 'time-table,
'hair-do, 'housewife, 'nothing, 'nonsense, 'everything, 'fireplace.
(e) 'butterfly, 'newcomer, 'blacksmith, 'airplane, 'bluebottle, 'blackbird, 'strongbox, 'overwork.
(f) 'abstract — to ab'stract; 'commune — to co'mmune;
"contest — to con'test; 'rebel — to re'bel;
'import — to im'port; 'forecast — to fore'cast;
'produce — to pro'duce.
(g) .modification, ,aristo'cratic, .mathematician, .qualification, ,archaeo'logical,
.ornamen'tation, ,represen'tation, ad.mini'stration, a,ssimi'lation, con.side'ration, examination.
Exercise II. Mark the stresses and read the words.
(a) completion, efficient, invasion, financial, advantageous, vivacious, photogenic, scientific,
materiaĭistic, musical, geographical, technical, psychology/psychological, meteorolo-
gy/meteorologist, ideology/ideologist, Viennese, Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese, Cantonese, Bali-
nese.
(b) photograph, photographer, photographic;
politics, political, politician;
competing, competitor, competition;
analyse, analysis, analytical.
(c) teapot, washstand, mail-bag, grandfather, handwriting, shopkeeper, office-boy, waiting
room, tape-recorder, ground-floor, crossquestion, flat-footed, second-hand, post-graduate, vice-
69
president, greenish-looking, underpopulated, ultra-modern, non-payment, antinational, non-stop,
reread, misuse, put on, fix up, pick out, make up, bluebell, black-face, bread-and-butter, red-book,
blue-stocking.
(d) insult — to insult; object — to object,
subject — to subject; present — to present;
protest — to protest; outlay — to outlay,
outgo — to outgo; record — to record.
Exercise III. Read and memorize:
(a) 1. 'bad-'tempered 2. 'eigh'teen
a 'bad-tempered 'boy 'eighteen 'students
'John's bad-'tempered 'number eigh'teen
(b) 1. 'How can such a 'good-natured "woman 'have such a 'badtempered vdaughter? 2. The
'mother's ex'tremely good-xnatured | but the 'daughter is unbelievably bad-vtempered. 3. There's a
'goodlooking xgirl over ,there. 4. She's 'quite good-Rooking. 5. The 'train 'leaves at 'three sixteen. 6.
She's 'bought 'twenty-five vbooks. 7. It 'happened in 'nineteen twenty-xfive. 8. He was 'born in
'nineteen nineteen. 9. /Thirteen /fourteen /fifteen ,sixteen /Seventeen /eighteen xnineteen. 10. They
were 'eighteen. 11. I said it 'sixteen xtimes.
c) 'Picca'dilly 'Piccadilly 'Circus
Waterloo "Waterloo 'Station
Tra'fąlgar 'Square Trafalgar Square 'Fountains
'Hyde "Park 'Hyde Park 'Corner
The 'Albert 'Hall The 'Albert Hall 'concert
'Covent 'Garden 'Covent Garden "Market
Exercise IV. Transcribe, intone and read the dialogue:
Photography or Politics?
Diana: What have you decided to do after college, Jeremy?
Jeremy: I'm going to take up photography. Mr McKenzie's recommended the course at the In-
stitute. He believes I could make a career as a photographer.
Diana: You'll have to develop your own photographs. That requires technical skill. Jeremy,
you're not a technician! And photographic materials are very expensive.
Jeremy: Well, Diana, Mr McKenzie thinks there's a possibility I might win the Observer com-
petition. I sent in four entries. All the competitors are amateurs, like myself.
Diana: I detest competitions. I never agree with the decision of the judges! I'm going to be a
politician. I shall become the most distinguished woman on the political scene!
Jeremy: I thought you hated competing! Don't tell me politics isn't competitive!
PART II. INTONATION
UNIT 1. INTRODUCTION
ОБЩИЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ
Интонация. Под интонацией понимаются изменения в высоте основного тона, силе,
темпе и тембре произнесения. Интонация может менять значение предложения. Например:
'Henry 'sat ,down , first. — 'Henry 'sat 'down ,first.
I 'didn't 'dare to 'speak to him ,frankly. — I 'didn't 'dare to ,speak to him (i)frankly.
Синтагма
В предложении могут быть одна или несколько синтагм или интонационных групп.
Синтагмой называется относительно законченный по смыслу отрезок предложения. Син-
тагма может состоять из одного слова или из группы слов. Например:
What's your name? || — Peter. ||
Опытный чтец очень редко отделяет одну синтагму от другой паузой. Однако на на-
чальном этапе овладения навыками английской интонации и чтения рекомендуется каждую
синтагму (смысловую группу) отделять паузой для набора воздуха. Минимальными синтаг-
мами могут быть:
1) распространенное подлежащее, например:
My parents and my younger brother | live in the Crimea. ||
2) подлежащее перед глаголом-связкой to be, например:
70
Choosing a career | is no problem for him. ||
3) любое обстоятельство, стоящее в начале предложения перед подлежащим, например:
Next year | she'll graduate from the Institute. ||
4) вводные слова, стоящие в начале, середине или в конце предложения, а также слова
автора, вводящие прямую речь, например:
Frankly, | are you fond of English? || She said, | "My mother is a housewife." ||
5) обращение в начале предложения, например:
Магу, | read text 2. ||
6) распространенное определение, например:
Westminster Abbey, | founded in the 11th century, | is one of the most interesting...
7) каждый однородный член предложения при перечислении, например:
There are five members in my family: | mother, | father, | my two sisters | and I. ||
8) приложение, например:
This is Moscow, | the capital of Russia, ||
Каждая синтагма характеризуется определенной структурой. Главным компонентом
синтагмы, в основном определяющим ее интонационный смысл, является ядерный слог, или
ядро. Ядерный слог является последним ударным слогом в синтагме. Ядру могут предшество-
вать ударные и безударные слоги. Предъядерная часть синтагмы может образовывать шкалу.
Ниже приведена схема расположения слогов в синтагме:
Предударное начало Шкала Ядро синтагмы Послеядерные безударные слоги
Pre-head Head Nucleus Tail
Система интонационной разметки, принятая в данном учебнике, может быть представ-
лена следующим образом:

Ядерные тоны:

Типы шкал:

Более сложные типы (Climbing Head и т. д.) не представлены, поскольку они более ред-
ко встречаются.
71
Table of Notation in the Text

Каждая синтагма заканчивается восходящим или нисходящим тоном последнего удар-


ного слога (ядро). Например:

Для приобретения навыка деления предложения на наименьшие синтагмы нужно хоро-


шо знать состав простого английского предложения:
0 1 2 3 4
72
Обстоя- Подлежащее Сказуемое Дополнение Обстоятельство
тельство
Exercise I. Listen to the sentences and repeat them making small pauses after each sense group.

Exercise II. Listen to the sentences and mark the sense groups. Read the sentences making pauses
after each sense group.
1. Agriculture is the main occupation. 2. Are you a University student? 3. She is forty-eight
and my father is fifty one. 4. It is very difficult, if not impossible, to find a job for the young people
in Great Britain. 5. My elder sister Margaret is almost twenty and works for my father in his office as
a secretary. 6. Robert Burns, a famous Scottish poet, comes from a very large family. 7. During the
term-time I live in a university flat. 8. Children educated in Scotland compete for Burn's Federation
prizes for essays and recitations. 9. She knows German, French, Italian and English. 10. By the way,
did you know my sister? 11. He's got a new job, hasn't he?
Exercise III. Listen to the sentences and read them.
1. Jocelyn is seventeen, ||
Jocelyn, | my other sister, | is seventeen. ||
Jocelyn, | my other sister, | is seventeen | and in her final year at school, ||
2. I live on a farm, ||
I live on a farm | in the north of Scotland, ||
I live on a farm Į in the north of Scotland ļ in an area, ||
I live on a farm | in the north of Scotland ļļ in an area | which attracts many tourists. ||
I live on a farm ļ in the north of Scotland | in an area ļ which attracts many tourists ļ because of
its beauty. |ļ
3. The population is fairly small, ||
That is why | the population is fairly small, ||
In winter Į that is why | the population is fairly small; ļļ and can be very bleak in winter ļ that
is why ļ the population is fairly small. ļ|
It is a mountainous region | and can be very bleak in winter ļ that is why ļ the population is
fairly small, ||
It is a mountainous region ļ with many lochs | and can be very bleak in winter | that is why |
the population is fairly small, ļļ
4. I live in a university flat, ||
I live in a university flat | with five other girls, ļļ
During the term-time | I live in a university flat | with five other girls. |ļ
During the term-time ļ I live in a university flat ļ with five other girls | and quite often go home
73
at week-ends, ļļ
During the term-time | I live in a university flat | with five other girls | and quite often go home
at week-ends | since it's only a hundred miles away. ||
UNIT 2. INTONATION NUCLEAR TONES
ТОНЫ В АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
Низкий нисходящий тон (Low Fall) выражает законченность, уверенность говорящего,
категоричность высказывания. Например:

Высокий нисходящий тон (High Fall) придает фразе оживленный, дружеский оттенок,
показывает, что говорящий проявляет живой интерес. Например:

Низкий восходящий тон (Low Rise) указывает на незавершенность, неуверенность гово-


рящего, на категоричность ответа или сообщения. Например:

Высокий восходящий тон (High Rise) употребляется в переспросах. Например:


'When did he come? /What did you say?
_ Нисходяще-восходящий тон (Fall-Rise) служит для выражения большой степени неза-
вершенности, неуверенности, а также вежливости (в вежливых поправках), для передачи со-
мнения, протиЕоречия, контраста и упрека. Например:

Exercise I. Read and compare.

74
Exercise II. Read and compare:

UNIT 3. SENTENCE STRESS


ФРАЗОВОЕ УДАРЕНИЕ
Фразовое ударение выделяет одни слова в предложении от других. В предложении, как
правило, ударны знаменательные слова (существительные, смысловые глаголы, прилагатель-
ные, наречия, числительные, вопросительные местоимения, указательные местоимения в роли
подлежащего, притяжательные
местоимения в абсолютной форме). Безударны обычно служебные слова (вспомога-
тельные и модальные глаголы, если с них не начинается предложение, союзы, артикли, части-
цы и большинство местоимений). Например:

LOGICAL STRESS ЛОГИЧЕСКОЕ УДАРЕНИЕ


Логическое ударение -- это особое средство выделения какого-либо слова, используемо-
го в качестве интонационного средства противопоставления или усиления. Слово с логиче-
ским ударением приобретает значения «именно это, а не то», «именно такой, а не другой» и т.
д. Ударение на слове с логическим ударением оказывается настолько сильным, что все стоя-
щие за ним слова до самого конца синтагмы оказываются безударными. Например:

Практически при произнесении каждого предложения может быть столько вариантов


логического ударения, сколько в нем слов. Например:

75
Exercise I. The underlined words are logically stressed. Intone the sentences and read them.
1. Jackie has two sisters. 2. She works indoors all day. 3. She must do it. 4. My sister is twen-
ty. 5. Is Peter's brother a historian? 6. He knows English perfectly. 7. My mother's parents are still
alive. 8. She studies at the local comprehensive school. 9. Have you met my wife before? 10. Is Ann
going to wear that hat? 11. Must you go now? 12. Has my book been found?
Exercise II. Give all possible variants of logical stress in the following sentences.

1. He can read this text. 2. My mother is always busy. 3. She knows English grammar well. 4.
Her mother likes them very much. 5. She owns two cats. 6. They are fond of music. 7. He must do
exercise five. 8. She might know him. 9. The students can listen to this text at the laboratory. 10. The
first-year students sang a Russian folk song.
Exercise III. Read the sentences according to the situation suggested in brackets.

1. I'm a first-year student (not a second-year student). 2. My sister is a teacher (not your sister).
3. Margaret is almost twenty (not Jackie) 4. He is tall for his age (not short). 5. She knows French
well (not English). 6. We met him yesterday (not on Sunday). 7. It is difficult for the girls to find
jobs as farm managers (not for boys). 8. Last year she was trained to be a secretary (not last month).
9. She knows him well (not her). 10. Tom had three children (not two). 11. Mary reads English well
(not writes).
Exercise IV. Contradict the following statements changing the structure of the sentence according to
the model. Concentrate your attention on the position of logical stress.

1. Your friend is a fourth-year student. 2. Jackie's mother is a farmer. 3. Aberdeen University


is a new University. 4. Your sister is interested in farming. 5. William is at a local school. 6. Scotland
is a flat region. 7. Aberdeen is in England. 8. Jackie is at home on Monday. 9. Jackie lives with four
other girls. 10. William has two sisters. 11. You are a doctor.
Exercise V. Read the dialogues and act them out.
1. Elise's Hair Is Green!
С łrr i s: I like your hat, Elise.
E 1 i s e: That isn't my hat, it's my hair.
Chris: Your hair? You can't have hair like that. Elise, it's brilliant green!
E ļ i s e: Old women can dye their hair blue. There are plenty who paint their nails red.
Chris: That's not the same at all. They only stress what nature meant. Green is... green is... I
cannot find the words.
Elise: Unnatural — is that what you mean? An appendix operation is, too. And as for trans-
planting a heart...! And I love all my emerald hair!
Chris: What does Peter think?
Elise: Oh Christopher! Didn't you know? Why, his hair is purple and red!
2. Looking For Something Pretty
Salesgirl: Good morning, madam. Can I help you at all?
Annabel: Well, I'm looking for a dress. Something to wear at the theatre. Something pretty.
Salesgirl: Certainly, madam. Do you know what size you are?
Annabel: Well, I was 18 but I've lost a lot of weight since Christmas. I've been on a diet of ba-
nanas and milk.
Salesgirl: Bananas and milk! That doesn't sound very slimming. Would it be a good idea if I
took your measurements?
Annabel: I feel about a size 14. And look! That's just what I wanted. That pink and primrose
chiffon!
Salesgirl: I hate to tell you, madam, but you are still size 18. Don't you think something a little
more tailored?

76
UNIT 4. INTONATION OF STATEMENTS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ УТВЕРЖДЕНИЙ

Категоричные, спокойные, серьезные, рассудительные утверждения обычно произно-


сятся низким нисходящим тоном. Например:

Exercise I. Read the following sentences.


1. Ann is a University student. 2. She has two brothers. 3. Mary is almost twenty. 4. My moth-
er is a housewife. 5. They both came from quite large families. 6. Agriculture is their main occupa-
tion. 7. I live in a university flat. 8. She wants to study agriculture at the University next year. 9. It's
not a very wise choice. 10. I read it carefully. 11. You can come to lunch tomorrow. 12. The children
are at school now. 13. He wasn't right. 14. You must go now. 15. He didn't see her yesterday.
Exercise II. Listen to the following sentences. Mark the stresses and tunes. Read them to your fel-
low-students.
1. My name's Peter. 2. I am twenty-one. 3. He is a second-year student. 4. We have a very
large family. 5. My sisters' names are Helen and Olga. 6. My younger brother's name is Mike. 7. He-
len and Olga are students. 8. Mike is a pupil. 9. My mother is a doctor. 10. My fattier is a teacher. 11.
He teaches Russian. 12. I like them very much.
Exercise HI. Use Low Fall in the replies.

1. What's your name? 2. How old are you? 3. When is your birthday? 4. Have you a large fam-
ily? 5. How many sisters have you? 6. How many brothers have you got? 7. Have you got any cou-
sins? 8. What is your mother? 9. What is your father? 10. Are you a student? 11 Where do you live?
Exercise IV. Confirm the following statements according to the model. Use Low Fall.

1. Scotland is a mountainous region. 2. Aberdeen is a small town.


3. There are many lochs in Scotland. 4. Scotland is very bleak in winter. 5. It is a very wise
choice. 6. We are involved in farming.
7. Mary wants to be a secretary. 8. Peter is fond of music. 9. Her family is slightly larger than
average. 10. Her birthday is on the tenth of May. 11. She has two sisters. 12. Mary comes from Eng-
land.
Exercise V. Listen to the dialogues. Practise and memorize them.
1. 2.
— What's your name? — What's your name?
— My name's Peter. — My name's Olga.
— How old are you? — How old are you?
— I am nineteen. — I am twenty-two.
— When is your birthday? — What are you?
— It's on the fifth of March. — I am a teacher.
— How many brothers have you? — Are you married?
— Two. — Yes, I am.
— How many sisters have you? — Have you any children?
— I haven't any sisters at all. — Just one.
Exercise VI. Give conversational situations with the phrases below.
1. My name's Ann. 2. He is 12 years old. 3. I am a future teacher. 4. My parents are not old. 5.
Mary is the youngest in the family. 6. John is four years older than Mary. 7. We are a happy family.
8. My wife is a doctor. 9. My son is a pupil. 10. Yes, I am.
77
Exercise VII. Listen to the text. Mark, the stresses and tunes. Practise and memorize it.
My full name is Jackie Rose. I am twenty-one. I am a fourth-year student of the French and
Russian Department at Aberdeen University. I live in a university flat with five other girls. On week-
ends I usually go home. My parents live on a farm in the north of Scotland. My parents aren't old.
My mother is 48. My father is 5Î. He is three years older than my mother. I have two sisters. My sis-
ters' names are Margaret and Jocelyn. I have a brother. My brother's name is William. William is the
youngest in the family. He is only sixteen. He is tall and strong. He wants to be a farmer. We are a
happy family.
Exercise VIII. Listen to the text. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise the text for test reading.
This is my family: my wife, my son, my daughter and I. I am Mr. Black. My wife is Mrs.
Black. I am Mrs. Black's husband. I am a man. My wife is a woman. We have two children, a boy
and a girl. The boy's name is John. He's twelve years old. The girl's name is Mary. She is still quite
young. She is only eight. She is four years younger than John and he is four years older than she.
Mary is the youngest in the family and I am the oldest.
Exercise IX. Make up your own story of the same kind.
UNIT 5. INTONATION OF IMPERATIVES
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ПОВЕЛИТЕЛЬНЫХ НАКЛОНЕНИЙ

Обычно команды, приказы, инструкции произносятся нисходящим тоном, а просьбы —


восходящим. Например:

Exercise I. Read the commands and requests. Observe the intonation they are pronounced with.

