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УДК 811.

111
ББК 81.2Англ-923
О-72

Рецензенты:
канд. филол. наук, доц. кафедры английского языкознания филологического
факультета МГУ имени М.В. Ломоносова А.Г. Анисимова,
канд. филол. наук, доц. кафедры английского языка № 1
МГИМО МИД России Н.В. Вороневская

В оформлении обложки была использована


иллюстрация с сайта http://честныйкалининград.рф

Осетрова, Елена Евгеньевна.


О-72 Английский язык. Выборы = Elections : учебное пособие
по общественно-политическому переводу / Е.Е. Осетрова,
М.А. Яковлева ; Моск. гос. ин-т междунар. отношений (ун-т) М-ва
иностр. дел Рос. Федерации, каф. английского языка № 1. —
Москва : МГИМО-Университет, 2017. — 188, [3] с.
ISBN 978-5-9228-1708-0
Пособие предназначено для обучения письменному и устному
переводам текстов общественно-политического содержания, посвященных
теме «Выборы», одной из наиболее актуальных тем современной политики.
Пособие продолжает развивать умения, приобретенные студентами
в рамках начального этапа модуля «общественно-политический перевод».
Адресовано студентам факультетов и отделений международных
отношений и зарубежного регионоведения (уровень B2).
УДК 811.111
ББК 81.2Англ-923

ISBN 978-5-9228-1708-0 © МГИМО МИД России, 2017


© Осетрова Е.Е., Яковлева М.А., 2017
Contents

Предисловие .......................................................................................................... 4
Unit I. Run-up to the elections. Seeking nomination ........................................... 17
Unit II. Opinion polls ........................................................................................... 40
Unit III. Casting your ballot. Election returns ..................................................... 63
Unit IV. Electoral fraud ........................................................................................ 86
Unit V. Taking office. Cabinet reshuffle ........................................................... 111
Unit VI. Revision (with keys) ............................................................................ 139
Supplementary Reader ....................................................................................... 158
Appendix ............................................................................................................ 181
Предисловие

Данное учебное пособие предназначено для обучения письменному


и устному переводам текстов общественно-политического содержания,
посвященных теме выборов, одной из наиболее актуальных тем современной
политики (в рамках программы бакалавриата, уровень В2).
Настоящее пособие развивает умения, приобретенные студентами
в рамках начального этапа модуля «общественно-политический перевод».
Предложенный материал способствует дальнейшему развитию речевой
и языковой компетенций, предусмотренных программой модуля
«Общественно-политический перевод-5» для студентов третьего курса
продолжающего и начинающего потока, изучающих английский как первый
иностранный, уровень «Бакалавриат» направления «Международные
отношения» и «Зарубежное регионоведение», а также программой модуля
«Общественно-политический перевод-6» для студентов третьего курса
продолжающего и начинающего потока, изучающих английский как второй
иностранный, уровень «Бакалавриат» направления «Международные
отношения» и «Зарубежное регионоведение».
Данное учебное пособие ставит своей целью формировать и развивать
следующие умения студентов, являющиеся важнейшим и центральным
компонентами вышеуказанных компетенций:
- умение выполнять письменный перевод текстов общественно-
политической тематики с английского языка на русский и с русского языка
на английский;
- умение выполнять зрительно-устный перевод текстов общественно-
политической тематики с английского языка на русский;
- умение устно аннотировать на английском языке предлагаемые
материалы общественно-политической тематики;

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- умение анализировать материалы СМИ, составлять обзоры прессы по
теме «Выборы», понимать описание политических событий, связанных с
данной темой.
Учебное пособие ставит перед собой следующие дидактические задачи:
- обеспечить формирование умения адекватно понимать содержание
текста на одном языке и передавать его путем создания текста на другом
языке (на материале актуальных текстов из англоязычной и российской
прессы, посвященных теме «Выборы»);
- развивать умение пользоваться словарями, справочниками и
дополнительными источниками информации при переводе текстов
общественно-политической тематики;
- развивать умение осуществлять переводческий выбор, применять
навык переводческой догадки, распознавать так называемых «ложных
друзей» переводчика, быстро принимать правильные решения, обнаруживать
и сопоставлять лингвистические и экстралингвистические данные;
- увеличить объём активного словарного запаса учащихся (не менее,
чем на 250 единиц).
Структура и содержание учебного пособия соответствуют
вышеуказанной цели развивать упомянутые компетенции, обязательные для
специалиста-международника. Учебное пособие состоит из 6 уроков, каждый
из которых посвящен одному из аспектов темы «Выборы». Урок 1 – “Run-up
to the election. Seeking Nomination”, Урок 2 – “Opinion polls”, Урок 3 –
“Rounds of voting. Casting your ballot”, Урок 4 – “Electoral fraud”, Урок 5 –
“Taking Office. Cabinet Reshuffle”, Урок 6 – “Revision”. Текстовый материал
пособия является аутентичным и современным: в качестве источников
использовались статьи из современных англоязычных газет и журналов, а
также англо- и русскоязычных новостных сайтов. Кроме того, пособие
содержит дополнительный раздел “US Elections. Supplementary Reader”,
который знакомит студентов с фактологической информацией, касающейся
сложной и запутанной системы выборов в США, коренным образом

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отличающейся от избирательных систем других стран. В связи с тем, что
в пособии присутствует большое количество текстов, посвященных выборам
в США, данный раздел поможет студентам лучше ориентироваться в данной
теме и, следовательно, облегчит процесс перевода.
Материал каждого урока (за исключением Урока 6 “Revision”)
предваряется разделом “Translation Matters”, включающим переводческий
комментарий, который посвящен определенным трудностям в переводе
с английского языка на русский и способам их преодоления, а также задания
для первичного усвоения этих способов.
Затем следует набор актуальных текстов из англо-американской прессы
по теме урока, курсивом в которых отмечены конструкции, представляющие
собой выделенные и объясненные выше переводческие трудности. Данные
тексты могут использоваться как для письменного перевода, так и для
зрительно-устного перевода (в зависимости от уровня группы). Начинающим
группам целесообразно сначала выполнять письменный (то есть
подготовленный) перевод и только затем переходить к зрительно-устному
переводу (то есть переводу неподготовленному). Продолжающие группы
могут выполнять данные виды работы параллельно.
Уроки 1–5 содержат тематический словарь, привязанный к указанным
статьям. Закрепление данной лексики происходит в упражнениях II–VII, где
студентам предлагается перевести с английского языка на русский
словосочетания, относящиеся к теме урока, перевести предложения
с английского на русский язык, раскрыть скобки и вставить активные
лексические единицы в необходимой грамматической форме, раскрыть
скобки и перевести с русского на английский язык указанные слова
и словосочетания с использованием активного словаря в необходимой
грамматической форме, перевести с английского на русский язык
журнальные и газетные заголовки, содержащие активные лексические
единицы, перевести с русского на английский язык предложения и тексты,
посвященные актуальной теме урока. Все вышеуказанные упражнения (за

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исключением упражнения II) могут быть использованы как для письменного,
так и для зрительно-устного перевода.
В каждом уроке содержатся упражнения повышенной сложности,
обозначенные **, а именно:
1) упражнение II (b), в котором студентам предлагается объяснить
на английском языке значение представленных словосочетаний.
Данное упражнение позволяет студентам развить свою речевую
компетенцию и обогащает их словарный запас;
2) упражнение III (B), в котором представлены предложения повышенной
для перевода сложности;
3) упражнение VII (В) (за исключением Урока 1, где упражнение VII (B)
отсутствует), содержащее тексты для перевода с русского языка на
английский (данное упражнение предназначено для групп, изучающих
английский как основной, на регулярной основе выполняющих данный
вид работы);
4) упражнение IX, предполагающее комментирование на английском
языке представленных карикатур, посвященных теме урока.
Упражнение IX знакомит студентов с реалиями выборных кампаний
в разных странах и способствует расширению кругозора и развитию
речевой компетенции учащихся (то есть использованию в речи
накопленного лексического материала по теме «Выборы»).
В конце всех уроков 1–5 представлен итоговый текст, содержащий
активную лексику урока и выделенные в нем переводческие трудности,
который позволяет проверить степень усвоения учащимися пройденного
материала.
Урок 6 “Revision” позволяет усовершенствовать приобретенные в ходе
работы над материалом переводческие умения. Он включает упражнения на
перевод с английского языка на русский предложений, содержащих
изученные в пособии переводческие трудности, упражнения на проверку
усвоения активных лексических единиц, а также тексты на перевод

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с русского языка на английский. Материал данного урока может быть
использован и для самостоятельной работы студентов: он снабжен ключами
к упражнениям, чтобы учащиеся после проработки заданий смогли
проверить себя.
Рекомендуемое количество учебных часов на каждый урок составляет
примерно 8 часов аудиторной работы и 6 часов самостоятельной работы
учащихся.
Работа над материалом предполагает следующее:
- ознакомление с лексикой в представленных текстах на уровне
понимания смысла высказывания;
- развитие переводческих умений на уровне отдельных лексических
единиц и словосочетаний;
- закрепление приобретённого умения свободно использовать
активную лексику урока при переводе с английского языка на русский и с
русского языка на английский любых текстов, посвященных теме «Выборы»;
- ознакомление с грамматическими конструкциями и лексическими
особенностями, представляющими трудность при переводе с английского
языка на русский, а также развитие умения распознавать такие конструкции;
- применение предложенных в пособии стратегий по преодолению
таких трудностей.
Самостоятельная работа студентов позволяет закрепить и углубить
знания, полученные на практических занятиях, развить приобретенные
переводческие умения. Вдумчивое выполнение всех видов упражнений данного
пособия способствует формированию устойчивых переводческих умений.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов факультетов
международных отношений и зарубежного регионоведения, а также
факультетов иностранных языков, политического и юридического профиля
на этапе изучения курса общественно-политического перевода.

8
ВЫДЕРЖКА ИЗ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЙ ПРОГРАММЫ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ
«ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК (АНГЛИЙСКИЙ, ОСНОВНОЙ ПРОДОЛЖАЮЩИЙ)»

УРОВЕНЬ – «БАКАЛАВРИАТ»

ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНЫЕ СТАНДАРТЫ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ МГИМО МИД


РОССИИ1

Настоящая программа по курсу (дисциплине) «Английский язык», модуль


«Общественно-политический перевод» предназначена для студентов
продолжающего потока факультета международных отношений по
направлению подготовки 41.03.05 – «Международные отношения», и
41.03.01 – «Зарубежное регионоведение».

Квалификация (степень) – «бакалавр»

Уровень владения иноязычной компетенцией – В2.

МОДУЛЬ «ОБЩЕСТВЕННО-ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ ПЕРЕВОД-5»

Цели и задачи: развитие переводческой, речевой и языковой компетенций.

Содержание:

Умения и навыки:

выполнять письменный перевод текстов общественно-политической


тематики с английского языка на русский и с русского языка на
английский;

выполнять зрительно-устный перевод текстов общественно-политической


тематики;

выполнять абзацно-фразовый перевод кратких сообщений


информационного характера с английского языка на русский и с русского
языка на английский.

Знания:

1. Общие вопросы лингвистики и перевода

Виды информации, заложенные в тексте высказывания: внеречевая


ситуация, отношение говорящего, ориентация на слушающего;
необходимость передачи идеологической направленности материала.
Достижение адекватности перевода путем лексико-грамматических
трансформаций.
1
http://mgimo.ru/official/5/

9
2. Лексико-грамматические вопросы перевода

Функциональные соответствия структур английского языка,


отсутствующих в русском языке: герундий и герундиальный комплекс,
абсолютные конструкции, причастные обороты. Перевод конструкций с
двойным управлением.

3. Лексико-семантические вопросы перевода

Перевод терминов и реалий, названий произведений литературы и


искусства. Пояснения и примечания переводчика.

4. Стилистические и прагматические вопросы перевода

Понятие функциональных стилей. Особенности языка и манеры подачи


материала в англоязычной и русской прессе. Особенности структуры
газетных заголовков.

Предметно-лексические темы:

1. Выборы и избирательные системы.


2. Государственное устройство США.

Форма контроля:

Письменный перевод с английского языка на русский текста общественно-


политического характера со словарем (объем около 300 слов, 1200-1400
п.зн.). Проверяет комплексные умения студента письменно переводить
связанный текст и пользоваться словарем. Время выполнения – 90 мин.

Письменный перевод с русского языка на английский текста общественно-


политического характера (без словаря). Объем – около 200 слов, 900 п. зн.
Время выполнения – 45 мин. Проверяет умение студента осуществлять
перевод с применением лексических клише общественно-политического
характера и стандартных грамматических конструкций.

Зрительно-устный перевод с английского языка на русский текста


общественно-политической тематики (объем около 700-800 п. зн.). Время
выполнения – 5-7 минут. Проверяет комплексные умения перевода с листа
и знание тематического словаря.

10
ВЫДЕРЖКА ИЗ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЙ ПРОГРАММЫ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ
«ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК (АНГЛИЙСКИЙ, ОСНОВНОЙ НАЧИНАЮЩИЙ)»

УРОВЕНЬ – «БАКАЛАВРИАТ»

ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНЫЕ СТАНДАРТЫ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ МГИМО МИД


РОССИИ2

Настоящая программа по курсу (дисциплине) «Английский язык», модуль


«Общественно-политический перевод» предназначена для студентов
начинающего потока факультета международных отношений по
направлению подготовки 41.03.05– «Международные отношения», и 41.03.01
– «Зарубежное регионоведение».

Квалификация (степень) – «бакалавр»

Уровень владения иноязычной компетенцией – В2.

МОДУЛЬ «ОБЩЕСТВЕННО-ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ ПЕРЕВОД-5»

Цели и задачи: развитие переводческой, речевой и языковой компетенций.

Содержание:

Умения и навыки:

выполнять письменный перевод текстов общественно-политической


тематики с английского языка на русский и с русского языка на английский;

выполнять зрительно-устный перевод текстов общественно-политической


тематики;

выполнять абзацно-фразовый перевод кратких сообщений информационного


характера с английского языка на русский и с русского языка на английский.

Знания:

1. Общие вопросы лингвистики и перевода

Виды информации, заложенные в тексте высказывания: внеречевая ситуация,


отношение говорящего, ориентация на слушающего; необходимость
передачи идеологической направленности материала. Достижение
адекватности перевода путем лексико-грамматических трансформаций.

2. Лексико-грамматические вопросы перевода

2
http://mgimo.ru/official/5/

11
Функциональные соответствия структур английского языка, отсутствующих
в русском языке: герундий и герундиальный комплекс, абсолютные
конструкции, причастные обороты. Перевод конструкций с двойным
управлением.

3. Лексико-семантические вопросы перевода

Перевод терминов и реалий, названий произведений литературы и искусства.


Пояснения и примечания переводчика.

4. Стилистические и прагматические вопросы перевода

Понятие функциональных стилей. Особенности языка и манеры подачи


материала в англоязычной и русской прессе. Особенности структуры
газетных заголовков.

Предметно-лексические темы:

1. Выборы и избирательные системы.


2. Государственное устройство США.

Форма контроля:

Письменный перевод с английского языка на русский текста общественно-


политического характера со словарем (объем около 300 слов, 1200-1400
п.зн.). Проверяет комплексные умения студента письменно переводить
связанный текст и пользоваться словарем. Время выполнения – 90 мин.

Письменный перевод с русского языка на английский текста общественно-


политического характера (без словаря). Объем – около 200 слов, 900 п. зн.
Время выполнения – 45 мин. Проверяет умение студента осуществлять
перевод с применением лексических клише общественно-политического
характера и стандартных грамматических конструкций.

Зрительно-устный перевод с английского языка на русский текста


общественно-политической тематики (объем около 700-800 п. зн.). Время
выполнения – 5-7 минут. Проверяет комплексные умения перевода с листа и
знание тематического словаря.

12
ВЫДЕРЖКА ИЗ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЙ ПРОГРАММЫ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ
«ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК (АНГЛИЙСКИЙ, ВТОРОЙ ПРОДОЛЖАЮЩИЙ)»

УРОВЕНЬ – «БАКАЛАВРИАТ»

ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНЫЕ СТАНДАРТЫ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ МГИМО МИД


РОССИИ3

Настоящая программа по курсу (дисциплине) «Английский язык», модуль


«Общественно-политический перевод» предназначена для студентов
продолжающего потока факультета международных отношений по
направлению подготовки 41.03.05– «Международные отношения», и 41.03.01 –
«Зарубежное регионоведение».

Квалификация (степень) – «бакалавр»

Уровень владения иноязычной компетенцией – В2.

МОДУЛЬ «ОБЩЕСТВЕННО-ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ ПЕРЕВОД-6»

Цели и задачи: развитие переводческой, речевой и языковой компетенций.

Содержание:

Умения и навыки:

выполнять письменный перевод текстов общественно-политической тематики с


английского языка на русский и с русского языка на английский;

выполнять письменный перевод официальных документов;

выполнять зрительно-устный перевод текстов общественно-политической


тематики;

устно аннотировать на русском и английском языках фономатериалы на


английском языке по общественно-политической тематике

Знания:

1. Общие вопросы лингвистики и перевода

Виды информации, заложенные в тексте высказывания: внеречевая ситуация,


отношение говорящего, ориентация на слушающего; необходимость передачи
идеологической направленности материала. Адекватный перевод как передача
всей полноты информации на основе принципа эквивалентности. Достижение
эквивалентности путем лексико-грамматических трансформаций.
3
http://mgimo.ru/official/5/

13
2. Лексико-грамматические вопросы перевода

Перевод пассивных конструкций. Передача видовременных значений, перевод


согласования времен. Перевод конструкций с двойным управлением.
Функциональные замены для выражения значений артикля в английском языке.
Трансформации при переводе: изменение порядка слов, замена частей речи,
изменение структуры предложения, введение или опущение слов, вызванное
грамматической перестройкой.

3. Лексико-семантические вопросы перевода

Многозначность слова: работа со словарями. Перевод терминов, реалий,


собственных имен и географических названий, названий органов печати,
организаций, предприятий, произведений литературы и искусства. Приемы
перевода безэквивалентной лексики: транслитерация, транскрипция,
калькирование, описательный перевод. Пояснения и примечания переводчика.

4. Стилистические и прагматические вопросы перевода

Типическая структура первого параграфа информационного материала в


англоязычной газете и необходимые структурно-синтаксические
трансформации при переводе.

Предметно-лексические темы

1. Изучение языка международных документов на примере Устава ООН.


2. «Система выборов» - теория и практика на материале статей о выборах в
США, России и др.странах.

Форма контроля:

1. Письменный перевод с использованием словаря с английского языка на


русский текста общественно-политического характера (объем – около 350
слов, 1200-1400 печатных знаков). Проверяет комплексные умения
студента письменно переводить связный текст и пользоваться словарем.
Время выполнения – 60 мин.
2. Письменный перевод без словаря с русского на английский язык
предложений общественно-политического характера на материале Устава
ООН (объем - около 900 печатных знаков). Проверяет комплексные
умения студента пользоваться изученным активным словарем и
активными грамматическими конструкциями при переводе без
использования словаря. Время выполнения – 30 мин.

Зрительно-устный перевод статьи по пройденной общественно-политической


тематике без использования словаря и предварительной подготовки с
английского языка на русский (объем – около 700-800 п.зн.).

14
ВЫДЕРЖКА ИЗ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЙ ПРОГРАММЫ ДИСЦИПЛИНЫ
«ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК (АНГЛИЙСКИЙ, ВТОРОЙ НАЧИНАЮЩИЙ)»

УРОВЕНЬ – «БАКАЛАВРИАТ»

ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНЫЕ СТАНДАРТЫ ВЫСШЕГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ МГИМО МИД


РОССИИ4

Настоящая программа по курсу (дисциплине) «Английский язык», модуль


«Общественно-политический перевод» предназначена для студентов
продолжающего потока факультета международных отношений по
направлению подготовки 41.03.05– «Международные отношения», и 41.03.01 –
«Зарубежное регионоведение».

Квалификация (степень) – «бакалавр»

Уровень владения иноязычной компетенцией – В2.

МОДУЛЬ «ОБЩЕСТВЕННО-ПОЛИТИЧЕСКИЙ ПЕРЕВОД-6»

Цели и задачи: развитие переводческой, речевой и языковой компетенций.

Содержание:

Умения и навыки:
выполнять письменный перевод текстов общественно-политической тематики с
английского языка на русский и с русского языка на английский;

выполнять письменный перевод официальных документов;

выполнять зрительно-устный перевод текстов общественно-политической


тематики;
устно аннотировать на русском и английском языках фономатериалы на
английском языке по общественно-политической тематике

Знания:
1. Общие вопросы лингвистики и перевода

Виды информации, заложенные в тексте высказывания: внеречевая ситуация,


отношение говорящего, ориентация на слушающего; необходимость передачи
идеологической направленности материала. Адекватный перевод как передача
всей полноты информации на основе принципа эквивалентности. Достижение
эквивалентности путем лексико-грамматических трансформаций.

2. Лексико-грамматические вопросы перевода

4
http://mgimo.ru/official/5/

15
Перевод пассивных конструкций. Передача видовременных значений, перевод
согласования времен. Перевод конструкций с двойным управлением.
Функциональные замены для выражения значений артикля в английском языке.
Трансформации при переводе: изменение порядка слов, замена частей речи,
изменение структуры предложения, введение или опущение слов, вызванное
грамматической перестройкой.

3. Лексико-семантические вопросы перевода

Многозначность слова: работа со словарями. Перевод терминов, реалий,


собственных имен и географических названий, названий органов печати,
организаций, предприятий, произведений литературы и искусства. Приемы
перевода безэквивалентной лексики: транслитерация, транскрипция,
калькирование, описательный перевод. Пояснения и примечания переводчика.

4. Стилистические и прагматические вопросы перевода

Типическая структура первого параграфа информационного материала в


англоязычной газете и необходимые структурно-синтаксические
трансформации при переводе.

Предметно-лексические темы

1. Изучение языка международных документов на примере Устава ООН.

2. «Система выборов» - теория и практика на материале статей о выборах в


США, России и др.странах.

Форма контроля:

1. Письменный перевод с использованием словаря с английского языка на


русский текста общественно-политического характера (объем – около 350 слов,
1200-1400 печатных знаков). Проверяет комплексные умения студента
письменно переводить связный текст и пользоваться словарем. Время
выполнения – 60 мин.

2. Письменный перевод без словаря с русского на английский язык


предложений общественно-политического характера на материале Устава ООН
(объем - около 900 печатных знаков). Проверяет комплексные умения студента
пользоваться изученным активным словарем и активными грамматическими
конструкциями при переводе без использования словаря. Время выполнения –
30 мин.

Зрительно-устный перевод статьи по пройденной общественно-политической


тематике без использования словаря и предварительной подготовки с
английского языка на русский (объем – около 700-800 п.зн.).
UNIT I. RUN-UP TO THE ELECTION. SEEKING NOMINATION

TRANSLATION MATTERS
Переводческий комментарий и упражнения

A. Место смыслового центра в русском и английском предложении может не


совпадать. В русском повествовательном предложении новая информация
(«рема») расположена в конце, а старая («тема») – в начале; в английском
предложении новая информация («рема») вводится при помощи
неопределенного (в случае с исчисляемыми существительными) или
нулевого (в случае с неисчисляемыми) артикля, а старая («тема») – при
помощи определенного артикля. При переводе такого рода предложений с
английского языка на русский используется обратный порядок слов5:

A delegation arrived in Moscow. – В Москву прибыла делегация.

The delegation arrived in Moscow. – Делегация прибыла в Москву.

PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. Whether it’s Trump or Clinton, a Democrat will be elected in November.


2. Barack Obama is confident a Democrat will succeed him.
3. Two Democrats will face off for California’s U.S. Senate seat, marking the
first time a Republican will not be in contention.
4. A scuffle broke out between opposition party members and electoral
commission officials.
5. Even before “Penelopegate”, cracks had begun to show in Fillon’s
presidential campaign in recent weeks.
6. An extraordinary battle between Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton could be
taking shape in the 2016 presidential race after the two candidates won
crucial victories in the Republican and Democratic contests for the White
House.
7. A snap election began in Lesotho on Saturday, two years earlier than
scheduled and six months after an attempted coup plunged the small
southern African nation into crisis. (see Com. B)
8. A leftwing, independent candidate has narrowly prevented Austria from
becoming the first EU country to elect a far-right head of state after a knife-
edge contest ended with his opponent conceding defeat. (see Com. D)

B. В целях корректного выделения смыслового центра при переводе с


английского языка на русский в некоторых случаях следует заменять
русским обстоятельством места, времени или причины английское

5
См. также Бреус Е.В. Теория и практика перевода с английского языка на русский. – М.,
2001. – с. 23-27; Гуськова Т.И., Зиборова Г.М. Трудности перевода. – М., 2000. – с.86.

17
подлежащее, выраженное существительным, обозначающим понятие или
неодушевленные предметы или являющимся именем собственным, или же
существительным вместе с количественным или порядковым
числительным, обозначающими дату (XXI век, 1995 год). При переводе с
русского языка на английский обстоятельства места, времени или
причины часто становятся подлежащими.

Serbia is to hold elections on Sunday. – В воскресенье в Сербии пройдут


выборы.

1998 saw a sharp economic decline. – В 1998 году наблюдался резкий


экономический спад.

The coup ousted the president. – В результате переворота президент был


отстранен от должности.

PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. The conflict has claimed more than 100,000 lives.


2. The result gave New Democracy 165 seats in the 300-member Parliament.
3. It is the first time Georgia has seen a peaceful transfer of power through
elections and not a revolution or armed uprising, since the Soviet Union
collapsed two decades ago.
4. Myanmar’s president has praised the historic by-elections that on Sunday
swept opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi into parliament.
5. The current contest will choose a parliament that will select a president in
March.
6. The last election produced 75 per cent support for the PAP government
under Mr Lee’s popular predecessor.
7. The decision establishes him as an immediate front-runner among election
hopefuls including six hardliners and two reformers.
8. The list published yesterday leaves most prominent rivals to the president’s
re-election bid in the race.
9. A series of gaffes over Iraq and the War on Terror, and U-turns over trade
and health policy, has raised fears among the Democrats that he will be easy
meat for his rival.
10.Lugu has been in office for just 19 months after he first took power last year
when he beat Hichilema by fewer than 28,000 votes in a snap election
following the death in office of president Michael Sata. His reelection will
see him remain in power for another 5-year term.
11. But a controversial resolution by NRM Parliamentary caucus passed in
February 2014 has allowed the President to run uncontested in the general
election.

18
C. В общественно-политических текстах на английском языке широко
используются инфинитивные конструкции, в том числе конструкции со
сложным подлежащим (Complex Subject). Предложение, содержащее
такую конструкцию, обычно переводится сложноподчиненным
предложением, в котором главное предложение – неопределенно-личное
предложение типа говорят, сообщается, ожидается и т.п., вводящее при
помощи союза что придаточное дополнительное, сказуемое в котором
стоит в настоящем или будущем времени6:
The prime minister is expected to resign soon. – Ожидается, что в скором
времени премьер-министр подаст в отставку.

Необходимо обратить внимание на то, что предложения со сложным


подлежащим, где действие субъекта передается перфектным инфинитивом,
переводятся в соответствии с моделью, указанной выше, только сказуемое
придаточного предложения на русском языке стоит в прошедшем времени:
He is reported to have signed the bill. – Сообщается, что он уже подписал этот
закон. Также при переводе предложений со сложным подлежащим вместо
сложноподчинённых предложений могут использоваться вводные слова,
например: по-видимому, вероятно или частицы: вряд ли, едва:
He is unlikely to arrive next week. – Вряд ли он приедет на следующей неделе.

PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. Iran’s supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, is 78 and believed to be


suffering from ill health.
2. For Mr. Marcos’s famous mother and former first lady, Imelda, now 86,
there is already a sense of disappointment: she was widely reported to be
urging her son—who is known widely by his nickname, Bongbong—to aim
higher and run for president.
3. As well as May, there are likely to be other MPs who campaigned for
remain who want to put up a fight against Johnson.
4. Hollande is publicly reserving judgment, but is believed to privately
support Macron.
5. Regardless of whether she runs, the conservative Tea Party movement can
be expected to have an outsized influence during the presidential primaries.
6. Such allegations about key members of Fujimori's team seem to have ruined
her attempts to distance herself from her father's legacy.
7. Rutte was also thought to have benefited from his firm handling of a fierce
row with Turkey over the government’s refusal to allow Turkish ministers to
address rallies of Dutch Turks before a referendum next month.

6
См. подробнее Гуськова Т.И., Зиборова Г.М. Трудности перевода. – М., 2000. – с.13-16.

19
8. Two long-shot candidates, former corporate executive Carly Fiorina and
retired physician Ben Carson, are expected to enter the race in early May.
New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie and Ohio Gov. John Kasich are telling
supporters they are still deciding whether to throw their hats into the ring.
9. Governorships in 11 of the country’s 23 provinces were also up for grabs in
the election, including Santa Cruz, where Mr. Kirchner was governor for
more than a decade before being elected president in 2003. His sister, Alicia
Kirchner, appeared likely to keep the seat in Peronist hands.
10.Leadsom is said by some leave campaigners to have been preparing for a
leadership bid for many months. In a contest, she would be likely to stress
her background in finance to help steer the country through rough economic
times or she could potentially try to run on a joint ticket with Johnson in the
hope of making chancellor.

D. Часто инфинитив в английском предложении выступает в функции


определения. Он может переводиться определительным придаточным
предложением, часто с модальным глагольным сказуемым, выражающим
возможность или долженствование, или же глаголом-сказуемым в
будущем времени, а также просто инфинитивом.7
Отдельно надо упомянуть случаи перевода инфинитива в функции
определения, вводимого словом the last, а также порядковыми
числительными, выполняющими функцию предикативного члена, например:
the first, the second. Такой инфинитив переводится личной формой глагола в
том же времени, что и глагол-сказуемое главного предложения:

Hillary Clinton will be the first woman to ever become the presidential nominee
for a major political party in the United States. – Хиллари Клинтон станет
первой женщиной в истории США – кандидатом на президентский пост от
ведущей политической партии.

PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. Penelopegate is the first major political scandal to hit the French


presidential race and it could prove fatal.
2. Hillary Clinton will announce her presidential candidacy on Sunday, seeking
to become the first woman in history to win the nation’s highest office,
several news organizations reported Friday.
3. The last leader to return an opposition to power after just one term out of
government was Margaret Thatcher, in 1979.
4. Merkel's performance was compared to that of Adenauer, who was the last
chancellor to secure a Bundestag majority without need of a coalition
partner, in 1957.

7
См. подробнее Гуськова Т.И., Зиборова Г.М. Трудности перевода. – М., 2000. – с.6-7.

20
5. The former Vermont governor is the only candidate to have generated
momentum in the polls and buzz in the media.
6. Days later on 1 December the embattled Hollande gave up the fight. While
not entirely unexpected, this was a major upset. Hollande will go down in
history as the first living French president since the second world war not to
attempt to stand for re-election.
7. The victories by Trump and Clinton solidified their positions as the front-
runners to win their parties' respective presidential nominations ahead of the
Nov. 8 election.
8. No attempt to abolish the electoral college and replace it with direct popular
election of the president has ever made significant headway.
9. Mr. Miliband’s latest move to come under fire was to carve his campaign
promises on an 8-foot-tall stone tablet, unveiled last weekend, to signal how
unchangeable he is. The gimmick drew guffaws from Conservatives
including London Mayor Boris Johnson, who asked in a newspaper column:
“What was he smoking?”
10.A notable moment was when Defense Secretary Michael Fallon last month
accused Mr. Miliband of having “stabbed his own brother in the back” when
he defeated his sibling in a 2010 contest to lead Labour.

I. Read and translate the texts using the Topic Vocabulary list. Pay special
attention to italicized constructions and words (see Translation
Matters on pp. 17-21 for guidance and translation practice).

1. Thailand: Large-Scale Violence Feared in Run-Up to Polls


Blood was spilt in the streets of Bangkok once again on Sunday. (See Com. A, p.17) With
disputed general elections set to commence in a week’s time, antigovernment demonstrators
loyal to the People’s Democratic Reform Committee (PDRC) clashed with supporters of Prime
Minister’s Yingluck Shinawatra’s embattled administration leaving at least one PDRC protest
leader dead and another 11 demonstrators injured.
Pictures of would-be voters being verbally abused, and in one case strangled, by protesters went
viral on social networking sites, calcifying an ever-widening political divide that has continually
deepened in the eight years since a military coup unseated the popularly elected Thaksin
Shinawatra. (See Com. B, p.17)
Following Sunday’s unrest, analysts warned that unless serious talks commence between
Thailand’s warring parties, large-scale violence could erupt as Thais head to the polls for
elections that are still scheduled for next Sunday.

2. UN concerned by DR Congo tensions in run-up to vote


United Nations (United States) – The United Nations’ envoy to the Democratic Republic of
Congo warned Wednesday that Kinshasa was clamping down on the opposition ahead of next
year’s elections and urged authorities to hold credible polls.

21
“The political space is shrinking for opponents,” Martin Kobler told journalists following a
meeting of the UN Security Council on the DR Congo. “It’s important to have a credible,
balanced electoral process,” he said.
In power since 2001, President Joseph Kabila is barred under the constitution from seeking a
third term in elections expected in November of next year. But opponents accuse him of
maneuvering to stay in power.

3. Running without a Bhutto: Pakistan’s ruling party struggles in run up


to election
ISLAMABAD – The campaign posters for the Pakistan People’s Party show both why it has
been so popular for so long and why it’s in trouble ahead of this Saturday’s national election:
two of the party icons on the posters are dead and a third is not old enough to be a candidate.
As the historic vote approaches, one of South Asia’s most venerable parties has problems. The
party rode to power in 2008 on a wave of sympathy following the assassination of longtime party
leader Benazir Bhutto but now it is struggling after five unpopular years in office. Their
campaign was made even more difficult after Taliban threats made it dangerous to hold public
political functions, so the party’s leader and current star, Bhutto’s son, hasn’t done rallies to fire
up the faithful. The result has been a subdued campaign for the incumbent party.
At 24, Bilawal Bhutto Zardari can’t run for parliament but he’s the most famous living Bhutto in
a party that’s synonymous with the name. Bilawal — known generally by his first name — was
only 19 when his mother died. His father was named by his deceased wife in her will as the
leader of the PPP, but the elder Zardari immediately handed that post to his son.
Bilawal was away at college in Britain so in practice his father ran the party for the next five
years, but on December 27, the younger Zardari was formally launched into Pakistani politics at
a ceremony on the anniversary of his mother’s death.

4. Hillary Clinton to launch 2016 campaign on Sunday en route to Iowa

Hillary Clinton is planning to officially launch her US presidential campaign on Sunday while en
route to Iowa, a source familiar with the campaign has confirmed to the Guardian.
The former secretary of state is scheduled to declare her second run for president on Twitter at
noon eastern time on Sunday, the source told the Guardian, followed by a video and email
announcement, then a series of conference calls mapping out a blitzkrieg tour beginning in Iowa
and looking ahead to more early primary states. (See Com. C, p.19)

22
Clinton’s Sunday schedule is booked beginning with takeoff from New York to Iowa, where
speculation has centered for weeks that Clinton was focusing attention for an April campaign
launch. Her scheduled calls are with advisers in other key battleground states.
Clinton will be the first Democratic presidential candidate to declare for the 2016 presidential
election, and is widely considered the frontrunner within the party. (See Com. D, p.20)
Former Senator Jim Webb has launched an exploratory committee, as have several Republican
contenders. But Clinton’s declaration of her second run for the White House was expected to
send political shockwaves across the world, with the potential for the first female president of the
United States. (See Com. C, p.19)
But Iowa, where Clinton finished third behind Barack Obama and former Senator John Edwards
in the early caucus in 2008, has been seen as a potential weak spot for a campaign juggernaut.
It is understood that Clinton’s campaign headquarters will be based in Brooklyn, New York,
following reports last week that office space had been leased in the Brooklyn Heights
neighbourhood. Under federal election rules, candidates have a limited window to pay for offices
and staffers without declaring their candidacy.

5. Boris Johnson and Theresa May set to announce Tory leadership bids

Theresa May and Boris Johnson will on Thursday both announce they are running to become
leader of the Conservative party, with each claiming to be the unifying candidate Britain needs
as its prime minister after the divisive EU referendum.
The home secretary will be the first to make her ambitions known in a speech at around 9.30am,
saying the UK needs to be “a country that works not for a privileged few but for every one of us”
(See Com. D, p.21). Johnson, who is widely considered the frontrunner after leading the leave
campaign, will make his own declaration at around 11.30am – just half an hour before the
deadline for nominations closes (See Com. C, p.19). He is expected to run on a joint ticket with
Michael Gove, the justice secretary and fellow Brexiter, who will be promised a big job if he
wins (Ibid.).
May and Johnson are thought the most likely to make it on to the shortlist of two candidates
produced by MPs, which will be voted on by the Conservative membership of 150,000-odd
people over the summer (Ibid.).
Both are now expected to shy away from the idea of a snap general election after winning, as the
idea has proved unpopular with backbenchers who fought one so recently (Ibid.).
After the two announcements, the contest will kick off formally at midday and the candidates
are expected to take part in hustings over the coming weeks (Ibid.). Party members will then
vote on a shortlist of two, with the winner announced on 9 September in time for party
conference season.

23
6. Britain’s Theresa May launches bid to succeed PM

LONDON – Interior minister Theresa May vowed to unite Britain as she launched her bid to
succeed David Cameron as prime minister with a letter to The Times published today. (See Com.
D, p.20)
The Conservative leader resigned in the wake of Britain’s vote to leave the European Union in a
June 23 referendum that sent shockwaves through the continent. (Ibid.)
Like Cameron, May supported remaining in the bloc but played a low-key and conciliatory role
in the campaign that has seen her tipped as a unifying figure.
In a swipe at her main rival, the mop-haired former mayor of London and prominent “Leave”
campaigner Boris Johnson who projects an eccentric and amiable image, May wrote that a leader
was needed who understood hardship. “Some need to be told that what the government does isn’t
a game, it’s a serious business that has real consequences for people’s lives,” May wrote.
Cameron promoted the 59-year-old vicar’s daughter to Home Secretary following his 2010
election victory and she kept the role after his 2015 re-election.
Known as a hardliner on immigration, May’s stern demeanour and wardrobe of sober suits have
drawn comparisons with 1980s Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.
Cameron’s successor is expected to take office in early September and will face the prospect of
assuming negotiations with the EU on Britain’s relationship with the bloc and a decision on
whether to call an early election. (See Com. C, p.19)

TOPIC VOCABULARY
1. polls/election(s) выборы
general elections всеобщие выборы
national elections общенациональные выборы
parliamentary elections парламентские выборы
presidential elections президентские выборы
early elections досрочные выборы
snap elections внеочередные выборы
by elections дополнительные выборы
midterm elections промежуточные выборы
direct/indirect elections прямые/непрямые выборы
free and fair elections свободные и демократические выборы

24
transparent elections прозрачные (транспарентные) выборы
fresh elections новые выборы
run-up to elections период подготовки к выборам
syn. lead-up/build-up to elections

coup 1. переворот; 2. удача, успех


to unseat smb сместить к-л с поста, свергнуть
syn. to oust/to topple/ to depose/
to remove from office
n. ouster/ousting, removal from смещение с должности
office
popularly elected избранный народом
popular vote народное голосование; голоса
избирателей, в отличие от
electoral vote (голоса членов
коллегии выборщиков США -
electoral college)
2. to hold/conduct elections проводить выборы
n. conduct of elections проведение выборов
to cancel elections отменить выборы
to call elections объявить, назначить выборы
to schedule elections for…. запланировать проведение выборов на…
to boycott elections бойкотировать выборы
to postpone/to delay отсрочить, перенести выборы
to dispute elections оспаривать результаты выборов
to seek a third term добиваться выдвижения на третий срок
to be barred from sth/doing не иметь право делать ч-л, не быть
sth допущенным к ч-л
syn. to be excluded from sth
ant. to be entitled to do sth иметь право сделать ч-л
3. to run for parliament/ for баллотироваться, выдвигать свою
president(for the presidency) кандидатуру в парламент/на пост
президента

25
syn. to stand for (BrE)
to run/to stand against smb выставлять свою кандидатуру против к-л
office должность, пост
term of office/tenure срок пребывания в должности
consecutive /straight term of последующий, идущий подряд срок
office
to take/assume office занять должность
to be in office занимать пост, находиться в должности
to leave office покинуть пост
n. campaign предвыборная кампания, борьба, агитация
to campaign (for smb) проводить предвыборную кампанию,
агитировать за к-л
syn. to stump
to launch a campaign начать предвыборную кампанию
on the campaign trail во время предвыборной кампании
syn. on the stump
stump speech предвыборная речь кандидата
to canvass агитировать за кандидата;
выявлять число сторонников путем опроса
the faithful сторонники
syn. supporters/backers
incumbent/ruling party правящая партия; партия, находящаяся у
власти
incumbent president нынешний, занимающий пост в данное
время, находящийся у власти президент
syn. current/sitting president
to run a party/a nation осуществлять руководство
партией/управлять страной
4. to declare one’s заявить о своем участии в выборах,
run/bid/candidacy сделать заявку на участие в выборах
syn. to launch/announce one’s bid
ant. to drop/end/suspend one’s снять свою кандидатуру
bid

26
primary/primaries праймериз, первичные выборы
caucus 1. кокус, закрытое собрание членов
партии для выдвижения кандидатов; 2.
партийная фракция в парламенте
Super Tuesday «супервторник» (в год президентских
выборов первый вторник марта, в который
проводятся первичные выборы во многих
штатах)
early primary states штаты, первыми проводящие праймериз
battleground states колеблющиеся, спорные,
неопределившиеся штаты
syn. swing/purple/toss-up states
ant. safe states надежные штаты, традиционно
голосующие за к-л партию
swing voters колеблющиеся, неопределившиеся
избиратели
syn. undecided/floating/non-core
ant. loyal/core/die-hard voters верные избиратели
frontrunner/favourite 1. лидирующий по опросам кандидат,
лидер, фаворит гонки
2. главный претендент на к-л пост

ant. underdog слабый, не имеющий шансов на победу


кандидат
exploratory committee оценочный комитет (создается, чтобы
оценить шансы кандидата на избрание до
официального выдвижения его
кандидатуры)
contender соперник, конкурент, участник гонки
syn. rival/competitor/ challenger/
opponent/contestant
5. nomination выдвижение кандидата от партии
to seek nomination добиваться выдвижения
to secure nomination добиться выдвижения
n. nominee кандидат от партии

27
to nominate a candidate выставить, выдвигать кандидата
ticket список кандидатов от партии на выборах
n. contest/race предвыборная борьба, гонка
v. to contest an election участвовать в выборах
tight/close race/contest плотная гонка, ожесточенная борьба
to call a race for smb объявить к-л победителем гонки
too close to call (about a непредсказуемая гонка
race)
candidate кандидат на выборах, претендент,
участник гонки
syn. hopeful/aspirant
hustings (BrE) предвыборный митинг, собрание членов
партии
to succeed smb as… сменить к-л на посту, быть преемником на
к-л посту
syn. to take over as… from smb
successor преемник
predecessor предшественник
to resign уйти в отставку
syn. to step down/ to stand
down/to quit
n. resignation отставка
to offer/to tender one’s подать прошение об отставке
resignation

II. a) translate b)** explain the meaning of the word combinations:

Text 1: embattled administration, would-be voters, to go viral, to calcify a political


divide.
Text 2: ahead of elections, to clamp down on smb, credible polls, under the
constitution, maneuvering.
Text 3: to struggle, a party icon.
Text 4: en route to, a blitzkrieg tour, speculation, a campaign juggernaut.
Text 5: the home secretary, the leave campaign, fellow Brexiter, backbenchers.

28
Text 6: interior minister, in the wake of, to play a low-key role, to be tipped as, the
mop-haired former mayor, a hardliner on immigration.

III. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the Topic
Vocabulary words.
A.
1. The Christian Democrat mayor called early elections after his government
collapsed in December because of in-fighting with its coalition partner.
2. The snap poll had been scheduled to take place on March 22nd. If it had
gone ahead, it would have been the first early election in Sweden since
1958.
3. May has ruled out the possibility of an early general election, arguing that
she was part of the Conservatives’ leading team that won a mandate last
year.
4. May had repeatedly said she had no plans to hold an early general election
before surprising Westminster, including many of her own colleagues, by
announcing the 8 June poll on Tuesday.
5. Much now depends on the presidency. The office carries limited formal
powers, but they include the right to nominate the prime minister.
6. He has won a five-year term but the political process will be completed only
after parliamentary elections are held in April, although these are likely to be
delayed.
7. Ms. Suu Kyi is barred from the presidency under a constitutional rule that
forbids office to anyone with close family members who are non-citizens.
Ms. Suu Kyi was married to a Briton and has two British sons.
8. Mr Lukashenko has been helped by the fragmented opposition, which has
been unable to unite around a single candidate. Instead, nine candidates ran
against him.
9. Not unlike Nixon and Eisenhower, Gore and Bill Clinton, and McCain and
Bush, Hillary Clinton will be linked with President Obama if she runs in
2016, for better or for worse. Some Republican candidates are already
arguing that a Clinton victory would mean a "third Obama term."
10.Late on Friday, the country’s Constitutional Court ruled that the Election
Commission had the power to postpone elections if it secured Yingluck’s
agreement. However, questions remain over whether the government and the
commission would be able to negotiate a new timetable for general
elections.
11.Having faced resistance from within his party, it was unclear whether
President Yoweri Museveni – who has ruled Uganda for almost 30 years –
would be nominated by The National Resistance Movement (NRM) – to
stand again in 2016.
12.Mr Hollande, the unpopular incumbent, decided not to seek a second term,
unprecedented in the fifth republic.

29
13. Gove is now widely regarded as the main rival to Theresa May, the home
secretary, who had launched her own campaign earlier on Thursday with a
pledge that “Brexit means Brexit”, and that there would be no general
election until 2020.
14.In November 2016, days before the primary for the centre-right nomination
that Juppé was forecast to win, Emmanuel Macron, a former Rothschild’s
banker and economy minister, launched his independent bid for the
presidency.
15. The vote followed two sets of hustings in parliament on Monday night after
which many Conservative MPs discussed the candidates in House of
Commons bars.
16. Boris Johnson has unexpectedly ruled himself out as a candidate for
Britain’s next prime minister, after the justice secretary, Michael Gove, sent
shockwaves through Westminster with a last-minute bid for the
Conservative leadership.
17. This is mixed news for the Tories. Although their core vote is loyal, the
Tory party at present appeals least to non-core or floating voters.
18. Cameron announced that he would chair his last cabinet meeting on
Tuesday and carry out one more prime minister’s questions on Wednesday
before heading to Buckingham Palace to resign formally. “We will have a
new prime minister in that building behind me by Wednesday evening.”
19. In 2000, Democratic Vice President Al Gore lost his bid to succeed Bill
Clinton after two terms. In 2008, Republican John McCain lost a presidential
election after eight years of George W. Bush. The longer the presidency,
"the more there is for opponents to criticize," said Julian Zelizer, a political
historian at Princeton University. "The more there is for voters to be
unhappy about."

B. **

1. The prolonged prologue to Hillary Rodham Clinton’s second run for the
White House will reach its suspenseless conclusion on Sunday: the former
secretary of state, senator and first lady is to announce that she will indeed
seek the Democratic nomination for president.
2. The vice president is still weighing a bid and has not given an explicit
indication of whether he will run.
3. Aides said he felt jubilant that after his victory by 51 to 49 percent of the
popular vote he at last had an indisputable mandate to govern.
4. The collapse in oil prices has helped turn the re-election bid of Canada’s
three-term prime minister into an uphill fight, even on his home turf here in
the country’s energy capital.
5. Fillon, a social conservative whose platform included state-shrinking and
Thatcher-style economic reforms, went on to win the nomination
comfortably and immediately became favourite to win the presidency.

30
6. Despite having promised to step aside if he was ever charged, Fillon has
stayed in the race. On 14 March, he became the first major candidate to run
for France’s highest office while under formal investigation for misusing
state funds.
7. The result is a major blow for Gove, the justice secretary, who wrecked
Boris Johnson’s campaign for leadership by abandoning him at the last
moment in order to run himself.
8. Many candidates have been on the campaign trail ahead of the midterms,
keeping their profiles high and currying favour with local candidates,
particularly in early primary states such as Iowa, New Hampshire and
Florida.
9. Cruz won't be able to stay on center stage in the GOP race for very long.
Sen. Rand Paul of Kentucky is reportedly going to declare his candidacy on
April 7, and Sen. Marco Rubio of Florida has also been moving toward an
announcement soon. Cruz, Paul and Rubio will compete for the support of
Tea Party insurgents, who helped all three get elected to the Senate.
10.Ron Paul came third and second in the Iowa and New Hampshire caucus
and primary in 2012, buoyed by an enthusiastic base of younger libertarian
activists, but never broke through as a credible contender.
11.Mrs. Clinton will enter the race with a strong base of support: 81 percent of
Democrats said they would consider voting for her, according to a CBS
News poll conducted in February. That support dwarfs that of her potential
rivals for the nomination, including former Gov. Martin O’Malley of
Maryland, former Senator Jim Webb of Virginia and Senator Bernard
Sanders, an independent from Vermont who could run as a Democrat.
12. But the roller coaster of a presidential campaign can erode even the most
seemingly certain advantages. Just over eight years ago, Mrs. Clinton began
that campaign with an email to supporters declaring that she was “in to
win.” That announcement began a downward trajectory in which she went
from being considered the inevitable nominee to finishing in third place in
the Iowa caucuses, behind Mr. Obama and John Edwards. She went on to
pick up primary victories in crucial battleground states like Ohio and
Pennsylvania, but by then Mr. Obama had an edge in the fight for delegates.
13. The presidential race is a substantial political gamble for Mr. Rubio, who is
barred by Florida law from appearing on the ballot both for the White
House and for re-election to the Senate in 2016.
14. Mr. Rubio’s decision to seek the nomination has angered some Florida
Republicans who are close with both the senator and Mr. Bush. Al
Hoffman, a former finance chairman of the Republican National
Committee, said Mr. Rubio assured him a few years ago that he wouldn’t
seek the nomination if Mr. Bush also ran.
15. Ali also recognized that after five difficult years in office, the party will
have to run with the weight of incumbency at a time when many Pakistanis
simply want something different.

31
16. Republicans maintained 11 seats in the Senate on Tuesday, unseating four
incumbent Democrats, and won crucial races in West Virginia, Arkansas,
Colorado, Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky and North Carolina.
17. The near-deadlock among the next tier of candidates means that a robust
competition among Messrs. Rubio, Kasich and other candidates will
continue into the next primary contests on terrain less hospitable to those
more-establishment oriented candidates. On March 1, 11 states vote in the
so-called SEC primary, which includes Alabama, Georgia and Arkansas.
18. Gove had been chairing Johnson’s leadership campaign, after the two men
worked shoulder to shoulder in the campaign for Britain to leave the EU.
But with just hours to go before formal nominations closed at noon on
Thursday, Gove announced that he no longer believed Johnson was the right
man for the job, and that he would launch his own bid to be the next prime
minister.
19. Some of Johnson’s backers vented their fury at Gove, with many
suspecting him of plotting the decision for several days, and announcing it
at the last minute in a deliberate bid to scupper the chances of his Oxford
Union contemporary. Johnson’s father, who had opposed his son’s stance in
the EU referendum, but supported his bid to become prime minister, said
the words that sprang to mind as he watched Boris’s speech were, “Et tu,
Brute?” supposedly the final words of Julius Caesar and addressed to his
friend and killer Brutus.
20. Gove, who was demoted from the education department by David Cameron
after his reforming zeal provoked anger in the teaching profession, is now
seen as a frontrunner for the job, alongside Theresa May.
21. Since 1948 — the year Harry Truman won a fifth straight election for the
Democrats, following Franklin D. Roosevelt's four wins — a political party
has won three straight elections only once. It happened in 1988, the year the
Republican nominee, Vice President George H.W. Bush, won the right to
replace Ronald Reagan. Otherwise, a string of candidates have found it
impossible to do what Clinton may try to do — succeed a president from the
political party that has held the White House for eight years.

IV. Fill in the blanks with suitable words in the necessary form from the
list given below:

1) to run, to seek a second term, nominee, to be barred from the race, to


compete against, to compete, to stand, to run against, competition, to stand
down, to run for presidency, contenders, nomination

32
Iran vice-president (………………………….)

Iran's first vice-president Es'haq Jahangiri has decided (……) in the presidential
election next month as the second main candidate of pro-reform groups. Mr
Jahangiri's registration for the May 19 poll — in the last minutes before the
deadline on Saturday — came a day after centrist Hassan Rouhani confirmed he
would (……………………….).
But reformist and moderate forces are concerned that Mr Rouhani may
(……………………….) by powerful hardliners in which case Mr Jahangiri could
become their top (……….........). "A group's political fate cannot be tied to Mr
Rouhani or any other individual, which is why there should be a plan B," said a
reformist politician. Mr Jahangiri said he would not (………………...) the
president. "I will stand by Mr Rouhani and compliment him," Mr Jahangiri said
after his (…………………). If allowed (……………….), Mr Rouhani would face
several high-profile hardline candidates including powerful cleric Ebrahim Raisi.
Iran's hardline constitutional body, the Guardian Council, must approve all
candidates. Only (………………) whose loyalty to the Islamic republic and
supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei are approved get the go-ahead
(………….). Hardliners and reformers are in a tense power struggle as rival
political groups position themselves for the day Mr Khamenei, 77, dies.
Another high-profile hardliner who announced his intent (………………) Mr
Rouhani on Saturday is mayor of Tehran, Mohammad Baqer Qalibaf. He came
second in the 2013 election after Mr Rouhani. It is not clear Mr Qalibaf will stay in
(………………) to the end or would (…………………….) in favour of Mr Raisi.

2) to launch one’s campaign for the presidency, contest, frontrunner, to run


against, presidential hopefuls, ticket, to announce one’s candidacy, faithful,
early caucus and primary states, presidential aspirants, to announce
presidential bid, race for the Republican nomination, presidential primary,
contenders, to declare one’s candidacy

33
Rand Paul (…………………………………) with promises of 'liberty
and limited government'

Republican senator Rand Paul (………………………………..) on Tuesday with a


moderated version of the libertarianism he hopes will set him apart from the
crowded field of candidates vying for the conservative base. His speech on
Tuesday was squarely directed at the Republican party (……………) that will
select who (……………………) the presumptive Democratic candidate, Hillary
Clinton, in 2016.
His formal entry into (……………….) marks a key moment in the nascent
(…………………………….), which is set to be the most congested
(…………………………) either party has held since 1976. There could be more
than 10 (………………………..) vying for the Republican (…………….), none of
whom has so far emerged as a clear (…………………….).
Paul is the first of the four leading (…………………..) who are polling best in
(………………………………………..) to formally (……………………………).
The others – former Florida governor Jeb Bush, Wisconsin governor Scott Walker
and Florida senator Marco Rubio – are expected to announce in the coming weeks.
Ted Cruz, the Texas senator most closely aligned with the Tea Party, became the
first Republican (………………………………….) last month, but is one of a
larger pool of second-tier (………………………..).

V. Replace the words in brackets with their English equivalents in the


necessary form:

1) Hillary Clinton: (я выдвигаю свою кандидатуру на пост президента)


Hillary Clinton announced on Sunday that she (выдвигает свою кандидатуру на
пост президента США) ____________________________________, promising
to be a champion of middle-class Americans if she made it to the White House as
the country’s first female commander in chief.
The announcement brought an end to years of (слухи, домыслы) ___________
over whether Clinton (во второй раз предпримет попытку)

34
______________________ to become the first female US president and secure a
place in history by interrupting a line of 44 male commanders in chief.
It marked the official commencement of her final attempt to crack what she called
the “the hardest, highest glass ceiling” after being defeated by Barack Obama in
their bitterly fought (гонка за выдвижение в качестве кандидата от
Демократической партии) _________________________________ in 2008.
Clinton, 67, (добивается, стремится) _______________ a fourth chapter in
what is already an unprecedented career in American politics. She previously
served as (госсекретарь) ____________ and US senator for New York, as well as
first lady when her husband, Bill, served (два срока) ________________ at the
White House in the 1990s.
It is (послужной список) _________ that makes Clinton one of the most enduring
– and polarising – figures in American politics. Clinton’s campaign aides concede
that her familiarity to voters and decades of experience on the frontline of politics
are both an asset in her (попытка, заявка) ________for the White House and a
potential weakness, allowing her to be portrayed as a candidate from the past.
Jeb Bush, the former governor of Florida, who is brother and son to recent White
House occupants George W and George HW Bush, is currently among
(лидирующие кандидаты) ________________ in the crowded field of
(претендентов от Республиканской партии) ____________
____________________. His (выдвижение в качестве кандидата)
________________________ could turn the 2016 (президентские выборы)
__________________________ into a battle between two of the most familiar –
and controversial – family names in modern US history.

2) Manny Pacquiao, Marcos’s Son to Fight for (высокие должности)


_____________________ in Philippine Elections

MANILA—Two of the Philippines’ most famous names entered the country’s


2016 (предвыборная гонка) ________________, with champion boxer Manny
Pacquiao (заявил о выдвижении своей кандидатуры на пост сенатора)
_____________________________, and the late Philippine dictator Ferdinand
Marcos’s son (сделал заявку на выдвижение своей кандидатуры на пост вице-
президента) ______________________.
For both Mr. Pacquiao, a congressman, and Ferdinand Marcos Jr., a senator,
(высокие посты) _____________ are a potential springboard to (пост
президента) _____________itself, in a country where celebrities and members of
powerful clans dominate the political arena.
Nothing divides opinion in the Philippines quite like the Marcoses. The former
first family is still well-loved in the north of the country, their home turf, and
among Filipinos who look back fondly on the strong-armed (правление)
_______________ of former President Ferdinand Marcos.

35
Yet the Marcos clan is also widely reviled, especially among the generation that
(свергло) ________________the elder Marcos in the 1986 People Power
Revolution, angered by the regime’s gross (нарушение прав человека)
_________________________ and the theft of billions of dollars from the nation’s
coffers. Mr. Marcos Sr. was ultimately replaced by Corazon Aquino, the mother of
(нынешний президент) _________________, Benigno Aquino III. He died in
exile in Hawaii in 1989.

