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MODIFICATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF

A TIPPING WHEEL BARROW FOR


INDUSTRIAL USE AND CONSTRUCTION
SITES AT HOME AND FARM

BY

ERIC N. DEKERA -
AGBO A. PETER -
ADEWOLE O. JOHN -

OND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


2008/2009

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC
NASARAWA
AUGUST, 2009
MODIFICATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF A TIPPING
WHEEL BARROW FOR INDUSTRIAL USE AND
CONSTRUCTION AT HOME AND FARM SITE

A
PROJECT WORK CARRIED OUT IN PARTIAL
FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE
AWARD

OF
ORDINARY NATIONAL DIPLOMA
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

BY
ERIC N. DEKERA -
AGBO A. PETER -
ADEWOLE O. JOHN -

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,


FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC – NASARAWA, NASARAWA
STATE, NIGERIA

ii
AUGUST 2009.

CERTIFICATE OF SUBMISSION

This is to certify that this project is not the original and first work of
it’s kind undertaken by us Eric N. Dekera, Agbo A. Peter & Adewole
O. John OND Mechanical Engineering
. It is a modification of work previously done by Yusuf Iliya
Mechanical Engineering 99/1097 and Akinduro M.B. Mechanical
Engineering 99/1096 to include a mechanism for the return of the
basin after emptying in accordance with the regulation governing
the preparation and presentation of project in Federal Polytechnic
Nasarawa State.

Sign:……………………………………. Sign:
…………………………………...

SUPERVISOR HEAD OF
DEPARTMENT

Sign:……………………………………………………..
External Examiner

iii
DEDICATION

iv
ACKNOWLEGEMENT

v
ABSTRACT

Most advances in design and construction engineering do not come


about unaided. Even the most brilliant developments are based on
the firm ground of existing, proven ideas.
This project work is on an industrial wheel barrow designed with the
tipping principles with the aid of some simple devices incorporated
previously done by someone and now modified with a spring to
return after tipping.
Wheel barrow is a simple vehicle for carrying small loads, typically
being an open container supported by a wheel at the front and two
legs behind to convey in a wheel barrow.
There is a great energy exerted in the operation of the existing
wheel barrow especially in the aspect of tipping off the content
where it is used as a material handling equipment, and at
construction site for movement of materials is a thing of great
concern.
The project is a modification of/or an improvement on the existing
wheel barrow made of tipping and process of returning in use in
order to reduce to an acceptable limit the constraints associated
with its content at work place.
To this extent modification therefore, improved mechanisms, better
fasting and assembly methods, materials savings, and design
ingenuity in general are the result of an evolutionary process. One
thing helps another and design takes a step forward to keep the
cost low and increase the efficiency.
The lifting or tipping mechanism is built based on the simple lever
principle, with a spring to aid the return of the basin back to it
original position after tipping.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
Cover Page ……………………………………………………………. i
Title Page ………………………………………………………………. ii
Certification of Submission ……………………………………….. iii
Dedication ……………………………………………………………….. iv
Acknowledgment……………………………………………………….. v
Abstract…………………………………………………………………….. vi
Table of Content…………………………………………………………. vii
- viii
List of Symbols …………………………………………………………… ix

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………………1-
2
1.1 Objective …………………………………………………………………….
2
1.2 Scope…………………………………………………………………………..
3

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review …………………………………………………………
4
2.1 The Origin of Wheel Barrow…………………………………………… 5-
7
2.2 Scientific Principles (Mechanic)………………………………………..
7

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2.3 Force
Class of Lever
Springs
Laminated or Leaf Springs
Parameters for Calculating the young Modulus (G)
Time of Vibrations
Closed coiled Helical Spring with Axial Twist
Open coiled Helical Spring with Axial load
Open coil Helical Spring with Axial Twist
Stress in Circular wire of open coiled spring
Compound Springs
Bearings
Fatigue Life of bearing
CHAPTER THREE
Material selection and costing
Bulk Mechanical Properties
Bulk Non Mechanical Properties
Economic Properties
Production Properties
Long time integrity
Surface properties
Costing

CHAPTER FOUR
The construction and testing the tipping of wheel barrow
Load due to cylindrical rod round the basing top for stiffening
purpose
Load due to Main Frame (Hollow Pipe)
Estimate of shaft diameter
Determination of force required to lift the wheel barrow at full load
Design of main frame
Force required to tip off the load
Effort required to tip the loaded plan

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Construction and testing of the tipping wheel barrow
Testing of the design tipping wheel barrow
Lubrication

CHAPTER FIVE
Conclusion and Recommendation
References and Appendix

LIST OF SYMBOLS & NOTATION

DESCRIPTION SYMBOL
UNIT
1. Force/Load F N
2. Total Load W N
3. Shear stress T
MN/M2
4. Mean Diameter dm mm,m
5. Outer Diameter do mm,m
6. Factor of Safety Fs Nil
7. Bearing Pressure Pb MN/m2
8. Area A mm2, m2
9. Radius of Gyration K
10. Direct Working Stress dx MN/m2
11. Maximum Principal Stress d1
MN/m2
12. Maximum Shear Stress Lmax mm1, m
13. Length of Shaft L mm4, m4
14. Modulus of Elasticity E MM/m2
15. Effort P N

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16. Manner of Threads n
17. Diameter of Workpiece D mm
18. Stiffness k N/m
19. Modulus of Rigidity G
N/m2