Exercise II. Listen to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your attention on the in-
tonation of the reply.

78
Exercise III. Ask your fellow students:
(a) in a form of commands;
(b) in a form of requests.
(a) 1. to open the books at page 12. 2. to translate Text 5. 3. to underline all the verbs in the
sentence. 4. to read the sentence aloud. 5. to correct the mistakes in the test. 6. to render Text 1. 7. to
open the window. 8. not to look at you.
(b) 1. to wait a moment. 2. to open the book. 3. to fetch some chalk. 4. to repeat reading rules.
5. to write a letter to his friend. 6. to go to the cinema. 7, to find a new pen. 8. to cheer, up. 9. not to
ask many questions. 10. not to read aloud.
Exercise IV. Listen to the dialogues. Practise and memorize them.
1. — Let's go to the theatre.
— Fine. Phone Ann and invite her too. Tell her to meet us at 6.
— Right. Shall I do it now?
— Don't be silly. Do it when you can.
2. — Will you tell me the way to Trafalgar Square?
— Certainly. Go down Regent Street to Piccadilly Circus. Turn to the left then.
— Thank you. Is there a bus?
— There's sure to be. Ask the policeman over there.
Exercise V. Make up your own dialogues of the same kind.
Exercise VI. Play the game. Divide the group into two teams. The leader commands: "Turn your
heads to the right." The rest of the students must fulfil his command. If they fail to do it, they will be
out of game. The list of commands:
Turn your head to the left/to the right; Bend your body to the left/to the right; Forward; Hands
up/down; Open/Close your eyes; Put your hands on your head; Right hand up; Left hand down;
Touch your right ear, etc.
UNIT 6. INTONATION OF GENERAL QUESTIONS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ОБЩИХ ВОПРОСОВ

Общие вопросы обычно произносятся восходящим тоном. Например:

79
Exercise I. Read the sentences according to the given model.

1. Is Peter twenty? 2. Is your name John? 3. Do you speak English? 4. Do you study at the In-
stitute? 5. Do you live in the hostel? 6. Does she like to work in the garden? 7. Does she know Mary?
8. Is your family large? 9. Are your brothers teachers? 10. Is it difficult to find a job in London? 11.
Does Helen study at a local comprehensive school? 12. Are you a pupil?
Exercise II. Listen to your fellow-student reading these questions. Tell him what his errors in intona-
tion are.
1. Are you eighteen? 2. Are you a first-year student? 3. Do you study at the Moscow Teacher
Training University? 4. Do you know English well? 5. Is your future speciality history? 6. Are you a
future teacher? 7. Do you live with your parents? 8. Is your University far from your home? 9. Will it
take you an hour to get to the University? 10. Did you have four exams last term?
Exercise III. Ask to repeat the following statements using general questions as in the given model.

1. This is a large park. 2. This is an interesting book. 3. This is Peter's brother. 4. This is her
younger sister. 5. This is their new flat. 6. This is a comfortable arm-chair. 7. This is a student. 8.
This is his wife. 9. This is their teacher. 10. This is exercise three. 11. This is a difficult text.
Exercise IV. Ask general questions using the given model.

1. I am not a university student. 2. Yes, my mother is a secretary. 3. Peter hasn't a family of his
own. 4. Olga is fond of music. 5. I study at the Institute. 6. Her name is Mary. 7. I have no grandpa-
rents. 8. They live in London. 9. Ann is ten. 10. She doesn't like coffee. 11. She prefers tea.
Exercise V. Listen to the dialogues and reproduce them. Observe the intonation of general questions.
1. — Am I a teacher? — Yes, you are.
— Are you a student? — Yes. I am.
— Are you English? — No, I am not.
— Do you speak English? — Yes, I do.
—- Does your friend speak — Yes, he does, but only a little. English?
2. — We want to go on a hike on Sunday. Will you join us?
— Certainly. Shall we go to Golitsino? The place is delightful.
— Yes. Shall we take Alice with us?
— Of course. Can you meet her at the station?
— Yes.
Exercise VI. Complete these sentences. Observe correct pronunciation of general questions.
1. Is your name ... 2. Are you ... 3. Are you fond of ... 4. Have you ... 6. Is your brother ... 6. Is
your sister ... 7. Do you study ... 8. Do you live ... 9. Are your parents ... 10. Do you know ...
Exercise VII. Play the game "Guess an object". Mark the stresses and tunes.
1. Is it in this room? — Yes; 2. Can I see it? — Yes;
3. Is it made of metal? — No; 4. Is.it made of wood? — Yes;
5. Could I carry it? — No; 6. Is it useful? — Yes;
7. Has it got legs? — Yes; 8. Is it the chair? — No;
9. Is it the table? — Yes.
Exercise VIII. Make up your own guessing game.
Exercise IX. Read the questions and answer them.
1. Are you quite well-prepared for your exams? 2. Shall we write a test tomorrow? 3. Are you
ready to go? 4. Can you do it? 5. Do you have time to go in for sports? 6. Does your brother play the
piano? 7. Is it raining? 8. Is your mother Russian? 9. Will you invite me to your evening party? 10. Is
Paris as large as London? 11. Do you live in London? 12. Does Peter smoke?
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Exercise X. Read the dialogue and act it out.
Were You at Home Last Night?
Sergeant: Good evening, Sir. Mr Holmes?
Holmes: Good evening, officer. Yes, that's right — John Holmes. Won't you come in?
Sergeant: Thank you. May I ask you a few questions?
Holmes: Yes, of course. Won't you sit down?
Sergeant: Thank you. It's about last night. Were you at home, Mr Holmes?
Holmes: Yes, Sergeant, I was, actually. I wasn't feeling very well.
Sergeant: Were you alone?
Holmes: Er, yes. My wife had gone to the cinema with a friend.
Sergeant: Did you go out at all?
Holmes: No, I stayed in all evening — that is, except for a few minutes when I popped out to
post a letter.
Sergeant: Do you remember what time this was?
Holmes: Yes, it was about — um — half past eight.
Sergeant: What time did you say? Half past eight? Anybody see you when you — er —
popped out for 5 minutes to post your letter?
Holmes: No, I don't think so. Oh yes, just a minute. The caretaker said 'good evening'.
Sergeant: The caretaker, Mr Holmes? Mr Holmes, the caretaker was murdered last night.
UNIT 7. INTONATION OF SENTENCES WITH "THERE + TO BE"
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЙ, НАЧИНАЮЩИХСЯ ОБОРОТОМ «THERE + ТО BE»
В предложениях, начинающихся оборотом "there + to be", обстоятельство места, как
правило, неударно или полуударно и не образует отдельную синтагму. Обстоятельство места,
стоящее перед оборотом "there + to be", обычно произносится восходящим тоном и выделяет-
ся в отдельную синтагму. Например:

Exercise I. Read the sentences, observe the correct pronunciation.


1. There are twelve months in a year. 2. There are four seasons in a year. 3. There are sixty
minutes in an hour. 4. Is there a farm beyond the forest? 5. Are there any mistakes in your dictation?
6. On my table there are two exercise-books and a text-book. 7. In a fortnight there are two weeks. 8.
In a month there are four weeks. 9. Are there thirty days in November? 10. Is there a blackboard in
the room? 11. There are some flowers on the window. 12. Under the window there is a radiator.
Exercise II. Confirm the following statements using "there + to be".

1. You've got a book in front of you. 2. You've got many foreign books in your library. 3.
You've got various animals at home. 4. She has got three mistakes in her test. 5. You've got no labor-
atory on the floor. 6. She's got no mistakes in her reading. 7. You can see a farm near the forest. 8.
You can see a lot of interesting pictures in this book. 9. You can see nobody in this room. 10. You
can see a large family in this picture. 11. You can't see any mistakes in her test. 12. You can see
many countries on this map.
Exercise III. Read the questions and answer them.
1. Are there windows in your classroom? 2. Is there a blackboard on the wall? 3. Is there any
chalk at the blackboard? 4. Is there a duster at the blackboard? 5. Is there a bookcase in the room? 6.
Are there any pictures on the wall? 7. Is there a map on the wall? 8. Is there a tape-recorder on the
table? 9. Are there many desks in your classroom? 10. Are there many books on your table? 11. Are
there any flowers on the window? 12. Are there any flowers on the teacher's table? 13. Is there a
teacher in the room?
Exercise IV. Read the text and retell it.
Let's have a look at this picture of our classroom. On the left there are two large windows. On
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the windows there are some nice flowers. Under the window there's a radiator. There is a blackboard
in front of the desks. There is some chalk and a duster at the blackboard. There are ten desks in our
classroom. On the desks there are tape-recorders and two tapes. There is a bookcase with many
books on the right. To the left of the bookcase there is a large map.
Exercise V. (a) Describe your room at home or in your hostel, (b) Describe your house.
UNIT 8. INTONATION OF DISJUNCTIVE QUESTIONS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ РАЗДЕЛИТЕЛЬНЫХ ВОПРОСОВ

Разделительные вопросы состоят из двух интонационных групп. Первая интонационная


группа обычно произносится с нисходящим тоном. Интонация второй синтагмы зависит от
отношения говорящего. Если говорящий не уверен в ответе и ждет мнения собеседника, то
вторая интонационная группа произносится с восходящим тоном. Например:

Если говорящий уверен в ответе и не ждет его, то вторая часть произносится с нисхо-
дящим тоном. Например:

Exercise I. In the following sentences read the statements and the tags with a fall. (The speak-
er expects the listener to agree with him.)
1. There are 18 faculties at our University, aren't there? 2. Our University is the oldest in our
country, isn't it? 3. You finished school last year, didn't you? 4. He's got a new job, hasn't he? 5. That
was most unfair, wasn't it? 6. We must hurry, mustn't we? 7. He teaches English, doesn't he? 8. He
always has lunch at one, doesn't he? 9. You don't believe me, do you? 10. We shall see each other
again, shan't we? 11. We had no choice, had we? 12. I was right, wasn't I? 13. Today's the tenth, isn't
it? 14. She has three children, hasn't she? 15. I could try again, couldn't I?
Exercise II. In the following sentences read the statements with a fall and the tags with a rise.
(The speaker is asking the listener's opinion.)
1. You didn't tell anybody, did you? 2. You're taking the exam in June, aren't you? 3. It's quite
impossible, isn't it? 4. She'll be starting school next year, won't she? 5. I asked you before, didn't I? 6.
I suppose that is true, isn't it? 7. Everyone agreed, didn't they? 8. It's going to rain, isn't it? 9. No one
was hurt, were they? 10. There was no answer, wasn't there? 1Г. She never waits, does she? 12. I'd
better go, hadn't I? 13. You do smoke, don't you? 14. We last met in March, didn't we? 15. They
were too late, weren't they?
Exercise III. Read the sentences according to the given model. Observe the difference in
meaning.

1. There is a new time-table for this term, isn't there? 2. You don't know this student, do you?
3. We shall have two seminars today, shan't we? 4. There were many unknown words in this text,
weren't there? 5. All the students study foreign languages, don't they? 6. You live in the hostel, don't
you? 7. You have four exams this term, don't you? 8. The Institute course lasts five years, doesn't it?
9. You study at the historical faculty, don't you? 10. She is a bright student, isn't she?
Exercise IV. Complete the following sentences making them disjunctive questions. (The
speaker is asking the listener's opinion.)

1. Jackie doesn't study at the Russian department. 2. Your University was awarded two orders.
3. The students are usually interested in the history of their University. 4. Its history dates back to
November 1872. 5. She passed her exams with excellent marks. 6. There are many new words in
Text 3. 7. There is no laboratory at our faculty. 8. Your University has become a great scientific cen-
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tre of methodical and pedagogical activities. 9. Mary wants to stay at home. 10. It was very cold. It's
not hot. 11. It isn't difficult. 12. Your name is Olga.
Exercise V. Complete the following sentences making them disjunctive questions. (The
speaker expects the listener to agree with him.)

1. She'll wait. 2. He lives in Aberdeen. 3. She is beautiful. 4. He is tall for his age. 5. You fi-
nished school two years ago. 6. Jack has no sense of humour. 7. Now it's your turn. 8. It was useful.
9. You don't mind. 10. You're surely not frightened. 11. You can't speak German yet. 12. The text is
easy.
Exercise VI. Listen to the dialogue. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise and memorize it.
— It's a nice day, isn't it?
— Yes, it is.
— You are on holiday, aren't you?
— Yes, I am.
— It's a long one, isn't it?
— Yes, it is.
— You don't talk very much, do you?
— No, I don't. You ask a lot of questions, don't you?
— Yes, I do.
Exercise VII. Make up a dialogue with the phrases below.
I am not too early, am I?
It was difficult, wasn't it?
You've got an excellent mark, haven't you?
You like history, don't you?
You don't talk much, do you?
You are in a hurry, aren't you?
Exercise VIII. Read the dialogue and act it out.
Fish like a Bit of Silence, Don't They?
Passer-by: Nasty weather, isn't it?
Fisherman: All right if you're a duck.
Passer-by: Come here regularly, don't you?
Fisherman: Yes, I do.
Passer-by: Come fishing every Sunday, don't you?
Fisherman: That's right.
Passer-by: Not many other people today, are there?
Fisherman: No there aren't, are there?
Passer-by: Caught some fish already, haven't you?
Fisherman: No, not yet.
Passer-by: Stay here all day, will you?
Fisherman: I should like to.
Passer-by: You don't mind if I sit down, do you? My talking doesn't disturb you, does it?
Fisherman: No, but it seems to disturb the fish.
Passer-by: Ah, they like a bit of silence, don't they? Same as me. I like a bit of peace, too,
don't you?
UNIT 9. INTONATION OF ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ АЛЬТЕРНАТИВНЫХ ВОПРОСОВ

Альтернативные вопросы обычно имеют восходящий тон в первой интонационной


группе и нисходящий — во второй. Например:

Exercise I. Ask your fellow-student the following alternative questions.

83
1. Is your name Peter or Nick? 2. Are you twenty or twentyone? 3. Do you study English or
French? 4. Are you a student or a teacher? 5. Are you a first or a second-year student? 6. Do you live
at home or in the hostel? 7. Do you take exam in English in the fourth or in the third course? 8. Do
you read the Times or the Moscow News? 9. Are there 15 or 14 faculties in our University? 10. Have
you got a small or a large family? 11. Have you a sister or a brother? 12. Is your favourite subject
history or pedagogics?
Exercise II. Make up alternative questions using the following sentences.

1. This text is difficult. This text is easy. 2. She studies German. She studies English. 3. They
go to the Crimea every year. They go to the Caucasus every year. 4. Your family is big. Your family
is small. 5. There are five members in Ann's family. There are six members in Ann's family. 6. You
study at the Institute. You study at the University. 7. She has passed her exam in English. She has
passed her exam in history. 8. It takes Helen an hour to get to the Institute. It takes Helen half an
hour to get to the Institute. 9. Peter is a hard-working student. Peter is a lazy-bones. 10. There is
much milk at home. There is little milk at home. 11. There are many students in the room. There are
few students in the room. 12. There is much snow in Moscow in winter. There is little snow in Mos-
cow in winter.
Exercise HI. Complete the following questions using the words in brackets.

1. Does the University course last four years? (five years) 2. Is this time-table new? (old) 3.
Do you do your homework at home (at the University) 4. Do you have many mistakes in your test?
(few mistakes) 5. Is your Institute named after M. Lomonosov? (University) 6. Was your University
awarded two orders? (three orders) 7. Does your University train students of day department? (even-
ing department) 8. Have you got a seminar in history today? (in pedagogics) 9. Have you got two
lectures today? (two seminars) 10. Is she better today? (worse) 11. Does she study well? (he) 12. Is
Ann a lazybones? (Helen) 13. Have you read about the system of education in Greece? (have heard)
14. Can you speak Chinese? (write)
Exercise IV. Ask to repeat the following statements using alternative questions.

1. Aberdeen University is old but not new. 2. She studies German but not English. 3. She has
sisters but not brothers. 4. He has got a seminar in history but not in pedagogics. 5. She is sure to fail
in physics but not in Russian. 6. She has got many mistakes in her reading but not few. 7. There is
much work to do but not little. 8. There are 1$ faculties at our University but not 14. 9. The history
of our University dates back to 1872 but not to 1870. 10. Today according to the time-table we have
two seminars but not two lectures. 11. She knows the system of education in ancient Rome but not in
ancient Greece. 12. He likes football but not hockey.
Exercise V. Listen to short dialogues. Mark the stresses and tunes. Read them.
1. — Does Peter play indoor or outdoor games?
— Outdoor games, I think.
— Does he prefer football or hockey?
— Neither. He is fond of lawn tennis and motor-cycling.
— Is it easy or difficult to be in the sports club?
— It is not very difficult, especially if you are a good sportsman.
2. — Do you often travel?
— Yes, I like travelling.
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— Do you travel for pleasure or on business?
— Both.
. — Do you like to travel by air or by train?
— By air. It combines comfort and speed.
Exercise VI. Make up short dialogues with alternative questions and reproduce them.
Exercise VII. Play the game "Where is it" using the alternative questions. Guess the city
(country, river, ocean, mountain, etc.). The list of questions:
Is it in Asia or in Europe?
Is it in a big or a small town?
Is it near the mountains or near the sea?
Is it in the north or in the south? etc.
There must be no more than 10 questions.
UNIT 10. INTONATION OF SPECIAL QUESTIONS ИНТОНАЦИЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫХ
ВОПРОСОВ

Специальные вопросы обычно произносятся нисходящим тоном. Например:

Категоричные, серьезные, формальные вопросы имеют низкий нисходящий тон, заинте-


ресованные, живые вопросы имеют высокий нисходящий тон. Например:

Exercise I. Read the following questions. Observe the intonation of special questions.
1. When d'you get up? 2. Why did you do such a stupid thing? 3. How long do you intend be-
ing away? 4. When can you do it? 5. Where does he come from? 6. Which subject do you prefer? 7.
What's your name? 8. How many cousins have you got? 9. Whose pen is this? 10. What are you
studying this year? 11. What's your job? 12. What are you? 13. Where did you go to school? 14.
When will it be finished? 15. What's the time, please? 16. How did you spend the morning? 17. How
can I keep the children busy? 18. How many of his books have you read? 19. What's the next move?
Exercise II. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your at-
tention on the intonation of the replies.