VI. Translate the headlines:

A.
1. THERESA MAY WINS BACKING FROM PARLIAMENT FOR SNAP UK
ELECTION
2. SWEDEN CANCELS SNAP ELECTION
3. INCUMBENT WINS EASY VICTORY IN ARMENIA
4. MICHAEL GOVE TO STAND FOR CONSERVATIVE PARTY LEADERSHIP
5. ASYLUM FOR OUSTED PRESIDENT
6. GERMANY HEADS FOR EARLY ELECTION
7. INCUMBENTS ARE FAVOURED IN ELECTIONS
8. THE INVISIBLE CHALLENGERS
9. ZAMBIAN CONTEST
10. UNDECIDED VOTERS SWING AWAY FROM CONSERVATIVES
11. EX-DICTATOR TO RUN FOR PRESIDENT
12. DISCORD ON GERMAN PRESIDENTIAL BID
13. VIOLENCE SLOWS IRAQ’S RUN-UP TO ELECTIONS

B.
1. TURKEY’S REFERENDUM REMAINS TOO TIGHT TO CALL
2. EARLY VOTING UNDERWAY IN RUN-UP TO IDAHO PRIMARY
3. KASHMIR OUSTING
4. SOCIALIST PARTY PROMOTES HOLLANDE IN RUN-UP TO 2017 FRENCH
PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION
5. TED CRUZ JUMP-STARTS GOP BATTLE FOR WHITE HOUSE
6. VIOLENCE ERUPTS IN BUILD UP TO UKRAINE POLL
7. HILLARY CLINTON’S TEST: A THIRD STRAIGHT GEMOCRATIC TERM
8. LEBANON TO VOTE ON A FURTHER TERM FOR PRESIDENT
9. CAMERON ACCEPTS THERE MAY BE A CASE FOR AN EARLY ELECTION
10. TWO-HORSE RACE TO BEAT DEMOCRAT FRONT-RUNNER
11. TRUMP BEATS CRUZ IN INDIANA PRIMARY, CLEARING PATH TO
NOMINATION
12. VOTERS COULD GET EARLY IN/OUT REFERENDUM, DAVID CAMERON SAYS,
AS GENERAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN GETS UNDERWAY
13. UKIP LEADERSHIP: THE CONTENDERS TO SUCCEED NIGEL FARAGE

C.
1. IN RUN-UP TO MIDTERMS, OBAMA SCARCE FROM CAMPAIGN TRAIL
2. FRONT RUNNERS AND DARK HORSES JOCKEY FOR POSITION
3. IN RUN-UP TO ELECTION, WOMEN DEBATE RECORD OF LIBERIA’S FIRST
FEMALE PRESIDENT

36
4. BUSH 2016 CAMPAIGN FOR WHITE HOUSE RAKES IN RECORD $114 MILLION
HAUL
5. THE FINAL COUNTDOWN: PARTY LEADERS PUSH FOR VOTES IN RUN-UP TO
SCOTTISH ELECTION ON LAST LEG OF CAMPAIGN TRAIL
6. NOMINEE APPROVED
7. THOUGTS TURN TO PRESIDENT’S SUCCESSOR
8. BELGIAN PM TO STEP DOWN
9. EMBATTLED BOLIVIAN LEADER SET TO RESIGN
10. HEAD OF JAPAN’S OPPOSITION QUITS
11. NIGERIA VOTES IN SHARPLY CONTESTED PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION
12. SPANISH SOCIALISTS INDICTED IN RUN-UP TO ELECTIONS
13. KENYATTA BIDS FOR KENIAN PRESIDENCY DESPITE ICC “CRIMES
AGAINST HUMANITY”

VII. Translate the sentences into English.

1. В результате всеобщих выборов большинство членов Либерально-


демократической партии потеряли свои места в парлaменте.
2. В документе утверждается, что одной из основных целей правительства
станет проведение свободных и демократических выборов.
3. В результате переворота избранный народом президент был смещен с
должности и бежал из страны.
4. Сообщается, что выборы будут проведены как можно скорее во
избежание беспорядков в стране.
5. Согласно конституции, действующий президент не имеет права
добиваться выдвижения на третий срок.
6. Господин Н. начнет предвыборную кампанию в конце этой недели и
обратится к своим верным сторонникам.
7. Ожидается, что неопределившиеся избиратели в конечном итоге
поддержат кандидата от правящей партии.
8. Он станет первым премьер-министром в истории страны, покинувшим
свой пост через месяц после победы на выборах.
9. В статье утверждается, что он отказался уходить в отставку несмотря
на призывы однопартийцев.
10.Предвыборная борьба была ожесточенной: до самого дня выборов
никто не мог назвать фаворита.

VIII. REVISION. Translate the text into Russian.

Iran's Ahmadinejad to run for president despite Khamenei warning


Former Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad has registered to run in the presidential race
next month. The surprise decision makes Ahmadinejad the most high-profile Iranian politician to
defy the wishes of the supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, who has the final say in all state
matters.

37
Last year, Khamenei took the unusual decision to reveal he had told Ahmadinejad he did not
recommend he enter the contest. It is not clear why Khamenei decided to make the issue public,
but Ahmadinejad seemed to have continued his activities despite the warning. He had been
building a campaign in the months leading to the official registration – visiting provinces,
becoming more active online and speaking at more occasions. In a news conference shortly after
submitting his registration, Ahmadinejad described the comments by the supreme leader as “just
advice”. There was no immediate reaction from Khamenei’s office.
His registration as a candidate is the second surprising announcement in Iran’s presidential race.
On Sunday, Ebrahim Raisi, a conservative cleric close to Khamenei, announced he would put his
name on the list. Over the past year, Raisi has been touted as a frontrunner to become
Khamenei’s successor, a higher position than that of the president. His bid for the presidency has
puzzled Iranian political commentators who are asking what his candidacy might mean for the
moderate incumbent, Hassan Rouhani, who is expected to seek re-election.
Raisi’s decision comes amid concerns about the possible disqualification of Rouhani in the
vetting process. The Guardian Council, a body of jurists and clerics who are close to Khamenei,
vets all candidates before any elections in Iran, in a process that has been the subject of
controversy. There has been heated debate over whether the council has the constitutional
footing to block candidates. While disqualifying a sitting president would likely create a huge
backlash, in recent years it has barred many reformists and independents, as well as
conservatives, from running in parliamentary and presidential elections. The 2013 vote that put
Rouhani in power was a contest between six contenders, all of whom were approved by the
Guardian Council.
Rouhani’s four predecessors have all served two consecutive terms, which is allowed under the
Iranian constitution, but Raisi’s candidacy is an indication that the current president will not have
an easy ride ahead. Elections are scheduled for 19 May. More than 120 prospective candidates,
including six women and seven clerics, submitted their names on the first day of registration on
Tuesday. Registration remains open until Saturday.
In the long term, the election could decide an even more crucial political battle –that for Iran’s
next supreme leader. The successor to ayatollahs Khomeini and Khamanei will be the most
powerful person in Iran, and only the third person to lead the Islamic republic since its
foundation. Ayatollah Ali Khamenei holds the position for life, but he is 78 and thought to be in
poor health. A hardliner keen to preserve his legacy, he is believed to have tacitly backed Raisi
as president, and possibly favours him as a possible successor.
Based on the Guardian article April 12, 2017

38
IX. Comment on the cartoons. **

1. 2.

3.

www.editorialcartoonists.com
www.cartoonstock.com
UNIT II. OPINION POLLS

TRANSLATION MATTERS
Переводческий комментарий и упражнения

A. Перевод многозначных слов может вызывать определенную трудность,


поэтому необходимо обращать внимание на контекст, который и
определяет в каком значении употреблено то или иное многозначное
слово. К таким словам относится в том числе грамматический омоним
as, который, будучи союзом, переводится как: 1) когда, в то время как,
по мере того как:
As Hillary Clinton continues to stump for her 2016 presidential campaign, more
and more people are becoming transfixed over Email-Gate. – В то время как
Хиллари Клинтон продолжает агитировать за выдвижение своей
кандидатуры на президентский пост в 2016 году, все больше и больше людей
пребывают в растерянности в связи со скандалом вокруг ее электронной
переписки.
2) так как:
These elections will be his last as he’s decided to quit politics in two years. – Эти
выборы станут для него последними, так как он принял решение уйти из
политики через два года.
3) как:
As Barack Obama stated many times, "The buck stops here", meaning he now
takes full responsibility for his actions as president. – Как много раз заявлял
Барак Обама: «За все решения отвечаю я», имея в виду, что теперь он берет
на себя полную ответственность за все свои действия в качестве президента.

Будучи наречием, as переводится как, в качестве8: In 2005 Angela Merkel was


first sworn in as German Chancellor. – В 2005 году Ангела Меркель впервые
принесла присягу в качестве канцлера Германии.

PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. The announcement came amid a growing sense of uncertainty as Egypt


begins to chart its future after decades of autocratic rule and as violence has
begun to escalate.
2. To a large extent, round two is a different election. As an oft-quoted saying
has it: “In the first round people vote with their heart, but in the second they
vote with their head.”

8
См. подробнее Гуськова Т.И., Зиборова Г.М. Трудности перевода. – М., 2000. – с.104, 114-115.

40
3. He criticized the reforms that military leaders were proposing as superficial
and appealed to the military to scrap them.
4. As he walked back into No 10 after making his comments, Cameron was
humming a song that some suggested was the start of the music from the
West Wing. As he entered the door be muttered “right” as if ready to get on
with his day.
5. Cameron called the referendum as a calculated gamble, aimed at silencing
the Eurosceptics in his own party for a generation.
6. Candidate Ed Miliband has seen his personal approval ratings rise
consistently as he campaigns to be the U.K.’s next prime minister. The
trouble is incumbent David Cameron is still more popular.
7. This year, the stakes are far higher as the governing party’s hold on power is
threatened for the first time since the end of military rule in 1999. Analysts
reckoned that the contest was too close to call, though the momentum may
have shifted slightly to Mr. Jonathan after his military chiefs forced a six-
week delay in the voting, which was originally scheduled for February.
8. Early results showed that. As in the nationwide vote two weeks ago, the
Christian Democrats (CDU) and Social Democrats (SPD) were neck and
neck, with the CDU narrowly ahead.
9. As Mr Gbagbo’s supporters danced, literally, in the streets to celebrate his
continuation in power, the opposition demanded that the president should
become a figurehead, like the queen of England.
10. People outside the United States could only watch, wait and fume as
American lined up to vote Tuesday in an election that provoked an
extraordinary degree of emotional involvement beyond U.S. borders.

B. В английском и русском языках есть очень много пар слов, похожих по


написанию и/или звучанию, но отличающихся в своем значении, такие,
как: abstract, academic, advocate, agitator, aspirant, commentator, decade,
formal, partisan, profile, record, speculation/speculate и др. К таким
словам необходимо относится с повышенным вниманием и
перепроверять их значение в словаре во избежание ошибок в переводе9:
A legal brief recently filed by the Department of Justice (DOJ) reportedly
explains that former Secretary of State Hillary "Clinton was within her legal rights
to use of her own email account, to take the messages with her when she left office
and to be the one deciding which of those messages are government records that
should be returned" - contradicting conservative media speculation that she may
have violated the law. – Сообщается, что юридическое обоснование, недавно
подготовленное Министерством юстиции, поясняет, что бывший
Государственный секретарь Хиллари «Клинтон юридически имела право
использовать свой собственный электронный адрес, уносить с собой
сообщения, покидая рабочий кабинет, и сама принимать решение, какие из
9
См. подробнее Гуськова Т.И., Зиборова Г.М. Трудности перевода. – М., 2000. – с.155-157.

41
этих сообщений являются правительственными документами, которые
необходимо вернуть». Такое заключение противоречит предположениям
консервативных СМИ, что Х. Клинтон, возможно, нарушила закон.
In 2006 a new constitution was promulgated and the country held its first
multiparty elections in more than four decades. – В 2006 году в силу вступила
новая конституция, и в стране были проведены первые за более чем 40
лет/четыре десятилетия многопартийные выборы.

PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. Some analysts speculated that the president had acted to cut short the
ambitions of his charismatic prime minister, who has long threatened to
mutate into a powerful rival.
2. If Mr. Cameron throws in the towel and resigns, it would fall to Mr.
Miliband to try to form a government then. If Labour wins between about
270 and 275 seats, Mr. Miliband will likely become prime minister, pollsters
and academics say.
3. There appeared to be little middle ground between partisans of President
Goodluck Jonathan, a Christian from the south hated in the north, and those
of his challenger, Muhammadu Buhari, a northener whose Muslim faith and
authoritarian past are feared in the south.
4. The US and European Union have said that the holding of free and fair
elections is a vital step before they move to ease tough sanctions, which
were imposed in response to decades of harsh military rule.
5. Of the dozen or so people approached by the Guardian, a majority said they
would vote for Aécio. “He is the most capable and knowledgeable of the
three candidates – the safest pair of hands,” said Silvana Cutrim, a
shopkeeper. “Dilma is just an agitator, and Marina is too unreliable.”
6. Speculation that he might be forced to stand down was fuelled by a report
that suggested he had pledged to resign if he felt he had become a liability to
the Labour Party.
7. New Zealand’s first election under proportional representation is proving
difficult for voters, commentators and politicians alike.
8. Cameron announced that he would chair his last cabinet meeting on Tuesday
and carry out one more prime minister’s questions on Wednesday before
heading to Buckingham Palace to resign formally. “We will have a new
prime minister in that building behind me by Wednesday evening.”
9. On television on Thursday, Mr. Miliband faced accusations from the studio
audience that previous Labour governments, in which he served as a
minister, had ended up bankrupting the country. One audience member said
Labour’s economic record was a millstone around his neck.
10. Texas Sen. Ted Cruz, the Republican winner of the Iowa caucuses, had
seven events planned in New Hampshire Tuesday and Wednesday. The
conservative senator doesn’t fit the typical profile of Republicans in centrist

42
New Hampshire, but his victory in Iowa could give him new momentum
here.

C. Существительное в притяжательном падеже (‘s) или притяжательное


местоимение (my, your и т.п.) или же существительное в общем падеже
или местоимение в косвенном падеже (me, you и т.п.) в сочетании с
герундием образуют герундиальный комплекс, который переводится на
русский язык придаточным предложением, вводимым союзами то
(тем), что (чтобы); тот факт, что; с тем(,) чтобы; после того как и
др.10:
Mr Trump had appeared to indicate a “softening” of his immigration platform,
following a Fox News poll that showed him trailing Ms Clinton in Latino support.
– Дональд Трамп, похоже, «смягчил» свою позицию по иммиграции после
того, как результаты одного из опросов канала «Фокс Ньюс»
продемонстрировали, что латиноамериканцы поддерживают его меньше,
чем Хиллари Клинтон.

PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. This would put Labour in a difficult situation, since many in England are
opposed to the Scottish party having a say over matters that concern other
parts of the U.K.
2. Downing Street ruled out May appearing in any head-to-head TV debates,
despite demands from Corbyn.
3. Indeed, it is hard to imagine the new forces accepting another year of Mr
Gbagbo, the man they fought to depose, as president.
4. After a new poll showed Bernie Sanders trailing Hillary Clinton in Iowa by
only seven points, the Vermont senator seized a chance to differentiate
himself from the establishment favourite for the Democratic presidential
nomination.
5. Yet he had underestimated the backing Vote Leave would receive on his
own backbenches; and reckoned without the charismatic and popular
former mayor of London, Boris Johnson, becoming its figurehead.
6. Several opinion polls published Tuesday showed Labour giving ground
slightly to the Conservatives, although still with leads of between 2 and 5
percentage points. Given the margin of error, the parties were virtually neck
and neck.
7. On the Republican side of the ledger, the Register/Bloomberg poll showed
the real-estate mogul Donald Trump leading the 17-strong field with 23%,
to 18% for another outsider candidate, the neurosurgeon Ben Carson.

10
См. подробнее Гуськова Т.И., Зиборова Г.М. Трудности перевода. – М., 2000. – с.35-36.

43
8. The gap is enough to stop Mrs Merkel forming a center-right government
with the CDU’s Bavarian sister party, the CSU, and junior coalition partner
the FDP.
9. The early results revealed a much closer race than indicated by two exit
polls, which had predicted the ruling party winning about 40 percent and the
alliance 35 percent.
10. Israeli observer Yakov Rotman told Interfax that he also encountered cases
of voters missing from the lists and estimated that some 5 percent of voters
were not on the lists there.
11. “In this amazing, transformative and in many ways revolutionary year of
2016, it is Brexit that directly led to the establishment being defeated on 8
November and Donald J Trump being about to take up the presidency,” he
said.

D. Перевод инфинитива в функции обстоятельства результата или следствия


может представлять определенную трудность. Необходимо иметь в виду, что
такой инфинитив, вводимый оборотами only to, too… to, enough to
переводится или инфинитивом, или (что важно) глаголом в личной форме,
присоединяемым к сказуемому в качестве однородного члена
сочинительными союзами а, и, но. При этом время, лицо и число
соответствуют тому времени, лицу и числу, в котором употребляется
сказуемое в языке оригинала и, соответственно, в языке перевода. Если
вышеупомянутых оборотов в предложении нет, то инфинитив в функции
обстоятельства результата или следствия также переводится глаголом в
личной форме (время, лицо и число соответствуют тому времени, лицу и
числу, в котором употребляется сказуемое в языке оригинала и,
соответственно, в языке перевода), присоединяемым к сказуемому в качестве
однородного члена при помощи союза и11:
He seized power only to lead the country to destruction. – Он захватил
власть и в результате разрушил страну.
Mr Christian Kern, CEO of Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB), has resigned from
his functions as of 17 May 2016 to become Chancellor of the Republic of Austria.
– Глава компании «Австрийские федеральные железные дороги» покинул
свой пост 17 мая 2016 года и вступил в должность Федерального канцлера
Австрии.

PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. Senator Ted Cruz (R-Texas) defeated Donald Trump to take first place in the
Iowa Republican caucus on Monday. In a speech to supporters, he called it a
win for "courageous conservatives."

11
См. подробнее Гуськова Т.И., Зиборова Г.М. Трудности перевода. – М., 2000. – с.8.

44
2. Mrs Merkel had a huge opinion poll lead, only to end up with 35,2% of the
vote, one of the worst results in the party’s history.
3. Yet even securing the vice-presidency would cap an extraordinary comeback
for the Marcos family, who were hounded out of the country three decades
years ago, only to re-emerge as political force.
4. Farage, 52, was originally leader from 2006 to 2009 and came back to the job
after the 2010 election, overseeing the rise of Ukip from a fringe single-issue
party to a major political force. He then stepped down after the 2015 election,
only to “unresign” just days later, as he wanted to lead Ukip’s campaign to
leave the EU.
5. Cruz fended off rival after rival to win the Iowa caucuses and become the
conservative standard-bearer in the field.
6. Eight years later, Schröder and the Social Democrats defeated Chancellor
Helmut Kohl to lead the country of 82 million.
7. Israel inched closer to early elections Thursday after a fiery Moroccan-born
union leader edged out elder statesman Shimon Peres to become Labor Party
leader, shaking up Israeli politics and breaking through a long-standing ethnic
barrier.
8. That same magic nearly worked in September, when Schröder trailed again by
double digits to come to within 1 percentage point of the Christian Democrats.
9. Nobody did more for the left than Pedro Santana Lopes, the former mayor of
Lisbon who took over as prime minister last July, when Jose Manuel Barroso
stepped down to become European Commission president.
10.Former presidential contender Howard Dean, who dropped out of the race two
weeks ago without a single win, triumphed in his home state of Vermont to
spoil Kerry's bid for a perfect sweep.

I. Read and translate the texts using the Topic Vocabulary list. Pay special
attention to italicized constructions and words (see TRANSLATION
MATTERS on pp. 40-45 for guidance and translation practice).

1. Nicolas Sarkozy confirms fresh bid for French presidency

The former French president, Nicolas Sarkozy, has confirmed that he will seek the centre-Right
presidential nomination despite strong opposition from Alain Juppé, a former conservative prime
minister.

45
Mr Sarkozy has seized on uncertainty resulting from the UK’s Brexit vote to portray himself as
the best candidate to deal with an EU crisis. (See Com. A, p.40)
Mr Sarkozy, 61, a polarising figure who served one term as president before losing to the
Socialist François Hollande in 2012, has been damaged by a string of corruption allegations.
He has made no secret of his ambition to contest the presidential election next year but must first
win a primary race in November in which supporters of the Right and centre-Right will chose
their candidate.
After trailing behind Mr Juppé in opinion polls for many months, Mr Sarkozy has now gained
popularity among Republican party members, recent surveys show, in a sign that the battle may
be closely-fought. However, Mr Juppé, 70, enjoys greater public support outside the party,
according to polls.
Mr Sarkozy told members of Les Républicains on Saturday that he was stepping down as head
of the Republican party. Under party rules, Mr Sarkozy would be disbarred from running in the
primary if he remains chairman.
The primary will also be open to members of other centre-Right parties. The leader of the largest
centrist group, François Bayrou, backs Mr Juppé. If Mr Sarkozy wins the nomination, Mr
Bayrou said he will withdraw the support of his MoDem party and enter the presidential race
himself.
The far-Right Front National leader, Marine Le Pen, is expected to reach the final round of
voting in the presidential election next spring.

2. Canada’s Liberals Gain Edge as Vote Nears


Party leader Justin Trudeau parries attacks on his youth and inexperience from incumbent
Conservatives

OTTAWA—Canada’s centrist Liberal Party is gaining ground in the final days of a tight race
before Monday’s national election, as voter fatigue with the incumbent Conservative
government is fueling support for a Liberal leader whose biggest political obstacle has been his
inexperience.
In his bid to become Canada’s next prime minister, Liberal Party leader Justin Trudeau, the 43-
year-old son of long-serving Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, has constantly battled his rivals’
charge that he is a novice. Prime Minister Stephen Harper has made it a campaign refrain to say
Mr. Trudeau is “not ready” to govern, highlighting his government’s 10-year track record of
economic stewardship. (See Com. B, p.41)
But with Canada’s resource-heavy economy slumping, voters appear less convinced by Mr.
Harper’s message and more willing to embrace change. Most polls now give Mr. Trudeau a big
enough lead over the incumbent Conservatives that he looks closer than Mr. Harper to leading a
minority government.
Such a result would have seemed far-fetched just weeks ago. Early in the campaign, the Liberals
held third place in public-opinion polls, and longtime political analysts reckoned Mr. Trudeau
had little chance of improving his fortunes under an onslaught of negative Conservative
advertising. Some pollsters credit the Liberals’ gains since then in part to a television ad set
against the backdrop of Parliament Hill in which Mr. Trudeau contradicted Mr. Harper’s “not
ready” mantra, saying, “I am ready to bring real change to Ottawa.”

46
Mr. Trudeau was also boosted by his performance at five separate party leaders’ debates, where
pundits said he held his own and exceeded expectations.

3. Boris Johnson endorses Andrea Leadsom in Tory leadership bid

Boris Johnson has intensified the battle over who will become the next Conservative prime
minister by throwing his weight behind Andrea Leadsom, who he said offered “the zap, the
drive, and the determination” that is needed to lead the country. The decision by the former
London mayor to support the energy minister’s campaign is likely to result in more MPs lining
up behind Leadsom, who is now the clear second favourite after the home secretary, Theresa
May. (See Com. C, p.43)
The MP – whose own leadership campaign collapsed last week after the justice secretary
Michael Gove abandoned him at the 11th hour – said her role in the Vote Leave campaign made
her well-placed to “help forge a great post-Brexit future for Britain and Europe”. He added that,
most importantly, she could bring together the leave and remain camps.
The support of Johnson will be seen as a coup for Leadsom, as he is a popular figure among the
grassroots and has earned considerable sympathy since his own campaign was thwarted. The
manner in which Gove withdrew his support in order to enter the race himself has angered some
colleagues and prevented the justice secretary from gaining momentum.
Leadsom could now see her support among MPs hugely boosted by Johnson’s decision, as there
are a number of Tory politicians who were going to back him but have not yet said who they will
choose instead. If they swing behind Leadsom, the battle will become a clear two-horse race,
with the politicians virtually neck and neck among the grassroots, according to a Conservative
Home poll. It has the energy minister on 38% and the home secretary on 37%, with the other
candidates falling way behind.
One MP reacted to the news by declaring that it was “revenge served cold” after Johnson’s own
humiliation at the hands of Gove. The Tory politician suggested that Leadsom could now get up
to 25 additional MPs backing her bid, a move that would inflict serious damage on the
campaigns of Gove, Stephen Crabb and Liam Fox. (Ibid.)

47
4. Tory party leadership: support for Theresa May surges as Gove
struggles

Home secretary likely to make final two and face members’ vote as Andrea Leadsom’s bid
builds enough momentum to overtake Gove’s campaign (See Com. D, p.44)

Support for Theresa May is surging among Conservative MPs, with almost 100 now backing her
bid to become party leader as Michael Gove’s late entry into the race struggled to gain
momentum.
The growing number of endorsements for the home secretary are likely to guarantee that she will
make the final two and face a vote of grassroots members. Gove, however, has been failing to
win over significant numbers of backers of Boris Johnson, who withdrew from the race on
Thursday.
At his launch event, Gove was unapologetic about abandoning his Vote Leave ally Johnson at
the 11th hour, despite fury from some Conservative colleagues who accused him of treachery.
He said he had come to the conclusion that he simply could not recommend the former London
mayor to friends or colleagues.
Gove is likely to face a fierce contest from another Brexit-supporting MP. Andrea Leadsom,
whose support was starting to rise on Friday, has received a boost by winning the support of
former party leader, Iain Duncan Smith. Leadsom’s growing support meant she leapfrogged
Gove to become second favourite according to bookmakers. (See Com. D, p.44)
The contenders, who also include work and pensions secretary Stephen Crabb and eurosceptic
former defence secretary Liam Fox, will take part in a hustings in parliament on Monday at
5.30pm before the first round of voting on Tuesday. That will decide who is first to be knocked
out of the race with follow-up votes on Thursday, and if necessary, the week after until it is
down to a final two.

5. Carson, Fiorina, Sanders Gain Ground in Their Parties’ Primary


Races, Poll Shows
Republicans Ben Carson and Carly Fiorina and Democratic Sen. Bernie Sanders have gained
significant ground in their parties’ presidential primary races in recent weeks, the latest Wall
Street Journal/NBC News poll finds.
Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and real-estate developer Donald Trump continue to
lead the fields for their parties’ nominations. But Mr. Trump is now essentially tied with Mr.

48
Carson, and significant movement has occurred among candidates just behind them. The retired
neurosurgeon overtakes Mr. Trump in the new survey, conducted Sept. 20-24, when voters’ first
choice is combined with their second. Mrs. Fiorina and Florida Sen. Marco Rubio, both have
11% support. Other Republicans register single-digit support.
No candidate in the race has enjoyed a swifter ascent than Mrs. Fiorina, who barely registered in
the July survey. By contrast, former Florida Gov. Jeb Bush lost the most altitude since the prior
survey. Some 7% of Republican primary voters named Mr. Bush as their top pick for the GOP
nomination, down from 14% in July and 22% in June.
Like Mrs. Clinton, Mr. Bush was an early front-runner whose pedigree and famous last name is
proving to be as much of a liability as an asset. The former Florida governor boasts the biggest
war chest in the field, but his continued slippage has donors nervous at a time when candidates
with little or no experience in politics have stolen the spotlight.
Hillary Clinton's support among Democrats continues to decline and a potential Joe Biden
candidacy could spell trouble for her, according to a new Wall Street Journal/NBC News poll.
Meanwhile, Ben Carson pulls even with Donald Trump as political outsiders continue to gain
ground among GOP primary voters.

6. Poll: Trump trails Clinton by double digits

Donald Trump trails Hillary Clinton by 13 percentage points, according to a CNN/ORC poll
released Wednesday, a day after the Republican presidential front-runner won Indiana decisively
and became the presumptive GOP nominee following Ted Cruz’s exit from the race.
Clinton leads Trump in the hypothetical head-to-head matchup 54 percent to 41 percent, her
largest advantage over Trump since July. Voters’ reasons for backing Clinton are largely split,
with 48 percent of her supporters saying they would vote for her because they support her, while
51 percent said their vote is an expression of their opposition to Trump. On the other side, 57
percent of Trump’s supporters are backing him because they oppose having another Clinton in
the White House, while 43 percent actually support his campaign.
The survey of 1,001 Americans was conducted April 28 through May 1 via landlines and
cellphones. It has a margin of error of plus or minus 3.5 percentage points.

49
TOPIC VOCABULARY

1. opinion poll/survey опрос общественного мнения


pollsters социологи
polling organization/ социологическая служба
company /firm
polling results/findings результаты опроса
approval rating/popularity рейтинг популярности
rating
to trail (behind) smb in polls отставать от к-л по опросам на …
by… percent процентов
syn. to fall behind/lag behind
to enjoy support пользоваться поддержкой
to back smb поддерживать к-л
backing поддержка
round of voting тур голосования
2. to gain ground/edge получить преимущество, завоевывать
ant. to lose ground популярность
n. lead over smb отрыв, преимущество над к-л
to enjoy/take a lead over smb иметь/получить преимущество
над к-л
syn. to ride high
wide/narrow lead значительное/незначительное
to widen one’s lead over smb преимущество
увеличить отрыв от к-л
minority government правительство меньшинства
political analysts/pundits/ аналитики, эксперты
commentators/academics
3. to endorse a candidate публично поддержать кандидата
endorsement публичная поддержка

50
grassroots members/the рядовые члены партии, партийные
grassroots низы
syn. rank-and-file members
to gain/build momentum набирать силу, укрепить позиции
to lose momentum терять позиции, инициативу
to keep momentum сохранить позиции, инициативу
to run neck-and-neck идти вровень, иметь равное
syn. to be tied/to run even/ to be количество голосов избирателей
level-pegging
neck-and(to)-neck race/ head-to плотная гонка
head race
syn. tie/ dead heat ничья, равное количество голосов
4. to surge резко возрасти
n. surge in support значительный рост поддержки
to overtake smb обогнать к-л по опросам
syn. to leapfrog smb
to withdraw from the race выйти из гонки, отказаться от
syn. to pull out/bow out/ drop дальнейшего участия, снять свою
out/back out of the race/ to кандидатуру, сойти с дистанции
quit/to exit the race
to knock smb out of the race заставить кандидата выбыть из
борьбы, вытеснить из гонки
5. field общее количество кандидатов от
одной партии на выборах
single digit/double digit support поддержка менее/более 10 процентов
war chest бюджет предвыборной кампании
to pull even with smb сравняться с к-л по уровню
популярности
6. margin of error статистическая погрешность
to be within the margin of error находиться в пределах
статистической погрешности

51
II. a) translate b)** explain the meaning of the word combinations:

Text 1: a fresh bid, a polarising figure, corruption allegations, to be disbarred from


running.

Text 2: voter fatigue, economic stewardship, to embrace change, negative


advertising, against the backdrop of sth.

Text 3: to throw weight behind smb, at the 11-th hour, the leave and remain camps,
a two-horse race, MPs.

Text 4: to struggle, follow-up votes.

Text 5: top pick for the GOP nomination, pedigree, an asset/a liability, to steal the
spotlight, political outsiders.

Text 6: presumptive GOP nominee.

III. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the Topic
Vocabulary words.
A.