Exercise III. Listen to the dialogue. Mark the stresses and tunes. Practise and memorize it.
— What's your name?
85
— My name's Betty.
— Where d'you come from?
— I'm from Aberdeen.
— Which school d'you go to?
— I go to a local comprehensive school.
— When d'you start school?
— At the age ot five.
— What kind of school can you go after primary school?
— We can go to a comprehensive school, a secondary modern school, a grammar school or a
private school.
— What kind of school is the most popular one?
— I think a comprehensive school.
Exercise IV. Ask your fellow-student the following special questions:
1. Where d'you study? 2. What faculty do you study at? 3 How long does it take you to get to
the University? 4 Which transport d'you prefer to use? 5. Where d'you catch a bus? 6. When d'you
come to the University? 7. Who is always late for the classes? Why?
8. What's the date today? 9. What's the day today? 10. What's the time, please?
Exercise V. Listen to the jokes. Mark the stresses and tunes. Dramatize them.
When Did Socrates live?
The teacher asked: "When did Socrates live?" After a silence had become painful, she ordered:
"Open your history book. What does it say there?"
Pupil: "Socrates, 469 B.C."
Teacher: "Why didn't you know when Socrates lived?"
Pupil: "Well, I thought 469 B.C. was his telephone number."
He Has One Rabbit at Home
Teacher: "Who can tell me how much five and one make?" No answer.
Teacher: "Suppose I give you five rabbits and then another rabbit. How many rabbits would
you have?" Pupil: "Seven."
Teacher: "Seven? How do you make that out?" Pupil: "I have one rabbit at home already."
Exercise VI. Read the following riddles to your fellow-students.
1. What word of three syllables contains twenty-six letters?
2. Which is the strongest day of the week?
3. Which month of the year is the shortest?
4. What is that was tomorrow and will be yesterday?
5. What musical instrument will you not believe?
6. Whose face needs no washing?
7. When is a mouth not mouth?
8. What can you see with your eyes shut?
9. When is it dangerous to have an arm?
10. What star is not seen in the sky?
Answers to the riddles:
1. ABC — Alphabet.
2. Sunday (because the rest are week-days), a pun: week/weak.
3. May
4. Today
5. A lyre; a pun: lyre — liar.
6. The face of the clock
7. When a box of sweets make it water.
8. A dream
9. When it is a fire-arm. 10. A film star.
Exercise VII. Read the, dialogue and act it out.
What Time Does the Plane Leave?
R о b e r t: What's the time?
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Emily: Ten past two, dear.
Robert: When does the plane leave?
Emily: Not until a quarter to four.
Robert: Why did we get here so early?
Emily: Because you said we must allow plenty of time for traffic jams and accidents.
Robert: Where's my briefcase? What have you done with my briefcase?
Emily: It's there, dear, between your feet.
Robert: Emily! Where are you going?
Emily: I'm going to ask that gentleman what they were announcing over the loudspeaker.
Robert: Which gentleman?
Emily: That man over there with all the packages.
Robert: Who is he?
Emily: I don't know. But he looked as though he was listening to the announcement... Yes, I
was afraid so. The plane's delayed. It won't be leaving till five.
Robert: How did he manage to hear it if we didn't?
Emily: Because he was listening. You were talking too much to me.
Robert: What do you mean, I was talking too much?
Emily: Oh dear. Never mind.
Robert: What time is it now, Emily?
UNIT 11. INTONATION OF EXCLAMATIONS AND INTERJECTIONS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ВОСКЛИЦАНИЙ И МЕЖДОМЕТИЙ

Восклицания и междометия, как правило, произносятся с нисходящим тоном: с низким


нисходящим тоном, если говорящий хочет, чтобы они звучали весомо, эмфатически, и с вы-
соким нисходящим тоном, если они произнесены менее весомо, более эмфатически и заинте-
ресованнее. Например:
,Splendid. ‘Splendid.
Exercise I. Listen to the sentences and repeat them.

Exercise II. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your at-
tention on the intonation of the replies.

87
Exercise III. Listen to the dialogues and reproduce them.
1. — I really must be going now.
— Pity! Can't you stay a little longer?
— Thanks awfully. But I'm late already.
— Oh, dear! What a shame!
— We'll meet on Friday.
— Fine. Welcome back!
2. — Hallo, Ann. Pleased to meet you! My best congratulations! They say you've passed your
exams successfully.
— Thank you very much. I was lucky, but Lily has got a bad mark in history.
— Fancy that! Poor thing! I'll help her with the history.
— How sweet of you!
Exercise IV. Complete the dialogues using the following phrases.
1. 2.
— It's my birthday today. — Why is Helen so gloomy?
— ... Some flowers for you. — Don't you know? She failed
— ... in English yesterday.
— Meet my friend Nina. — ...
— ... — Don't pity her. It serves
— ... her right.
— I can help her. I am good at English.
Exercise V. Read the dialogue and act it out.
I've Won a Prize!
Michael: Jennifer! Guess what! I've won a prize! ,Jennifer:A prize? What sort of prize?
M i с h a e 1: A super prize. Dinner for two at Maxime's!
Jennifer: You are clever! What was the prize for? I mean, what did you do to win a dinner for
two at Maxime's?
88
Michael: Well, you're not to laugh — I went in for a competition at the Adult Education Cen-
tre — a cooking contest.
Jennifer: You won a prize in a cooking contest! I've got to laugh. Michael, you can't even boil
an egg!
Michael: I can boil an egg. I can scramble one, too. Most deliciously. Of course, I'm not a
Cordon Bleu cook, like you ...
Jennifer: Well, why haven't I ever won a cooking competition?
Michael: Probably because you never go in for competitions. I'm glad you didn't go in for this
one. You might have won, and then you would have had to invite me to dinner at Maxime's!
UNIT 12. INTONATION OF ENUMERATION
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ПЕРЕЧИСЛЕНИЙ

В предложениях, содержащих перечисление, обычно каждая незаконченная смысловая


группа произносится восходящим тоном. Например:

Exercise I. Read the following sentences. Observe the intonation of enumeration.


1. We saw a good deal during those two weeks. We went to Venice, Florence, Rome and
Naples. 2. Which writers do you have to study for your examinations? — Chaucer, Shakespeare,
Milton, Pope and Swift. 3. My husband is very fond of outdoor games. He plays tennis, golf, cricket
and polo. 4. What lessons did you have today? — We had Latin, maths, French and history. 5. You
could easily become an interpreter. You know English, French, German, Spanish and Russian.
Exercise II. Listen to the sentences and read them.
1. London offers a visitor a rich store of fascinating buildings. London offers a visitor a rich
store of fascinating buildings, streets. London offers a visitor a rich store of fascinating buildings,
streets, monuments. London offers a visitor a rich store of fascinating buildings, streets, monuments,
and colourful ceremonies.
2. Certain traditions are observed in England. During festivals certain traditions are observed
in England. During festivals, holidays certain traditions are observed in England. During festivals,
holidays and celebrations certain traditions are observed in England.
Exercise III. Read the sentences. Mark the stresses and tunes.
1. Britain was the originator of many sports such as football, rugby, golf, cricket, hockey and
lawn tennis. 2. Ushinsky made trips to Germany, Switzerland, France, Italy and Belgium to observe
school organization there. He travelled, lectured, held conferences and interviews. 3. Russia has large
reserves of oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, copper, lead and other minerals. 4. Our University trains
teachers in many subjects: physics, mathematics, history, the Russian language and literature, geo-
graphy, biology, drawing, music and so on. 5. The curriculum of our faculty consists of different
subjects: psychology, history of education, pedagogics, foreign languages, history of Russia and
physical training. 6. The most outstanding world educators are: Pestalozzi, Rousseau, Comenius,
Ushinsky, Makarenko. 7. In ancient Greece and Rome children learned writing, reading, arithmetic,
music and poetry. 8. The ladies usually talk about the weather, the latest fashions and their friends.
The men discuss politics, business, the latest news and football. 9. A woman is an angel at ten, a
saint at fifteen, a devil at forty and a witch at four score.
Exercise IV. Read the story and render it.
My friend Tom is very capable and he can do some very difficult things. But the easier the
thing, the less capable he feels to do it. For instance, he can drive a car, sail a boat, drive a tractor but
be cannot ride a bicycle. Isn't that a funny thing?
Tom is a good sportsman. He can play basket-ball, volley-ball, football and tennis. He can also
run, skate, and ski very well. But he cannot swim. Isn't it strange?
He learns languages easily too. He can speak English, German, Italian, and French. He can
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speak, write, and read these languages. He can read and write Chinese but he cannot speak it. He
cannot speak a word. How ridiculous!
Exercise V. Read the text, mark the stresses and tunes. Prepare it for test reading.
There are twenty-two universities in Great Britain: sixteen in England, four in Scotland, one in
Wales and one in Northern Ireland.
A University consists of a number of faculties: medicine, arts, philosophy, law, music, natural
science, economics, engineering, agriculture, commerce and education. After three years of study a
student may proceed to a Bachelor's degree, later to the degrees of Master and Doctor.
The leading universities in England are: Oxford, Cambridge and London. English universities
greatly differ from each other. They differ in date of foundation, history, tradition, internal govern-
ment, methods of instruction, ways of student life, size, etc. Each university has its own problems,
each looks at them in its own way.
UNIT 13. INTONATION OF COMPLEX SENTENCES
ИНТОНАЦИЯ СЛОЖНЫХ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЙ

Если придаточное предложение стоит перед главным, то оно обычно выделяется в от-
дельную синтагму и произносится низким восходящим тоном. Например:

Если сложное предложение начинается с главного, то обычно обе части произносятся


нисходящим тоном. Например:

Exercise I. Listen carefully to the sentences below. Concentrate your attention on the intona-
tion of the non-final adverbial clauses.
1. After Peter had locked the door, he went to bed. 2. When the examination was over, Susan
had a feeling of relief. 3. When I gave my name, the woman opened the door. 4. If it's all the same to
you, I'd rather walk. 5. Next time you are in Moscow, come and see me. 6. When she arrived at the
station, the train had gone. 7. If you are going my way I can give you a lift. 8. If a man deceives me
once, shame on him, if he deceives me twice, shame on me. 9. If you could stay longer, so much the
better. 10. If you take a taxi, you'll be in time. 11. If we look on our planet's life, we can get a multip-
lex picture. 12. If you are interested in historical places, visit the Tower. 13. When he comes, ask him
to wait. 14. If you don't work hard, you will fail in English. 15. If you know foreign languages you
can understand the silence of a foreigner.
Exercise II. Read the following sentences. Follow the intonation line exactly.

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Exercise III. Listen to your fellow-student reading the sentences. Tell him what his errors in
intonation are.
1. If you are busy today, come tomorrow. 2. When you are tired of London, go down to the sea
for a week. 3. Take your car with you, if you've got one. 4. If you want to get a general idea of a
country, you must study the map. 5. Phone me up when you come home. 6. When you finish reading
this book, I'll give you a new one. 7. If it rains, take an umbrella. 8. She will be happy if she marries
Tom. 9. When we were children we used to enjoy playing on the beach. 10. If you cross Russia from
the extreme North to the South, you will get a very good idea of the climate contrasts. 11. Go to
Westminster Abbey, if you're interested in churches. 12. If you finish your exercise soon, you may
go for a walk. 13. I'll be glad, if we come together. 14. Speak louder if you want to be heard. 15.
Never speak loudly unless the house is on fire. 16. If you can't speak, learn to listen.
Exercise IV. Complete the following sentences and intone them.
1. When I finish my work ... 2. If you can stay longer ... 3. If it rains ... 4. Let me know when
... 5. Nobody can help me if ... 6. If the weather is fine ... 7. If you want a guide to show you round ...
8. When you're tired of London ... 9. When winter comes ... 1.0. Our delegation will start for London
as soon as ... 11. We'll phone her later, when ... 12. They'll pass their exams if ...
Exercise V. Listen to the dialogue. Mark the stresses and tunes. Read it.
— What are you going to do on Sunday?
— I'm going to watch a football match.
— If I were you, I'd better go to the country.
— I don't mind if we come together.
— Of course, if you like, I'll be glad if we come together. We'll go to the country if the weath-
er is fine. If it rains we'll stay at home and watch a football match on TV.
Exercise VI. Read the story. Pick out sentences with subordinate clauses at the beginning. Ob-
serve the intonation they are pronounced with.
If you're going to stay in London for some time, you can see many places of interest. If you
can stay longer, so much the better. If you are fond of arts, visit the National Gallery. The National
Picture Gallery is comparatively young. If you stand today in Trafalgar Square with your back to
Nelson's column, you'll see the National Gallery. It has been in this building since 1838.
If you are interested in the history of English painting, you'll be curious to know the following
interesting fact. In 1777 one of the greatest private collections of pictures was offered for sale. Some
of the members of Parliament suggested this collection to be bought and placed in a special gallery
near the British Museum. But this suggestion found no support in the House of Commons and the
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wonderful pictures were brought to Russia. If you want to see these pictures, you can find them in
the Gallery of Hermitage.
When you're in St. Petersburg, you can admire a great number of pictures by great British
painters: Hogarth, Constable, Turner, Gainsborough, Reynolds and so on.
Exercise VII. Read and memorize.
If many men knew,
What many men know,
If many men went,
Where many men go,
If many men did,
What many men do,
The world would be better
I think so, don't you?
(by B. R. Hudelson)
UNIT 14. INTONATION OF ADVERBIALS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ОБСТОЯТЕЛЬСТВЕННОЙ ГРУППЫ

Обстоятельственные группы в начале предложений обычно выделяются в отдельную


синтагму и произносятся низким восходящим тоном. Например:

Обстоятельственные группы в конце предложений, как правило, подуударны или без-


ударны. Например:

Exercise I. Read the sentences. Concentrate your attention on the intonation of the adverbials.
1. During the latest years our country has changed beyond recognition. 2, In 1918 the capital
of the country was moved to Moscow. 3. Under tsar Fyodor Moscow was already considered to be
one of the largest cities in Europe. 4. In front of you is an ancient monument of Red Square — Po-
krovsky Cathedral. 5. On the left you can see the Tower of London. 6. Not far from Trafalgar Square
there is a quiet little street. 7. On Tuesday we have two seminars. 8. On the 12th of May I leave for
London.
Exercise II. Read the sentences according to the given model.

1. There are more than 80 parks in London. 2. There are four seasons in a year. 3. Sunday is a
very quiet day in London. 4. They often watch TV after supper in the evening. 5. People like to go to
the country for skiing in winter. 6. Thanksgiving Day was marked irregularly after 1623. 7. I fell as-
leep after a few minutes. 8. There are many good laboratories at our Institute. 9. We see a stand for
hats, coats and umbrellas in the hall. 10. You can see a large window on the left.
Exercise III. Listen to the following sentences. Mark the stresses and tunes.
1. The Arctic Ocean and its seas wash the frontiers of Russia in the north. 2. During the
Second World War the British Museum was badly damaged. 3. You can find a complete reconstruc-
tion of Sherlock Holmes' living-room on the upper floor. 4. The streets are lit by electricity at night.
5. In spring Nature awakens from her long winter sleep. 6. At two o'clock lessons start again. 7. At
night millions of stars shine in the darkness. 8. We have a holiday on the first of May. 9. In the pic-
92
ture we can see a sitting-room. 10. We have thirty days in November.
Exercise IV. Complete the sentences and read them. Keep the exercise moving on rapidly.
1. On Sunday ... 2. In May ... 3. At night ... 4. On the ground floor ... 5. On the right ... 6. At
seven o'clock in the morning ... 7. In 1872 ... 8. During the term-time ... 9. On the 7th of October ...
10. In winter ... 11. A few minutes later ... 12. In the picture ...
Exercise V. Listen to the dialogue. Practise and memorize it.
— What d'you usually do on Sunday?
— It depends on the season. In winter I usually read or go to the club. In summer I usually go
to the country.
— What do you usually do there?
— In the morning I usually work in my garden. At three o'clock I have dinner. After dinner I
go to the river. At seven we have supper.
— What d'you do after supper?
— After supper I usually go to the pictures. At eleven o'clock in the evening I go to bed.
Exercise VI. Read the text. Pick out sentences with the adverbials. Explain their intonation.
We have a house in a London suburb. I bought it about fifteen years ago when I got married. It
consists of two floors. On the ground floor we have the dining-room, the sitting-room, the kitchen
and the hall. In the hall you can see a stand for hats, coats and umbrellas. A staircase leads from the
hall to the landing on the first floor. On the top floor we have four bedrooms and a bathroom. On the
top of the roof there are two chimneys. In front of the house we have a small garden. At the back of
the house you can see a much larger garden with a lawn and some fruit-trees.
UNIT 15. INTONATION OF PARENTHESES
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ВВОДНОЙ ГРУППЫ

Интонация вводных слов в начале предложения зависит от говорящего. Если говорящий


не придает значение вводным словам, они, как правило, произносятся быстро, часто неударны
и не образуют отдельную синтагму. Например:

Если говорящий придает большое значение вводным словам, они образуют отдельную
синтагму и произносятся либо нисходящим, либо восходящим или нисходяще-восходящим
тоном. Например:

Вводная смысловая группа в конце предложения обычно безударна или полуударна и


продолжает мелодию предшествующей смысловой группы. Например:

Вводная смысловая группа в середине предложения может произноситься как с восхо-


дящей, так и с нисходящей интонацией. Например:

Exercise I. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Concentrate your atten-
tion on the intonation of the replies.
93
Exercise II. Listen carefully to the following conversational situations. Mark the stresses and
tunes in the replies.
Where do you go? — I think, we prefer the Crimea.
What about indoor games? — Well, there's chess, billiards,
cards, table tennis. By the way, do you play tennis?
And how are things with you? — Not too good, I'm afraid.
You're thirty-five, aren't you? — As a matter of fact I'm nearly forty.
Are you fond of music? — Of course I am.
Is it possible to see anything — Well, yes, but not half enough.
of Moscow in one or two days?
Why not go to the Tretyakov — I think I will.
Gallery?
The Tretyakov Gallery is — I suppose it is.
much too big to be seen
in an hour or so.
What about a trip on the — That's not a bad idea you know.
Moskva river? I think that's a good idea.
Exercise III. Listen to the dialogue. Prepare it for test reading.
Morning and Evening
— What time do you get up as a rule?
— Generally about half past seven.
— Why so early?
94
— Because I usually catch an early train up to town.
— When do you get to the office?
— Normally about nine o'clock.
— Do you stay in town all day?
— Sometimes 1 do and sometimes I don't.
— What do you usually do in the evening?
— We generally stay at home. Once or twice a week we go to a theatre or to the picture. We
went to the pictures last night and saw a very interesting film. Occasionally we go to a dance.
— Do you like dancing?
— Yes, very much. Do you dance?
— I used to when I was younger but not very often now. I'm getting too old.
— Too old? Nonsense! You don't look more then 50.
— As a matter of fact I'm nearly sixty.
— Really? You certainly don't look it.
— I'm glad to hear it. Are you doing anything special tonight? If not, what about coming with
me to my club? You'd get to know quite a lot of interesting people there.
— I should love to but today happens to be our wedding anniversary and we're going out to-
night to celebrate.
— Well, my heartiest congratulations!
— Thank you very much. I could manage to come along tomorrow night if that would suit
you.
— Yes. Excellent. Let's make it round about eight o'clock.
— Very well. Thanks.
Exercise IV. Make up a short dialogue. Use:
Well; of course; as a matter of fact; I think; I suppose; for my own part; by the way; generally.
UNIT 16. INTONATION OF DIRECT ADDRESS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ОБРАЩЕНИЯ

В начале предложения обращение обычно ударно. В официально-деловой речи обраще-


ние выделяется в отдельную синтагму и произносится нисходящим тоном. Если говорящий
хочет привлечь внимание слушателя, обращение произносится нисходяще-восходящим то-
ном. Например:

В середине или в конце предложения обращение обычно неударно или полуударно и


продолжает мелодию предшествующего ударного слога. Например:

Иногда, если ядерный слог произносится с нисходящим тоном, обращение в конце


предложения может произноситься с восходящим тоном. Например:

Exercise I. Listen to the following sentences. Explain the intonation of direc't address. Read
the sentences.
1. Good morning, Jack. Hallo, David. Good afternoon, Mr. Davis. Hallo, Dad. Good morning,
Janet.
95
2. Mary, this is my old friend, John Hicks. John, look over there. Peter, hurry up. Porter, will
you see to my luggage, please.
3. Children, stand up. Mary, look at the map. Tom, who is on duty? Ann, come to the black-
board.
4. What about you, Mr.Thompson? That's all right, darling. Good morning, Mrs. Wood. Come
to Daddy, Johnny. Which will you take, Henry? Your umbrella, Pat. What do you think of this mod-
el, madam? Excuse me, sir. What do you mean, George? Did you call, dear?
Exercise II. Read and reproduce the following conversational situations.

Exercise III. Listen to this dialogue. Prepare it for test reading. Explain the intonation of di-
rect address.
Afternoon Tea
— Good afternoon, Mrs. White, how are you?
— Very well indeed, thank you, and how are you?
— Quite well, thank you. Won't you sit down. Excuse me, please. I think that's my niece at the
door.
— Hello, Betty dear! I'm so glad to see you. You do look well. I don't think you've met each
other before. Let me introduce you. This is my niece, Miss Smith. Mr. White, Mrs. White.
— How do you do?
— How do you do?
— And now let's have some tea. How do you like your tea, Mrs. White, strong or weak?
— Not too strong, please and one lump of sugar. I like my tea rather sweet, but my husband
96
prefers his without sugar.
— Well, what's the news, Mr. White? How's business?
— Pretty good, thank you. And how are things with you?
— Well, not too good, I'm afraid, and going from bad to worse. In fact, it's the worst year
we've had for a long time.
— I'm sorry to hear that. I hope things will soon improve.
— Yes. Let's hope for the best.
Exercise IV. Listen to these jokes. Mark the stresses and tunes. Dramatize the jokes.
1. — Johnny, here's a good piece of bread and butter.
— Thank you, aunty.
— That's good, Johnny. I like to hear little boys say "thank you", dear.
— Oh, aunty, if you want to hear me say it again, then put some jam on that piece of bread.
2. — Grandpa, would you like me to give you a new pipe for your birthday?
— That's very nice of you, Mary, but I've got a pipe.
— Don't think you have. Grandpa. I've just broken it.
3. — Darling, will you many me?
— No, dear, but I will always admire your good taste.
4. — I love you, I love you, darling.
— You must see mama first, Joe.
— I've seen her several times, dear, but I love you just the same.
UNIT 17. INTONATION OF APPOSITION
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ПРИЛОЖЕНИЯ

Приложение, ограничивающее значение существительного, тесно связано с ним и не


выделяется в отдельную синтагму. Например:

Приложение, выступающее в качестве дополнительной информации в форме ремарки,


обычно выделяется в отдельную синтагму, ударно и произносится тем же тоном, что и опре-
деляемое слово, но на более низком уровне. Например:

Exercise I. Read the following sentences. Pay attention to the intonation of apposition.
1. Mark Twain, the famous American writer was travelling in France. 2. The part of Great
Britain, lying south of the Scottish border, (Cheviot Hills), and east of Wales is England. 3. All my
family (except for me) is involved in farming. 4. Robert Burns, Scotland's bard and the world's poet
was born in 1759. 5. My brother-in-law, Peter Smith, is a teacher. 6. I'm speaking of Caracus, the
capital of Venezuella. 7. That's my son, the local doctor. 8. Is that your host, the famous steel mag-
net? 9. That's William the Conqueror. 10. I'm from Dayton, Ohio. 11. Another Englishman John Be-
lias, the author or Little Guide Book of Moscow wrote: "Who would not wish to visit the old capital
— Moscow, with its Kremlin and golden domes?" 12. Before bills (proposed laws) can become acts
(laws) they must be approved by both Houses of Parliament.
Exercise II. Listen to the sentences. Mark the stresses and tunes. Read them.
1. Buckingham Palace, one of the homes of the king and queen, is not far from the Hall. 2. Jo-
celyn, my other sister, is seventeen. 3. If the Kremlin is the symbol of Russia then the Saviour's
97
Tower (Spasskaya Bashnya) is the symbol of the Kremlin. 4. The House of Lords cannot originate,
amend or reject money bills (bills concerned with imposing taxes and authorising the spending of
public money). 5. Another Tower, the Clock Tower, is famous for the clock named "Big Ben". 6. It
was designed by Christopher Wren, famous English architect. 7. Geoffrey Chaucer, the famous Eng-
lish poet of the 14th century, was the first to be buried in the Poet's Corner. 8. Here we can see one of
the most colourful and stirring of all London ceremonies, the Changing of the Guards. 9. The name
of one of London's lost rivers is commemorated in Fleet Street, the former centre of the British
newspaper industry.
Exercise III. Read the text. Find the apposition. Mark the stresses and tunes. Render the text.
The Tower of London, one of the most fascinating historical places, is situated on the North
bank of the Thames. It dates back from Roman times and was strengthened by William the Conque-
ror. It was at times a fortress, palace and prison. Many great people were beheaded in the Tower.
Among them were Sir Thomas More, the author of the famous "Utopia", Sir Walter Relaigh, explor-
er and historian and others. As English people are very fond of traditions the Tower guards (Beefea-
ters) wear the same uniform as the one they wore many centuries ago.
UHIT 18. INTONATION OF AUTHOR'S WORDS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЙ С ПРЯМОЙ РЕЧЬЮ

Предложение, вводящее прямую речь, выделяется в отдельную синтагму и произносит-


ся либо восходящим, либо нисходящим тоном, либо на среднем уровне (Midlevel). Например:

Слова автора после прямой речи обычно неударны или полуударны и продолжают ин-
тонацию предшествующего ударного слога. Например:

Если слова автора после прямой речи представляют собой распространенное предложе-
ние, они произносятся тем же тоном, что и предшествующая интонационная группа в прямой
речи. Например:

В косвенной речи это предложение обычно не образует самостоятельной смысловой


группы. Например:

Exercise I. Read the following sentences. Observe the intonation of the author's words.
1. "We're not late I hope," I asked. 2. "Pass the sugar, please," she said in a voice just as sweet.
3. "I don't mind," my mother said with a smile. 4. "Are you ready?" he asked in an impatient tone. 5.
"Can you come?" he asked quietly. 6. "Please, take one," she said invitingly. 7, "Is this for me?" he
asked with surprise. 8. "Do you think it's true?" they kept on asking. 9. Ann says to Nina, "I can give
you my book." 10. Peter asks me, "Are there several departments at your faculty?" 11. The girls ask
me, "What is the assistant dean responsible for?" 12. The girl asks me if I've got any photos of our
Institute. 13. Helen says she is fond of music. 14. Mary says, "We have a big garden in front of our
98
house." 15. Mary says they have a big garden in front of their house.
Exercise II. Listen to the following sentences. Mark the stresses and tunes. Read them.
1. "Right," he said slowly. 2. The teacher said, "Stand up." 3. He asked, "Is education in Rus-
sia free?" 4. She asked, "What do American journalists write about the Russian educational system?"
5. "We decided not to give the usual marks,» says Shalva Amonashvili. 6. "They are teaching the
children well," said Shalva in conclusion. 7. "My teachers have to be good," said the director. 8. The
guide says that there are thirty principal theatres in London. 9. The author says that peace movement
in Europe is acquiring diverse forms. 10. The teacher asks who is absent from the lesson.
Exercise III. Read the text. Pick up sentences with direct speech, comment on them.
Three Men in a Boat by J. K. Jerome
It was Mrs. Poppets that woke me up next morning. She said, "Do you know that it is nearly
nine o'clock, Sir?" "Nine o'what?" I asked starting up. "Nine o'clock," she replied through the key-
hole, "I thought, you were oversleeping yourselves."
I woke Harris and told him. He said, "I thought you wanted to get up at six." "So did I," I ans-
wered, "why didn't you wake me?" "How could I wake you, when you didn't wake me?" he retorted.
Exercise IV. Prepare the joke for test reading.
Every Cloud Has Its Silver Lining
The father was reading the school report which had just been handed to him by his hopeful
son. His brow was wrathful as he read, "English — poor, French — weak, mathematics — poor,"
and he gave a glance of disgust at the son. "Well, dad," said the son, «It's not as good as it might be
but have you seen that?" And he pointed to the next line which read "Health — excellent."
Exercise V. Read the jokes and reproduce them in indirect speech.
1. — Is that Nora? asked Willy.
— Yes, Nora is speaking, asnwered the girl.
— Marry me, Nora, and marry me quickly, he pleaded.
— Yes, I will, — was the reply, But who is speaking?
2. — Must I stick it on myself? asked a lady who had bought a . postage stamp.
— No, madam, replied the counter-clerk, "It's much better to stick it on the envelope."
3. An intelligent small boy was asked by a well-meaning fatuous passenger, "How old are
you?" "I'm four," replied the child. "I wish I were four," observed the passenger gravely. The child
replied with calm practicality, "But you were four once."
4. A schoolboy said to his father, "I can prove to you by arithmetic that those two chickens are
three." "Oh!" said his father, "how
do you manage that?" "Well, this is one, and that is two: and one and two make three," ans-
wered the boy with a smile. "How clever!» exclaimed his father. Then your mother shall have the
first, I'll eat the second and you can have the third."
UNIT 19. ACCIDENTAL RISE
ВНЕЗАПНЫЙ ПОДЪЕМ

Постепенно нисходящая шкала ударных слогов может быть нарушена, если по смыслу
необходимо выделить одно из промежуточных слов. Некоторое повышение тона на ударном
слоге выделенного слова сопровождается дальнейшим постепенным понижением тона после-
дующих слогов. Например:

Exercise I. Read the following sentences.


1. Tom had a bad fall. 2. I heard him play at the Albert Hall. 3. Didn't he tell us he knew noth-
ing about it? 4. Didn't they promise to tell us at once? 5. Would you introduce me to that interesting
brother of yours? 6. I left in such a hurry. 7. I feel for him the greatest admiration. 8. His last concert
was a tremendous success. 9. It's the early bird that catches the worm. 10. Ten cooks spoil the broth.
99
Exercise II. Prepare the story for test reading. Find the sentences with Accidental Rise.
Cinderella
Once upon a time there lived a young girl called Cinderella. She had a step-mother and two
ugly step-sisters. One day the Prince invited them to a ball. The ugly sisters went but Cinderella had
to stay at home. As she was sitting by the fireside crying her fairy Godmother suddenly appeared be-
fore her. The fairy waved her hand and the pumpkin was turned into a golden coach, eight mice be-
came eight lovely horses and some lizards changed into coachmen. Cinderella's rags were turned into
a beautiful dress. "Now you can go to the ball," said her fairy Godmother. But remember: "You
mustn't stay after midnight." Cinderella was so happy dancing with the Prince that she forgot all
about the time and so she heard the clock strike twelve. As she ran away, she lost one of her little
glass slippers. The Prince made the proclamation that he would marry whoever could wear the slip-
per. It was soon discovered that the slipper would fit nobody but Cinderella. So the Prince married
her and they lived happily ever after.
Exercise III. Read the joke and render it.
Too Great a Majority
George Bernard Show's gift of ready wit is well-illustrated by the story of how he turned the
laugh against a member of the public who was expressing disapproval of one of his plays.
It was the first night of "Arms and the Man", a play which had an enthusiastic reception from a
crowded house. When the curtains fell at the end of the last act there was tremendous applause ac-
companied by insistent calls for the author to appear. One man in the gallery however kept up a
string of catcalls and whistling thus expressing his disapproval.
Shaw appeared before the curtain and waited in silence until the applause had died away. Then
looking up at the hostile critic he said, "I quite agree with you, Sir, but what can we two do against
all these people?"
UNIT 20. INTONATION OF PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTION
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ПРИЧАСТНОГО ОБОРОТА

Если причастный оборот стоит в начале предложения, то он произносится с восходя-


щим тоном. Например:

Если причастный оборот стоит в конце предложения, он может быть выделен в отдель-
ную синтагму либо нет в зависимости от отношения говорящего и произносится с нисходя-
щим тоном. Например:

Exercise I. Mark the stresses and tunes and read the following sentences.
1. Having picked up Mr Dunn's papers from the library floor, she held them out to him.
2. Arriving back they found Ann in the sitting room reading magazines.
3. Closing the door gently she stole upstairs.
4. In the evening they caught some fish eating part of it and saving the rest for the breakfast.
5. A new road will soon be built joining the airport with the railway station.
6. Taking a book from the shelf, he sits down to read it.
7. Having been examined by the customs, the goods were let through.
8. She smiled remembering the joke.
9. Every now and then David raised his head from the book looking at the clock on the wall.
100
10. I hope you will write soon explaining your intentions.
11. The text being easy they didn't use the dictionary.
12. Having received his diploma he went to the Far East.
13. Having locked the door I saw that I had left my bag in the room.
14. Walking along the embankment I met an old friend of mine.
15. Our things having been packed we went to the station.
16. The story being funny I couldn't help laughing.
17. I felt very tired having worked the whole day in the sun.
18. The yacht lay well out in the middle of the river being carried down by the current.
19. When you enter the hall you will see a staircase leading to the basement.
20. Having slept two hours I felt refreshed and rested.
21. The play being a success, it was impossible to get tickets.
Exercise II. Complete the following sentences.
1. Having been wounded in the leg, he...
2. Having arrived in a big seaport, I...
3. Having been once found on the beach, the stone...
4. Judging by the colour of the sun, it...
5. Slamming the door on me, he...
6. Taking every thing into consideration, we...
7. Half-turning on his chair, he...
8. Being dissatisfied with the answer, she...
9. The night being too cold and dark, she...
10. The article being dull, she...
11. Waiting outside, we...
12. Striking a match, he...
13. Seeing her approach, John...
14. Having been seen by her, he...
Exercise III. Read the joke and retell it paying special attention to the intonation of Participial con-
structions.
Having seen an advertisement in a newspaper for a beautiful modern cheap bicycle, Tom went
to the shop. Being busy with another customers the shopkeeper didn't come to Tom immediately.
Waiting for the shopkeeper Tom attentively looked around the shop and saw one bicycle standing in
the corner. The bicycle turned out to be exactly the one Tom had seen in the advertisement. But hav-
ing examined it carefully he discovered that it lacked the lamp. Turning to the shopkeeper Tom an-
grily asked why there was no lamp. Being surprised by his anger the shopkeeper tried to explain that
the lamp was not included in the price of the bicycle. Having heard this Tom said that the bicycle in
the advertisement had the lamp. Having a good sense of humour the shopkeeper said calmly that
there was also a girl on the bicycle in their advertisement but they didn't supply one of them with the
bicycle either.
UNIT 21. INTONATION OF LOOSE ATTRIBUTE REFERRING TO SUBJECT
ОПРЕДЕЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ ПРИДАТОЧНОЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ, ОТНОСЯЩЕЕСЯ К
ПОДЛЕЖАЩЕМУ И СТОЯЩЕЕ ВНУТРИ ГЛАВНОГО ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ

Определительное придаточное предложение, находящееся внутри главного, произно-


сится с восходящим тоном. Например:

101
Exercise I. Mark the stresses and tunes and read the following sentences.
1. The boy they are speaking to works in the bank.
2. The passage you are speaking about is a quotation from Mark Twain's story.
3. The man we have met in the hall is my neighbour.
4. Wilfrid, lying on the divan in a dark dressing-gown, sat up.
5. Captain Show, standing beside him, was unknown.
6. The cat who looked at me angrily was ready to jump.
7. Mr. Brown who had an imposing figure was neither lean nor stout.
8. The last person who entered the compartment was a pretty girl of about 20. ,
9. The room where we all were staying was spacious but rather dark.
10. Mr. Crane whose sister I knew once was a man of character.
11. The first person John saw in the club was his old friend.
12. The book she is referring to is written by a well-known reporter.
13. He who is ignorant of foreign languages, knows not his own.
14. He, who knows not how to hold his tongue, knows not how to talk.
15. He, who can, does. He who cannot, teaches.
16. He who laughs last, laughs best but he, who laughs first, sees the point of the utterance.
17. Everything that can be thought at all can be thought clearly. Everything that can be said,
can be said cleverly.
18. The day, which had been a sad one, finally ended.
19. George, who was going home, saw the fire.
20. The house, which had been built long ago, finally collapsed.
21. The men, who had been forced to march, finally revolted.
22. The door we knocked at was painted green.
23. The children he plays with are all older than he.
24. The store where I bought the suit is located on Tenth Street.
25. The person I spoke to had a French accent.
26. The glass we all had to drink out of had a cracked edge.
27. The knife he cut himself with had a rusty blade.
28. The chair I sat on had a broken seat.
Exercise II. Complete the following sentences.
1. Mark Twain whose real name was Samuel Clemens was...
2. The Hermitage where you can see the best works of the best world painters is ...
3. Red Square where the Kremlin is situated is...
4. The dipoma he got last year helped...
5. The subject we were talking about...
6. The film I saw yesterday produced ...
7. The question we discussed last time was...
8. The hotel where we lived was...
9. The first person I saw on the deck was...
10. Mrs. Wilde whose son was killed during the war was...
Exercise III. Read the joke and retell it paying special attention to the intonation of the attribute re-
ferring to the Subject.
David who worked in an office in a big city, decided to spend his holidays somewhere in the
country. The country where he decided to spend his holidays had a lot of streams. David who was
fond of fishing took his fishing rod with him. The first person he saw near the stream was an old
man. David asked the old man if it was a private stream and if it would be a crime to catch some fish
there. The old man who was amused by the question said that it wouldn't be a crime but it would cer-
tainly he a miracle.

UNIT 22. INTONATION OF COMPOUND SENTENCES


ИНТОНАЦИЯ СЛОЖНОСОЧИНЕННЫХ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЙ
102
В сложносочиненных повествовательных предложениях первая и вторая части их обыч-
но произносятся с низким нисходящим тоном. Например:

Однако, если существует причинно-следственная связь, первая часть произносится с


восходящей интонацией. Например:

Exercise I. Mark the stresses and tunes and read the following sentences.
1. Sunday is a holiday in Christian countries and Friday is a holiday in Muslim countries.
2. There are many holidays in Russia but the most favourite is New Year's Day.
3. It was raining hard and we decided to stay at home.
4. She was a beauty and he decided to get acquainted with her.
5. His clothes were dirty and he was afraid to ask where Mr. Rank's house was.
6. His father and mother were dead, his cousin was his only close relative.
7. He had brothers and sisters in London but he never saw them.
8. She felt afraid and excited, Hallowe'en was the night of the ghosts.
9. His child was kidnapped and he had to pay 10.000 dollars as a ransom.
10. He loved Ann but she didn't agree to marry him.
Exercise II. Complete the following sentences, make them compound.
1. Katherine of Aragon didn't give Henry the son and he...
2. Edward became King of England but he...
3. Katherine was eighteen and John...
4. She met him secretly at night but her husband...
5. Morning came at last and I...
6. They went by train and it...
7. They found Lucy's body in the coffin but she...
8. Her parents weren't interested with her any more and she...
9. Paul had other girl friends and sometimes Helen...
10. He didn't take her on the tour and she...
11. The students get tired towards the end of the term and they really...
12. In some English schools classes finish in early July but most schools finish in mid to late
July.
Exercise HI. Intone the text and read it.
One of the greatest Italian painters Michelangelo Merisi was born in 1573 and he was called
Caravaggio after his native town in Lombardy. Caravaggio lived on the fringe of respectable society
and his short life was marked by violence and disaster. He was in constant trouble with authority and
he had to flee Rome in 1606 after the murder of a man. He was pardoned but soon he died of Malaria
at the age of 37. He painted many famous pictures but his favourite one was "The Creation of
Adam". Caravaggio's paintings were condemned by many artists and critics in Italy but two of the
greatest painters in the 17th century Rembrandt and Velasquez considered themselves to be his fol-
lowers.

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PART III READER
I. JOKES
BABY BEGINS TO SPEAK
"I've had a dreadful day," the wife complained to her husband. "First the baby cut his first
tooth, then he took his first step, and then he fell and knocked out his first tooth."
"Well, and then what happened?" asked the husband.
"Oh, darling," the wife answered in a shocked voice, "he said his first word."
TRANSLATION
Bobby had a hard time pronouncing his "Rs", so the teacher gave him this sentence to learn:
"Robert gave Richard a rap in the rib for roasting the rabbit so rare."
A few days later she asked Bobby to repeat the sentence. He rose and said: "Bob gave Dick a
poke in the side for not doing the bunny well."
SAME THING
A blushing girl handed the telegraph clerk a message to a boyfriend containing only his name,
address, and one word "Yes."
"You can send five more words for the same price," said the clerk helpfully.
"Yes, I know," replied the girl, "but don't you think I'd look too eager if I said the same thing
six times?"
STAND BACK
"I don't know what to do about my son. He says he wants to be a racing motorist," the father
said.
"If that's the case, you'd better not stand in his way," advised a friend.
TALKING DOGS
A circus owner decided to create a sensation by showing a dog who could speak English. Then
he thought better of it and advertised two English-speaking dogs in one number.
At the first night performance the excited owner stood with the trainer behind the scenes. Two
dogs were brought on to the arena where they began staring at each other with great animosity. 3 The
nervous circus owner asked the trainer: "Why, they seem not to like each other at all? Will they be
able to speak?"
"They are not on speaking terms tonight," commented the trainer.
CANT SAY "YES"
"Why don't you marry her?"
"She has a slight impediment4."
"How sad, what is it?" "She can't say 'yes'."
ISAAC NEWTON'S DINNER
Isaac Newton was often so deeply interested in difficult problems that he became quite absent-
minded. One day a gentleman came to see him, but he was told that Sir Isaac Newton was busy in his
study and that nobody was allowed to disturb him.
As it was dinner-time, the visitor sat down in the dining-room to wait for the scientist. The
servant came in and placed on the table a boiled chicken under a cover. An hour passed, but Newton
did not appear. The gentleman, feeling hungry, ate the chicken, and covering up the skeleton, asked
the servant to prepare another one for his master.
Before the second chicken was ready, however, the scientist entered the room, apologizing for
his delay. Then he added: "As I feel rather tired and hungry, I hope you will excuse me a little long-
er, while I take my dinner, and then I will be at your service." With these words he lifted the cover,
and without emotion turned round to the gentleman and said: "See what a strange set we scientists
are! I quite forgot that I had dined already."
At this moment the servant brought in the other chicken. The visitor explained how matters

3
with animosity— враждебно, злобно
4
impediment — зд. дефект речи
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stood. After a hearty laugh, the hungry scientist sat down to dine.
QUITE ENOUGH
When Erich Remarque, the well-known German novelist was still a young man, he was once
introduced to an American girl who was travelling in Germany. Speaking in German, the girl asked
Remarque why he had never visited the United States. His answer was that he couldn't speak Eng-
lish. In fact, he knew only four sentences, he said.
"What are those sentences?" asked the girl, much interested.
Speaking slowly, with a strong German accent, the writer said: "How do you do? I love you.
Forgive me. Ham and eggs, please."
"Why," cried the girl, "with these sentences you could tour the United States from Maine to
California."
TOO GREAT A MAJORITY
Bernard Shaw's gift of ready wit is well illustrated by the story of how he turned the laugh
against a member of the public who was expressing disapproval of one of his plays.
It was the first night of "Arms and the Man", a play which had a very good reception from a
crowded house. When the curtain fell at the end of the last act there was tremendous applause, ac-
companied by insistent call for the author to appear. One man in the gallery was whistling thus ex-
pressing his disapproval.
Bernard Shaw appeared before the curtain, waited in silence until the end of the applause.
Then, looking up at that critic, he said: "I quite agree with you, Sir, but what can we two do against
all these people?"
MARK TWAIN'S LECTURE
Once a literary club invited Mark Twain to give a lecture. Before the lecture one of the mem-
bers of the club came to him and said:
"Mr. Twain, people say that you can tell very funny stories. I hope that during your lecture you
will tell a story that will make my uncle laugh. He hasn't laughed for ten years."
"I'll do my best," Mark Twain said.
When he began his lecture, Mark Twain noticed the club member. He was sitting in front of
him with an old man who had a very sad face.
Mark Twain began to tell jokes, one after another. "I told long jokes and short jokes, new
jokes and old jokes," Mark Twain told his friends. "I told every joke in my memory, and soon every-
body was laughing. Everybody — but not the old man. He continued to look at me with his cold,
blue eyes. I was ashamed to think that I couldn't make him laugh, and I tried again and again. But
nothing helped..."
After the lecture, the club member came to Mark Twain and said, "Thank you, Mr. Twain. I
have never heard so many very funny stories."
"They weren't funny enough for your uncle," Mark Twain answered. "He didn't even smile."
"I know," the man said. "I told you that he hasn't laughed for ten years. But I didn't tell you
that he hasn't heard anything for ten years. He is deaf."

Jack was young, rich, and fond of girls. He hardly ever did any work, and spent most of his
time enjoying himself.
One summer he bought a big motor-boat. As soon as it was ready to go to sea, he telephoned
to one of the girls he had met somewhere, and invited her for a trip in his new motor-boat. It was the
first of many successful invitations of this kind.
The way Jack used to invite a girl for a trip in his boat was like this: he would begin by saying,
"Hullo, Laura (or whatever the girl's name was). I have just bought a beautiful new motor-boat, and I
would like to take you out for a trip in it."
The girl's answer was usually cautious, because everybody in that part of the country knew
Jack's reputation with girls. She would say something like this: "Oh, really? That's nice. What name
have you given to the boat?"
Jack would then answer, "Well Laura, I have named it after you."
Of course, the girl would feel very proud that Jack had chosen her name for the boat out of the
105
names of all his many girl-friends, and she would think that Jack must really love her. She would
therefore be quite willing to accept his invitation to go for a trip in his motor-boat.
It would not be until she got down to the harbour and actually saw the boat that she would un-
derstand how cleverly Jack had tricked her. Because there in neat gold letters on the boat she would
see its name — 'After You'.

A man was tired of living in his old house in the country and wanted to sell it and buy a better
one. He attempted to sell it for a long time, but was not successful, so at last he decided to solve the
problem by using an estate agent.
The agent promptly advertised the house, and a few days later, the owner saw a very attractive
photograph of it, with a wonderful description of its gardens, in an expensive magazine.
After the house owner had read the advertisement through, he hastened to telephone the estate
agent and said to him, "I'm sorry, Mr. Jones, but I've decided not to sell my house after all. After
reading your advertisement in that magazine, I can see that it's just the kind of house I've wanted to
live in all my life."

Jean was a very beautiful young girl, so she was quite used to some men showing their admi-
ration for her, and to others being confused and shy when they saw her.
One summer, when Jean was travelling abroad, she went into a cafe in a small town, sat down
and waited to be served.
The young waiter was talking to someone at the bar when she came in, and at first he did not
pay any attention to her, because he had not looked at her properly. Then he turned round and saw
how beautiful she was. His face went bright red, and he hurried over to take her order.
"I'd like coffee without cream, please," Jean said.
The waiter hurried out, and came back a few minutes later without the coffee.
"I'm very sorry," he said, "but we haven't got any cream. Would you like your coffee without
milk?"

April 1st is a day on which, in some countries, people try to play tricks on others. If one suc-
ceeds in tricking somebody, one laughs and says, "April Fool!", and then the person who has been
tricked usually laughs too.
One April 1st, a country bus was going along a winding road when it slowed down and
stopped. The driver anxiously turned switches and pressed buttons, but nothing happened. Then he
turned to the passengers with a worried look on his face and said, "This poor bus is getting old. It
isn't going as well as it used to. There's only one thing to do if we want to get home today. I shall
count three, and on the word 'three', I want you all to lean forward suddenly as hard as you can. That
should get the bus started again, but if it doesn't, I am afraid there is nothing else I can do. Now, all
of you lean back as far as you can in your seats and get ready."
The passengers all obediently pressed back against their seats and waited anxiously.
Then the driver turned to his front and asked, "Are you ready?"
The passengers hardly had enough breath to answer, "Yes."
"One! Two! Threel" counted the driver. The passengers all swung forward suddenly and the
bus started up at a great rate.
The passengers breathed more easily and began to smile with relief. But their smiles turned to
surprised and then delighted laughter when the driver merrily cried, "April Fool!"

Mr Robinson had to travel somewhere on business, and as he was in a hurry, he decided to go
by air. He liked sitting beside a window when he was flying, so when he got on to the plane, he
looked for a window seat. He found that all of them had already been taken except for one. There
was a soldier sitting in the seat beside this one, and Mr. Robinson was surprised that he had not taken
the one by the window; but, anyhow, he at once went towards it.
When he reached it, however, he saw that there was a notice on it. It was written in ink and
said, "This seat is reserved for proper load balance. Thank you." Mr. Robinson had never seen such a
106
notice in a plane before, but he thought that the plane must be carrying something particularly heavy
in its baggage room which made it necessary to have the passengers properly balanced, so he walked
on and found another empty seat, not beside a window, to sit in.
Two or three other people tried to sit in the window seat beside the soldier, but they too read
the notice and went on. Then, when the plane was nearly full, a very beautiful girl stepped into the
plane. The soldier, who was watching the passengers coming in, quickly took the notice off the seat
beside him and in this way succeeded in having the company of the girl during the whole of the trip.