1. Public-opinion polls suggest a tight race for top spot between the incumbent
Conservatives, led by Prime Minister Stephen Harper, and the centrist
Liberal Party, led by Justin Trudeau, with the left-of-center NDP trailing in
third.
2. Public-opinion surveys currently show Mr. Rubio in the middle of the GOP
pack, but they suggest he is well positioned to gain support.
3. The conventional wisdom among pollsters in both camps has been that
whoever wins two out of the three biggest swing states – Florida,
Pennsylvania and Ohio – will win the election.
4. Theresa May has stunned Westminster by demanding a snap general election
on 8 June that she hopes will turn her party’s clear lead in the opinion polls
into a healthy parliamentary majority and secure her Conservative vision for
Brexit. The prime minister said she had come to the decision reluctantly and
recently, but felt it was necessary to secure stability, at a time when her party
is riding high in the polls.
5. Opinion polls had predicted Sarkozy’s win – though his closest rival, former
agriculture minister Bruno Le Maire had closed the gap in the run up to the
vote – but it was vital he gain a clear majority.
6. There was some good news for the former secretary of state on Sunday,
however. Senator Jeanne Shaheen said she would confirm her endorsement
of Clinton at an event in New Hampshire, another early voting state, next
week.

52
7. Dr Ramphele, a former partner of Steve Biko, the anti-apartheid hero, agreed
to join the DA after Agang, the party she launched last year, failed to gain
momentum and was reportedly running short of resources.
8. Germany’s hard-fought general election appeared to end in a virtual dead
heat - probably the worst result possible for the country and for the cause of
reform.
9. Leadsom secured the backing of 66 MPs, including many Eurosceptic
figures who want to see someone who campaigned to leave the EU in charge
of negotiating Britain’s exit.
10. She was followed by Michael Gove, with 48 votes, and Stephen Crabb, with
34. The fifth-placed candidate, who has been knocked out of the race, was
the former defence secretary Liam Fox, on 16 votes. Crabb withdrew from
the race about 90 minutes after the results were announced, saying he would
support May and that she was “the only person who can unite our party and
form a strong government at this serious moment”.
11.Despite the crowded field, a survey by the ConservativeHome website has
put May and Johnson far out in front of other contenders, with the home
secretary very narrowly ahead on 29% to 28% of those who responded.
12.The Sanders campaign had scheduled two rallies in different parts of the
New Hampshire, a state where he has had a double-digit lead over Mrs.
Clinton in recent polling.
13. But his lead is within the margin of error and the pair are in a statistical
dead heat. Polls suggest that up to 40 per cent of voters could yet change
their mind.

B. **

1. The shifts in the last week of the Iowa campaign, and close analysis by
pollsters, showed that voters were nervous of his record of wild gaffes and
sceptical of the value of being an “outsider” to Washington, as he often
boasted. Above all, they seem to have been repelled by his anger, the hallmark
of his stump speeches.
2. The former London mayor endorsed Leadsom on Monday night in a move that
is likely to have attracted a number of other leave campaigners to her
campaign.
3. A January Wall Street Journal/NBC News poll found that 45% of Republicans
said they support the tea party. That’s down from a high water mark of 58% in
2010, but still a big share of the Republican party. The movement has been an
amorphous force because it is not centrally organized, but its power was clear
in GOP primaries of 2012 and 2010.
4. Polling indicates Mr. Harper’s party could still win the most seats nationally,
but will fall short of a majority government. The Conservatives could only run
a minority government by getting the backing of one of the other two main

53
parties on important votes—support both opposing parties have categorically
said they wouldn’t provide.
5. The Conservative Party’s attacks on the Labour Party leader appear to have
helped him rise above low expectations. Meanwhile, Mr. Cameron’s
advantage in popularity hasn’t translated into a clear lead for his party, and the
gap is narrowing.
6. The key to understanding the SPD’s falling popularity – it lagged 23
percentage point behind the conservative CDU/CSU parties in an opinion poll
published on September 13 and has been losing ground since July – could lie
in a revealing study published last week.
7. After Johnson backed out, Tory grandee Michael Heseltine launched a vicious
broadside against him, accusing him of leading Britain towards Brexit, but
failing to carry out the public’s instructions. “He’s like a general who leads his
army to the sound of guns and at the sight of the battlefield abandoned the
field. I have never seen so contemptible and irresponsible a situation.”
8. The Texan will have his work cut out for him. Former Florida governor Jeb
Bush and Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker are leading early public opinion polls,
with Cruz trailing in a second tier of candidates. By announcing first, Cruz
will dominate headlines for a few days and benefit from news coverage until
the rest of the field takes shape.
9. Some of Johnson’s backers vented their fury at Gove, with many suspecting
him of plotting the decision for several days, and announcing it at the last
minute in a deliberate bid to scupper the chances of his Oxford Union
contemporary.
10. Senator Mitch McConnell, 72, who has lead Senate Republicans since 2007
and has a 30-year Senate career, beat Democrat Senator Alison Grimes, 35, in
a race that had at times been neck-and-neck. In campaign events and ads, he
sought to tie Grimes to President Obama, who is deeply unpopular in
Kentucky and twice lost the state by double digits.
11. Clinton's victory buoyed worried supporters and gave her fresh momentum as
she heads into the next contest in South Carolina on Feb. 27, where polls show
her with a double-digit lead largely as a result of heavy support from black
voters.
12. All recent incumbent presidents who ran for re-election without a primary
challenger, including Ronald Reagan and Bill Clinton, easily won re-election.
Conversely, every incumbent except Richard Nixon who ran for re-election
after a primary challenge from within the party were defeated. Gerald Ford,
Jimmy Carter and George Bush Sr faced challenges from within their party
and subsequently lost the election. Lyndon Johnson was so damaged after the
early primary votes in 1968 that he quit the race.

54
IV. Fill in the blanks with suitable words in the necessary form from the
list given below:

1) frontrunner, to launch one’s bid for the presidency, nominee, survey, to


launch, race, to narrowly lead, to lead the field, to back (2), presidential
race, tight, to formally announce one’s candidacy, to enjoy a slight lead, to
run, contest, poll, rivals, primary race

Jeb Bush (………………………..) Tight Republican (………….), Poll Says


But no one has broken out of the GOP pack

Former Florida governor Jeb Bush (………………………….) his likely


Republican (……………) for President, according to a new (……….), but the
nominating (……………..) remains (………………..) with no overwhelming
(…………………………..).
The news came as Bush announced he would travel to Germany, Poland and
Estonia early next month, giving him a chance to burnish his foreign policy
credentials as he prepares to formally (………………………………………..).
The CNN/ORC (……………….) found that 17% of Republicans and Republican-
leaning independents support Bush in (……………….....), while 12% back
Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker. Kentucky Senator Rand Paul and Florida
Senator Marco Rubio, who both recently (…………………..) their 2016
campaigns, each drew 11%. Only 4% said they back New Jersey Governor Chris
Christie, who placed second in the poll as recently as last fall.
Bush also (……………………..) in several key attributes, according to the poll,
including the candidate voters see as having the right experience and the best
chance to defeat the Democratic (……………………).
In contrast to the Republican (…………….), former Secretary of State Hillary
Clinton, who (……………………………………..) this month, dominates the
Democratic lineup. Among Democrats and Democratic-leaning independents, 69%
said they support Clinton, while 11% said they (……………….) Vice President
Joe Biden — who hasn’t signaled he (……………………) — 5% support
Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders and 3% (…………) former Virginia Senator Jim
Webb.

55
2) opinion polls, lead, the incumbent, to hold the lead over, a dead heat, on the
stump, to gain, favorite, surge, rival

Portugal Leader (………..) Ahead of Election, Despite Austerity

LISBON—Just a few weeks ago, voters appeared ready to punish Prime Minister
Pedro Passos Coelho for spending cuts and tax increases that drove Western
Europe’s poorest country deeper into a recession to save it from insolvency.
But with the economy on a slow mend, a late (………..) of support in (…………)
has vaulted the conservative leader several points ahead of his Socialist (………..),
making him (……………….) in an election on Sunday that is viewed as a test case
for the troubled eurozone.
Portugal’s hardships have weakened Mr. Passos Coelho, a 51-year-old career
politician with a degree in economics. For most of the year, Socialist leader
António Costa, a former mayor of Lisbon, (………………………..) the governing
coalition—formed by the prime minister’s Social Democratic Party and the smaller
Democratic and Social Center Party.
By May 2014, the economy had improved enough to end the bailout aid, and is
expected to grow 1.6% this year. Unemployment has fallen from a peak of 17% to
close to 12%. Although economists say the recovery is fragile, exports have risen
and investment is starting to pick up. Mr. Passos Coelho hammered those points
(…………………..), reminding voters that Portugal had fallen into recession and
sought the bailout under Socialist rule. Polls showing (……………..) late last
month gave (……………………) a clear (………) as the campaign drew to a close
this week.

V. Replace the words in brackets with their English equivalents in the


necessary form:

1) Tory leadership race: May (получила значительное преимущество)


____________________________ as Fox and Crabb (выбыли из гонки)
_________________

Theresa May stormed ahead in the race to become the next prime minister,
winning (поддержка)______________ of half of all Conservative MPs (в первом
туре гонки) _____________________ that saw Stephen Crabb (выбыл из гонки и
публично поддержал ее кандидатуру) _________________________________
after he slipped into fourth place.
(Министр внутренних дел) _____________________ won the support of 165
MPs while Andrea Leadsom, the energy minister, came second (в гонке)
_____________ with 66, beating (министр юстиции) _____________________,

56
Michael Gove, into third place on 48. Fifth-place finisher Liam Fox, on 16 votes,
was eliminated.
Just over an hour after the result was declared, Crabb said he was offering May his
“wholehearted support”, arguing that her ability (обеспечить поддержку)
_______________________of 165 MPs showed that she was the only candidate
who had any hope of unifying the party and country. The work and pensions
secretary, who secured 34 votes, said (борьба за пост руководителя)
__________________________ should proceed as planned unless others
voluntarily (откажутся от дальнейшего участия) ______________________,
but he said it was important that (гонка) _______________ was as short as
possible. “I think, (учитывая) _____________the seriousness of the situation, the
quicker we have a new and strong prime minister in place, the better,” he said.
Fox, (бывший министр обороны) _________________________, who
automatically (заставили выбыть из гонки) __________________________after
coming fifth, said he did not regret (что он баллотировался) _______________
and would now “stress the need for experience”, as he threw himself behind May
despite the fact that they were on opposite sides of the EU referendum debate.
The fact that only three candidates are left means that the party’s 330 MPs will
vote in one more (тур) ___________ on Thursday before two are selected to be
put to a vote (партийных низов) ______________________.
Tory politicians said the result placed the party on track for an “all-women
shortlist”, with Leadsom 18 votes ahead of Gove. She has attracted support from
many Brexiters who want to see someone who (проводил кампанию в поддержку
выхода из Евросоюза) ________________________in charge of the country.
Gove has struggled (укрепить позиции) ___________________ since he killed
Boris Johnson’s chances of becoming the next leader by abandoning his campaign
at the last minute (чтобы баллотироваться самому) ___________________.
The former London mayor threw his weight behind Leadsom on Monday, (дав
толчок, укрепив) __________________ her campaign in a move that one MP
described as “revenge served cold”.
Gove’s (сторонники) ____________said he (не покинет гонку)
________________, with the education secretary, Nicky Morgan, saying that the
country needed a “sensible, leave supporter” to negotiate Britain’s (выход из
Евросоюза) ___________________. But one MP said he was “toast”, arguing that
his reception (на предвыборном собрании партии) _____________________on
Monday night “was so chilly the temperature dropped by 10 degrees”. Johnson’s
(ближайшие сторонники) _____________________ reacted with fury to the way
that Gove withdrew his support.

57
2) Jeb Bush (завершил президентскую гонку) ____________________
after Donald Trump wins in South Carolina

Jeb Bush (завершил свою президентскую кампанию) ___________________on


Saturday, following a bruising loss in the South Carolina primary he had hoped
might revive his (попытка) __________to become the third member of his family
elected to the White House. He made the announcement in a somber speech before
(сторонники) _______________ in Columbia after earning just 8.3% of the vote
with 67% reporting in the third (праймериз) _____________ of 2016. Bush, who
struggled from the outset to get his campaign off the ground despite amassing
(бюджет кампании) _________________ of $100m, was visibly emotional and
occasionally choked up as he spoke.
His decision (сойти с дистанции) _______________ arrived as pressure
mounted on the former Florida governor (покинуть гонку) ________________
gracefully and pave the way for a (жизнеспособный, реальный) ____________
alternative to stop Donald Trump and Senator Ted Cruz of Texas.
A fourth-place finish in New Hampshire just ahead of his former Florida ally
turned (соперник) _____________, Marco Rubio, gave him a renewed sense of
hope that South Carolina might just reverse his fortunes. The state had been
historically favorable toward the Bush family, prompting the return of George W
Bush (участие в предвыборной кампании) ____________________last week as
part of a last-ditch effort to salvage his brother’s campaign.

VI. Translate the headlines:


A.
1. TRUMP’S LEAD LOOKS STEADY IN RUN-UP TO SUPER TUESDAY
2. OPINION POLL BOOST FOR NZ OPPOSITION
3. SPAIN’S RULING PARTY SLIPS IN POLLS
4. CANADA’S NDP VOWS NO SUPPORT FOR MINORITY CONSERVATIVE
GOVERNMENT
5. ELECTION 2015: LABOUR AND TORIES NECK AND NECK IN FINAL
GUARDIAN/ICM POLL
6. CHALLENGER ED MILIBAND MAKES UP SOME GROUND AHEAD OF U.K.
ELECTION
7. BRAZIL’S MARINA SILVA: A TRIUMPH FOR UNDERDOGS AND A LESSON
FOR CIVIL SOCIETY

58
8. CANADIAN LEADER STEPHEN HARPER BRACES FOR TIGHT ELECTION AMID
ECONOMIC MALAISE
9. THERESA MAY WINS FIRST ROUND OF VOTING IN TORY LEADERSHIP RACE
B.
1. FRANCOIS FILLON SINKS IN POLLS AFTER ‘PENELOPEGATE SCANDAL
2. TRUMP ON ROAD TO NOMINATION AS CRUZ EXITS REPUBLICAN RACE
3. GREEK PARTIES NECK AND NECK
4. POLLS SHOW NO PARTY WITH A CLEAR LEAD
5. BRITONS VOTE IN TIGHTEST POLL FOR DECADES
6. HIGH DRAMA IN INDIANA:TRUMP SEALS WIN;CRUZ BOWS OUT
7. CLINTON UNDAUNTED BY UNDERDOG MANTLE
8. SCOTTISH NATIONAL PARTY EYING GAINS IN 6 WEEKS OF FRANTIC
CAMPAINING
9. TRUMP AND SANDERS WIN AS CRUZ SHOCKS BY DROPPING OUT
C.
1. KENYA PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE FACING CRIMINAL CHARGES TAKES
ELECTION LEAD
2. MACAPAGAL AND POE NECK AND NECK AS POLLS CLOSE
3. TORY UNEASE AS LEAD SLIPS AWAY
4. POLLS SHOW STRONG EARLY SUPPORT FOR CLARK
5. FRONTRUNNER EXPECTED TO SEAL UNBEATABLE DEMOCRATIC LEAD
6. IRAQ ROW SLASH LABOUR’S POLL LEAD
7. UNDECIDED VOTERS SWING AWAY FROM CONSERVATIVES
8. AUSTRALIAN OPPOSITION GAINS GROUND
9. RULING CONSERVATIVES AND LABOUR PARTY NECK-AND-NECK

VII. a) Translate the sentences into English.


1. Согласно опросам общественного мнения, этот кандидат пользуется
широкой поддержкой избирателей.
2. Он получил значительное преимущество в ходе первого тура
голосования и скорее всего победит и во втором туре.
3. Кандидаты идут вровень, но пока трудно сказать, сумеют ли они
сохранить свои позиции до окончания предвыборной кампании.
4. Поддержка этого кандидата значительно возросла, и он даже опережает
своих соперников на несколько пунктов.
5. Несмотря на то, что бюджет его предвыборной кампании не очень
большой, ему удается завоевывать популярность у все большего числа
избирателей.
6. Всю предвыборную кампанию он отставал от своих соперников, но в
последние недели догнал их и даже, по данным некоторых опросов,
возглавил гонку.
7. Гонка настолько плотная, что назвать фаворитов невозможно.
8. Партия продолжает укреплять свои позиции, и социологи полагают,
что на этот раз у нее получится сформировать правительство
большинства.

59
9. Пример Дональда Трампа показывает, что тот, кого все считали
неудачником, в результате может оказаться лидером гонки.
10.Аналитики и эксперты уверены, что его репутация не позволит
обогнать остальных кандидатов.

b) Translate the texts into English. **

1. Опрос: Клинтон увеличила отрыв от Трампа по популярности среди


избирателей США
Кандидат в президенты США от Демократической партии Хиллари Клинтон увеличила
отрыв по популярности среди американских избирателей от своего республиканского
соперника по предвыборной кампании, миллиардера Дональда Трампа. Об этом
свидетельствуют опубликованные в пятницу результаты нового общенационального
опроса, проведенного международным социологическим центром Ipsos совместно с
агентством Рейтер.
Согласно последним данным, полученным в период с 14 по 18 августа, за Клинтон на
выборах в ноябре готовы отдать голоса 42% опрошенных, Трампа намереваются
поддержать 34% респондентов. Таким образом экс-госсекретарь опережает миллиардера
на 8%.
При этом в конце прошлой недели разрыв между кандидатами, согласно Рейтер и Ipsos,
был меньше. В поддержку Трампа высказывались 35% опрошенных, за Клинтон были
готовы проголосовать 41% респондентов.

2. Сошел с дистанции
Пан Ги Мун отказался от борьбы за пост президента Южной Кореи
Завершивший недавно работу на посту генсека ООН Пан Ги Мун, который до сих пор
считался одним из главных претендентов на должность следующего президента Южной
Кореи, внезапно отказался от участия в выборах. Об этом он заявил в среду на экстренно
созванной пресс-конференции.
После возвращения на родину Пан Ги Мун сразу же начал предвыборную кампанию,
проведя целую серию встреч с представителями различных политических сил и
осуществив визиты в регионы Кореи.
Согласно опросам, в середине января Пан Ги Мун оказался на втором месте среди
возможных фаворитов на президентских выборах в Южной Корее. Возглавил рейтинг
один из бывших лидеров оппозиции Мун Чжэ Ин с 31% голосов, а Пан Ги Мун отставал
от него на 11 процентных пунктов.
Ожидалось, что на пресс-конференции Пан наконец-то официально заявит о намерении
участвовать в выборах президента, но все произошло с точностью наоборот.
В конце 2016 года Пан Ги Мун покинул свой пост после 10 лет работы в качестве главы
ООН. Его место занял бывший премьер-министр Португалии Антониу Гутерреш.

60
3. Соцопрос: Тереза Мэй потеряет поддержку большинства
парламента
7 июня 2017 г.
Премьер-министр Великобритании Тереза Мэй и возглавляемая ею правящая
Консервативная партия в ходе внеочередных всеобщих выборов 8 июня может потерять
поддержку большинства британского парламента. Об этом свидетельствуют результаты
социологического исследования, проведенного аналитической компанией YouGov.
Консерваторы могут получить лишь 317 из 326 мест, необходимых для формирования
парламентского большинства. В свою очередь для оппозиционной Лейбористской партии
результаты голосования станут более успешными. Она нарастит свое представительство в
парламенте с 229 до 257 мест.
На протяжении всей избирательной кампании опросы общественного мнения указывали
на неминуемую победу консерваторов, но вот их отрыв от главного политического
соперника - лейбористов - сокращался по мере приближения дня голосования.
Все опросы общественного мнения в начале недели давали консерваторам от 43 до 45
процентов голосов, а лейбористам - от 34 до 40 процентов. А ведь в середине апреля,
когда премьер Тереза Мэй объявила о проведении внеочередных выборов, разрыв между
этими двумя партиями составлял более 20 процентов, что было абсолютным рекордом в
современной истории. Эксперты считают, что именно это преимущество вдохновило Мэй
на объявление внеочередных выборов. Но ее план заручиться мощной поддержкой
избирателей накануне переговоров по брекзиту, судя по всему, провалился.
Выборы в 2015 году, когда центр YouGov обещал, что голоса между двумя основными
политическими конкурентами разделятся чуть ли не поровну - по 33 процента, а в итоге
консервативная партия получила абсолютное большинство, подорвали доверие к
социологическим опросам. Если прогнозы все же оправдаются, это будет означать, что
Мэй не удалось удержать даже того преимущества в 17 процентов, которое она получила
"в наследство" от своего предшественника на посту главы правительства Дэвида
Кэмерона, ушедшего в отставку после референдума о выходе страны из Евросоюза.

VIII. REVISION. Translate the text into Russian.

François Fillon fights to save presidential bid amid fake jobs scandal
French rightwing candidate was favourite to win but latest poll shows him being eliminated
in first round as backlash grows
François Fillon is battling to save his rightwing bid for the French presidency as party colleagues
increased pressure on him to stand aside after fresh allegations he paid his family large amounts of
taxpayers’ money.
Fillon was considered a favourite to win the two-round presidential election in April and May. But for the
first time since allegations broke last week that he had paid his wife for an allegedly fake job as a
parliamentary assistant, a poll showed him sinking and being eliminated in the first round, lagging behind
the far-right Marine Le Pen and overtaken by the centrist, maverick independent Emmanuel Macron. MPs
in Fillon’s party, Les Républicains, began to question whether he was becoming an electoral liability. One
poll showed 76% of French voters were not convinced by his response to the scandal.

61
Fillon has denied the allegations and insists he will not pull out of the presidential race unless he is
formally charged with an offence. Fillon urged MPs at a closed meeting on Wednesday to stick by him at
least for another two weeks as the investigation continued. He vowed he would remain as candidate and
fight “to the end”. But he continued to argue he was the victim of a plot, accusing the current Socialist
government of staging an “institutional coup d’état” against him.
Officially, Les Républicains party is not yet looking for a possible replacement if Fillon is forced to drop
out, but the nervousness behind the scenes was palpable. It remains uncertain how the party could go
about finding another candidate if the situation arises. Fillon knocked out former president Nicolas
Sarkozy in the first round to win the primary race outright against Alain Juppé. There is no time for
another primary race.
Based on the Guardian article February 1, 2017

IX. Comment on the cartoons. **

1. 2.

3.

www.cleveland.com

www.cartoonstock.com
UNIT III. CASTING YOUR BALLOT. ELECTION RETURNS

TRANSLATION MATTERS
Переводческий комментарий и упражнения

A. В англоязычной письменной речи часто употребляется абсолютная


причастная конструкция – оборот, состоящий из причастия (причастия
I или причастия II) с существительным в общем падеже, в большинстве
случаев вводимый союзом with и в предложении выполняющий
функцию обстоятельства. Если абсолютная причастная конструкция
употребляется в начале предложения, то она, как правило, переводится
на русский язык придаточным предложением времени, причины,
условия, вводимыми союзами когда, после того как, так как, если (в
зависимости от контекста). Если же абсолютная причастная
конструкция употребляется в конце предложения, то она переводится
или самостоятельным простым предложением, или простым
предложением, входящим в состав сложносочиненного предложения и
вводимым союзами а, и, при этом, причем:
With the chancellor having ruled himself out of the running to be the new
Conservative leader, it is difficult at this stage to assess how important this issue
will be for other candidates. – После того, как министр финансов исключил
свое участие в выборах на пост лидера Консервативной партии, трудно на
данном этапе сказать, насколько важным данным вопрос будет для других
кандидатов.
The vice-presidential debate last Thursday was an improvement, with the
candidates addressing some important foreign policy issues. – Состоявшиеся в
прошлый четверг дебаты между кандидатами на пост вице-президента
прошли успешнее. Участники обсудили важные внешнеполитические
вопросы.
При этом могут встречаться и независимые обороты без причастия
(причастие being в функции связки обычно опускается). Такая
конструкция также переводится вышеуказанными способами12:
With the crisis now over, the party is struggling to win back its voters. –
Сейчас, когда кризис закончился, партия всячески пытается вернуть своих
избирателей.

PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. Turnout is likely to be low, with some illegal parties calling for a boycott.
2. With at least three seats too close to call, most analysts predict that the vote
counting could continue for days.
12
См. подробнее Гуськова Т.И., Зиборова Г.М. Трудности перевода. – М., 2000. – с.46-48.

63
3. With the candidates neck-and-neck in the polls and a dozen states rated as
tossups, there was the real possibility the nightmare of the 2000 presidential
election would be back for an encore.
4. With rain, strong winds and Champions League football giving voters plenty
of excuses to stay indoors, there were fears that apathy might be the real
winner.
5. Without a snap election, Mrs May said that “political game-playing” in
Westminster would continue, with EU negotiations reaching their “most
difficult stage” in the run-up to the previously scheduled 2020 vote.
6. Estonia is a pioneer of electronic voting, with a reported one in five casting
their vote online.
7. Recent polls have indicated support for Fillon falling slightly. He is slightly
behind the far-right Front National’s Marine Le Pen, with Emmanuel
Macron, the maverick independent centrist, breathing down his neck.
8. There was a sharp divide across Britain, with London and other major cities,
and Scotland, voting to remain in the EU, while smaller towns and more
deprived economic areas backed Brexit.
9. Mélenchon’s rise means that with up to a third of voters undecided, no two
opinion polls entirely alike and margins of error to account for, it is
impossible to say with certainty who of the front four will go head-to-head
in the second round.
10.But with the country still divided, and electoral lists not drawn up, the
election was postponed.
11.The historical dimensions of the election were clear, with Merkel set to
become just the third postwar chancellor to secure three election wins, after
Adenauer and Helmut Kohl, who brought her into the party as an
inexperienced and gauche 35-year-old.
12.Armenians went to the polls on Monday, with Mr. Sargsyan heavily
favoured to win and maintain stability in a country that has become an
increasingly important, if uneasy, United States ally in monitoring Iran’s
nuclear ambitions.
13. Despite high stakes, turnout was low. Just 36 per cent of the electorate had
cast their vote by 4pm local time, with many Romanians appearing to have
grown cynical at a rowdy political environment that has brought the country
its third government in four years.
14.With 87 percent of precincts reporting, Clinton was leading with 52.5
percent of the vote to Sanders' 47.4 percent. Vote counting was delayed in
Nevada by heavy turnout.
15. Turnout was lowest in Tehran, where national politics play a greater role in
voting patterns, with participation falling below 30 per cent. This has been
attributed to disillusionment with reformist and conservative factions alike.

B. Часто при переводе оказывается необходимым произвести изменения


структуры предложения, например при переводе предложений с

64
союзом until. На русский язык такие предложения, как правило,
переводятся при помощи приема антонимического перевода, т.е.
замены отрицательной формы в оригинале на утвердительную в
переводе, и введением в русское предложение наречия только или
вводного сочетания по крайней мере:
The opposition parties claimed that they still stood by their word and they would
not vote until their demands were met. – Оппозиционные партии заявили, что
они продолжают стоять на своем и проголосуют только, когда их требования
будут выполнены.

PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. Election officials said final figures would not be available until tomorrow.
2. Mr. Bush is holding a major fundraising event in Florida later this month,
but isn’t expected to formally announce until after April.
3. Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker isn’t likely to start his campaign formally until
the summer, after his state legislative session ends.
4. The next weeks will be dominated by bargaining among the parties to
hammer out a working arrangement. A government may not emerge until the
New Year.
5. Official results looked unlikely to be released at least until early today, and if
the president’s mandate is revoked, fresh elections will have to be held
within 30 days.
6. And even though Americans won't cast their ballots until November 8, 2016,
the campaigning begins well over a year in advance.
7. It's not until the middle of 2016 that a single presidential candidate will
emerge on the Republican and Democrat sides.
8. Preliminary results from the 18 six-seat constituencies are expected by this
afternoon, although many of the final seats, which will determine the overall
balance of power, will not be declared until tomorrow.
9. Even if he plans to seek a second five-year term – and his aides are
preparing for him to do so – he may not formally announce until early next
year.
10.Results are expected to trickle into Maseru on Sunday, but a final tally may
not emerge until early next week due to the remoteness of some
communities in the rugged country with a poor road network.

C. Необходимо обратить внимание на еще одну инфинитивную


конструкцию – for + существительное/местоимение + инфинитив.
Такая конструкция, как правило, переводится на русский язык при
помощи придаточного предложения, вводимого союзами что, чтобы

65
(реже инфинитивом или существительным в дательном падеже с
инфинитивом)13:
Many experts believe that it's important for the Conservatives to stick to this
agenda. – По мнению многих экспертов, важно, чтобы Консервативная
партия придерживалась данного курса.

PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. The government was hoping for a high turnout to enhance the president’s
democratic credentials.
2. The invitation to meet a newly inaugurated US president is a sign of prestige
and opportunity, regardless of who holds that office. For Theresa May to be
the first foreign leader to enjoy the privilege is undoubtedly a feather in
Britain’s diplomatic cap.
3. Yet only 55 per cent of Romania's 18m eligible voters cast ballots – just
above the 50 per cent required for a referendum to be binding.
4. There were reports last month that as many as nine Cabinet ministers want to
be given free rein to campaign for Britain to leave the EU.
5. MPs are expected to start putting their names forward within days to the
1922 committee of backbenchers, ready for the parliamentary party to
whittle this down to two names.
6. With voting in Iowa’s caucuses over, New Hampshire voters got ready for
the entire presidential field to descend and the real wooing to begin.
7. The former mayor of London played a major role in the leave camp during
the EU referendum, and was the initial favourite to succeed Cameron, only
for his leadership bid to end abruptly when his key Brexit ally, Michael
Gove, stood against him.
8. Opinion polls suggest the veteran political rebel, who is calling for a
nonviolent “citizens’ revolution” and for the French constitution to be torn
up and rewritten, has overtaken the official Socialist party candidate, Benoît
Hamon.
9. Cameron said it would be best for his successor to negotiate the terms of
Britain’s exit – and to trigger article 50 of the Lisbon treaty, which begins
the formal process of withdrawal, adding that he had already discussed his
intentions with the Queen.
10.Some SPD deputies now believe the only way to break the deadlock is for
Germany to hold fresh elections.
11. With 97.3 percent of votes counted Sunday, only 24.2 percent of the
electorate voted – still falling short of the 25 percent participation necessary
for the result to be valid.

13
См. подробнее Гуськова Т.И., Зиборова Г.М. Трудности перевода. – М., 2000. – с.17.

66
12.Unless a compromise can be reached, there appears little choice but for the
country to go to the polls for the third time in four years, a destabilising
development Sri Lanka can ill afford in the midst of peace negotiations.

I. Read and translate the texts using the Topic Vocabulary list. Pay special
attention to italicized constructions and words (see TRANSLATION
MATTERS on pp. 61-67 for guidance and translation practice).

1. Britons Vote in Most Unpredictable U.K. Election in Decades

LONDON—Voters in Britain were casting their ballots on Thursday in the country’s most
unpredictable national election in more than two decades.
British Prime Minister David Cameron is facing off against Ed Miliband, leader of the center-left
Labour Party, and pollsters say the outcome of the vote is too close to call. Opinion polls suggest
that neither party is likely to win a majority of seats as voters defect to newly popular fringe
parties.
With no clear winner expected (See Com. A, p.63), Friday could kick off days of political
negotiations with smaller parties that would determine the country’s next leader. The stakes are
high: If Mr. Cameron’s center-right Conservative Party wins, the party will deliver a referendum
on whether the U.K. should leave the European Union. Alternatively, a Labour government
would likely rely on support from the Scottish National Party, which could use its leverage to
argue for greater autonomy for Scotland.
The vote caps five weeks of intense campaigning, during which neither party was able to move
the dial on opinion polls. The campaign has been at times bare knuckles, with senior figures in
both parties launching sometimes personal attacks on the candidates. (Ibid.)
With a second hung parliament in prospect (Ibid.), ICM pressed voters on the government they
would prefer. The single most popular choice – picked by 25% – was a Conservative overall
majority, followed by a Labour majority, which 23% preferred.
The Conservatives are forecast to win the most seats because of Britain’s first-past-the-post
electoral system, where the candidate with the most votes in the constituency wins and the rest of
the votes are disregarded, and are likely to claim that gives them a mandate to continue to lead
the U.K. for the next five years.

67
But Mr. Miliband could be in a position to argue he has a bigger mandate, by drawing on the
support of like-minded parties. Such a scenario would be legal and has happened before in the
U.K.

2. Brazil elections: Dilma Rousseff wins first round


Incumbent president’s income redistribution programme seems to have paid off, leaving
her narrow favourite to win runoff

Brazil’s president, Dilma Rousseff, rode the success of her income redistribution programme to
come out on top in a first-round election on Sunday, but failed to secure the overall majority
needed to avoid a run-off.
After a rollercoaster campaign, the Workers Party incumbent came from behind to win 41.4% of
the vote and will now face Aécio Neves of the pro-business Social Democratic party, who
secured second with a spectacular late surge that boosted his vote to 33.7%.
The left-right battle between the nation’s two biggest parties is a disappointment to those who
had hoped for change in the form of former environment minister Marina Silva, who led the
polls at one stage, but faded into a distant third place with 21.3% – almost the same as she
managed during her last attempt four years ago.
The election appeared to turn on its head in August, when the candidate for the Socialist party,
Eduardo Campos, was killed in a plane crash. His running-mate, Silva, benefited from a huge
surge of sympathy to triple the party’s vote and lift them briefly into first place. But the two main
parties steady reasserted their strength by using their substantial advantages in TV time and
campaign funding to attack Silva and press home their greater experience in the key area of
running the economy.
The president is now in a strong position to secure a second term. Surveys suggest she will win a
second-round vote against Neves by 48% to 42%. But momentum is on Neves’ side, and Silva
could yet throw her support behind the challenger, so another surprise cannot be ruled out when
the polls open again on 26 October.

3. Kenya sees huge election turnout


Uhuru Kenyatta leading rival Raila Odinga in early results but tight race could lead to
runoff vote and rerun of 2007 clashes
Kenyans turned out in massive numbers on Monday to vote in a general election described as the
most important, and nervously anticipated, in the country's 50-year history.

68
Provisional results, based on more than a quarter of polling stations reporting, showed Uhuru
Kenyatta – who is due to stand trial at the international criminal court – leading with 55% of the
vote, well ahead of his main rival, Raila Odinga, on 40%.
With queues forming well before polls opened at 6am (See Com. A, p.63), it soon became clear
the turnout would be "huge", officials said, possibly a record. The system struggled to cope with
the demand, and some voters waited up to 10 hours to cast their ballots. Thousands of people
queued patiently past goats, open sewers, piles of uncollected rubbish and walls coated from top
to bottom with weathered campaign posters.
There are still many hurdles to come, as a tight contest for the presidency could lead to a run-off
vote and ugly disputes both in the courts and on the streets.Along with the presidential race,
there are closely contested elections for senators, county governors, members of parliament,
female representatives in county assemblies and civic leaders.

4. Israel election: Netanyahu's Likud storms to victory

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's right-wing Likud Party has won a surprise victory in
Israel's election. Exit polls had forecast a dead heat but with almost all votes counted (See Com.
A, p.63), results give Likud a clear lead over its main rival, the centre-left Zionist Union. The
outcome gives Mr Netanyahu a strong chance of forming a right-wing coalition government. It
puts the incumbent on course to clinch a fourth term and become Israel's longest-serving prime
minister.
The latest tally gives Likud 30 seats in the 120-seat parliament, the Knesset, with Zionist Union
on 24 seats. In a speech to jubilant supporters in Tel Aviv after Tuesday's polls closed, Mr
Netanyahu described the vote as a "great victory" for Likud, which had trailed the Zionist Union
in opinion polls in the run-up to the election.
In the end Israeli opinion polls told the wrong story, yet again. Benjamin Netanyahu scored a
much bigger victory than the exit polls had suggested. In the last few days of the campaign he
demonstrated yet again why he is such a formidable politician. The prime minister narrowed the
gap with Mr Herzog's Zionist Union, and then overhauled it, by turning sharply towards the
ultra-nationalist Israeli right. He issued a series of grim warnings about the consequences for
Israel if he lost - Arabs with Israeli citizenship were voting, so his people needed to turn out.
Almost 72% of those eligible voted in Tuesday's election. Turnout was four points higher than
the previous election in 2013. Israel's form of proportional representation always produces
smaller parties and coalition government. None has ever won an outright majority under Israel's
proportional representation voting system.

69
5. Vote count hints at run-off in Afghan presidential poll

Afghanistan’s presidential election was hardening into a two horse race on Monday, after two of
the three former senior ministers seen as possible winners left the third trailing in early voting.
Abdullah Abdullah and Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai had almost 80 per cent of the vote between
them with a tenth of the ballots counted (See Com. A, p.63), the national election commission
said, raising the chances that the sprawling poll would be strung out by a second round.
Mr Abdullah’s 41.9 per cent and Mr Ghani’s 37.6 per cent put them ahead of Zalmai Rassoul,
who was struggling to reach 10 per cent despite being seen as the preferred candidate of
outgoing president Hamid Karzai.
Many Afghans in cities protected by a security force deployment braved threats from the Taliban
to cast their votes in the country’s first democratic handover of power. While violence and
logistical problems stopped people from voting in some areas, the poll was generally seen as an
improvement on the 2009 re-election of Mr Karzai, who is constitutionally barred from seeking a
third elected term.
An official preliminary result is not expected until April 24 (See Com. B, p.64) and a final tally
on May 14, with a second round then due at the end of May at the earliest if no candidate wins
50 per cent of the vote. A second round would raise the prospect that the president will not be
known until at least July. (Ibid.) This would narrow the window for the new government to bed
in (See Сom. C, p.65) before the drawdown by the end of the year of the bulk of the
international forces that have occupied the country since the US-led invasion ousted the Taliban
from Kabul in 2001.

6. Donald Trump Bounces Back With Broad-Based Support in New


Hampshire **

MANCHESTER, N. H.— Donald Trump won the New Hampshire Republican presidential
primary by a decisive margin Tuesday, claiming his first victory of the 2016 campaign and
leaving the rest of the GOP field as murky as ever.

70
The billionaire businessman received 34% of the vote—more than double his nearest
competitor—allowing him to regain momentum after a second-place finish in the Iowa caucuses.
He has led the Republican presidential hopefuls in the polls since the summer. Lagging far
behind was a cluster of rivals, none of whom broke from the pack enough to establish himself as
a singular alternative to Mr. Trump.
All nine candidates were scrambling to woo the many voters—Republicans and independents—
who were undecided until the last minute. According to exit polls, 46% of GOP voters made up
their mind on Tuesday or in last “few days.”
The first-in-the-nation primary came a week after the GOP campaign had been launched in Iowa,
where Mr. Trump was dealt a humbling second-place finish behind Mr. Cruz and Mr. Rubio had
an unexpectedly strong third-place finish in the state’s caucuses.
New Hampshire polls were unanimous in predicting a Trump victory, but the battle among the
rest of the field came to resemble “The Hunger Games,” a fight for political life among several
candidates. That portends a lengthy and difficult race because the longer there are at least three
viable candidates amassing delegates, the harder it becomes for anyone to clinch the nomination.
(See Com. C, p.65)
Sen. Marco Rubio had been counting on his surprisingly strong third-place finish in Iowa to give
him a head of steam—“Marcomentum,” as his campaign has dubbed it in recent days. But a
fumbling debate performance Saturday fueled his rivals claims that he is too inexperienced and
ill-equipped for the presidency.
The biggest beneficiary was Ohio Gov. John Kasich, buoyed by a surge of late-deciding voters
from far back in the pack. His second-place finish rescues him from near-certain elimination if
he had failed to catch fire in a state he had made almost the sole focus of his campaign.
As returns came in, Mr. Rubio was trailing Mr. Kasich and mired in a close contest with Sen.
Ted Cruz of Texas, winner of the Iowa caucuses, and former Florida Gov. Jeb Bush, a former
mentor whose own faltering campaign may get some breathing room from the New Hampshire
results.

TOPIC VOCABULARY

1. to cast ballots голосовать, отдавать голоса


ballot/ballot paper бюллетень для голосования
absentee ballot бюллетень для заочного голосования
ballot box урна для голосования
polling/voting booth кабина для голосования
polling/voting station избирательный участок
precinct (AmE)
polling/voting/balloting голосование
to go to the polls идти на выборы
outcome исход голосования

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fringe party мелкая политическая партия
hung parliament «подвешенный парламент», в
котором ни одна из партий не имеет
большинство мест
first-past-the-post electoral мажоритарная система
system (FPTP) относительного большинства
proportional representation система пропорционального
system представительства
constituency избирательный округ
electoral district (AmE)
2. runoff последний, решающий тур
голосования с участием двух
лидирующих кандидатов
to secure/win an overall получить абсолютное большинство
majority
syn. outright majority
running-mate 1. кандидат на пост вице-президента
2. участник гонки
3. turnout явка избирателей
high/heavy/huge turnout высокая явка
ant. low turnout низкая явка
to turn out прийти, явиться на избирательные
участки
ant. to abstain from voting не явиться на выборы, воздержаться
от голосования
early results предварительные результаты
syn. preliminary/initial/partial/
provisional
final results окончательные результаты
голосования
to announce/to release/to оглашать результаты голосования
disclose/reveal results
4. exit polls опросы избирателей на выходе с
избирательных участков
tally/count подсчет голосов
to tabulate votes/ballots обрабатывать бюллетени
to score a victory одержать победу

72
to narrow/close the gap with уменьшить отставание от к-л
smb
eligible voters лица, имеющие право голоса на
выборах
ant. ineligible не имеющие права голоса
5. election commission избирательная комиссия
election officials представители избиркома
outgoing/departing president уходящий с поста, завершающий свое
пребывание на посту президент
ant. incoming president вступающий в должность президент
handover of power передача власти
syn. transfer of power
6. margin перевес голосов
by a margin of ……votes с перевесом в …. голосов
wide/decisive margin значительный перевес
narrow margin незначительный перевес
to woo voters пытаться расположить к себе,
syn. to court привлечь на свою сторону
избирателей
viable candidate жизнеспособный, имеющий реальные
шансы на победу кандидат
to amass delegates набирать голоса делегатов на съезд
партии
syn. to secure/accumulate delegates
party convention съезд партии
election returns/results результаты выборов
syn. showing/performance
to return a candidate избрать кандидата

II. a) Translate b) **explain the meaning of the word combinations:


Text 1: too close to call, to defect to a party, leverage, to cap sth, to move
the dial on opinion polls, to be bare knuckles, like-minded parties.

Text 2: a rollercoaster campaign, a pro-business party, a spectacular late


surge, to boost one’s vote, to turn on one’s head, to press sth home, to rule
sth out.

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Text 3: rerun of clashes, to anticipate, to stand trial at the international
criminal court, a hurdle, ugly disputes.

Text 4: a surprise victory, to clinch a fourth term, a formidable politician, to


overhaul sth, under proportional representation system.

Text 5: a sprawling poll, to brave threats from the Taliban, to narrow the
window for sth, to bed in, the drawdown of international forces.

Text 6: the GOP field, to break from the pack, to be unanimous in sth, to be
ill-equipped for the presidency, to be buoyed by sth, to catch fire, to be
mired in sth, a mentor, a faltering campaign.

III. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the Topic
Vocabulary words.

A.
1. He is among the few African leaders to have arrived in power by defeating a
sitting president at the ballot box.
2. Analysts say, however, that the Conservatives would need a lead of several
points to win the election, due to an uneven spread of constituencies across
Britain's electoral map.
3. The party beat even its own most optimistic expectations to capture almost
28 per cent of the vote, according to exit polls and early results.
4. Labour and the Conservatives are heading into Thursday’s general election
neck and neck, tied at 35% each according to the preliminary results of the
final Guardian/ICM campaign poll.
5. One of Kenyatta’s co-accused is his running-mate, William Ruto. Their
Jubilee coalition has united two of Kenya’s biggest communities, the
Kikuyu and Kalenjin, who were locked in deadly clashes last time.
6. With 87 percent of precincts reporting, Clinton was leading with 52.5
percent of the vote to Sanders' 47.4 percent. Vote counting was delayed in
Nevada by heavy turnout.
7. UKIP has announced the names of the candidates that it says are eligible to
stand in the contest to succeed outgoing leader Nigel Farage.
8. As Britain’s general election approaches, opinion polling suggests that the
outcome is too close to call. But most polls in April have given the Labour
Party a slender lead over the main rival, the Conservative Party, led by the
incumbent prime minister, David Cameron.

74
9. President Serzh Sargsyan of Armenia easily won re-election to a second
five-year term, according to preliminary returns released on Tuesday by the
Central Election Commission.
10.The returns showed Mr. Sargsyan with about 59 percent of the vote, enough
to win the presidency outright and avoid a runoff.
11.European Union foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini congratulated Mr
Netanyahu, saying the EU was “committed to working with the incoming
Israeli government” and to re-launch the Israel-Palestinian peace process.
12.More than six months before the French presidential election, the main
candidates appear to be set, with Francois Hollande, 57, winning a runoff
election on Sunday to become the Socialist Party’s presidential candidate.
13.In the lead-up to the referendum, government officials clearly feared a low
turnout. Originally scheduled only for Sunday, polling was extended – a
week before the vote – to include Saturday.
14.The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, which is formally in charge, has
expressed its intention to hand over power to an elected government by the
end of the summer.

B. **
1. The prime minister made an unscheduled statement on Tuesday morning
from behind a lectern outside 10 Downing Street, in which she recanted her
repeated promise not to go to the polls before 2020.
2. Eager voters waited to cast ballots all day as the most contested election in
Nigeria’s post-independence history wound down to a tense conclusion on
Saturday amid fears that the polarized electorate would clash regardless of
the outcome in a country sharply split on ethnic and sectarian lines.
3. The Conservatives could run the government with a parliamentary minority
only by getting the backing of either the Liberals or the NDP on important
votes—support both have categorically said they wouldn’t provide. But by
withholding that support, the opposition parties could trigger another
election, possibly saddling them with the stigma of having sent Canadians
to the voting booth for the fifth time in a decade.
4. The election appeared to have been carried out peacefully as 143 million
voters headed to polling stations everywhere from the Atlantic seaboard to
deep inside the Amazon rainforest. Some voters had to travel by boat for
more than 12 hours to reach a polling booth, according to local media.
5. The coalition’s poor record of tackling corruption and conducting deep
reform, as well as in-fighting among its leaders, appeared to have cost it
support at the ballot box.
6. Americans turned out to vote in record numbers in swing states and safe
states alike yesterday, standing in long queues across the country to have

75
their say in a close, polarised race that has galvanised the nation after
decades of creeping apathy.
7. As dusk fell over the world's fifth-largest oil exporter long queues wound
around the schools and public buildings being used as voting stations from
before dawn. By late afternoon in Kano, dense crowds were still building at
polling places in the city, the voters pressed against each other stomach to
back, pushing against election officials to vote, many having waited for
hours.
8. The first round of Les Républicains party’s primary was held on 20
November. To the shock of many, François Fillon, Sarkozy’s much put-
upon prime minister, came top with 44% of the vote. This was the
humiliating end of Sarkozy’s putative comeback, knocked into third place
and excluded from the second round runoff by his former underling and the
one-time favourite Juppé, who finished second.
9. By winning both South Carolina and New Hampshire and holding leads in
the 11 states that vote on March 1, Trump was arguably on track to win the
nomination, an outcome that seemed astounding to contemplate when he
got into the race last summer.
10. It was Trump's second victory in a row, an outcome that frightens
establishment Republicans but thrills the "throw-the-bums-out"
conservative base of the party that has long been fed up with Washington.
11.In Britain, with its first-past-the-post system, Ms Merkel would now be
forming her government, and grooming herself as a German version of
Margaret Thatcher.
12. The exhilarating sense that Japan had reached a turning point drew long
lines of voters to polling stations in Tokyo, where they braved darkening
skies from the approaching typhoon. About 70 percent of eligible voters
cast ballots, the highest turnout in nearly two decades.
13. As Labour grapples to hang on to power, less than a day into Australia’s
first hung federal parliament for 70 years, the recriminations have already
begun.
14. Under the system of mixed member proportional representation, which
replaces first past the post, the number of MPs is decided both by electorate
votes and the overall share of the poll each party secures.
15. The inconclusive outcome, plus the new strength voters have handed to
independents and Greens, suggests the public was deeply unhappy with the
performances of both Labor and the conservative coalition.
16. The 48-year-old barrister was regarded as the favourite to succeed Mr
Farage but the party's ruling body decided he was ineligible after he missed
the deadline for submitting his nomination papers.
17. She attempted to woo leave voters by signing up Chris Grayling, a
prominent leave campaigner, to chair her campaign and pledging to create a
department to negotiate the UK leaving the EU.

76
18. Until the previous day, most had been expecting a run-off against Silva,
but, having toyed with change, the electorate eventually opted for the two
main parties of left and right that have dominated Brazil politics for
decades.
19. In recent times running mates have generally been chosen more for their
ability to balance or enhance the overall appeal of the party ticket than for
their geographical attributes.
20. Yet when the exit polls began circulating on Sunday afternoon, pundits
were amazed. And the final tally confirmed the upset: the CDU and its
Bavarian sister party, the Christian Social Union (CSU) came in at only
35.2% of votes, not even a full point ahead of Social Democrats (SPD) at
34,3%.
21. Sierra Leone’s presidential run-off hit a snag soon after polls opened when
92,000 people were told they were ineligible to vote.
22. Russia resents the role played by the security body OSCE in elections that
helped return west-oriented presidents.
23.When Mr. Trudeau won the Liberal Party leadership in 2012, the party was
coming off its worst showing ever in 2011 election. Its organization was in
need of rebuilding, as a bitter feud pitting former leaders Mr. Chretien and
Paul Martin left party members divided and disenchanted.
24. Sanders vowed to fight on and set his sights on the 11 states that vote on
"Super Tuesday," March 1. He predicted that when Democrats gather for
their nominating convention in Philadelphia in July, "We are going to see
the results of one of the great political upsets in the history of the United
States." "The wind is at our banks," he said. "We have the momentum."

IV. Fill in the blanks with suitable words in the necessary form from the list
given below:

1) turn out, electoral districts, to cast ballots, a margin of error,


incumbent, early results (2), to be up for grabs, first-past-the-post, to
surge, ballot box, frontrunner , tallies, public opinion polls, showing
Voters in Canada Head to (……………) in Tight Race
The vote caps off an 11-week campaign that could mark the end of Conservative Prime
Minister Stephen Harper’s almost decade-long grip on power

OTTAWA— (…………………..) from Canada’s national election put the centrist


Liberal Party in the lead in Atlantic Canada, based on (………….) from that region
of the country, as voters waited for the majority of polls to close and ultimately
decide the fate of (……………………….) Conservative government.

77
Very (……………………) from the four Atlantic provinces underscored the
centrist party’s early success, with candidates leading in almost all of the 32 seats
(…………………….) in the region.
The Liberal party—led by 43-year-old Justin Trudeau, the son of former, long-
serving Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau—began the campaign in third place in
(……………………………..) but (…………….) to the top in late-stage polling,
as many voters embraced Mr. Trudeau’s message of change and optimism.
There is an outside shot the Conservatives could still win the most seats in the
country’s legislature. Canada’s (………………………………….) rewards parties
seats in the legislature based on obtaining a plurality of votes in 338 individual
(…………………….). The Conservatives could benefit from vote splitting among
centrist and left-of-center voters, who (………………….) for either the Liberals or
the left-leaning New Democratic Party. The election’s result will come down to
voter (………………….), and a stronger (…………….)—well above the 61%
reached in 2011—would benefit the Liberals as it signals Canadians are intent on
political change.
A poll from Toronto-based Ipsos, released Sunday, indicated the Liberals enjoyed
38% support, followed by Mr. Harper’s Conservatives with 31%. The left-of-
center NDP, at one time (………….) in the race, is in third at 22%. The poll, based
on interviews with 2,500 respondents, has (…………………….) of plus or minus
2.2 percentage points.

2) to secure an outright majority, a run-off (2), the incumbent’s resources,


momentum, to surge, a pollster, the first round of voting, the incumbent,
too close to call, to enjoy a double-digit lead over the incumbent,
pollsters and pundits, the second round, to run neck-and-neck

The battle for Brazil

With days to go before the first round, the race is (……………….)

TO DESCRIBE the final weeks of Brazil’s presidential campaign as dramatic


would be putting it mildly. The twists and turns have led to lots of head-scratching
among (………………………….). With days to go before
(………………………) on October 5th, firm predictions are scarce.
The prediction that commands most confidence is that Ms Rousseff
(…………………………………….) in the first round and that the election will go
to (………….) on October 26th. There she will almost certainly face Ms Silva,
who in the weeks following Mr Campos’s death has surged past Aécio Neves, the
candidate of the centre-right Party of Brazilian Social Democracy. The latest
second-round simulations show Ms Rousseff and Ms Silva (…………………….).

78
For a while it looked as if Ms Silva would carry (………) with ease. At one point
she (………………………………………) in second-round polling. But
(…………………) has shifted in recent weeks. Ms Silva’s (…….) spurred Ms
Rousseff’s campaign into action. João Santana, a formidable marketer who had
helped both Ms Rousseff and Lula, as well as four foreign presidents, to get
elected, threw (……………………….) into “desacralising” the saintly Ms Silva.
Half of Mr Neves’s voters currently plan to migrate to Ms Silva in (……………..),
according to IBOPE, (……………). That is three times as many as would go to
(……………….) — but down from two-thirds at the end of August. The battle for
Brazil is going down to the wire.

3) official returns, to woo, opinion polls, undecided voters, to seek second


term, a slight lead over smb, to cast ballots, surveys, tight election

Portugal Holds (…………….) as Prime Minister (…………………….)


Pedro Passos Coelho’s coalition is slightly ahead of his Socialist rival in (……………….)

LISBON—Portuguese voters (……………) Sunday in an election to determine


whether Prime Minister Pedro Passos Coelho, who oversaw a bailout program that
averted bankruptcy but imposed harsh austerity on the country, will keep his job or
relinquish it to his Socialist rival. (…………………….) were expected within
hours after the polls close at 8 p.m.
Until late August, polls gave the Socialists, led by former Lisbon Mayor Antonio
Costa, (……………….) Mr. Passos Coelho’s center-right coalition. But as
(…………………………) made up their minds in the campaign’s closing weeks,
(…………….) indicated that sentiment was swinging the other way.
Mr. Costa had tried (………. ) both conservative voters wanting stability and those
on the left who reject the idea of tightening their belts to pay off the country’s €220
billion public debt.

V. Replace the words in brackets with their English equivalents in the


necessary form:
1) (Первый тур) __________of Egyptian (парламентских выборов)
_____________________ Ends
(Закончилось голосование) _______________ on Monday (в первом туре
парламентских выборов в Египте) __________________________, (на фоне)
________ government concerns (по поводу низкой явки) _________________in
a vote that is expected to strengthen the political clout of President Abdel Fattah Al
Sisi.

79
(Низкая явка) ____________ would undermine Mr. Sisi’s claim over (народный)
_____________ enthusiasm for his “road map to democracy” he laid out as he
announced (военный переворот, в результате которого был свергнут)
___________________________ Egypt’s first freely elected president in 2013.
(Предварительные результаты, оглашенные) ______________________ on
Sunday have shown anemic participation by youth voters who are widely viewed
as being the engine behind the 2011 revolt and whose support Mr. Sisi explicitly
courted in a statement on Saturday (накануне выборов) _______________.
Monday marked the second day of (голосование в первом туре)
__________________of the staggered poll, covering 14 provinces, including the
cities of Alexandria and Giza.
(Голосование возобновится) ___________________ in November with Egypt’s
remaining 13 provinces, including the capital Cairo, (идти на выборы)
__________________ to elect the country’s first parliament in three years.

2) Argentina Heads for (решающий тур президентских выборов)


___________________ in Shock Result
BUENOS AIRES—The business friendly mayor of Argentina’s capital Mauricio
Macri (получил достаточно голосов на воскресных выборах)
________________________________ to trigger the first (решающий тур
президентских выборов) ______________________in the country’s history,
dealing a startling (поражение, неудача) ___________ to the populist (правящая
партия) ___________________.
The unexpected (результат) ___________ by Mauricio Macri, 56 years old,
(право-центристский) _______________ mayor of Buenos Aires, took
(социологи) __________and the country’s political establishment by surprise. It
also assured (решающий) ______________ election Nov. 22.
Daniel Scioli, the 58-year-old governor of Buenos Aires Province, (имел явное
преимущество) ____________________ heading into the election with polls. He
needed to get 40% of the vote and be 10 points ahead of Mr. Macri to win. But
(после подсчета 97% процентов голосов) _________________________
Monday morning, Mr. Scioli had 36.8% of the vote, compared with 34.3% for Mr.
Macri.
Mr. Scioli’s weaker-than-expected (результат) ____________ is a blow not only
to his campaign but to Mrs. Kirchner and their (правящая) ___________ Peronist
Victory Front coalition. (Второй тур голосования) _____________________
will signal the end of 12 years of (правления) ___________ by Mrs. Kirchner and

80
her late husband, Néstor, who (был избран на должность) _______________ in
2003. It also marks the emergence of a new, nationally (конкурентоспособный)
________________ force in Argentine politics.
Mrs. Kirchner has a 42% (рейтинг популярности) ________________, the
highest of any (покидающий пост президент) ____________________ in
modern Argentine history. (Согласно конституции, она не имеет права
баллотироваться на третий срок)
_____________________________________.
The elections will also determine how much legislative support the next president
will have, (поскольку в воскресенье шла борьба за половину мест в конгрессе и
одну треть мест в сенате) __________________________________________
________________________________________________________________ .

VI. Translate the headlines.

A.

1. HOLLANDE WINS RUNOFF TO BECOME SOCIALIST CANDIDATE FOR


FRENCH PRESIDENCY
2. FRENCH FAVOURITES EYE RUN-OFF CONTEST
3. DEADLOCKED RACE COULD LEAD TO HUNG PARLIAMENT
4. AMERICAN VOTERS TURN OUT IN DROVES
5. LAST CHANCE TO WOO UK VOTERS IN FINAL TV DEBATE
6. EU REFERENDUM TOO CLOSE TO CALL, SAYS TORY ELECTION GURU
7. SMALLER PARTIES COULD PLAY KINGMAKER
8. IN TURKEY’S KURDISH TOWNS, BULLETS FLY BEFORE BALLOTS
9. HIGH TURNOUT AS DIVIDED AMERICA GOES TO THE POLLS
10. ELECTION DRAMA BOOSTS TURNOUT
11. A US ELECTION, BUT THE REST OF THE WORLD TUNES IN
B.