A gay young man, who earned his living as a drummer in a band, had just married, and he and
his wife were looking for somewhere to live. They saw a lot of places, but there was always some-
thing that one of them did not like about them. At last, however, they found a block of new flats
which both of them really liked. However, there was still the problem of whether they should take
one of the ground-floor flats, which had a small garden, or one of the upstairs ones.
At last they decided on a first-floor flat — not too low down and not too high up — and
moved in. After they had bought furniture, carpets, curtains, and all the rest, they gave a big party to
celebrate the setting up of their first home together.
It was a gay and noisy party, as all the host's friends from the band came and played their in-
struments. The guests danced, sang and practised on their host's drums.
Soon after one a.m. the telephone rang. The hostess went to answer it in the hall, and after she
had finished, came back with a happy smile on her face and said to her husband, "That was the man
who has just moved into the flat downstairs telephoning, dear. I am so glad we decided not to choose
it. He says it is terribly noisy down there."
Mr and Mrs Davies had left their Christmas shopping very late. There were only a few days
more before Christmas, and of course the shops and streets were terribly crowded, but they had to get
presents for their family and friends, so they started out early one morning for the big city and spent
several tiring hours buying the things they wanted in the big shops.
By lunch-time, Mr Davies was loaded down with parcels of all shapes and sizes.He could
hardly see where he was going as he and his wife left the last shop on their way to the railway station
and home. Outside the shop they had to cross a busy street, made even busier than usual by the thou-
sands of people who had come by car to do their last-minute Christmas shopping.
Mr and Mrs Davies had to wait for the traffic lights to change, but as Mr Davies could not see
in front of him properly, he gradually moved forward into the road without realizing it. Mrs Davies
saw this and became worried. Several times she urged her husband to come back off the road but
without success. He could not hear her because of the noise of the traffic.
Finally she shouted in a voice that could he heard clearly above all the noise, "Henry! If you
intend to stand in that dangerous position a moment longer, give me the parcels!"
II. TALES
THE COUNTRY MOUSE AND THE CITY MOUSE
Once upon a time a city mouse visited his cousin in the country. The country mouse shared his
simple but wholesome food. Peas, barley, corn, tasty roots were stored in the mouse's home in the
field — and another store of food in the big farmer's barn — for when it rained.
"I find the country-side charming," the city mouse said to this open-hearted cousin, "but your
food is so plain, and your home quite dreary."
"Do come to the city and live with me; we shall play in my luxurious home — and will have a
banquet each day — all the delicacies your heart desires."
So they left the blossoming green country-side to the busy, yes, even frightening city. The
noise, the traffic, the hurrying, bustling crowds jostling each other was almost too much for the sim-
ple country mouse.
"Here we are at last," said the sophisticated city mouse as they entered into a huge towering
mansion.
The house was elegant... chandeliers, deep carpets, plush furniture — and a pantry that was
full of the very best food ever seen. Swiss cheese, salty bacon, delicious fruits, colorful vegetables,
107
jellies and fresh bisquits — all were there, ready to eat.
Hungry from their long journey, the city mouse and the country mouse began their feast, tast-
ing one mouth-watering bit of food after another.
Suddenly a heavy door slammed, loud footsteps of big boots were heard — the threatening
deep purr of an angry cat chilled the air.
"What was that?" the country mouse stuttered.
"Oh, that is the master with his big Siamese cat."
"Good-bye, cousin," the country mouse squealed as he leaped through the hole in the pantry
wall. "I'm going back to the meadow in the country. I prefer to live with the woods, the tall moun-
tains and the fresh gurgling streams rather than in your exciting city."
The Moral
A simple meal eaten in peace is better than a banquet eaten in fear and trembling.
THE FOX AND THE GRAPES
One hot summer day the fox hunted for miles and miles without seeing a bird, a rabbit, or even
a tiny mouse. In the heat of the noonday sun he looked for a shady glen in which to rest his dusty,
tired feet.
"Oh, I'd like a cool, cool drink, or some delicious fruit with which to quench my thirst," said
the fox, as his tongue hung from his parched jaws.
Ahead a green garden loomed — as fresh and sparkling as could be. On a white trellis hung
the most fragrant, luscious grapes he had ever seen.
Round and purple — the large grapes hung in heavy clusters — just the very thing for his
noon refreshment.
Standing very tall upon his hind legs, the fox could not reach the sweet, juicy grapes.
Then taking a running start, the fox leaped high into the air — and with wide jaws snapped at
the lowest bunch of grapes.
He missed! He didn't jump high enough even for the lowest cluster.
The fox tried again and again — and still again. He missed each time. Now he was so weary
and even more thirsty that he turned away.
With his bushy tail high in the air, he left the garden; he grumbled, "Sour grapes, just sour
grapes, I didn't want them anyway."
The Moral
Only a fool will despise what he cannot get for himself.
LITTLE RED RIDING-HOOD
Once upon a time there was a little girl who was very pretty and very good. Her mother and
her grandmother loved her dearly. Her grandmother made her a warm red cloak with a hood and eve-
ryone called her Little Red Riding-Hood.
One day her mother made some cakes and said to her: "Go to your grandmother's house. She
has not been well. Take her the cakes, and some milk and butter".
So Little Red Riding-Hood went at once to see her grandmother, who lived in another village.
She walked through the woods and met a big wolf on her way. He wanted to eat her right
away, but he was afraid of the woodcutters. They were working somewhere nearby. But he asked her
where she was going. The little girl did not know it was dangerous to talk to a wolf, so she said:
"I am going to my grandmother, to take her some cakes, some milk and a little butter. My
grandmother is not very well."
"Does she live far?" asked the wolf.
"She lives in the village. You can see it from here. Her house is the first house in the village."
The wolf said nothing. But he decided to run fast and get to the house before Little Red Rid-
ing-Hood.
The wolf got there quickly and knocked at the door.
"Who is there?" asked the grandmother.
"Little Red Riding-Hood, granny dear", said the wolf. He made his voice as soft as he could.
The grandmother was in bed. She called out: "Pull the string, my dear, and the door will
open".
108
The wolf pulled the string. He ran up to the bed and swallowed the poor woman up. He was
very, very hungry.
He did not feel very well after such a heavy dinner. He put on one of grandmother's caps and
got into her bed.
By and by Little Red Riding-Hood came and knocked at the door.
"Who is there?" asked a rough voice.
The little girl was frightened. But she thought her granny had a cold. She answered:
"It is me, Little Red Riding-Hood. I have brought you some cakes, a little butter and some
milk. My Mother sent it".
The "wolf made his voice as soft as he could and said: "Pull the string, my dear, and the door
will open."
Little Red Riding-Hood did as she was told. Then she put her basket on the table and went up
to her grandmother. She thought her grandmother looked very strange. She said:
"Granny, dear, what long arms you have!"
"They help me to hug you better, my child!"
"Oh, granny! What great ears you have!"
"They help me to hear you better, my child!"
"Granny, dear! What great eyes you have!"
"They help me to see you better, my child!"
"Oh! granny, granny! What great teeth your have!"
"They will help me to eat you, my child!"
And the bad wolf jumped out of bed and caught Little Red Riding-Hood.
The little girl cried out for help. At that very moment the woodcutters were going by. They
rushed in, saved the little girl, and killed the wolf. When they opened him up, what do you think they
found inside him? The grandmother! She was alive, but very frightened. You see, the wolf had swal-
lowed her all in one piece!
ONCE UPON A TIME
Once upon a time a little girl went into a wood near her Father's palace. She was a little Prin-
cess. She sat down near a pool of cool, clear water. She began to throw a golden ball in the air. Then
she caught it, as it fell. Suddenly the ball fell into the pool.
The Princess began to cry bitterly. "Oh! oh!", she said, "I would give everything I have to get
my golden ball back".
All of a sudden a big green frog stuck its head out of the pool and asked: "Why do you cry so
bitterly, pretty little girl?"
"My golden ball has fallen into the pool", said the Princess, "And I cannot get it. That is why I
am crying".
"I heard you said that you will give everything you have to get your golden ball", said the frog
in its froggy voice. "I do not want anything from you. But if you will take me to live with you in the
palace, I will bring you your golden ball. You will also let me eat from your gold plate and sleep on
your little white bed".
The Princess looked at the frog. "What a silly frog!" she thought. "It cannot get out of the pool.
It cannot climb up the steps of the palace. But, maybe, it can bring me my golden ball, so I shall
promise him everything he wants." And she said to the frog:
"If you bring me my golden ball you can come and live at the palace".
The frog jumped at once into the water. Then it came back with the golden ball in its mouth. It
put the ball on the ground and the Princess picked it up. She was very happy. She ran home very fast.
She did not even say "Thank you" to the frog.
Next day, when the Princess was having dinner, she heard a funny noise 'flop', 'flop', 'flop',
then a funny voice said:
"Beautiful Princess, open your door.
I shall come in and go out no more.
Have you forgotten the promise you made
By the clear, cool pool in the oak tree shade?"
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The Princess ran to open the door. There, at her feet, sat the frog! She was so frightened when
she saw it! It sat there, all fat and green, and tried to smile with its ugly mouth.
"Who is it, daughter?" asked the King. "What has frightened you so?"
"There is an ugly frog at the door," said the Princess, "and it wants to come in. Yesterday I
dropped my golden ball in the pool and the frog got it for me. I told it that it could come and live
here, and play with me. I did not think it would come."
The King listened carefully. Then he said: "People must never, never, break their word. They
must always tell the truth. You must never break your word! Let the frog come in".
So the Princess opened the door. The frog came 'flop', 'flop', 'flop' into the room and up to her
chair.
"I want to sit on the table near you", it said to the Princess in its froggy voice. "Put me there".
The Princess picked the frog up and put it on the table. "Now", said the frog "push your plate close to
me. I want to eat." The Princess pushed the plate close to the frog, and it began to eat. After dinner
the frog said: "I am tired and I am sleepy. Carry me to your room and put me on your little white
bed".
So the Princess took the frog in her fingers and carried it to her room. She put it on her little
white bed and went to bed herself. Suddenly the frog came up quite close to her. The Princess was
frightened. She cried out and pushed it away. It fell on the floor and then there was no more frog. In
its place stood a nice young boy. He looked at her with grateful eyes.
"Who are you? Where is the frog?" cried the Princess.
"An old witch changed me into a frog, because she was angry with my Mother and Father. I
had to be a frog, until a Princess allowed me to eat from her plate and rest on her bed. So now,
thanks to you, I am free from the spell of the old witch".
The boy, who was a Prince, went back to his own country. Some years later, when the Princess
grew up, he came to visit her with his Father and Mother. They married and lived happily together.
The Princess always remembered what her Father had told her: "People must never break their
word". She taught her children to be kind to animals, to tell the truth always, and to never break their
word.
THE BREMEN TOWN MUSICIANS
Once upon a time a man had a Donkey. The Donkey had served him well for many years, but
now it was very old. The man began to think how he could get rid of the Donkey. The Donkey de-
cided that he better leave his master and he ran away. He ran along the road to the town of Bremen.
"I shall be a town musician there", he thought.
Suddenly he saw a Dog lying by the side of the road.
"Why are you gasping?" asked the Donkey.
"Ah," replied the Dog, "every day now I grow older. I cannot hunt with my master any more.
So he wants to get rid of me. I ran away and now I do not know how to earn my bread".
"Well," said the Donkey, "I am going to the town of Bremen. I shall be a town musician and
play on the lute. Come along and beat the drums."
The dog thought it was a fine idea. So they went off together.
A little while later they saw a Cat in the middle of the road. It had a terribly sad face!
"Dear me," said the Donkey. "What has happened to you, old thing, to make you look so sad?"
"My mistress is angry that I do not want to catch mice any more. She says she will drown me.
So I ran away. But now I do not know what to do."
"Come to Bremen with us", said the Donkey. "You are good at night music, so you can be a
town musician, too."
So the Cat went with them.
The three future musicians soon came up to a farm. There they saw a Cock, sitting upon the
gate. The Cock was crowing with all his might.
"What is the matter with you, Friend Cock?" asked the Donkey. "Why do you crow so loud?"
"My mistress has invited many people for dinner on* Sunday", said the cock sadly. "She has
told the cook to make me into soup. So I crow as loud as I can now. Because after Sunday I will not
crow any more!"
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"Come along with us, Friend Cock", said the Donkey. "We are going to Bremen. Your fine
voice is just what we need. We are going to be the town musicians".
The Cock was very pleased with the idea. So all four went along together. They stopped for
the night in the forest.
The Donkey and the Dog lay down under a tree. The Cat climbed into the branches. The Cock
flew right up to the top of the tree. From there he looked around and saw a light in the distance. He
called out to his friends and told them they were not far from a house.
The Donkey said, "Let us go there. It is very cold out here in the forest".
They agreed and went towards the light. They soon came to a cottage; this was well-lighted
and there was a lot of singing and laughing inside. The Donkey went up to the window and peeped
in.
"What do you see, Gray-sides?" asked the Cock. "I see a table laid with meat and drinks.
Around it the robbers are sitting and having a good time".
"That is just what we need", said the Cock.
"Oh! yes, I do wish we could he there", said the Donkey.
Then the musicians thought of a plan to frighten the robbers and make them go away.
The Donkey stood up on his hind legs and put his forefeet on the window-sill, the Dog
climbed on his back, the Cat climbed on the Dog's back and the Cock flew up to the very top of the
group and perched on the head of the Cat.
The Donkey brayed, the Dog barked, the Cat mewed, and the Cock crowed!
They made a terrific noise and finally broke the window panes and fell into the room.
The robbers were so frightened that they ran away into the forest. The four friends sat down at
the table and ate up everything that was on it.
Then the Donkey lay down on some straw in the yard. The Dog went to sleep behind the door.
The Cat made itself comfortable near the stove. The Cock flew up to the roof. They were all very
tired and went to sleep very soon.
At midnight the robbers saw from the forest that the lights were out in their house. So the cap-
tain sent one of his men to examine the house.
The man entered the house and found everything quiet there. He went into the kitchen to light
the stove. Then the Cat jumped at him, scratching and spitting. The man got terribly frightened and
ran to the back door. The Dog that was lying there, sprang up and bit his leg. Then the man ran
across the yard; he passed near the Donkey, and Gray-sides gave him a terrific kick. The Cock
awoke and cried
"Cock-a-doodle-doo" as loud as he could.
The robber ran back to the Captain and said: "Master! there is a horrible thing in the house that
spits and scratches. There is a man near the door, who cut my leg with a sharp knife. In the yard there
is a great monster who beat me with a heavy stick. On the roof sits the judge, who called out 'Bring
the rogue up, do!' So I ran as fast as I could".
Of course the robbers never went near the house again. This was just fine for the four town
musicians of Bremen, who liked the house so much that they decided to live there always. And there
they are still, as happy as they can be.
III. TEXTS
WASHINGTON
New York is a place to have fun. San Francisco is great for a holiday, but Washington is won-
derful for tourists, because there are so many famous and historical places to see.
The best known building is the White House, home of American Presidents since 1800. The
President works here, in the "Oval Office", but the White House is also a family home. The wife of
John Adams, the first President to live here, used to dry her wet clothes in the East Room; President
Truman had a piano next to his desk; and President Kennedy's children used to play under his office
windows.
Next on the tourist's list is the Capitol. The 535 members of Congress meet here to discuss the
nation's business. It is easy to get lost in this huge building, full of paintings and statues.
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From the Capitol there is a magnificent view down the grassy Mall, and across a pool of water
to the Lincoln Memorial. It looks like a beautiful walk, but you need a good pair of shoes because it
is, in fact, a long, long way.
Most people know about the government buildings of Washington, but there are also some
important museums. You can see all kinds of things, the dresses of Presidents' wives, the original
Declaration of Independence, the largest blue diamond in the world, and the biggest elephant on
record (stuffed, of course!)
{Welcome to Great Britain and the USA by E. Laird.)
NATIONAL LIFE
The United States' flag is called the "Stars and Stripes". It has thirteen red and white stripes
and fifty white stars on a blue square. One star is for each state of the United States now, and the
stripes are for the first thirteen states of the union.
There is a story that the first flag was a patchwork quilt made by a patriotic lady called Betsy
Ross. The flag is also called the "Star-Spangled Banner", the name of the national anthem of the
United States.
In the eighteenth century, America was a land of many flags. There were, for example, the
ship of New Hampshire, the tree of Massachusetts and the anchor of Rhode Island. The Stars and
Stripes first became the national flag after the Declaration of Independence, in 1776.
Americans enjoy their flag. They use the stars and stripes as a popular design on shirts, shoes,
hats — anywhere and everywhere in fact. It is typical of American informality, and their love of
bright, cheerful colours.
But Americans are patriotic too. Many of them think that America is the best, the first and the
greatest nation in the world, and that their flag is the flag of freedom.
The Stars and Stripes stand by the President's desk. The flag hangs in every classroom in
America, and every day school children salute it before the school day begins. And on July 4th, In-
dependence Day, the Stars and Stripes are everywhere, on the streets, on houses, and in the big pa-
rades.
{Welcome to Great Britain and the USA by E. Laird.)
SHOPPING IN LONDON
London has many large department stores, which sell everything: shoes and shirts, paper and
perfume, fur coats and frying pans. The most expensive department store is Harrods in
Knightsbridge. You can buy almost anything in Harrods, and you know you're getting the best.
Twice a year, in January and July, Harrods has a "sale". Some things are almost half price, and there
are thousands of bargains. But on the first days of the sale the shop is very crowded. Some people
stand and wait all night so that they can be first in the shop when it opens.
The smartest and most expensive shops are in Knightsbridge, but more people come to Oxford
Street, London's most popular shopping centre. Most of the hundreds of shops sell clothes or shoes.
The street is more than a mile long. There are several big department stores in Oxford Street. The
best known are Selfridges, John Lewis and D. H. Evans.
Oxford Street has the most shops, but in some ways King's Road in Chelsea is more fun. This
is where fashionable young Londoners buy their clothes in the many small "boutiques".
You can buy what you like in the big shops, but the small markets have a lot to offer too.
There are several big street markets in London, and many small ones. Some markets open only one
day a week. Go to the Portobello Road on Saturday, or to Petticoat Lane on Sunday. Covent Garden
market is open every day. Come here for antiques, old clothes, hand-made jewellery and many other
rather special things.
(Welcome to Great Britain and the USA by E. Laird.)
RESTAURANTS IN LONDON
British restaurants are not, unfortunately, famous for their good food. Too often, they offer on-
ly sausages and chips, fish and chips — chips with everything in fact! But there are some wonderful
surprises in British cooking, especially the many delicious cakes and desserts, and the British certain-
ly enjoy their food. There's a fantastic variety of restaurants of all nationalities in London.
Most British families only go to restaurants on special occasions, like birthdays, or wedding
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anniversaries. The restaurants best customers are businessmen, who meet in them to talk business in
a relaxed atmosphere away from the telephone. They can eat what they like, because the company
pays the bill! But when a boy and girl want to get to know each other better, they often go out to a
restaurant together. After all, it's easier to talk in a quiet atmosphere, with soft music, wine and good
food.