1. LABOUR’S PRIDE IN ECONOMY NOT ENOUGH TO WOO VOTERS


2. MANY UNABLE TO CAST THEIR BALLOTS
3. RUN-OFF IN ROMANIAN PRESIDENTIAL CONTEST
4. A DIVIDED AMERICA VOTES
5. THE WEARY AND WARY TURN OUT TO CAST BALLOTS
6. BJP GAINS RAISE CHANCES OF EARLY INDIAN ELECTIONS
7. HIGH TURNOUT IN GUATEMALA POLLS
8. HK POLL TURNOUT MAY HURT GOVERNMENT
9. MEXICAN TURNOUT CHALLENGED
10. CLIFFHANGER

81
VII. a) Translate the sentences into English.

1. Так как в 2015 году Консервативная партия получила абсолютное


большинство мест на всеобщих выборах, Камерон сохранил должность
премьер-министра. Однако всего через год был вынужден уйти в
отставку после объявления результатов референдума о членстве
Великобритании в ЕС (in-out referendum).
2. Лидер Либерально-демократической партии Ник Клегг добился
обещания Камерона провести референдум по вопросу изменения
жесткой мажоритарной системы, при которой мелкие партии не
получают достаточно мест в парламенте. Однако на проведенном в
2011 году референдуме британцы отвергли идею перехода к другой
избирательной системе.
3. Очень важно, чтобы в решающем туре голосования избиратели пришли
на избирательные участки. Никто не должен воздержаться от
голосования.
4. Предварительные результаты выборов будут объявлены только завтра
утром: слишком много бюллетеней надо обработать.
5. Представители Центральной избирательной комиссии заявили, что
правящая партия одержала победу на выборах, причем сделала она это
со значительным перевесом голосов.
6. Ожидается, что на этих выборах будут представлены несколько
кандидатов, имеющих реальные шансы на победу.
7. Пока ведущие партии спорят между собой, эта мелкая политическая
партия начинает привлекать на свою сторону все большее число
избирателей.
8. Вряд ли этой партии удастся получить абсолютное большинство,
учитывая, что, согласно последним опросам, она стала терять свои
позиции.
9. Гонка слишком плотная, и можно с уверенностью говорить, что в
следующем парламенте ни одна из партий не будет иметь
большинства.
10.Сегодня в Австрии состоялись выборы. Данные опросов на выходе с
избирательных участков говорят о том, что в стране будет новый
канцлер.

b) Translate the texts into English. **


1. Явка на парламентских выборах в Испании составила почти 37%
Явка на досрочных выборах в испанские Генеральные кортесы (двухпалатный
парламент, состоящий из конгресса депутатов и сената) составила 36,81% избирателей к
14.00 по местному времени, свидетельствуют данные на официальном сайте выборов.
На предыдущих выборах 20 декабря к 14.00 явка составляла примерно столько же
— 36,91%, а в целом по итогам выборов превысила 73%.

82
Испанцам предстоит в воскресенье выбрать 350 депутатов нижней палаты и 208
сенаторов. Всего правом голоса обладают 36,5 миллиона граждан.
Предварительные результаты голосования будут объявлены после 22.00.
Голосование проходит через полгода после предыдущих выборов в парламент —
избранному 20 декабря 2015 года конгрессу депутатов (нижняя палата) так и не удалось
утвердить премьер-министра страны.

2. Во Флориде началось досрочное голосование на выборах


президента США

В штате Флорида на юге США открылись избирательные участки для досрочного


голосования на президентских выборах, сообщает в понедельник телеканал Fox News.
Данные последних опросов общественного мнения прогнозировали минимальный разрыв
в этом штате между кандидатами от демократов и республиканцев - Хиллари Клинтон и
Дональдом Трампом. Исход голосования во Флориде может сыграть решающую роль для
победы одного из кандидатов, отмечает телеканал.
Помимо Флориды, досрочное голосование разрешено еще в 32 штатах США, а также в
округе Колумбия. Как отмечает британская "Би-би-си", досрочное голосование в США
имеет большое значение, так как, согласно прогнозам, в этом году до дня выборов успеют
проголосовать 40% избирателей.

3. Выбор Америки: Трамп, не Клинтон


45-м президентом США станет 70-летний миллиардер Дональд Трамп, одержавший
поразившую многих победу над кандидатом-демократом Хиллари Клинтон.
По мере подсчета голосов, продолжавшегося всю ночь, ошеломившая всех победа Трампа
в Висконсине принесла ему 278 из 538 голосов выборщиков, при необходимых для
победы 270.
Дональд Трамп оказался победителем в 28 штатах, даже в тех, где, казалось, победа
Клинтон была гарантирована - Пенсильвании и Висконсине, штатах, которые не
голосовали за кандидата-республиканца с 1988 и 1984 годов соответственно. Он также
получил большинство в Айове, которая не голосовала за Республиканскую партию с 2004
года.
Трамп прочно удержал традиционные республиканские территории, включая Джорджию,
Аризону и Юту, в которые штаб Хилари Клинтон вложил немало средств в попытке
переманить избирателей на свою сторону. 69-летняя Хиллари Клинтон смогла одержать
победу лишь в 18 штатах и в округе Колумбия.

VIII. REVISION. Translate the text into Russian.


Dutch PM Mark Rutte sees off election threat of Geert Wilders
The Dutch prime minister, Mark Rutte, has seen off a challenge from the anti-Islam populist
Geert Wilders to claim a resounding victory in parliamentary elections widely seen as a test for
resurgent nationalism before other key European polls.

83
With nearly 95% of votes counted and no further significant changes expected, Rutte’s centre-
right, liberal VVD was assured of 33 MPs, by far the largest party in the 150-seat Dutch
parliament, the national news agency ANP said. Wilders’ Freedom party (PVV) looked certain to
finish second, but a long way behind on 20 seats.
Wilders, who had led the polls for the better part of two years and was at one stage credited with
a 25% vote share before slumping to barely half that figure on polling day, said it was obvious he
would have preferred to have been the largest party. But he noted the VVD had lost eight seats
while he had gained five, and promised to offer stiff resistance. “We are not a party that has
lost,” he said. “We gained seats. That’s a result to be proud of … And Rutte is certainly not rid
of me yet.”
“Wilders did not want to enter government,” said André Krouwel, a political scientist at
Amsterdam’s Free University. “What he wanted – and he’s pretty much already achieved it – is
for the two mainstream rightwing parties to say and do what he wants. In a sense, he had already
won the elections.”
A first-place finish for the anti-immigration, anti-EU PVV would have rocked Europe. In France,
the far-right leader Marine Le Pen is expected to make the second-round runoff in the
presidential election in May, while Germany’s Eurosceptic Alternative für Deutschland (AfD) is
on target to win its first federal parliament seats later in the year.
Wilders, who pledged to “de-Islamise” the Netherlands and take it out of the European Union,
was widely seen as unlikely to enter government however he fared, with most other parties –
including the VVD – vowing not to enter a coalition with the PVV.
The big winners were the pro-European leftwing ecologists of GreenLeft, who leapt from four
seats to 14 and could conceivably enter a ruling coalition. But the social democratic Labour party
(PvdA), Rutte’s outgoing coalition partner, slumped from 38 seats to a historic low of nine.
Rutte is now set to begin the often lengthy process of building a new coalition, most likely based
around the VVD, CDA and D66 – a combination that falls five MPs short of a 76-seat majority,
leaving him seeking a fourth coalition partner.
Turnout was high at 80.2% in an election both Rutte and Wilders cast as a test of whether the
Dutch wanted to end decades of openness and centrist politics and opt instead for anti-
immigration nationalism.
ANP said its final forecast was unlikely to be released until later on Thursday or even Friday
because several large municipalities including Amsterdam, The Hague and Utrecht would not
finish tallying all votes until then. But it said it expected no further changes to the outcome.
Official results will be disclosed on 21 March.
Based on the Guardian article March 16, 2017

84
IX. Comment on the cartoons. **

1. 2.

3. 4.

www.editorialcartoonists.com
www.cartoonstock.com
UNIT IV. ELECTORAL FRAUD

TRANSLATION MATTERS

Переводческий комментарий и упражнения


A. В английском языке очень распространены атрибутивные
словосочетания, то есть сочетания, состоящие из определяющего/щих
слова/слов и определяемого существительного. Определяющими
словами могут быть прилагательные, причастия, существительные и
числительные. Встречаются как двухчленные атрибутивные
словосочетания, так и многочленные. В двучленных словосочетаниях
определяющее слово может переводиться прилагательным,
существительным в родительном падеже, существительным с
предлогом. Перевод многочленных атрибутивных словосочетаний
представляет определенную трудность в связи с необходимостью
тщательного разбора и анализа словосочетаний этого типа для
установления структурно-семантических связей. Существует алгоритм
перевода атрибутивных словосочетаний и состоит он в следующем:
сначала перевести определяемое существительное (т.е. последнее слово
словосочетания), затем, проанализировав определяющую часть на
предмет разбивки на смысловые группы, перевести каждую смысловую
группу справа налево. Многочленные словосочетания могут
переводится по принципу двучленных сочетаний, а многочленные
словосочетания, состоящие из нескольких частей речи, могут также
переводится причастными оборотами или придаточными
предложениями :14

Police also fired tear gas to disperse opposition supporters who had gathered in the
capital. The one-day strike was most successful in Kinshasa, which has a
population of about 11 million. – Полиция также применила слезоточивый газ
для разгона сторонников оппозиции, собравшихся в столице. Однодневная
забастовка наиболее успешно прошла в Киншасе, городе с населением в 11
миллионов человек.
The election commission has said a voter registration drive in the vast central
African state of about 70 million people will not be completed by December. – По
словам представителей избирательной комиссии, мероприятия по
регистрации всех избирателей этой крупной центральноафриканской страны
с семидесятимиллионным населением к декабрю завершены не будут.
The EU Election Observation Mission to Jordan said the parliamentary elections
were well-organised. – Представители наблюдательной миссии ЕС на

14
См. подробнее Гуськова Т.И., Зиборова Г.М. Трудности перевода. – М., 2000. – с.137-139.

86
выборах в Иордании заявили, что парламентские выборы были хорошо
организованы.

PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. Modern France’s 11th presidential election campaign has also been its most
extraordinary, with almost as many firsts as candidates. The outgoing first-
term president, François Hollande, is not standing. Other big names such as
Alain Juppé and Nicolas Sarkozy are also out. For the first time, France’s
traditional mainstream parties may not reach the runoff.
2. Mubarak, who was forced to step down after an 18-day mass uprising, was
elected to his last term in 2005. Those were Egypt’s first multi-candidate
presidential elections but they were widely rigged.
3. The 74-year-old Sata – nicknamed King Cobra because of his venomous
tongue – toned down his rhetoric against foreign mining firms in the closing
stages of the six-week campaign.
4. A dramatic seven-point surge by the wildcard leftwing veteran Jean-Luc
Mélenchon appears to be holding, unexpectedly turning France’s roller-
coaster presidential race into a possible four-way contest.
5. The billionaire’s rainbow Georgian Dream alliance swept Mr Saakashvili’s
party from power in parliamentary elections nine years after it was brought to
office by the pro-democracy Rose revolution.
6. Liberians queued in the rain on Tuesday for the west African states’s second
presidential election since its civil war, with incumbent Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf
bidding for a second term.
7. Banda’s Movement for Multi-party Democracy party has run Zambia since
one-party rule ended in 1991.
8. Election commission results showed Ouattara won last month’s election. But
the pro-Gbagbo Constitutional Council scrapped nearly half a million votes
in Ouattara bastions to hand victory to Mr Gbagbo on grounds of fraud,
causing international outrage.
9. They rejoined the electoral process days later, after the chairman of the
National Elections Commission resigned following allegations he favored
Sirleaf, the country's Harvard-educated president who was just awarded this
year's Nobel Peace Prize.
10.Each side is still short of the 76 seats it would need in the 150-seat House of
Representatives to form a government in its own right.
11.The LDP-led three-party coalition won 275 seats in the 480-seat lower house
against 287 last time.
12.His party’s campaign manifesto calls for an “equal partnership” with the
United States and a reconsidering of the 50,000-strong American military
presence here.
13.On the Republican side of the ledger, the Register/Bloomberg poll showed
the real-estate mogul Donald Trump leading the 17-strong field with 23%, to
18% for another outsider candidate, the neurosurgeon Ben Carson.

87
14. Mr. Rubio’s aspirational message—an up-by-the-bootstraps American
success story—hasn’t changed much in the decade-and-a-half since that first
campaign for the state legislature. Neither has his status as something of an
underdog. Mr. Rubio enters the Republican race for the White House largely
overshadowed by another formidable Florida politician, former Gov. Jeb
Bush—setting the stage for him to attempt another come-from-behind rally.

B. Значительную трудность при переводе представляют придаточные


дополнительные (выполняющие функцию дополнения), вводимые
союзным словом what. При переводе такого сложноподчиненного
предложения необходима его перестройка, часто с заменой
придаточного предложения иной конструкцией без подчинительной
связи15:
Governor Mike Pence of Indiana and Senator Tim Kaine of Virginia are taking part
in what is expected to be one of the least interesting vice presidential debates in
almost 40 years. – Губернатор Индианы Майк Пенс и сенатор от штата
Вирджиния Тим Кейн примут участие в одних из, как ожидается, наименее
интересных за почти сорок лет дебатов кандидатов на пост вице-
президента.

At least four people died as police fired on Mr Tshisekedi's supporters as they


demonstrated against what they said were rigged elections on Saturday. – По
меньшей мере четыре человека погибли в результате стрельбы, открытой
полицейскими по сторонникам Этьена Чисекеди, вышедшим в субботу на
демонстрацию в знак протеста против сфальсифицированных, по их
мнению, результатов выборов.

PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. The US senator from Kentucky is the second declared Republican candidate


in what is expected to be a crowded field.
2. The tiny republic of Moldova erupted in violence today as anti-communist
demonstrators stormed the parliament in protest at what they said were
rigged elections.
3. Another challenger was shot in the shoulder in January in what the
authorities described as an assassination attempt, although there was no
known motive.
4. They will now embark on what promises to be a hard-fought, eight-month
general election campaign.
5. The election marks the beginning of what most analysts consider a genuine
two-party system after half a century of near-total domination by the Liberal
Democratic party.

15
См. подробнее Гуськова Т.И., Зиборова Г.М. Трудности перевода. – М., 2000. – с.125-127.

88
6. Thousands of overseas Greeks also returned to vote in their ancestoral
birthplaces in what analysts called one of the most crucial races since the fall
of the military junta in 1974.
7. There were some violations reported on the day of the vote, including cases
where what appeared to be blatant ballot stuffing was captured on camera.
However, most election observers noted that the elections were much cleaner
than the parliamentary elections five years ago.
8. To this day congressional districts for the House of Representatives in what
likes to think of itself as the world’s greatest democracy are drawn in an
openly partisan spirit by whichever party controls that state’s own legislature.
9. The arrest warrant came as Gen Wiranto prepared to announce formally
today that he has recruited the deputy chairman of Indonesia’s human rights
commission to be his running mate, in what is seen as an effort to clean up a
tainted human rights record.
10.Prime Minister Julia Gillard and her conservative rival, Tony Abbot, began
what many expect to be a lengthy period of negotiations to win over the three
independents and one Greens representative who hold the balance of power
in the House. Australia has not had a minority government since 1940.
11.The dramatic return from exile staged by popular former president before the
polls opened has added an extra dynamic. However, the former priest has so
far refrained from endorsing a candidate or calling for voters to abstain in
what observers say is a low turnout.
12. The election pits the Nobel peace laureate against former UN diplomat
Winston Tubman and 14 others. It comes at what could be a watershed
moment for Liberia, with its potential emergence as an oil nation and
investors ready to sink billions of dollars into its mining sector.

C. В английском языке существуют предлоги и союзы, по своей форме


совпадающие с причастиями. К ним относятся barring (за
исключением, кроме), considering (относительно), following (вслед
за), given (при наличии, учитывая), provided (при условии) и др.
Понять, что именно употреблено в предложении - союз/предлог или
причастие, - позволяет анализ предложения16:
Following the elections on 4 October 2015, a three-party coalition led by the
Socialist Party came to power in Portugal. – После выборов, состоявшихся 4
октября 2015 года, к власти в Португалии пришла коалиция из трех партий,
возглавляемая Социалистической партией.

Given the election results, it seems clear that many of the new voters did not cast
ballots. – Принимая во внимание результаты выборов, кажется очевидным,
что многие новые избиратели не проголосовали.

16
См. подробнее Гуськова Т.И., Зиборова Г.М. Трудности перевода. – М., 2000. – с.51-52.

89
The European Union was willing to recognize Lukashenko’s reelection provided
the election is held in accordance with democratic standards. – Европейский союз
был готов признать переизбрание Александра Лукашенко при условии, что
выборы пройдут в соответствии с демократическими стандартами.

PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. Given the margin of error, the parties were virtually neck and neck. Analysts
say, however, that the Conservatives would need a lead of several points to
win the election, due to an uneven spread of constituencies across Britain's
electoral map.
2. Libya's UN-backed government in the capital, Tripoli, has suffered a major
setback following a vote of no confidence by the country's eastern
parliament.
3. Canada’s New Democratic Party vowed on Friday it wouldn’t support a
minority Conservative government following the Oct. 19 election and said it
was willing to enter into arrangements with other political parties to oust the
incumbent party.
4. The highly Eurosceptic party membership, which numbers about 150,000,
will then have the final say on the list of two. Johnson is very likely to be on
that shortlist, given his leading role in delivering an out vote on behalf of
about 130 Conservative MPs who wanted Brexit.
5. Considering the frontrunner is expected to win New Jersey’s June primary,
which awards all 51 delegates to the winner, a win in Indiana would mean
that Trump could seal the nomination even with a mediocre performance in
California.
6. Blair presided over two landslide victories for Labour in 1997 and 2001 and
appears poised, barring some extraterrestrial intervention, to win handily
again.
7. France is keen to improve its image following much criticism over its stance
in the last two elections in Francophone Africa; in the Republic of Congo
and Chad. In both cases, France accepted the outcome of the elections,
despite strong allegations of fraud and an uneven playing field.
8. Still, Armenia faces a peculiar problem when it comes to potential election
fraud because of the hundreds of thousands of Armenian citizens who live
abroad, including in the United States – one of the largest percentage
diasporas in the world given Armenian population of 3.1 million, according
to the World Bank.
9. Following Ms Suu Kyi’s victory, south-east Asian leaders at the regional
meeting in Cambodia called for the lifting of all international sanctions on
Myanmar.
10.Barring an extraordinary surprise, it looks like Alternative Voting will be
rejected by the electorate, and probably conclusively. Several things have

90
combined to send AV’s popularity rating plunging since last summer, when
polls suggested that voters favoured it over first-past–the-post.

I. Read and translate the texts using the Topic Vocabulary list. Pay special
attention to the italicized constructions and words you have studied in
units I-III and the new ones which are underlined (see TRANSLATION
MATTERS on pp. 86-90 for guidance and translation practice).

1. Fraud fears grow in Afghan poll count (See Com. A, p.86)

Fears of fraud are casting a lengthening shadow over Afghanistan’s landmark elections as half
the votes are yet to be counted and the winner remains unclear more than two weeks after polling
day.
Abdullah Abdullah, a former foreign minister and Mujahideen member, has carved out a lead,
but a second round of polling remains likely – and hundreds of thousands of votes are under
scrutiny for possible irregularities.
Foreign officials desperate for a clean election ahead of the withdrawal of most of Afghanistan’s
international occupation force by the end of the year are becoming increasingly nervous as the
ballot drags on.
Large blocks of votes from various parts of the country are being reviewed for possible fraud
after allegations of ballot box stuffing by local officials, security force members and others.
Officials say just over 7m of an electorate of 12m turned out – but no one knows the true number
of registered voters, and some diplomats have estimated there may be 20m or more voting cards
in circulation.
Mr Abdullah, who claims widespread fraud denied him victory in the 2009 presidential election,
has 44.4 per cent of the vote with just under half the votes counted, according to Afghanistan’s
election commission. Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai, an ex-finance minister and former World Bank
official campaigning on an economic reform and anti-corruption ticket, has 33.2 per cent. A
second round of balloting will be triggered if no candidate reaches 50 per cent.
Zalmai Rassoul, another former foreign minister, trails with just over 10 per cent – enough to
make him a potential power broker if Mr Abdullah and Mr Ghani are seeking votes in a run-off.
Mr Rassoul is backed by two brothers of Hamid Karzai, the outgoing president, but denies he is
the government-approved candidate.
The election has suffered both logistical and security problems. The Taliban prevented voting in
some rural areas, while other Afghans were disenfranchised by ballot paper shortages or being
unable to register to vote.
Final results are not due until May 14, with any run-off scheduled for the end of the month at the
earliest, meaning a new president may not be announced until July.

91
2. Kenyan elections marred by Mombasa violence

Violence has flared on election day in Kenya, with at least 13 people killed in co-ordinated
attacks on the coast. A group of 200 Mombasa Republican Council (MRC) secessionists armed
with guns, machetes and bows and arrows set a trap for police before dawn, killing five officers.
A second attack by secessionists in nearby Kilifi killed one police officer and five attackers.
Kenya is facing a huge test as it seeks to avoid a repeat of the ethnic violence that left more than
1,100 people dead and 600,000 displaced following the 2007 election. Officials, candidates and
media have made impassioned pleas for peace this time.
The two leading candidates vying for the presidency condemned the Mombasa attacks. The
prime minister, Raila Odinga, called it a "heinous act of aggression" during a historic exercise.
The deputy prime minister, Uhuru Kenyatta, who is facing charges at the international criminal
court, said he was discouraged but sure that the security situation would be brought under
control.
Elsewhere, millions of Kenyans were queuing patiently and peacefully to vote in what officials
described as a "huge turnout", despite some problems with a new computer system (See Com. B,
p.88). Anti-fraud fingerprint-based voter ID technology being used for the first time broke down
in many areas. Officials admitted that many polling stations had opened late and there were
problems with transporting election materials.
Provisional results could emerge hours after polls close at 5pm, although the election
commission has seven days to announce the official outcome. Polls suggest the election could go
to a run-off, provisionally set for April.

3. Australian Electoral Commission to refer 8,000 cases of multiple voting in


2013 federal election to police

The Australian Electoral Commission (AEC) will ask federal police to investigate about 8,000
cases of multiple voting from last year's federal election.
Senate Estimates has heard 2,000 people have admitted voting more than once, citing reasons
including being drunk, confused or "trying out the system". A further 6,000 people have not
adequately explained why they voted multiple times. All cases have been forwarded to the
Australian Federal Police for investigation, in stark contrast to previous elections, such as that in
2010, when just 19 instances of multiple voting were passed on.
Multiple voting is a strict liability offence which carries a penalty of $1,700. A “more serious
offence” of intentionally voting more than once carries a penalty of $10,200 or up to 12 months
in prison.

92
About 10,000 multiple votes have been attributed to official error. Last month, the Senate
election in Western Australia was re-held after results from September's election were declared
void when about 1,400 ballots disappeared during a vote re-count. The missing ballots led to the
AEC re-examining its security procedures and to an inquiry by former AFP chief Mick Keelty.
Dozens of people at an aged care facility in Perth had to vote a second time in the election re-run
because of a problem with a ballot box. The AEC said an unsecure ballot box used at the facility
meant the ballots were invalidated.
In February this year the head of the commission, Ed Killesteyn, and the electoral officer for
Western Australia, Peter Kramer, resigned.

4. Free, but not fair: Zambia’s flawed elections

Amid fears of electoral violence, last week’s election, and the announcement of the results,
proceeded peacefully. Unrest in the build-up to the vote, including some fatalities, had
threatened to tarnish Zambia’s reputation as one of Africa’s most established and peaceful
democracies.
But once again, Zambia showed the continent how it’s done. It wasn’t perfect – authorities
arrested 133 opposition party supporters, accusing them of destroying property – but it has not
descended into the violent conflict that observers had been worried about, and so far shows little
sign that it will.
Another major positive was the turnout. About 56.54% of registered voters cast their ballots in
the presidential race, a sharp increase from the 2014 figure, which was just 32.36%. There’s no
doubt that Zambians appreciated that this time the stakes were high, and that the margins of
victory would be slim.
And so it proved: incumbent Edgar Lungu won with 50.35%, compared to challenger Hakainde
Hichelema’s 47.63%. The difference between the two candidates was a little over 100,000 votes
– and Hichelema, on the losing side for a fifth consecutive election, was not happy. He said the
counting process was fraudulent, and that the election had been stolen by Lungu and his party,
the Patriotic Front (PF).
“The PF has effected a coup on Zambia’s democratic process,” Hichilema said in a statement.
“We submitted evidence before the declaration of the results regarding the gross irregularities
that have taken place. That is why we will not accept the result.”
But international observer missions did not agree with Hichilema. They gave the vote itself a
unanimous thumbs-up.
“The AU concludes that the elections have been conducted in a peaceful atmosphere within the
framework that satisfactorily meets the continental and regional principles of democratic
elections,” said former Nigerian president Goodluck Jonathan, head of the African Union
observer mission.

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This is not necessarily a ringing endorsement, however. The African Union has come under
intense criticism for rubber-stamping problematic votes in the past – think Zimbabwe in 2013, or
Angola in 2012 – which suggests that “continental and regional principles of democratic
elections” may not be as rigorous as they should be.
A more credible verdict came from the Electoral Institute of Southern Africa, which noted that
the election may have been free, but it wasn’t fair. This sentiment was echoed by Michael
Gahler, a German member of the European Parliament and participant in the EU's observer
mission. “We have regrettably noted a huge bias by the state media, so by no means was there
any level playing field,” he told German broadcaster DW.
Given the tiny margin of victory, it’s hard to overestimate the significance of that unlevelled
playing field (See Com. C, p.89). In the run-up to the vote, Lungu harnessed the power of
incumbency to support his campaign. This was most obvious in state media outlets, which
functioned as one-sided amplifiers of his campaign messages. Meanwhile, pro-opposition
publications were intimidated and harassed, most notably The Post, a widely read daily that was
shut down for alleged tax offences.
While his tactics may have been dirty, they worked, and (barring a successful court challenge
from Hichilema) Lungu must now turn his attention to the most urgent task in his inbox:
rescuing Zambia’s struggling economy, which is grappling with a deadly triple threat of falling
copper prices, a rapidly depreciating currency and an acute energy shortage.(Ibid.)

5. Egyptians Begin Voting for First Parliament Since 2013

CAIRO—Egyptians began voting for the nation’s first parliament since a 2013 coup brought
Abdel Fattah Al Sisi to power, an election expected to stack the legislature with the president’s
supporters and strengthen his grip on government. The vote, which is staggered by region and
will conclude in early December, is dominated by candidates with military and police
backgrounds in addition to business and media elites who support Mr. Sisi.
Many parties that emerged since the 2011 uprising with either Islamist or democratic reform
agendas are boycotting the elections, with most charging they are being conducted in an
atmosphere of political repression.
The voting process is likely to be endorsed as free by international observers, devoid of the mass
rigging and intimidation that marked such elections during the nearly 30-year tenure of President
Hosni Mubarak before his ouster in 2011. But the composition of the candidates will result in
what many see as (See. Com. B, p.88) the sort of rubber-stamp legislatures that Mr. Mubarak
enjoyed.
The voting began in 14 of Egypt’s 27 provinces, including the large cities of Alexandria and
Giza. Some 5,400 candidates are vying for 568 seats. Results from this first leg, which continues
on Monday, are expected later this month. Residents of the capital Cairo will vote in November.
Early numbers from the official electoral authority pointed to a meager turnout, with only about
2 % of eligible voters participating by early Sunday evening. These are the eighth national
elections in Egypt since the 2011 uprising. A parliamentary election held in late 2011 and early
2012 saw some 10,000 candidates run, resulting in a legislature dominated by Islamist
lawmakers. A court order in 2012 dissolved parliament. That move began a process of rolling
back democratic reforms that culminated with Mr. Sisi coming to power.
In recent weeks, many candidates have come out in favor of constitutional amendments that
would eliminate some legislative oversight of the executive branch—something Mr. Sisi has
hinted that he wants to see. Of the 596 seats in the house, 448 seats will be taken by individual

94
candidates while 120 will be filled by coalition lists. The remaining 28 lawmakers will be
appointed by Mr. Sisi.
The elections have been criticized as favoring individual candidates whose reputation and money
would elbow out lesser known parties that emerged since the 2011 uprising.

6. Zimbabwe Poll Calm Amid Claims of Unfairness

Zimbabweans voted in the country's closely watched parliamentary election yesterday, as


opposition groups and watchdog organisations accused the government of intimidation and
unfair conduct of the poll.
In contrast with previous election, reports of violence - or serious irregularities - were minimal.
However, there were some allegations of intimidation of voters, and the opposition Movement
for Democratic Change claimed that whatever the outcome, “the election cannot be judged free
and fair”.
The MDC, which holds 50 seats in Zimbabwe's 150-member parliament, is challenging Mr
Mugabe's long-entrenched Zanu-PF party for power. In a report released yesterday evening, the
MDC again accused the government of unfair voter registration practices, gerrymandering of
electoral districts, skewing of polling stations, and silencing of independent media ahead of the
vote.
The fact that the MDC chose not to boycott the election, it said, “does not confirm legitimacy on
the results”. The party has hinted it may mobilise its supporters if the vote is seen as unfair.
International observers and non-governmental organisations monitoring the election in the field
mostly described it as peaceful, but allegations of irregularities persisted. The Crisis in
Zimbabwe Coalition, an umbrella group of NGOs, reported isolated cases of voter intimidation
and coercion.
Zimbabwe's rural communities are small and close-knit, and Zanu-PF gets most of its support in
the countryside. With more 8,200 polling stations set up around the country, critics of the vote
said the scope for intimidation of would be opposition voters was large.

7. PNG PM survives no confidence vote

Papua New Guinea Prime Minister Peter O'Neill has easily survived a vote of no-confidence in
the national parliament.
The parliament sat for the vote today amid heavy police presence in the capital, Port Moresby.
After over an hour of increasingly intense debate, the speaker disallowed further discussion and
the vote took place. Mr O'Neill won the vote of no confidence moved against him 85 to 21.

95
The opposition had brought the motion against Mr O'Neill, saying he had to be removed over a
long list of abuses of office as well as mismanagement of the economy.
Mr O'Neill has been fighting for his political survival since PNG police opened fire on protesting
university students calling for his resignation over corruption allegations in June.
A civil society group in PNG said before the vote that it would continue to encourage civil
disobedience if Mr O'Neill survived it. The group said some airline, maritime, energy and health
workers were observing its call not to go to work until the prime minister stepped aside or was
removed from office.
The doctors' union had said it would proceed with strike action next month even if Mr O'Neill
was toppled by today's vote. Association general secretary Sam Yockopua said doctors in
hospitals around the country had been protesting against the prime minister. Mr Yockopua said
other trade unions in PNG had been intimidated by the government and were failing to support
calls for Mr O'Neill's removal.

TOPIC VOCABULARY
1. electoral fraud мошенничество на выборах,
фальсификация результатов
голосования
to claim fraud/to cry foul заявить о мошенничестве
cries of foul play заявления о фальсификации
результатов
fraudulent elections сфальсифицированные, нечестные
выборы
syn. rigged/ flawed
ant. clean elections проведенные без нарушений выборы
to detect fraud выявить нарушения в ходе выборов
widespread/massive/large- массовые фальсификации
scale fraud
vote-rigging подтасовка голосов
v. to rig elections подтасовывать, фальсифицировать
результаты выборов/голоса
syn. to falsify ballots/ to tamper
with ballots/ to manipulate
votes/ to fabricate votes
irregularities нарушения процедуры голосования
syn. violations/ abuses/ flaws
gross irregularities серьезные нарушения
minor irregularities незначительные нарушения
ballot stuffing/ ballot box вброс бюллетеней
stuffing
to be disenfranchised лишиться права голоса
ant. to enfranchise предоставить право голоса

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2. to mar омрачить, испортить
syn. to taint/ to tarnish/
to overshadow
to vie for sth соперничать, бороться за ч-л
syn. to compete for sth
deputy PM вице-премьер

3. multiple voting многократное голосование

to vote repeatedly/multiple голосовать многократно


times
carousel voting (people «карусели»
bussed around polling
stations)
to declare results void признать результаты
недействительными
syn. to declare results a nullity/
to nullify results/ to
invalidate results/
to rule invalid
vote re-count пересчет голосов
4. observers наблюдатели
syn. watchers/checkers/monitors
observer mission миссия наблюдателей
to monitor elections наблюдать за проведением выборов
to accept results признать результаты
ant. to reject results не признать результаты
to dispute/ to challenge оспаривать результаты
results
to rubber-stamp a vote механически одобрить результаты
голосования
the power of incumbency административный ресурс
to intimidate voters запугивать избирателей
n. intimidation запугивание
to harass voters оказывать давление на избирателей
n. harassment давление на избирателей,
принуждение
syn. coercion

5. legislature законодательный орган

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legislator/lawmaker законодатель, член законодательного
органа
staggered vote поэтапное голосование
agenda 1.повестка дня 2. программа (партии,
правительства)
to dissolve parliament распускать парламент
n. dissolution роспуск
amendment поправка
v. to amend внести поправку
legislative/executive/judicial законодательная/исполнительная/
branch of power судебная ветвь власти
oversight надзор, контроль
v. to oversee контролировать, осуществлять надзор
to appoint назначать
n. appointment назначение
ant. to dismiss/ to sack увольнять
n. dismissal/ sacking увольнение

6. watchdog organization/ контролирующая организация,


watchdog надзорный орган

gerrymandering передел границ избирательных


округов в пользу к-л партии
legitimacy законность, легитимность
legitimate/illegitimate законный/незаконный
7. no-confidence vote/motion in вотум недоверия в отношении к-л
smb
vote/motion of confidence вотум доверия
to pass a vote of no вынести вотум недоверия в
confidence in smb отношении к-л

II. a) translate b)** explain the meaning of the word combinations:

Text 1: to be under scrutiny, a potential power broker.


Text 2: secessionists, a plea for peace.
Text 3: an unsecure ballot box.

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Text 4: to steal an election, a unanimous thumbs-up, a huge bias by the state
media, unlevelled playing field, to harness the power of incumbency, state
media outlets.
Text 5: the first leg of voting, to roll back democratic reform, to elbow smb
out.
Text 6: skewing of polling stations, to monitor elections in the field.
Text 7: a motion/ to bring a motion against smb, to remove smb over
sth/resignation over sth, abuses of office, mismanagement of the economy,
civil disobedience.

III. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the Topic
Vocabulary words.
A.

1. There were numerous reports of polling centers opening hours late, a lack of
voting materials, Haitians unable to find their names on voting lists and other
irregularities.
2. The vote went smoothly, though the country was rife with rumors that losing
parties would claim fraud and take to the streets.
3. Election monitors from the EU declared the vote was free and fair although
the process was marred by violence after protests broke out over the slow
release of results.
4. International observers had judged the election to be fair but the Mayor of
Chisinau alleged that turnout had been inflated to cover up ballot fraud and
multiple voting.
5. Mr. Buhari’s supporters have spoken of declaring a parallel government if
they believe the vote was rigged, or of taking their grievances to the streets.
6. Pro Democracy chairman said his observers found many irregularities in the
voting process, but the group could not determine whether there had been
large-scale fraud. Several newspapers reported that journalists working
undercover were able to vote multiple times.
7. The ruling party dismissed suggestions that it was responsible for any
irregularities. Its campaign chief accused the opposition of sending people to
vote multiple times, but said the elections were generally fair.
8. There were reports of serious irregularities in one Siberian region, with
suggestions of "carousel" voting - people bussed around polling stations - in
the city of Barnaul.
9. Intimidation, gerrymandering and the use of famine relief as a weapon are just
some of the many abuses that have been documented so far.
10. Some 17% of Democratic primary voters list Mr. Biden as their preferred
pick, and Mrs. Clinton’s support falls from 53% to 42% when the vice
president is added to the list of candidates vying for the nomination.

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11. During her time as home secretary and as part of the coalition, May clashed
with the then deputy prime minister and Liberal Democrat leader Nick Clegg,
particularly over the controversial anti-terrorism legislation.
12. Romanian election officials yesterday projected that enough voters had
turned out to validate referendum on bringing the constitution in line with
European Union law, despite cries of foul play from opposition parties.
13. But on Monday Ms Pamfilova rejected accusations of “massive”
irregularities. She said certain complaints about violations in Dagestan could
not be confirmed, but added that results from some polling stations in the
Rostov region and Nizhny Novgorod region might be declared invalid
because of irregularities.
14. The dominant parties in state legislatures tend to carve out congressional
districts to maximize the number of seats their parties can win, a process
known as gerrymandering.
15. All candidates contesting the presidential election have to be approved by the
Guardian Council, a hardline constitutional watchdog that rules on
contenders’ loyalty to the Islamic republic and Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, the
supreme leader.
16.If Mr Erdogan wins, he is eligible to remain in office until 2029. He will have
control over the judiciary, dispense with a prime minister and appoint all
ministers. He can double as party leader and dissolve parliament, which loses
the right to censure him.
17.The government had rejected US calls for foreign election monitors saying
there will be judicial supervision. But many judges fear they will be exploited
to legitimise a fraudulent election.
18. A rival government in the country's east has refused to cede power until the
House of Representatives passes a vote of confidence.

B. **

1. Observers report a range of misdemeanours: blatant vote-buying; the busing


in of government supporters, intimidation by hired thugs, tampering with
electoral rolls and ballot stuffing.
2. Haitians voted for a new president on Sunday amid similar claims of electoral
chaos to those that marred the first round of voting last year and provoked
days of violent protests and allegations of fraud.
3. In these states and in the smaller toss-ups (Minnesota, New Hampshire, New
Mexico and Wisconsin), every vote will count, and the Democratic and
Republican parties are pulling out all the stops to challenge any apparent or
imagined voting irregularities.
4. He cited administrative hurdles placed before his campaign and the "absence
of conditions for transparent and free elections". He is the fourth prospective
candidate to withdraw from the race alleging the election will be rigged.

100
5. Local election officials checked a random sampling of results from 150 voting
stations – a rare follow-up move to an election they have already said looked
clean.
6. Opinion polls released before the vote tended to favour the president, with
seven out of 10 polls published in July giving him a lead of at least six
percentage points. However, the polls also showed many voters were
undecided and pollsters believed that, fearful of intimidation, they might have
hidden their preferences.
7. International observers have fanned out across Armenia in recent days. Initial
reports suggested that Mr.Sargsyan’s party had made some inappropriate use
of government resources to promote his candidacy, a common criticism of
incumbent candidates in former Soviet republics. But observers say the
overall political climate has improved, with opposition candidates, for
instance, enjoying better access to coverage by media outlets.
8. Ballot boxes will be transparent, allowing army officers and party officials in
charge to see what votes have been cast. But that is the only transparency
there will be about what looks like being an utterly flawed election.
9. The opposition alleged fraud, with their leader saying he had video evidence
showing that the governing party bused its supporters around the country to
vote repeatedly. He says the alleged fraud affected the results by 5 to 7
percent.
10.Voters crowded around registration stations here in Kano, the north’s largest
city, a packed metropolis of more than five million, as hitches in the process
added to the tension. Election officials were more than two hours late in some
places, and malfunctioning electronic registration machines — part of a new
system designed to limit endemic fraud — stymied voters in others.
11.With few exceptions, absentee balloting is not permitted. That means the
Armenian election rolls are filled with the names of people who will not
appear in person to vote, creating the potential for fraudulent use of those
names.
12.Divided government, which happens when one party controls the executive
branch and another has a majority in at least one house of Congress, is more
common than not in U.S. government. “There’s little evidence that divided
government produces less important legislation than united government,”
American University professor David Lublin told journalists at the
Washington Foreign Press Center November 4.
13.The Supreme Court convened to consider opposition requests to invalidate the
election because of fraud. Its ruling, which is expected in days, might pave the
way for the new vote. Under Ukrainian legislation, the court cannot rule on
the overall results but can declare results invalid in individual precincts.
14.Postal-only voting should be scrapped and electronic security measures
introduced to prevent fraud, the Electoral Commission says today. In a
damning report, the independent watchdog says that all-postal ballot pilot
schemes in four regions in June have undermined public confidence and

101
should never be repeated. It calls for a comprehensive shake-up of the voting
system, underpinned by tougher laws to stamp out fraud and intimidation.
15.Opponents were concerned the paper ballots may have been tampered with
since Sunday's votes. He said the opposition wanted the audit to include an
examination of the internal workings of the machines' software.
16.International observers also voiced alarm over violations and irregularities.
Ari Vatanen, a French member of the European Parliament observing the
election, said eligible voters were missing from the voter lists and that some
voters had been allowed to cast ballots several times. The United States and
the European Union have voiced concern at some aspects of the campaign and
called for a clean vote.
17.Fears about cheating, intimidation and fraud in elections are focused mainly
on ethnic minorities, the report concludes. It is feared that dominant husbands,
fathers, community leaders and candidates may have coerced people into
voting against their will. Multiple voting, people apparently voting when they
were out of the country and false entries on the electoral roll were among the
concerns raised about the local and European elections in June.
18.Independent election observers and opposition candidates reported violations
of voting rules such as ballot stuffing, busing in of migrant workers or
soldiers for voting in several districts. Online video transmissions from
polling stations in Rostov and Dagestan showed people shoving heaps of
ballots into ballot boxes.
19.Ms.Pamfilova said the results from four districts were nullified because of
election fraud. Surveillance cameras caught poll workers cramming ballot
boxes in a few places. Over all, analysts said, the Kremlin seemed to have
kept its word to run a clean race.
20.The independent election monitoring group said that "although the level of
violations in this election campaign was lower than in 2011 there were many
in the run-up to the voting". It said the elections were "far from what could be
called really free and fair". The number of independent observers at polling
stations was lower than before, and there were cases of ballot-stuffing,
carousel voting and other abuses.
21.The word gerrymander is no more than 200 years old, named after Elbridge
Gerry, the governor of Massachusetts, who had drawn electoral districts so
contoured on a map that one of them was said to look like a salamander. His
object, of course, was to rig the districts in favour of his party, which is quite
easily done once you know who lives where.
22.The country has been deadlocked since Prime Minister Thomas Thabane
suspended parliament in June last year to avoid a motion that would have seen
him ousted after his fragile coalition government fell apart.
23.To avoid a showdown that could have led to the immediate collapse of the
government, parliament bowed to US pressure and dropped plans for a vote of
confidence.

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IV. Fill in the blanks with suitable words in the necessary form from the list
given below:

1) presidential contest, to accept results, election commission, to allege fraud,


opponent, the commission’s president, a runoff (3), legislative elections, the
run-up to, to beat, incumbent President

Guinea President Wins Second Term; (……………….) Vows Protest


(……………………..) rules Alpha Conde received enough votes in Oct. 11 election to avoid
(………………)

CONAKRY, Guinea—Guinea’s election commission says (…………………….)


Alpha Conde has won a second term, receiving enough votes to avoid (…………).
Bakary Fofana, (……………………..), said Saturday night that Conde had won
with nearly 58 percent of the Oct. 11 vote, besting leading opposition candidate
Cellou Dalein Diallo, who had 31 percent.
After the vote, Mr. Diallo and another opposition candidate (……………….) and
said they would not (……………...). On Saturday, Mr. Diallo vowed to organize
demonstrations against what he called an “electoral hold-up.”
The vote is only the second democratic (………………………) since Guinea
gained independence from France in 1958.
Mr. Conde (…………….) Mr. Diallo in (……………….) in 2010. At least seven
people were killed in election-related violence that year, and some 50 people died
in (……………….) Guinea’s 2013 (…………………..), according to Human
Rights Watch.

2) irregularities, to accept defeat, to announce the result, narrow margin (2),


to count, tight, supporters, voting system, a high turnout, to cry fraud, the
opposition candidate, to recognise the result, to take over, polls, a
comfortable double-digit lead, a margin

Maduro wins (…………..) Venezuela election

Nicolás Maduro, who (………………) Venezuela’s presidency after Hugo Chávez


died six weeks ago, will continue his mentor’s legacy for six more years after
winning Sunday’s presidential election by an unexpectedly (…………….……).
The 50-year-old former trade unionist won 50.66 per cent of the vote, leaving
(………………………………) Henrique Capriles with 49.07 per cent, after more
than 99 per cent of the vote (……………………).
At the time of Chávez’s death, local (…………….) suggested Mr Maduro would
win with (…………………………) but despite (…………………….) of 78.7 per

103
cent – which was expected to favour the government candidate – he won by
(……………) of just 230,000 votes.
Given (…………………….) of victory, there were concerns that many opposition
(………………….) would refuse (………………………). Mr Maduro urged
Venezuelans to remain calm and peaceful and not to be provoked into violence by
what he called foreign-backed plans to destabilise the Opec member country.
Mr Capriles said the opposition would not (……………………) “until every last
vote has been counted. It’s a tiny difference,” he said, adding that there had been a
number of (………………….) in the voting process.
Immediately after (……………………), Venezuelans in middle class districts in
Caracas leaned out of their windows (……………………….) and banging pots
and pans in protest, although Venezuela’s (………………….) has been described
by former US president Jimmy Carter as “the best in the world”.

V. Replace the words in brackets with their English equivalents in the


necessary form:

1) After Protests, Moldovan Opposition Claims (мошенничество на


выборах) ____________________
CHISINAU, Moldova — Opposition parties in Moldova won the right Thursday to
review (списки избирателей) _________________ (на конкурентных выборах в
парламент)_______________________________ that set off huge anti-
Communist protests here. They said they would comb (списки) ____________ for
possible (мошенничество), including dead or nonexistent people who might have
been used by the Communists to pad their victory.
Meanwhile, (представители Центризбиркома опубликовали)
______________________________ updated results that gave the Communist
Party 60 seats in Parliament, one fewer than the majority that would allow it to
choose Moldova’s next president unilaterally. (Предварительные результаты,
опубликованные) _____________________________ on Sunday showed the
Communists winning 61 seats, prompting outrage and accusations of (подтасовка
голосов) _____________________ from their (противники).
Opposition politicians charged that the Communists had denied (соперники)
__________________ access to news outlets, (сфальсифицировали бюллетени)
_______________________ and (подтасовали голоса) ____________________.
Since the protests, Moldovan and foreign officials have referred repeatedly to an
approving report by (наблюдатели ОБСЕ) __________________________. (В
предварительном отчете отмечались) ________________________
shortcomings like (запугивание избирателей) _________________________,
uneven access to the news media and unreliable (списки избирателей)
______________. But the assessment was generally positive, describing Moldova as
an “overall pluralistic environment and offering voters a distinct political alternative.”

104
2) Liberian opposition cites (нарушения)_________ in poll, (отказались
от участия в выборах) ______________
MONROVIA, Liberia (AP) — A group of Liberian opposition parties said
yesterday that they (отказываются от участия в президентских выборах)
_____________________________________and threatened (не признать
результаты) ____________________ (из-за) ________allegations that
(представители избиркома искажают результаты) _________________ in
favour of the president.

The statement was signed by eight parties, including those of (занявший второе
место кандидат ) ___________________Winston Tubman and (занявший
третье место кандидат) _____________________ Prince Johnson. The latest
(предварительные результаты) __________________gave President Ellen
Johnson Sirleaf (незначительное преимущество в гонке) ________________ .

The group claimed (массовые фальсификации) ________________being carried


out by the National Elections Commission in the handling and reporting of
(результаты президентских выборов) ____________________in favour of
President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and the Unity Party. “If the process continues we
(не признаем результаты) _________________________," the statement read.
International and local election (наблюдатели) _____________said Tuesday's
election was peaceful, and there were no (значительные нарушения процедуры
голосования) ______________________ and no serious incidences of
(беспорядков) _________________.

(Подсчет голосов) ______________is ongoing. Sirleaf (лидировала) ______late


Friday with 45.4 per cent of the vote, falling short of the majority needed (чтобы
избежать второго тура голосования)________________, according to
(предварительные результаты)_________________.

The Harvard-educated Sirleaf, who was Africa's first democratically elected female
president, faced 15 (конкуренты) _______________. She is viewed abroad as a
reformer and was awarded this year's Nobel Peace Prize for her role in stabilising
Liberia after (длившейся в течение 14 лет гражданской войны)
_________________________________.

The results (были подсчитаны) ____________________from 2,242


(избирательные участки) ____________________representing more than half of
the nation's 4,457 voting centres. While Sirleaf (лидировала) _____________with
265,883 votes, the party of Tubman and soccer star George Weah (отставала)
_______________with 172,681 votes, or 29.5 per cent. Johnson came in third (в
гонке) _____________with 66,419 votes, or 11.4 per cent, and said he is looking
forward to playing the role of kingmaker.

105
This is not the first time (кандидаты заявляют о нарушениях)
____________________ in a Liberian election. After (первых после войны
президентских выборов в стране) ______________________________in 2005,
Weah – (который баллотировался на пост президента)__________________–
(заявил о якобы имевших место массовых нарушениях и оспорил результаты
выборов)________________________________________________________.
(Международные наблюдатели) _______________________said (голосование
было в целом проведено без нарушений) ____________________________.

VI. Translate the headlines.

A.

1. HAITI VOTE MARRED BY CLAIMS OF CHAOS


2. NICOLAS SARKOZY ELECTED TO HEAD FRENCH OPPOSITION PARTY IN
COMEBACK BID VOTE RIGGING AND FRAUD
3. MONITORING TOPS EGYPTIAN POLL CONCERNS
4. KENYA POLL RESULTS DELAY
5. LIBERIANS COUNT VOTES AND FRAUD ALLEGATIONS
6. UGANDA: ELECTION RUN UP MARRED BY ARRESTS, HARASSMENT AND
TORTURE OF OPPOSITION
7. POLL FRAUD FEAR HIGH IN ETHNIC MINORITY AREAS
8. CONDE AND ISSOUFFOU VIE FOR AU CHAIRMANSHIP
9. EUROPE TURNS A BLIND EYE TO ALBANIAN POLL
10. LABOUR MPS PASS NO-CONFIDENCE MOTION IN JEREMY CORBYN
B.
1. LIBERIA OPPOSITION CALLS POLL ‘FLAWED’
2. ROMANIAN ELECTION JUDGED TO BE VALID
3. SIRLEAF TO CONTEST RUN-OFF DESPITE OPPOSITION THREAT
4. ROMANIAN ELECTIONS DISPUTED
5. ELECTION WATCHDOG DEMANDS END TO ALL-POSTAL BALLOTS
6. GABON’S DISPUTED PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IS GETTING A RECOUNT
AFTER WEEK OF UNREST
7. ALBANIAN NEW POLL CALL AFTER TAMPERING
8. YEMEN OPPOSITION SAYS ELECTION WAS RIGGED
9. GABON RIVALS REACH TENUOUS DEAL ON POLL RECOUNT
10. DEMOCRACY IS TESTED BY CLAIMS OF VOTING ABUSE
C.
1. EGYPT’S FIRST “FREE ELECTION” IS MARRED BY FRAUD CLAIMS
2. FRAUD TAINTS LABOUR
3. RISE IN POSTAL VOTES FUELS FEAR OF FRAUD
4. IRREGULARITIES TARNISH CROAT ELECTIONS
5. VIOLENCE MARS SIERRA LEONE VOTE
6. RUN-OFF MARRED

106
7. LIBYA’S UN-BACKED GOVERNMENT GETS “NO CONFIDENCE” VOTE
8. POLICE ATTACK OPPOSITION VOTERS AFTER FLAWED POLLS
9. PRESIDENTIAL CHALLENGER SAYS HIS RIVAL CHEATED
10. IVORY COAST ELECTION RESULTS OVERTURNED

VII. a) Translate the sentences into English.

1. Лидеры оппозиции заявили, что никогда не признают результаты


голосования и готовы предоставить свидетельства запугивания
избирателей прямо на избирательных участках.
2. Учитывая массовые фальсификации на этих выборах, международные
миссии наблюдателей порекомендуют проигравшим партиям оспаривать
результаты.
3. Ожидается, что в ближайшее время парламент будет распущен и
президент объявит о проведении досрочных выборов. По мнению
аналитиков, такой прогноз связан с тем, что главный законодательный
орган страны вынес вотум недоверия правительству.
4. Многие представители надзорных органов ставят под сомнение
легитимность нового парламента, при этом руководство страны не
обращает на эти заявления никакого внимания.
5. Мнение участников выборов расходятся: победившие партии заявляют,
что выборы были проведены без нарушений, а проигравшие – что
результаты были полностью сфальсифицированы.
6. Накануне выборов многие представители оппозиции оказались в тюрьме
и таким образом лишились права голоса.
7. После пересчета голосов оказалось, что правящая партия потеряла
большинство в парламенте и теперь вынуждена договариваться о
формировании коалиции.
8. Известно, что все миссии наблюдателей на этих выборах не признают
официальные результаты и в своем докладе требуют признать выборы
недействительными.
9. При условии, что эта поправка будет принята, страну ожидают
серьезные реформы в области избирательного законодательства.
10.Выборы были омрачены серьезными нарушениями, в том числе
массовыми вбросами бюллетеней и оказанием давления на избирателей.
Все это привело к тому, что результаты голосования признаны
недействительными.

b) Translate the texts into English. **


1. Оппозиция Замбии не признала итоги президентских выборов
Национальный избирательный комитет Замбии подвел итоги президентской
кампании – главой страны был вновь избран Лунгу, который на выборах 11 августа
набрал 1,86 млн голосов, что соответствует 50,35% проголосовавших. Его главный

107
конкурент – представитель Объединенной партии национального развития Хакайнде
Хичилема отказался признать результаты выборов, сообщает «Синьхуа».
Хичилема получил 1,76 млн голосов и обвинил избирательный комитет в
«фальсификации итогов подсчета голосов», посчитав, что в ходе выборов происходили
нарушения, а избирательный комитет не провел повторный подсчет голосов в спорных
избирательных округах. Также он сообщил, что на представителей Объединенной партии
национального развития в ходе подсчета было совершено нападение, и они были насильно
выдворены.
Интересно, что после обнародования результатов выборов в Южной и Западной
провинциях Замбии произошли беспорядки, местная полиция задержала почти 50
участников.

2. Избирком Кении опроверг заявления о фальсификации на выборах


Глава кенийской Независимой избирательной комиссии Ахмед Иссак Хасан
(Ahmed Issack Hassan) в четверг опроверг заявления некоторых политиков о подтасовке
результатов подсчета голосов, поданных на прошедших в стране президентских выборах,
передает агентство Франс Пресс.
В понедельник в Кении прошли президентские выборы, первые после принятия
в 2010 году новой конституции. По данным на утро четверга, по результатам подсчета
около половины бюллетеней, вице-премьер Кении Ухуру Кениатта набрал 2,4 миллиона
голосов, а его главный соперник, премьер-министр Раила Одинга — 1,9 миллиона.
Ранее в четверг участвовавший в выборах политик Калонзо Музиока заявил, что
процедура подсчета голосов проходит нечестно и должна быть остановлена. Он отметил,
что располагает доказательствами, что полученные результаты были сфальсифицированы.
"Не может быть и речи о том, что какие-либо результаты были
фальсифицированы", — заявил глава комиссии журналистам.

3. В преддверии американских выборов Бюро ОБСЕ по демократическим институтам и


правам человека* опубликовало доклад, в котором отметило, что американская система
сложна и децентрализована, из-за разных законов в разных штатах некоторые категории
граждан и вовсе лишены права голоса.
Гарантировать хотя бы в некоторой степени честность выборов могли бы
наблюдатели, но их возможности жестко ограничены. Минюст США обнародовал
специальное заявление, судя по которому любая попытка на избирательных участках
зафиксировать нарушение — тоже нарушение.
При этом, как пишет газета «Нью-Йорк Таймс», наблюдатели самого Минюста будут в
день голосования работать на участках лишь в четырех штатах. В остальные их просто не
пускают местные власти. Иностранным наблюдателям, как известно, и вовсе грозят
уголовным преследованием, если они попробуют следить за честностью избирательного
процесса. А сомнения в ней есть даже у американских политиков. Бывший мэр Нью-
Йорка на всю страну говорит о вбросах и "каруселях".
«Несколько штатов печально знамениты кражами голосов. В Пенсильвании, Чикаго
жульничество длилось годами. Я знаю точно, когда я впервые баллотировался в мэры
Нью-Йорка, они на автобусах привозили людей из соседнего штата голосовать.
Некоторые тогда голосовали по 8-10 раз», — рассказал Рудольф Джулиани.
*OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR)

108
VIII. REVISION. Translate the text into Russian.

Gabon polls and violent aftermath reveal a flawed electoral system

The opposition in Gabon strongly disputes the outcome and says votes were
manipulated

The presidential elections in Gabon have been keeping those following the outcome of the
race on the edge of their seats for several days. The vote took place on Saturday 26 August,
but results were only announced late on Wednesday afternoon. According to the final tally
announced by the minister of the interior, the incumbent Ali Bongo won by 49.8%, while his
rival, Jean Ping, got 48.23%. Just over 628 000 people took part in the vote in the Central
African country of 1.8 million inhabitants.
The opposition strongly disputes this outcome and says votes were rigged – especially in
Bongo’s stronghold of Haut-Ogooué, where the incumbent got over 90% of the votes.
Following the announcement of the results, opposition supporters reportedly torched a part of
the Parliament building in Libreville – an ominous sign of possible escalating post-election
violence.
Ping (73), a former foreign minister who headed the African Union Commission between
2008 and 2012, was confident earlier in the race. He told the media on Sunday, 29 August –
a day after the vote and before any results were released – that he had won the elections and
that his predecessor should accept it. He repeated this statement on Tuesday saying that his
opponent, Bongo (57) should prepare to hand over power.
One of the problems with the electoral system in Gabon and other Central African states, like
Cameroon, is that results aren’t released progressively. This increases the possibility for
electoral fraud. Instead, all results are collected at one central location and are then
announced by the Permanent National Electoral Commission (CENAP). While final results
were supposed to be announced at 17h00 on Tuesday, the main eight members of the
CENAP met until the early hours to deliberate. Observers were prevented from attending the
final vote count by the CENAP.
This caused huge uncertainty and tension among Gabonese, who were stocking up on
necessities, fearing a violent showdown between the supporters of both candidates. In 2009,
when Ali Bongo was elected following the death of his father, Omar Bongo, violence broke
out in several parts of the country.
Observers of the elections were scathing in their judgment of what they described as the
uneven playing field in the run-up to the vote. They say the incumbent benefited from greater
access to the media, and had far greater financial means than all the other candidates. In its
preliminary report on the elections, the European Union (EU) also stated that the process
lacked transparency and urged the CENAP to publish all the results of the various
circumscriptions.
Based on the MG Africa article September, 16 2016

109
IX. LEGISLATURE QUIZ. Match these legislative chambers to their
countries.

National Assembly USA


Storting Iceland
House of Commons Germany
Sejm UK
Diet Ireland
Bundestag Japan
Riksdag Mongolia
Great Hural Poland
Duma Ukraine
Cortes Sweden
Dáil Spain
Lok Sabha India
Verkhovna Rada Russia
Knesset Denmark
Folketing Israel
Althing Norway
House of Representatives France

X. Comment on the cartoons. **

2.

www.editorialcartoonists.com
www.cartoonstock.com
1.
UNIT V. TAKING OFFICE. CABINET RESHUFFLE

TRANSLATION MATTERS
Переводческий комментарий и упражнения

A. В англоязычной публицистике получили определенное


распространение латинские слова и фразы. Как правило, они
переводятся на русский язык их русскими соответствиями.
Например:
ad hoc cпециальный
ad interim временный
bona fide чистосердечно
condition sine qua non непременное условие
et cetera и так далее
ex-officio по обязанности; в силу занимаемого
служебного положения
ibidem (ibid.) там же (в том же источнике)
id est то есть
inter alia помимо всего прочего; кроме того
ipso facto по самому факту
mutatis mutandis с соответствующими изменениями
modus operandi способ действия
modus vivendi временное решение вопроса
per capita на душу населения
per se как таковой, по существу
prima facie на первый взгляд; судя по
имеющимся данным
pro et contra за и против
pro tempore временно
versus в сравнении с, против

111
Некоторые наиболее употребительные и понятные русскоязычному
читателю латинские слова и фразы при переводе на русский язык либо
сохраняются в своем иностранном написании, либо транскрибируются.
Последний способ является наиболее распространенным.
Например:

alter ego альтер эго


a priori априори
casus belli казус белли
de facto де-факто
de jure де-юре
persona (non) grata персона (нон)грата
Post Scriptum (P.S.) постскриптум
qourum кворум
status quo статус кво
tabula rasa табула раса
terra incognita терра инкогнита

Обратите внимание на перевод выражений, составной частью которых


являются латинизмы:
charge d’affaires ad interim – временный поверенный в делах
president pro tempore (president pro tem) – временный председательствующий

PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. No party presented a strong economic program to counter the current


recession, so in the end, those who voted chose the status quo.
2. Since the Vice President is frequently not present in the Senate, the Senate
elects a President pro tempore.
3. Both were deposed this July, after a military intervention transferred all
executive and legislative power to an interim president.
4. Consider Merkel’s handling of the euro crisis. In contrast to France’s newly
elected president, Emmanuel Macron, who campaigned with an impassioned
endorsement of the European project and specific plans for permanently
reforming it Merkel has never offered anything of the sort. There’s no
reason to think Merkel’s modus operandi will change now. And that’s
precisely why the German electorate will continue to reward her.