For visitors to London, eating out can be fun. Try Rules, in the West End! The traditional
menu and decor are just like they were in Queen Victoria's day, a hundred years ago.
Or take a walk down the King's Road in Chelsea where there are dozens of small restaurants.
But if you want that special London feeling, go to the Ritz in Piccadilly for tea any afternoon
at about half past four. Too expensive? Then try England's favourite food — fish and chips. Take it
away and eat it where you like — in the park, on the bus, or while you walk down the street. That's
what Londoners do!
{Welcome to Great Britain and the USA by E. Laird.)
ART FOR HEART'S SAKE (by Rude Goldberg)
"Here, take your juice," said Koppel, Mr. Ellsworth's servant and nurse.
"No," said Collis P. Ellsworth.
"But it's good for you, sir!"
"No!"
"The doctor insists on it."
"No!"
Koppel heard the front door bell and was glad lo leave the room. He found Doctor Caswell in
the hall downstairs.
"I can't do a thing with him," he told the doctor." He doesn't want to take his juice. I can't per-
suade him to take his medicine. He doesn't want me to read to him. He hates TV. He doesn't like any-
thing!"
Doctor Caswell took the information with his usual professional calm. This was not an ordi-
nary case. The old gentleman was in pretty good health for a man of seventy. But it was necessary to
keep him from buying things. His financial transactions always ended in failure, which was bad for
his health.
"How are you this morning? Feeling better?" asked the doctor. "I hear you haven't been obey-
ing my orders."
The doctor drew up a chair and sat down close to the old man. He had to do his duty. "I'd like
to make a suggestion," he said quietly. He didn't want to argue with the old man.
Old Ellsworth looked at him over his glasses. The way Doctor Caswell said it made him suspi-
cious. "What is it, more medicine, more automobile rides to keep me away from the office?" The old
man asked with suspicion. "Not at all," said the doctor. "I've been thinking of something different.
As a matter of fact I'd like to suggest that you should take up art. I don't mean seriously of course,"
said the doctor, "just try. You'll like it."
Much to his surprise the old man agreed. He only asked who was going to teach him drawing.
"I've thought of that too," said the doctor "I know a student from an art school who can come round
once a week. If you don't like it, after a little while you can throw him out." The person he had in
mind and promised to bring over was a certain Frank Swain, eighteen years old and a capable stu-
dent. Like most students he needed money. Doctor Caswell kept his promise.
LETTERS IN THE MAIL (by Erskine. Caldwell)
Almost everybody likes to receive letters. And perhaps nobody in Stillwater liked to get letters
more than Ray Buffin. But unfortunately Ray received fewer letters in his box at the post-office than
anybody else.
Guy Hodge and Ralph Barnhill were two young men in town who liked to play jokes on
people. But they never meant anything bad. One afternoon they decided to play a joke on Ray Buf-
fin. Their plan was to ask a girl in town to send Ray a love letter without signing it, and then tell eve-
rybody in the post-office to watch Ray read the letter: then somebody was to ask Ray if he had re-
ceived a love letter from a girl. After that somebody was to snatch the letter out of his hand and read
it aloud.
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They bought blue writing paper and went round the corner to the office of the telephone com-
pany where Grace Brooks worked as a night telephone operator. Grace was pretty though not very
young. She had begun working for the company many years ago, after she had finished school. She
had remained unmarried all those years, and because she worked at night and slept in the daytime it
was very difficult for her to find a husband.
At first, after Guy and Ralph had explained to her what they wanted to do and had asked her to
write the letter to Ray, Grace refused to do it.
"Now, be a good girl, Grace, do us a favour and write the letter." Suddenly she turned away.
She didn't want the young men to see her crying. She remembered the time she had got acquainted
with Ray. Ray wanted to marry her. But she had just finished school then and had started to work for
the telephone company: she was very young then and did not want to marry anybody. Time passed.
During all those years she had seen him a few times but only a polite word had passed between them,
and each time he looked sadder and sadder.
Finally she agreed to write the letter for Guy and Ralph and said that she would send it in the
morning.
THE DOLL'S HOUSE (by Katherine Mansfield)
Days passed, and as more children saw the doll's house, the fame of it spread. It became the
one subject of talk. The one question was, "Have you seen the Bumells' doll's house? Oh, isn't it
lovely!" "Haven't you seen it? Oh, dear!"
Even the dinner hour was given up to talking about it. The little girls sat under the trees eating
their lunch. While always, as near as they could get, sat the Kelveys, Else holding on to Lil, listening
too.
"Mother," said Kezia, "can't I ask the Kelveys just once?"
"Certainly not, Kezia."
"But why not?"
"Run away, Kezia; you know quite well why not."
At last everybody had seen it except them. On that day they were all rather tired of the subject.
It was the dinner hour. The children stood together under the trees, and suddenly, as they looked at
the Kelveys eating out of their paper, always by themselves, always listening, they wanted to hurt
them. Emmie Cole started the whisper.
"Lil Kelvey's going to be a servant when she grows up?'
"O-oh, how terrible!" said Isabel Burnell, looking Emmie in the eye.
Emmie swallowed in a very special way and looked at Isabel as she'd seen her mother do on
those occasions.
"Its true —; it's true — it's true," she said.
Then Lena Logan's little eyes opened. "Shall I ask her?" she whispered.
"You're afraid to," said Jessie May.
"I'm not frightened," said Lena. Suddenly she gave a little cry and danced in front of the other
girls. "Watch! Watch me! Watch me now!" said Lena. And slowly, dragging one foot, laughing be-
hind her hand, Lena went over to the Kelveys.
Lil looked up from her dinner. She wrapped the rest quickly away. Else stopped eating. What
was coming now?
"Is it true you're going to be a servant when you grow up, Lil Kelvey?" cried Lena at the top of
her voice.
Dead silence. But instead of answering, Lil only gave her foolish smile. She didn't seem to ob-
ject to the question at all. What a disappointment for Lena. The girls began to laugh. , Lena couldn't
bear that. She went forward. "Your father's in prison!" she cried hatefully.
This was such a wonderful thing to have said that the little girls rushed away together, deeply,
deeply excited, wild with joy. Someone found a long rope and they began playing with it. And never
did they play so happily as on that morning.
THE MAN WHO COULD WORK MIRACLES (by H. G. Wells)
Mr Maydig, a thin, excitable man with a long neck, was pleased when the young man asked to
speak to him. He took him to his study, gave him a comfortable seat, and standing in front of a good
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fire asked Mr Fotheringay to state his business.
At first Mr Fotheringay found some difficulty in opening the subject. "You will hardly believe
me, Mr Maydig —" and so on for some time. He tried a question at last, and asked Mr Maydig his
opinion of miracles.
"You don't believe, I suppose," said Fotheringay, "that some common sort of person — like
myself, for example — might have something strange inside him that made him able to do things by
willpower."
"It's possible," said Mr Maydig. "Something of that sort, perhaps, is possible."
"If I may try with something here, I think I can show you by a sort of experiment," said Mr Fo-
theringay. "Now that tobacco pot on the table, for example. I want to know whether this is a miracle
or not. Just half a minute, Mr Maydig, please."
He pointed to the tobacco pot and said, "Be a bowl of flowers."
The tobacco pot did as it was ordered.
Mr Maydig jumped violently at the change, and stood looking from Fotheringay to the flow-
ers. He said nothing. Presently he leant over the table and smelt the flowers; they were fresh and very
fine. Then he looked at Fotheringay again.
"How did you do that?" he asked.
Mr Fotheringay said, "I just told it — and there it is. Is that a miracle, or what is it? And what
do you think is the matter with me? That's what I want to ask."
"It's a most extraordinary thing."
"And last week I didn't know that I could do things like that. It came quite suddenly. It's some-
thing strange about my will, I suppose, and that's all I can understand."
"Is that — the only thing? Could you do other things besides that?"
"Oh, yes!" said Mr Fotheringay. "Just anything." He thought a little, "Listen!" He pointed.
"Change into a bowl of fish. You see that, Mr Maydig?"
"It's astonishing. I can't believe it. You are either a most extraordinary... But no —"
"I could change it into anything," said Mr Fotheringay. "Listen! Be a bird, will you?"
In another moment a blue bird was flying round the room and making Mr Maydig bend his
head every time it came near him. "Stop there, will you?" said Mr Fotheringay; and the bird hung
still in the air. "I could change it back to a bowl of flowers," he said, and after placing the bird on the
table he worked that miracle. "I expect you will want your pipe soon," he said, and brought back the
tobacco pot.
Mr Maydig had watched all these later changes with small cries, but no words. Carefully he
picked up the tobacco pot, examined it, and put it back on the table. "Welll" was the only expression
of his feelings.
THE MODEL MILLIONAIRE (by Oscar Wilde)
One morning, as he was on his way to Holland Park, where the Mertons lived, he went in to
see a great friend of his, Alan Trevor. Trevor was a painter. Indeed, few people are not nowadays.
But he was also an artist, and artists are rather rare. Personally he was a strange, rough fellow, with a
spotted face and red, rough beard. However, when he took up the brush he was a real master, and his
pictures were eagerly sought after. He had been very much attracted by Hughie at first, it must be
admitted, entirely because of his personal charm. "The only people a painter should know," he used
to say, "are people who are beautiful, people who are an artistic pleasure to look at, and restful to talk
to. Men who are well-dressed and women who are lovely rule the world — at least they should do
so." However, after he got to know Hughie better, he liked him quite as much for his bright, cheerful
spirits, and his generous, careless nature, and had asked him to come to see him whenever he liked.
When Hughie came in he found Trevor putting the finishing touches to a wonderful life-size
picture of a beggar-man. The beggar himself was standing on a raised part of the floor like a stage in
a corner of the room. He was a dried-up old man with a lined face and a sad expression. Over his
shoulder was thrown a rough brown coat, all torn and full of holes; his thick boots were old and
mended, and with one hand he leant on a rough stick, while with the other he held out his ancient hat
for money.
,"What an astonishing model!" whispered Hughie, as he shook hands with his friend.
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"An astonishing model!" shouted Trevor at the top of his voice; "I should think so! Such beg-
gars are not met with every day. Good heavens! What a picture Rembrandt would have made of
him!"
"Poor old fellow!" said Hughie, "how miserable he looks! But I suppose, to you painters, his
face is valuable."
THE COURTSHIP OF SUSAN BELL (by Anthony Trollope)
On the Thursday evening the drawing was finished. Not a word had been said about it in Aa-
ron's presence, and he had gone on working in silence. "There," said he, late on Thursday evening, "I
don't think that it will be any better if I go on for another hour. There, Miss Susan; there's another
bridge. I hope that it will neither burst with the cold nor be destroyed by fire," and he sent it across
the table with his fingers.
Susan's face was red when she smiled and took it up. "Oh, it is beautiful," she said. "Isn't it
beautifully done, mother?" and then all the three got up to look at it, and all admitted that it was ex-
cellently done.
"And I am sure we thank you very much," said Susan after a pause.
"Oh, it's nothing," said he, not quite liking the word 'we'.
On the following day he returned from his work to Saratoga about noon. He had never done
this before, and therefore no one expected that he would be seen in the house before the evening. On
this occasion, however, he went straight there, and by chance both the widow and her elder daughter
were out. Susan was there alone in charge of the house.
He walked in and opened the sitting-room door. There she sat, with her work forgotten on the
table behind her, and the picture, Aaron's drawing, on her knees. She was looking at it closely as he
entered, thinking in her young heart that it possessed all the beauties that a picture could possess.
"Oh, Mr Dunn," she said, getting up and holding the picture behind her dress.
"Miss Susan, I have come here to tell your mother that I must start for New York this after-
noon and be there for six weeks, or perhaps longer."
"Mother is out," said she: "I'm so sorry."
"Is she?" said Aaron.
"And Hetta too. Dear me! And you will want dinner. I'll go and see about it."
Aaron began to swear that he could not possibly eat any dinner. He had had one dinner, and he
was going to have another — anything to keep her from going.
"But you must have something, Mr Dunn," and she walked towards the door.
But he put his back to it. "Miss Susan, " said he, "I've been here nearly two months."
"Yes, sir, I believe you have," she replied, shaking in her shoes and not knowing which way to
look.
"And I hope we have been good friends."
"Yes, sir," said Susan, hardly knowing what she was saying.
"I'm going away now, and it seems to be such a long time before I'll come back."
"Will it, sir?"
"Six weeks, Miss Susan!" and then he paused, looking into her eyes, to see what he could read
there. She leant against the table, pulling to pieces a bit of cloth which she held in her hand; but her
eyes were turned to the ground, and he could hardly see them.
"Miss Susan," he continued, "this is as good a time to speak as any other." He too was looking
towards the ground, and clearly did not know what to do with his hands. "The truth is just this. I — I
love you dearly, with all my heart. I never saw anyone I ever thought so beautiful, so nice, so good;
— and what's more, I never shall. I'm not very good at saying things like this, I know; but I couldn't
go away from Saratoga for six weeks and not tell you." And then he stopped. He did not ask for any
love in return. He simply declared his feelings, leaning against the door.
LORD MOUNTDRAGO (by W. Somerset Maugham)
It was a quarter to six. Dr Audlin could remember no case which was stranger than that of
Lord Mountdrago. For one thing it was strange because Lord Mountdrago was a clever and famous
man. He was appointed Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs when still under forty years of age;
now after three years in office, he had seen success. It was generally agreed that he was the cleverest
116
man in his party. There was nothing to prevent Lord Mountdrago from continuing as Secretary for
Foreign Affairs in many later governments.
Lord Mountdrago had many good qualities. He was clever and worked hard. He had travelled
widely and spoke several languages well. He knew a great deal about other countries. He had cou-
rage and determination. He was a good speaker. He was a tall, goodlooking man, but perhaps rather
too fat. At the age of twenty-four he had married a girl of eighteen whose father was a duke and
whose American mother was very rich, so that he had a good position and wealth. He had two sons.
He had, indeed, a great deal to make him a popular and successful man. He had, unfortunately, great
faults.
He was very proud. For three hundred years the Lords Mountdrago had held the title and had
married into the noblest families of England. Therefore he had no need to be proud of the title, but he
was. He never missed an opportunity of telling others about it. He had beautiful manners when he
wanted to show them, but he did this only with people whom he considered his equals. He was rude
to his servants and his secretaries. The lower officials in the government offices feared and hated
him. He knew that he was a great deal cleverer than most of the persons he worked with, and never
hesitated to tell them so. He had no patience with the weaknesses of human nature. He felt himself
born to command and was angry when people expected him to listen to their arguments or wished to
hear the reasons for his decisions. He was terribly selfish. He had many enemies and thought of them
with scorn. He knew no one who deserved his help or his pity. He had no friends. He was unpopular
with his party because he was so proud; but he loved his country so much and managed affairs so
well that they had to bear his pride. It was possible to do this because sometimes he could be quite
charming. He could tell a good story; he could be natural and sensible. He could be the best company
in the world, and you could forget that he had insulted you the day before and was quite able to insult
you again.
IV. LECTURES
WHY USE GAMES? (by Julia Khan)
Characteristics of games
What is a game? Everyone feels intuitively that they know but definition is elusive. Perhaps
we can say that, "A game is played when one or more players compete or co-operate for pay-offs ac-
cording to a set of rules" (Jones 1986). Alternatively, "Gaming is competitive... rule-governed...
goal-defined... Gaming has closure... gaming is engaging" (Rodgers 1981). The games of young
children have their own special qualities: A true game is one that frees the spirit. . It allows of no
cares but those fictitious ones engendered by the game itself... Play is unrestricted, games have rules.
Play may merely be the enactment of a dream but in each game there is a contest governed by rules,
which set up clearly defined goals. The achievement of these goals signals the end of the game.
Games involve a contest either between players or between the players and the goal, and games
should lead to having fun. Games are for playing, and this element of play is crucial.
Ground rules must be set for how games are played. The authority behind the rules and the
contest lies in the game itself rather than with the player or teacher and the authority must be ac-
knowledged if the game is to be played fairly. Children are usually very concerned with fairness and
with preventing others from breaking the rules.
Children's games
Games are activities that children naturally and universally engage in. There is a certain time-
lessness in the pleasure children find in games and in how the nature of the games they play changes
as they develop, ranging through fantasy, ritual, competition and luck.
Generations of children rediscover the same games and delight in playing them. Games may
be seen as a route by which children come to terms with their social environment, presenting as they
do a social situation which is firmly governed by rules but whose outcome is unknown. Piaget (1967)
saw children's games as "the most admirable social institutions. The game of marbles for instance...
contains an extremely complex system of rules... a code of laws, a jurisprudence of its own... If we
wish to gain any understanding of child morality it is obviously with the analysis of such facts as
these that we must begin. All morality consists in a system of rules..." It is of course not our present
117
concern to explore morality but to remember that children play games, and to take account of these
natural tendencies when developing teaching strategies for young learners.
LECTURE — Extract (by O'Connor)
Miss Tooley: How do you think we ought to start?
J. D.: My idea is this. Suppose we just say a few ordinary sentences. After that we'll go back
again and notice how we've said them and what sort of tunes we've used, and then we'll try to make
some clear and general rule about them.
Miss Tooley: Yes, that's a good idea. Now the first thing I said was this: "How do you think
we ought to start?" I wonder if the listeners can hear the tune? "How do you think we ought to start?"
J. D.: You see, listeners, that sentence starts on a fairly high note and it continues on that same
note until it reaches the word "ought". Just listen.
Miss Tooley: "How — How do you think we — How do you think we ought to start?"
J. D.: Like that, you see. The word "ought" is said on a slightly . lower note, and the sentence
continues on that lower note until it gets to the very last syllable.
Miss Tooley: "How do you think we ought to start? How do you think we ought to start?"
J. D.: Again, you see, the word "start" is on a slightly lower note and not only that, it falls as
you say it: "start — start".
Miss Tooley: Yes, it does. It falls right down to the bottom of my voice, listen: "How do you
think we ought to start? How do you think we ought to start?"
J. D.: So the sentence is really in three parts, corresponding to the number of stressed syl-
lables: "how" , followed by four weak syllables; then "ought" followed by one weak syllable; and
lastly, "start" followed by nothing at all.
Miss Too ley: How do you think we — ought to — start?
J. D.: We can make a good rule out of that. In sentences like this, the first stressed syllable and
any weak, or unstressed syllables following it, are said on a fairly, high note; the second stressed syl-
lable, and any more weak syllables after that, are said on a slightly lower note, and the same with the
third, and the fourth, and so on, until you come to the last stressed syllable of all, which not only be-
gins on a lower note than the previous one, but also falls right down until it can scarcely be heard at
all. Well, now we must go back to the beginning, and see if our rule works for some of our other sen-
tences.
V. POEMS
LITTLE ROBIN REDBREAST
Little Robin Redbreast sat upon a tree,
Up went Pussy-cat and down went he;
Down came Pussy-cat and away Robin ran;
Said littte Robin Redbreast, "Catch me if you can!"
Little Robin Redbreast jumped upon a wall;
Pussy-cat jumped after him, and almost had a fall.
Little Robin chirped and sang, and what did Pussy say?
Pussy-cat said "Mew" and Robin jumped away.
FOR WANT OF A NAIL
For want of a nail, the shoe was lost,
For want of the shoe, the horse was lost,
For want of the horse, the rider was lost,
For want of the rider, the battle was lost,
For want of the battle, the kingdom was lost,
And all for the want of a horse-shoe nail.

Every thing looks very grey,
In rain, rain, rain,
I love to see it hit the ground
And then bounce up again.
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
Good, better, best,
Never rest,
Till good be better
And better best.

"Tick", the clock says,
"Tick, tick, tick",
What you have to do, do quick,
Time is gliding fast away
Let us act and act today.

The moments fly — a minute's gone,
The minutes fly — an hour is run,
The day is fled — the night is here,
Thus flies a week, a month, a year.

One, two, three, four,
Mary at the cottage door,
Five, six, seven, eight,
Eating cherries off a plate.

Hickory, Dickory Dock
The mouse ran up the clock,
The clock struck one,
The mouse ran down,
Hickory, Dickory Dock.

Diddle, Diddle, Dumpling, my son John,
Went to bed with his trousers on;
One shoe off and one shoe on,
Diddle, Diddle, Dumpling, my son John.

Hey diddle, diddle,
The cat and the fiddle,
The cow jumped over the moon;
The little dog laughed
To see such sport,
And dish ran away with the spoon.

Old Mother Hubboard
Went to the cupboard,
To get her poor doggy a bone;
But when she got there,
The cupboard was bare,
And so the poor doggy got none.

Goosey, goosey gander,
Where do you wander?
Upstairs and downstairs,
And in my lady's chamber,
Where I met an old man,
Who wouldn't say his prayers —
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I took him by the left leg,
And threw him down the stairs.

Little boy blue,
Come blow your horn;
The sheep's in the meadow,
The cow's in the corn.
Where is the boy
Who looks after the sheep?
He's under the haystack, Fast asleep.
THE ARROW AND THE SONG (by H. W. Longfellow)
I shot an arrow into the air,
It fell to earth, I knew not where,
For so swiftly it flew, the sight
Could not follow it in its flight.
I breathed a song into the air,
It fell to earth, I knew not where,
For who has sight so keen and strong,
That it can follow the flight of a song?
Long, long afterwards in an oak
I found the arrow, still unbroke;
And the song, from beginning to end,
I found again in the heart of a friend.
TWILIGHT (by G. G. Byron)
It is the hour when from the boughs
The nightingale's high note is heard;
It is the hour when lover's vows
Seem sweet in every whispered word;
And gentle winds and waters near,
Make music to the lovely ear.
Each flower the dews have lightly wet,
And in the sky the stars are met
And on the wave is deeper blue,
And on the leaf a browner hue,
And in the heaven that clear obscure,
So softly dark, and darkly pure,
Which follows the decline of day,
As twilight melts beneath the moon away.
MY NATIVE LAND — GOOD NIGHT
"Adieu! adieu! my native shore
Fades over the waters blue;
The night winds sigh, the breakers roar,
And shrieks the wild sea-mew.
Yon5 sun that sets upon the sea
We follow in his flight;
Farewell awile to him and thee,
My native Land — good night!
> (by Percy B. Shelley)
It was a winter such as when birds die In the deep forests; and the fishes lie Stiffened in the
translucent ice, which makes Even the mud and slime of the warm lakes
A wrinkled clod as hard as brick; and when Among their children comfortable men

5
Yon - that
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Gather about great fires, and yet feel cold;
Alas, then for the homeless beggar old.
INTO MY HEART AN AIR THAT KILLS (by Alfred Edward Housman)
Into my heart an air that kills From yon far country blows; What are those blue remembered
hills, What spires, what farms are those?
That is the land of lost content,
I see it shining plain,
The happy highways where I went
And cannot come again.
MY HEART'S IN THE HIGHLANDS (by Robert Burns)
My heart's in the Highlands, my heart is not here,
My heart's in the Highlands, a-chasing the deer,
A-chasing the wild deer, and following the roe —
My heart's in the Highlands wherever I go!
Farewell to the Highlands, farewell to the North,
The birth-place of valour, the country of worth!
Whenever I wander, wherever I rove,
The hills of the Highlands for ever I love.
Farewell to the mountains high cover'd with snow,
Farewell to the straths and green valleys below;
Farewell to the forests and wild-hanging woods,
Farewell to the torrents a'nd loud-pouring floods!
My heart's in the Highlands, my heart is not here;
My heart's in the Highlands, a-chasing the deer;
A-chasing the wild deer, and following the roe,
My heart's in the Highlands wherever I go!
A RED, RED ROSE (by Robert Burns)
O, my luve6 is like a red, red rose,
That's newly sprung in June;
O, my luve is like the melodie,7
That's sweetly play'd in tune
As fair art thou, my bonnie lass,8
So deep in luve am I;
And I will luve thee still, my dear,
Till a' the seas gang dry.9
Till a' the seas gang dry, my dear.
And the rocks melt wi' the sun;10
And I will luve thee still, my dear,
While the sands o' life11 shall run.
And fare-thee-weel,12 my only luve!
And fare-thee-weel a while!
And I will come again, my luve,
Tho'13 it were ten thousand mile!

6
luve = love
7
melodie = melody
8
bonnie lass = pretty girl
9
till a' (= all) the seas gang (= go) dry — пока не высохнут моря
10
wi' the sun = with the sun
11
o' life = of life
12
fare-thee-weel = fare thee well
13
Tho' = though
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WRITTEN IN MARCH (by William Wordsworth)
The cock is crowing,
The stream is flowing,
The small birds twitter,
The lake doth14 glitter,
The green field sleeps in the sun;
The oldest and youngest
Are at work with the strongest;
The cattle are grazing,
Their heads never raising;
There are forty feeding like one!
Like an army defeated
The snow hath15 retreated,
And now doth fare ill
On the top of the bare hill;
The plough-boy is whooping — anon — anon;
There's joy in the mountains;
There's life in the fountains;
Small clouds are sailing,
Blue sky prevailing;
The rain is over and gone!
I WANDERED LONELY AS A CLOUD
(by William Wordsworth)
I wandered lonely as a cloud
That floats high o'er16 vales and hills,
When all at once I saw a crowd,
A host, of golden daffodils;
Besides the lake, beneath the trees,
Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.
Continuous as the stars that shine
And twinkle on the Milky way,
They stretched in never-ending line
Along the margin of a bay;
Ten thousand saw I at a glance,
Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.
The waves beside them danced; but they
Out-did the sparkling waves in glee;
A poet could not but be gay,
In such a jocund company:
I gazed — and gazed — but little thought
What wealth the show to me had brought:
For oft, when on my couch I lie
In vacant or in pensive mood,
They flash upon that inward eye
Which is the bliss of solitude;
And then my heart with pleasure fills,
And dances with the daffodils.
THOSE EVENING BELLS (by Thomas Moore)
I
14
doth =does
15
hath = has
16
o'er = over
122
Those evening bells! those evening bells!
How many a tale their music tells,
Of youth, and home, and that sweet time,
When last I heard their soothing chime!
II
Those joyous hours are past away!
And many a heart, that then was gay,
Within the tomb now darkly dwells,
And hears no more those evening bells!
Ill
And so 'twill be when I am gone;
That tuneful peal will still ring on,
While other bards shall walk these dells
And sing your praise, sweet evening bells!
SONNET 116 (by William Shakespeare)
Let me not to the marriage of true minds
Admit impediments. Love is not love
Which alters when it alteration finds,
Or bends with the remover to remove:
O, no! It is an ever-fixed mark,
That looks on tempests and is never shaken;
It is the star to every wandering bark,
Whose worth's unknown, although its height be taken.
Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks,
Within his bending sickle's compass come;
Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,
But bears it out even to the edge of doom.
If this be error, and upon me proved,
I never writ, nor no man ever loved.
SONNET CXXX (by William Shakespeare)
My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;
Coral is far more red than her lips' red;
If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun;
If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head.
I have seen roses damask'd, red and white,
But no such roses see I in her cheeks;
And in some perfumes is there more delight
Than in the breath that from my mistress reeks.
I love to hear her speak, yet well I know
That music hath a far more pleasing sound;
I grant I never saw a goddess go;
My mistress, when she walks, treads on the ground:
And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rare
As any she belied with false compare.
SONNET XCI (by William Shakespeare)
Some glory in their birth, some in their skill, Some in their wealth, some in their bodies' force
Some in their garments, though new-fangled ill, Some in their hawks and hounds, some in their
horse; And every humour hath his adjunct pleasure, Wherein it finds a joy above the rest: But these
particulars are not my measure; All these I better in one general best. Thy love is better than high
birth to me, Richer than wealth, prouder than garments' cost, Of more delights than hawks or horses
be; And, having thee, of all men's pride I boast. Wretched in this alone, that thou mayst take All this
away and me most wretched make.
WHEN YOU ARE OLD (by William Butler Yeats)
123
When you are old and full of sleep
And nodding by the fire, take down the book
And showly read, and dream of the soft look
Your eyes had once and of their shadows deep,
How many loved your moments of glad grace
And loved your beauty with love false of true
But one man loved the pilgrim soul in you
And loved the sorrows beside the glowing bars
Murmur a little sadly how Love fled,
And paced upon the mountains overhead
And heed his face amid a crowd of stars.
IF (by Rudyard Kipling)
If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you;
If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you,
But make allowance for their doubting too;
If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,
Or, being lied about, don't deal in lies,
Or, being hated, don't give way to hating,
And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise;
If you can dream — and not make dreams your master;
If you can think — and not make thoughts your aim;
If you can meet with triumph and disaster
And treat those two impostors just the same;
If you can bear to hear the truth you've spoken
Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,
Or watch the things you gave your life to broken,
And stoop and build 'em up with wornout tools;
If you can make one heap of all your winnings
And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss,
And lose, and start again at your beginnings
And never breathe a word about your loss;
If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew
To serve your turn long after they are gone,
And so hold on when there is nothing in you
Except the Will which says to them: "Hold on";
If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,
Or walk with kings — nor lose the common touch;
If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you;
If all men count with you, but none too much;
If you can fill the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds' worth of distance run —
Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it,
And — which is more — you'll be a Man, my son!
СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ
1. Абрамкина Т. А. Обучение произношению и технике чтения на английском языке. —
М, 1972.
2. Антипова Е. Я., Каневская С. Л., Пигулевская К. А. Пособие по английской интона-
ции. — Л.: Просвещение, -1974.
3. Ваулина Ю. Е., Фрейдлина Е. Л. Английский язык для студентов факультетов дошко-
льного воспитания. — М.: Просвещение, 1994.
4. Лебединская Б. Я. Фонетический практикум по английскому языку. — М., 1978.
5. Практическая фонетика английского языка / Под ред. М. А. Соколовой. — М„ 1997.
124
6. Allen W. S. Living English Speech. — L., 1957.
7. Arakin V. D., etc. Practical Course of English. — M, 1998.
8. Ann Baker. Ship or Sheep. — Cambridge, 1992.
9. O'Connor J. D., Arnold G. F. Intonation of Colloquial English.
10. O'Connor J. D., Fletcher С Sounds English. — Essex, 1989.
11. Kingdom R. English Intonation Practice. — L, 1960.
12. John L. M. Trim. English Pronunciation Illustrated. — Cambridge, 1955.
13. Mimi Ponson. How Now, Brown Cow? — Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1983.

CONTENTS

Введение ................................................................................................................... 2
ЗВУКИ ............................................................................................................................................................ 2
ОСНОВНЫЕ ПРАВИЛА ЧТЕНИЯ ГЛАСНЫХ ........................................................................................ 4
ОСНОВНЫЕ ПРАВИЛА ЧТЕНИЯ СОГЛАСНЫХ ................................................................................... 6
БУКВОСОЧЕТАНИЯ.................................................................................................................................... 6
PART I ......................................................................................................................... 7
UNIT 1. [i:] - [i] ............................................................................................................................................... 7
UNIT 2. [æ] - [e]............................................................................................................................................ 10
UNIT 3. [ɒ] – [ɔ:] .......................................................................................................................................... 12
UNIT 4. [з:]-[ ɔ:] ........................................................................................................................................... 15
UNIT 5. [ʌ] – [a:]........................................................................................................................................... 17
UNIT 6. [ʋ] - [u:] ........................................................................................................................................... 19
UNIT 7. [ə] - [i] ............................................................................................................................................ 21
UNIT 8. [ɛə] - [iə] ........................................................................................................................................ 23
UNIT 9. [аʋ] — [зʋ] ...................................................................................................................................... 25
UNIT 10. [ai] — [ei]...................................................................................................................................... 28
UNIT 11. [ɔi] - [ai] ........................................................................................................................................ 30
UNIT 12. [p] - [b] .......................................................................................................................................... 32
UNIT 13. [t] - [d] ........................................................................................................................................... 34
UNIT 14. [k] – [g] ......................................................................................................................................... 37
UNIT 15. [n] - [m] ......................................................................................................................................... 40
UNIT 16. [n] - [ŋ] .......................................................................................................................................... 42
UNIT 17. [fl — [v] ........................................................................................................................................ 44
UNIT 18. [v] - [w] ......................................................................................................................................... 46
UNIT 19. [s] – [z] .......................................................................................................................................... 49
UNIT 22. [ʒ] – [ʤ] ........................................................................................................................................ 56
UNIT 23. [1] - [r] ........................................................................................................................................... 57
UNIT 24. [Ɵ] - [ð] ......................................................................................................................................... 61
UNIT 25. [h] - no [h] ..................................................................................................................................... 63
UNIT 26. WEAK FORMS OF WORDS ...................................................................................................... 65
UNIT 27. WORD STRESS ........................................................................................................................... 68
PART II. INTONATION ............................................................................................. 70
UNIT 1. INTRODUCTION
ОБЩИЕ СВЕДЕНИЯ ................................................................................................................. 70
UNIT 2. INTONATION NUCLEAR TONES
ТОНЫ В АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ ........................................................................................... 74
UNIT 3. SENTENCE STRESS
ФРАЗОВОЕ УДАРЕНИЕ ........................................................................................................... 75
125
UNIT 4. INTONATION OF STATEMENTS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ УТВЕРЖДЕНИЙ .............................................................................................. 77
UNIT 5. INTONATION OF IMPERATIVES
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ПОВЕЛИТЕЛЬНЫХ НАКЛОНЕНИЙ ........................................................... 78
UNIT 6. INTONATION OF GENERAL QUESTIONS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ОБЩИХ ВОПРОСОВ ...................................................................................... 79
UNIT 7. INTONATION OF SENTENCES WITH "THERE + TO BE"
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЙ, НАЧИНАЮЩИХСЯ ОБОРОТОМ «THERE + ТО BE» . 81
UNIT 8. INTONATION OF DISJUNCTIVE QUESTIONS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ РАЗДЕЛИТЕЛЬНЫХ ВОПРОСОВ ................................................................ 82
UNIT 9. INTONATION OF ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ АЛЬТЕРНАТИВНЫХ ВОПРОСОВ ............................................................... 83
UNIT 10. INTONATION OF SPECIAL QUESTIONS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫХ ВОПРОСОВ ...................................................................... 85
UNIT 11. INTONATION OF EXCLAMATIONS AND INTERJECTIONS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ВОСКЛИЦАНИЙ И МЕЖДОМЕТИЙ .......................................................... 87
UNIT 12. INTONATION OF ENUMERATION
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ПЕРЕЧИСЛЕНИЙ ............................................................................................ 89
UNIT 13. INTONATION OF COMPLEX SENTENCES
ИНТОНАЦИЯ СЛОЖНЫХ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЙ ....................................................................... 90
UNIT 14. INTONATION OF ADVERBIALS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ОБСТОЯТЕЛЬСТВЕННОЙ ГРУППЫ........................................................... 92
UNIT 15. INTONATION OF PARENTHESES
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ВВОДНОЙ ГРУППЫ....................................................................................... 93
UNIT 16. INTONATION OF DIRECT ADDRESS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ОБРАЩЕНИЯ ................................................................................................... 95
UNIT 17. INTONATION OF APPOSITION
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ПРИЛОЖЕНИЯ ................................................................................................ 97
UHIT 18. INTONATION OF AUTHOR'S WORDS
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЙ С ПРЯМОЙ РЕЧЬЮ ......................................................... 98
UNIT 19. ACCIDENTAL RISE
ВНЕЗАПНЫЙ ПОДЪЕМ ........................................................................................................... 99
UNIT 20. INTONATION OF PARTICIPIAL CONSTRUCTION
ИНТОНАЦИЯ ПРИЧАСТНОГО ОБОРОТА ......................................................................... 100
UNIT 21. INTONATION OF LOOSE ATTRIBUTE REFERRING TO SUBJECT
ОПРЕДЕЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ ПРИДАТОЧНОЕ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ, ОТНОСЯЩЕЕСЯ К
ПОДЛЕЖАЩЕМУ И СТОЯЩЕЕ ВНУТРИ ГЛАВНОГО ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ ........... 101
UNIT 22. INTONATION OF COMPOUND SENTENCES
ИНТОНАЦИЯ СЛОЖНОСОЧИНЕННЫХ ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЙ ............................................ 102
PART III READER................................................................................................... 104
I. JOKES ...................................................................................................................................................... 104
II. TALES .................................................................................................................................................... 107
III. TEXTS ................................................................................................................................................... 111
IV. LECTURES ........................................................................................................................................... 117
V. POEMS ................................................................................................................................................... 118

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