112
5. Mr Erdogan, the country’s most powerful leader since Mustafa Kemal
Ataturk, who forged modern Turkey from the ruins of the Ottoman Empire,
now rules by decree under a state of emergency since the abortive coup of
July last year. The aim of Sunday’s referendum is to make de jure what is de
facto, giving the president immunity before the courts and removing his
accountability to parliament.
6. A Nepali who was undergoing treatment for the injuries he sustained during
the Monday Kabul suicide attack died on Wednesday, the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs said. The MoFA said Nepal’s Charge d’Affaires Ad Interim
for Pakistan – who is in Kabul after the Monday tragedy – Tirtha Raj Aryal
has already been instructed to arrange repatriation of Mr.Tamang’s body.
7. The task of annulling knighthoods is not in the gift of the House of
Commons, but instead rests with an ad hoc committee, known as the
Honours Forfeiture Committee, which is chaired by the head of the civil
service.
8. However, India should see the limits of how far it can be expected to get
away with ridiculous claims, like Pakistan being behind the attack on the Uri
brigade headquarters, which was the alleged casus belli.
9. Sen. Ellen Roberts, president pro tem of the Colorado Senate, announced
today she is resigning her Senate District 6 seat, which covers eight counties
in southwestern Colorado.
10.The candidacy of Donald Trump has brought into the open what has often
been hidden in the past: The very real connection between the money and
power of international businesses and globalists with the Democratic and
Republican party leaderships and their desire to maintain the status quo.
11.For all the acrimony over the unprecedented turn of events, even some
stalwarts of the Senate conceded the spectacle was simply a fait accompli
for an institution where civility and tradition have deteriorated with each
passing year.

B. Как уже указывалось в Уроке 2 (Unit 2), перевод многозначных слов


может вызывать определенную трудность, поэтому необходимо
обращать внимание на контекст, который и определяет в каком
значении употреблено то или иное многозначное слово. К таким
многозначным словам относится грамматический омоним since,
который, выступая в предложении в качестве союза, переводится на
русский язык, как: 1) поскольку, так как:

“I suppose, Republicans could argue that since Hillary Clinton is running for
president, the American people should know everything they can before entering
the voting booth,” Mr. Cummings said. – По мнению господина Каммингса,
«республиканцам следовало бы настаивать на том, что так как Хиллари
Клинтон участвует в выборах на президентский пост, американцы должны
узнать все, что только возможно, до того момента, как отдадут свои голоса».

113
2) после этого (того), с тех пор как17:
This period is the most difficult and unpredictable since Angela Merkel won the
German elections in 2005. – Нынешний период – наиболее сложный и
непредсказуемый с того момента, как в 2005 году Ангела Меркель победила
на выборах в Германии.

PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. The elections will be Liberia’s first locally organized poll since the end of
the 1989-2003 conflict that killed nearly a quarter of a million people.
Johnson-Sirleaf became Africa’s first freely elected woman head of state in
the 2005 election that was organized by the UN.
2. There was little sign of the election in the city centre of Maseru as polling
kicked off, since campaign rules called for all political advertising to be
removed 24 hours ahead of the vote.
3. Although the result was expected—Mr. Essid has faced criticism from
across Tunisia’s political spectrum—the vote was a mark of the instability
that has bedeviled the North African country since it kicked off a wave of
pro-democracy rebellions across the Arab world in 2011.
4. Since the crisis began in January, when protesters took to the streets of the
capital, Sana’a, demanding that he resign, the embattled president has made
lavish proposals to end the violence but followed up on none that entail him
surrendering power.
5. The outcome is not expected to bring much change, since Parliament already
acquiesces to the President’s every request.
6. “Anyone who knows me knows these words don't reflect who I am,” Trump
said in a videotaped apology statement. You should not believe him. As far
as we know — and we know a whole lot, since Donald Trump has been in
public life for four decades — these words reflect exactly who Donald
Trump is.
7. The second presidential debate was even more dispiriting than the first.
Perhaps we shouldn't be surprised, since the candidates are the same.
8. Campaigning in the Philippines will officially begin next year. But since the
candidates are already known, political realignments across the country are
expected to reshape the electoral landscape.
9. The national elections, likely to be held in April or May, have been
described as a “tipping point” and will be the first since the death of former
president Nelson Mandela.
10. Bigger parties calculate that smaller parties may win 2 or 3 per cent in some
areas... [and] since the elections are likely to be neck and neck, it’s very
important not to lose a single seat in parliament.

17
См. подробнее Гуськова Т.И., Зиборова Г.М. Трудности перевода. – М., 2000. – с.113.

114
11. On the Democratic side, Mr. Sanders has a chance to pick up some states on
March 15, since the race is between just him and Ms. Clinton. It seems
unlikely at this point, since the Democrats allow 30 percent of the
nomination to be made up of super delegates who can align themselves with
their choice of candidate – and those super delegates have been choosing
Ms. Clinton.

C. К многозначным словам относится и союз while, перевод которого


определяется контекстом. Данный союз переводится на русский язык
следующим образом: 1) в то время как, пока:
While the elections will be held on June 19, the counting will take place on June
22. – В то время как выборы состоятся 19 июня, подсчет голосов будет
произведен 22 июня.

2) тогда как, хотя, несмотря на то что:


While the elections won't change the status quo, experts believe that they will have
an impact on Russia's political future. – Хотя выборы не изменят
существующий статус кво, они, как полагают эксперты, окажут влияние на
политическое будущее России.

3) а, и, но18:
In Ohio, Clinton got 44 percent, while Trump got 40. – В штате Огайо Хиллари
Клинтон получила 44% голосов, а Дональд Трамп – 40.

PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. After the first round of elections, Johnson Sirleaf had polled 43.9% of the
vote, while Tubman received 32.7%. The remaining 23% went to various
other opposition candidates, most notably former warlord Prince Johnson
who assumed something of a kingmaker role with his 11.2%.
2. The communists, and the far-right nationalists of Vladimir Zhirinovsky’s
Liberal Democratic party took about 13% of the vote, while the liberal
Yabloko party and the opposition Parnas garnered miserly returns.
3. The news website Gazeta.ru says the vote "brought no sensations", while the
influential business daily Kommersant's editorial is simply headlined: "The
party of power is in power again".
4. Many districts in Moscow, St Petersburg and other regions, where support
for United Russia is traditionally lower, registered turnouts around or below
30 per cent, while regions with high support for the ruling party, especially
in the North Caucasus, had turnout figures up to 70 per cent.

18
См. подробнее Гуськова Т.И., Зиборова Г.М. Трудности перевода. – М., 2000. – с.113-114.

115
5. But while Mr Sargsyan’s victory has been predicted for months, there have
been some unexpected developments in the campaign. One challenger,
Andreas Ghukasian, a political commentator who manages a radio station in
the capital, Yerevan, has been on a hunger strike, demanding that the
incumbent be removed from the ballot.
6. In a dramatic and potentially pivotal night for both parties on Saturday,
Trump, the billionaire property mogul and political outsider, won in South
Carolina by a wide margin, while Clinton, the Democratic party
establishment’s pick, clinched victory in the Nevada caucuses.
7. While the Texas senator may still be breathing defiance, others within the
party are starting to make peace with the idea of Trump as the nominee.
Establishment doyens such as Jon Huntsman, who mounted a failed
presidential bid in 2012 trying to push the GOP to more moderate positions,
and Ron Kaufman, a longtime confidant of Mitt Romney and George HW
Bush, are already calling for the party to rally around Trump.
8. He hinted that when the time came he would announce his impending
departure and then stay in his job while the party elected his successor.
"Under Labour rules there is nothing that says you cannot serve a full term,
but we have to have a transition and a handover," he said.
9. Mr Abdullah, runner up in the fraud-plagued 2009 poll in Afghanistan, has
previously demonstrated he has significant support, while Mr Ghani, a
former finance minister and World Bank official, has won fans for his
campaign against corruption and for economic development.

D. Перевод на русский язык глагола to fail в сочетании с инфинитивом


может представлять определенную трудность. Необходимо помнить,
что такое сочетание означает неудавшуюся попытку совершить какое-
либо действие и часто переводится при помощи частицы не и личной
формы глагола, обозначающего в исходном предложении данное
действие. Также такое сочетание можно переводить при помощи
глагола мочь/удасться в отрицательной форме и глагола,
обозначающего в исходном предложении неудавшееся действие:

The party failed to secure an outright majority in either constituency. – Партия не


получила абсолютного большинства ни в одном из избирательных округов. /
Партия не смогла/Партии не удалось получить абсолютное большинство ни в
одном из избирательных округов.

He said that the party failed to resolve its problems. – По его словам, партия не
решила своих проблем. / По его словам, партия не смогла/партии не удалось
решить своих проблем.

116
PRACTICE. Translate the following sentences:

1. Before the elections, many had criticised the liberal opposition for failing to
unite on a single ticket.
2. Liberal opposition parties failed to get enough votes for party-list
representation. "To my utmost regret, not one other party managed to get
over the 5% barrier," said Central Election Commission head Ella
Pamfilova. Half the seats were also being contested in constituencies but
even there the small number of opposition candidates failed to win.
3. Germany faced political paralysis last night after its voters failed to give
Angela Merkel the resounding victory she needed to form a strong
conservative government.
4. Mr Roh cited the scandal as the main reason for his decision last week to
call a referendum on his leadership and resign if he failed to secure a
confidence vote.
5. Ramphele agreed to join the Democratic Alliance after her own party, Agang
SA, failed to gain traction among voters and was reported to be broke.
6. Mr Josipovic, a 57-year-old law expert and classical composer, had been
president since 2010. He had been so popular that it seemed impossible he
could fail in a bid for re-election. However, he was backed by the governing
centre-left coalition that has failed to pull Croatia out of a six-year-long
recession.
7. The reason for Gove’s decision to pull his support from Johnson, effectively
ending his colleague’s candidacy, was the subject of rumours across
Westminster. Some claimed the justice secretary was angry that Johnson had
failed to tie up the support of Leadsom after failing to give her a note that
promised she would be in the top three positions of his future team. Some
also said Gove was upset that he was not being offered the role of
chancellor.
8. While Merkel's CDU celebrated its historic victory, the centre-right Free
Democrats were contemplating the worst result in their 75-year history after
failing to reach the 5% threshold necessary to enter parliament.
9. The ballot was hardly secret. In full view of others, voter after voter pressed
an inked finger next to the broom symbol for the opposition All Progressives
Congress — most of them unable to read the party’s “APC” label, poll
workers said. Voting was sure to go into the night at many polling places,
and into Sunday in areas where machinery had failed.
10. Mr.Harper’s pledge to stick with a plan that keeps the tax burden low is
popular with the party’s right-leaning base but has failed to strike a chord
elsewhere.

117
I. Read and translate the texts using the Topic Vocabulary list. Pay special
attention to the italicized constructions and words you have studied in units
I-IV and the new ones which are underlined (see TRANSLATION
MATTERS on pp.111-117 for guidance and translation practice).

1. Taiwan Elects Tsai Ing-wen as First Female President


Ruling Kuomintang candidate Eric Chu conceded defeat, marking a setback for China’s
ambitions for reunification

TAIPEI—Opposition candidate Tsai Ing-wen won a landslide victory in Taiwan’s presidential


election on Saturday, making her the island’s first female president and setting back Beijing’s
ambitions to reunify it with the mainland.
Ms. Tsai’s commanding victory brings to power her Democratic Progressive Party, or DPP,
which espouses Taiwan’s formal independence from China, a red line for Beijing, which claims
the island as its territory.
Results on the Central Election Commission’s website showed Ms. Tsai receiving 6.9 million
votes, around 56% of the total, with her main rival, KMT candidate Eric Chu, getting 3.8
million, or 31%. A third-party candidate took the remainder.
The 59-year-old former law professor immediately called for unity between Taiwan’s political
parties and repeated a campaign pledge to maintain the status quo and avoid surprises in
relations with mainland China (See Com. A, p.111).
The rout of the KMT also appeared to extend to the legislature, with pollsters predicting the
DPP could also win a majority, either outright or in a coalition. It would be the first time the
ruling KMT and its allies have lost control of the legislature since Chiang Kai-shek moved his
Nationalist government across the Taiwan Strait after its defeat on the mainland by Communist
forces in 1949 (See Com. B, p.113) .
In conceding defeat, Mr. Chu, a big-city mayor seen as a rising political star, said he would
resign as chairman of the KMT. The premier of the current KMT-led government, Mao Chi-kuo,
also resigned, as customary when the party in power loses an election.
While expected, the election result is a blow to the Chinese government, which seeks
reunification with Taiwan and had forged a good working relationship with Taipei under
departing president Ma Ying-jeou, a politician from the long-ruling Kuomintang or Nationalist
Party (See Com. C, p.115). The result could also complicate Beijing’s ties with Washington,
which is obliged by U.S. law to help Taiwan defend itself.

118
2. Zambia's President Edgar Lungu declared election winner
Zambia's President Edgar Lungu has been re-elected, according to official results, which are
being challenged by the main opposition party.
The electoral commission said Mr Lungu had secured 50.35% in Thursday's vote, just over the
50% threshold needed to avoid a second round under a new electoral system. His main rival,
Hakainde Hichilema, who alleges electoral fraud, won 47.67%. Hichilema described this election
as a sham which did not reflect the will of the people. He plans to petition the constitutional
court to challenge the result.
He may well be going at it alone because of the fluidity of Zambia's political landscape. The
shifting of political allegiances, which in other parts of the continent would be seen as a betrayal,
would mean those who left the Patriotic Front may go back to President Lungu, begging to have
their old positions back.
The UPND has accused the electoral commission of colluding with the governing Patriotic Front
(PF) to rig the result. "We have evidence to the effect that the votes for Hakainde Hichilema
have been deliberately reduced in collusion with the Electoral Commission of Zambia," UPND
lawyer Jack Mwiimbu told journalists. "We have confidence that the constitutional court will rise
above board and declare the results a nullity."
The PF has rejected the allegations. Election officials also denied the fraud claims, saying the
slow publication of the results was because there were five different votes on Thursday - for
president, parliament, mayors, local councillors and an amendment to the constitution on
changes to the bill of rights.
Mr Lungu defeated Mr Hichilema in the previous election, last year, by less than 28,000 votes.
This time, his margin of victory was about 200,000 votes. Last year's election was held because
President Michael Sata died in office, the second time a serving leader has died in Zambia in the
past five years. The constitution has now been amended so that the vice-president automatically
takes office if a sitting president dies.

3. Spanish elections: renewed deadlock beckons as no party wins majority

Conservative People’s party wins largest share of vote but falls short of majority and
Unidos Podemos surge fails to materialize (See Com. D p.116)
Spain is facing further political deadlock after the country’s second general election in six
months proved a near rerun of the December vote, leaving the conservative Partido Popular (PP)
with the most votes but once again short of an overall majority.
By the time the count was finished, the PP had increased its lead on last time, taking 137 seats on
33% of the vote, and strengthening the hand of its leader, acting prime minister Mariano Rajoy.
Contrary to expectations, the results followed the pattern in December, when the PP won 123
seats, with 29% of the vote, the PSOE 90 seats with 22%, Podemos 69 seats and 21%, while
Ciudadanos took 40 seats with 14% (See Com. C, p.115). But despite picking up an extra 14
seats, the PP was still unable to reach the 176 needed to secure a majority in the 350-seat
congress of deputies.
In the run-up to the vote, Unidos Podemos seemed to have capitalised on growing
disenchantment with the traditional political behemoths. Its position has also been strengthened
by the proliferation of corruption scandals that has tarnished the PP in recent years. But despite

119
the initial confidence provoked by two exit polls putting it comfortably in second place, Unidos
Podemos came nowhere near the predicted sorpasso, or overtaking, of the PSOE. Its recent
decision to run on a joint ticket with United Left (IU), the leftwing coalition that includes the
Communist party of Spain, had not borne the expected fruit.
The vote had also been overshadowed by the latest PP scandal. The acting interior minister,
Jorge Fernández Díaz, has been facing calls to resign since Tuesday, when leaked recordings
emerged in which he and the head of Catalonia’s anti-fraud office, Daniel de Alfonso, appear to
discuss the possibility of using investigations to smear pro-independence rivals in the region (See
Сom. B, p. 113).
The 36.5 million Spaniards eligible to vote returned to the polls after the 20 December election
failed to yield a clear winner, tipping the country into six messy months of squabbling, sniping
and horsetrading that have tested the patience of the Spanish public and exacerbated the personal
and ideological differences between party leaders (See Com. D, p.116). More now looks set to
follow.

4. Lame Duck President Makes Waves in South China Sea

On January 27, Taiwan’s Presidential Office surprised the country (and probably the
international community) by announcing that outgoing President Ma Ying‑ jeou will visit
Taiping Island in the South China Sea this Thursday. According to Presidential Spokesperson
Charles Chen, the purpose of Ma’s trip is to visit Taiwanese soldiers stationed on the island,
ahead of the Lunar New Year. The presidential office also invited President-elect Tsai Ing‑ wen
of the opposition Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) to send representatives joining Ma. Ma’s
planned trip might not contribute to the peaceful resolution of regional disputes, but it can,
however, further cement his desired historical legacy as a peacemaker across the Taiwan Strait.
Ma’s visit is announced only eleven days after his party lost the Presidency and Legislative
majority to the opposition DPP in the January 16 elections. Some legislators of the DPP and the
New Power Party (NPP) commented that the timing of the visit was “inappropriate” and that Ma
should refrain himself and behave like a “caretaker” President in the interim before the transition
of power can take place later this year (See Com. A, p.111). Newly elected NPP legislator Hsu
Yung‑ ming further noted that “sources suggested that the US prefer Taiwan not to get involved
in the South China Sea disputes”. Ma’s decision will only “make noises” between the US-
Taiwan Relations, Hsu said.
Despite the DPP’s call for Ma’s administration to serve as a caretaker government, it seems as
though the outgoing president wants to further consolidate his Beijing-friendly policy before he
steps down. As Ma no longer heads the KMT and the next national elections are two years away,

120
he does not need to bear the pressure whether his mandate will damage the KMT’s prospects in
the future election.
After tomorrow, President Ma will be the second Taiwan leader to have visited Taiping Island.
Apart from that, Ma has fourth months left to turn his remaining bucket list into a reality. As the
power transition period has just started, it seems like the outgoing president will continue to
contest whether the new Legislature is able to make the caretaker government refrain from
making major policy decisions.

5. Zambia’s New President, Edgar Lungu, Is Sworn In

LONDON — After weeks of political wrangling and tension, Edgar Lungu was sworn in on
Sunday as Zambia’s new president, overcoming a close political challenge and divisions within
his own Patriotic Front party to secure a narrow majority in an election called after the death of
his predecessor in October.
Mr. Lungu, who headed both the Justice and Defense Ministries in the previous government, will
serve out the remainder of President Michael Sata’s term until new elections in the fall of 2016.
According to the country’s election commission, Mr. Lungu, 58, won about 48.3 percent of the
ballot in Zambia’s 150 constituencies. His main challenger, Hakainde Hichilema, a wealthy
businessman and economist who leads the United Party for National Development, received
about 46.7 percent of the vote.
The turnout was less than one-third of the electorate — a low level of participation that some
analysts attributed to heavy rains that slowed the delivery of ballot boxes to remote areas and
forced the extension of voting by a day in some parts of Zambia, a former British colony whose
economy is heavily dependent on copper exports.
The outcome ensured a degree of continuity since Mr. Lungu belongs to the same Patriotic Front
party as his predecessor (See Сom. B, p.113). But the transition was fraught, with rival factions
of the governing party locked in a bitter power struggle over the choice of candidate in the
presidential vote.
The possibility of strife in Zambia came as a political drama also played out in its southern
neighbor, Zimbabwe, where President Robert G. Mugabe purged his governing ZANU-PF party
and elevated his wife, Grace Mugabe, to high office. Mr. Mugabe attended Sunday’s
inauguration in Lusaka, the Zambian capital, and said he was confident that Mr. Lungu would
“succeed to keep Zambia united.”

121
6. Theresa May set to appoint female allies to key cabinet positions

Theresa May is preparing to promote a string of female Conservative colleagues, including into
key cabinet positions, after she is invited by the Queen to form a new government on
Wednesday.
Allies including Amber Rudd, currently the energy secretary, and Justine Greening, the
international development secretary, are among those expected to be in line for prominent
positions as the second female prime minister shakes up the team running the government.
The incoming prime minister will announce the reshuffle on Wednesday after she moves into
Downing Street with her husband, Philip. May will take up residence at No 10 after an audience
at Buckingham Palace where the Queen will confirm her new role.
Cameron will face the Labour leader, Jeremy Corbyn, in the House of Commons for one final
prime minister’s questions before making his outgoing remarks on Downing Street. Sometime
thereafter he will head to the palace to formally resign. May will make the opposite journey,
meeting the Queen for the tradition of “kissing hands”, which usually involves a handshake. She
will make her first speech as Britain’s 54th prime minister as she makes her way into Downing
Street.
Cameron had made some progress with the gender balance during previous reshuffles, with his
final senior team having seven women serving as full members, almost a third of the total. But
May intends to go further: other women tipped for ministerial promotions include Harriett
Baldwin, Margot James and Karen Bradley, who worked with May at the Home Office as head
of the modern slavery bill.
The prime minister in waiting spent her final day as home secretary planning her entry into
Downing Street and also addressing staff at the Home Office.

7. 'Trust me': Michel Temer takes over as interim Brazil president (See
Com. A, p.111)

Brazil’s interim president, Michel Temer, has unveiled an all-male, conspicuously white cabinet
to run one of the world’s most ethnically diverse nations as he promised to restore confidence in
Latin America’s biggest economy.

122
Following the suspension of Dilma Rousseff, the country’s first female president, the new head
of state called for unity and said his primary task was to form a government of “national
salvation” that could restore Brazil’s credibility so it could attract investment.
Rousseff was stripped of her powers on Thursday after losing a preliminary impeachment vote in
the Senate. This followed a similar crushing defeat in the Congress in April. She now faces trial
by the Senate on charges of doctoring government accounts to give an unrealistically healthy
impression ahead of the 2014 election. Rousseff has only a slim chance of avoiding permanent
removal from office. The final Senate vote – which requires a two-thirds majority – could come
by September.
In a sign of his commitment to austerity, Temer has slashed the number of cabinet posts from 31
to 22. But he may find it hard to cut other costs ahead of municipal elections and with
unemployment already in double digits.
Several appointments were controversial. Despite the Zika epidemic, the new health minister,
Ricardo Barros from the Progressive party, has no background in medicine. He becomes the
fourth in little over six months to hold a portfolio which is much coveted because it has the
biggest budget of any ministry.
While the markets are likely to be happy, the public will need a lot of convincing. Temer’s
ratings are almost as low as those of the suspended president (See Com. C, p.115). He has a
disapproval rating of 62% and support from fewer than one in seven voters, according to the
most recent poll. Temer and his cabinet are also tainted by corruption allegations. The interim
president himself faces an impeachment challenge and has been barred from standing for office
for eight years due to election violations.
André César, a political consultant, said the new president will not be able to enjoy a honeymoon
because he has to cut costs while keeping a range of political partners happy, in addition to the
likely protest on the streets from social movements (Ibid.).

TOPIC VOCABULARY

1. to concede (defeat) признать поражение


syn. to admit/to acknowledge
defeat
to defeat/to deliver a defeat/ нанести поражение
to beat smb
to suffer a defeat потерпеть поражение
bitter, crushing defeat сокрушительное поражение
syn. rout
concession speech речь кандидата, в которой он
признает свое поражение и
поздравляет соперника
to win/ to score a одержать убедительную победу
landslide/commanding/outright
sweeping/ overwhelming/
resounding victory
syn. to sweep an election/ to sweep
to victory
to claim victory заявить о своей победе на выборах

123
victory speech речь кандидата, победившего на
выборах

2. to declare/to name smb (the) объявить к-л победителем


winner
to secure …% of the vote/seats получить ….% голосов/мест
syn. to gain, to net, to score, to
muster, to garner, to amass, to
bag
threshold порог, барьер
syn. barrier, hurdle
to get past/over the 50% преодолеть 50-процентный
threshold порог/барьер
syn. to clear/to overcome/to
cross/to meet the 50%
threshold/ barrier/ hurdle
3. acting prime исполняющий обязанности премьер-
minister/president/ minister министра/президента/министра
interim/caretaker prime временно исполняющий обязанности
minister/president премьер министра/президента
interim/caretaker government временное правительство
horsetrading политическая сделка, переговоры
между партнерами по коалиции
syn. bargaining

4. lame duck president 1. президент, завершающий свое


пребывание на посту (обычно в конце
второго срока)
2. США - президент, не имеющий
влияния в конгрессе, контролируемом
оппозиционной партией
lame duck потерявший влияние, доверие
политик
lame-duck session of congress сессия конгресса предыдущего созыва
president-elect вновь избранный президент
transition of power процесс передачи власти
transition переходный период

5. to be sworn in/to be sworn into давать присягу при вступлении в


office должность
syn. to take the oath of office
inauguration инаугурация, церемония вступления в
должность
extension of vote продление срока голосования

124
v. to extend vote продлить срок голосования
faction фракция, группировка

6. to shake up a cabinet/ произвести перестановку в составе


government кабинета/правительства
syn. to reshuffle
n. shake-up, reshuffle перестановка, изменения в составе
кабинета
cabinet overhaul кардинальная перестановка в составе
кабинета
the prime minister in waiting премьер-министр, ожидающий
назначения на должность

7. to unveil a cabinet огласить, обнародовать состав


кабинета
suspension временное отстранение от должности
v. to suspend временно отстранить от должности
impeachment импичмент, возбуждение дела о
снятии президента с должности
v. to impeach
portfolio должность министра
to hold a portfolio занимать должность министра
honeymoon период доверия избирателей вновь
избранному президенту

II. a) translate b)**explain the meaning of the word combinations:


Text 1: a setback, to espouse sth, a red line, to avoid surprises in relations.
Text 2: fluidity of political landscape, the shifting of political allegiances, to
collude with smb.
Text 3: to fall short of a majority, to strenghten smb’s hand, to follow a
pattern, to capitalise on growing disenchantment, political behemoths,
prolifiration, to smear rivals, to yield a clear winner, to exacerbate
differences.
Text 4: to cement a legacy, to refrain oneself/from doing sth.
Text 5: political wrangling, to attribute sth to sth, continuity, to be fraught,
strife, to purge a party.
Text 6: №10, the House of Commons, prime minister’s questions, to be
tipped for a position.
Text 7: an ethnically diverse nation, to be stripped of power, to doctor
accounts, a commitment to sth, austerity, to slash sth, to covet a portfolio.

125
III. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the Topic
Vocabulary words.
A.
1. Disillusionment among voters seems likely to produce a far lower turnout
than the 67 per cent who turned out for a reformist landslide in the last
parliamentary elections four years ago.
2. Chechnya's leader Ramzan Kadyrov - a firm ally of Mr Putin who runs his
troubled North Caucasus republic with an iron fist - swept to victory with
98% support, with 78% of votes counted.
3. Now Morales seems poised to win a resounding victory – his third – that
will take his presidency through 2020 and make him the longest-serving
leader in Bolivian history.
4. Both sides hailed that transition as Mr Saakashvili conceded defeat for his
party as the biggest legacy of the Rose years.
5. The Zambian opposition leader, Michael Sata, has been declared the winner
of the country’s presidential election, ousting the incumbent, Rupia Banda.
6. Opposition challenger Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovic has become the first female
president of Croatia, winning by the narrowest of margins. She secured
50.5% of ballots counted, while incumbent Ivo Josipovich was close behind
on 49.5%. Mr Josipovich has conceded defeat.
7. Relations are poor between former prime Minister Vlad Filat, who leads the
coalition’s liberal Democats, and former acting president, Michael Ghimpu,
leader of the Liberals, and are always likely to put any coalition formed
under strain.
8. Little more than seven months before the end of his administration, President
Obama is poised to become the most active lame duck campaigner in
history, offering a new twist on an often awkward role: A White House
occupant watching the election of a successor.
9. Michael Sata, who once worked as a platform sweeper at London’s Victoria
station, was sworn in as Zambia’s president on Friday after an upset poll
victory.
10.After the reshuffle that abolished some ministries and merged others, 17
ministers now sit in on Cabinet meetings, compared with 30 previously.
11.The President refused to be hurried yesterday into a reshuffle of the
government in the wake of Sunday's disastrous performance in regional
elections, which saw sweeping gains by the leftwing opposition.
12.Mr Goh will also take over as central bank governor from his successor, who
will retain his finance ministry portfolio in addition to being prime minister.
13.After a short honeymoon, the ruling coalition will begin its horse-trading,
haggling over ministerial posts.
14.Moreover, Mr Macron’s honeymoon with the French electorate is likely to
be short. The aura of the presidency is not what it was, thanks to the policy
failures and personal shortcomings of Jacques Chirac, Nicolas Sarkozy and
François Hollande, the presidents from 1995 to the present day.

126
B. **
1. Myanmar’s president is contemplating cabinet changes that could reduce the
power of some anti-reform ministers in the wake of his party’s crushing
defeat earlier this month. Several people close to the government said Mr
Sein was also considering the move – which could see some hardliners
moved to different roles or have their responsibilities reduced – because of
concerns about how far western countries will go on lifting sanctions.
2. Hackers hit the election commission’s website overnight, posting false
results that showed Sata on course for a landslide, adding to the confusion
and tension of what was already a tight race between two old rivals. Sata
lost to Banda by 35,000 votes in 2008.
3. Perhaps, to Ma Ying‑ jeou, he is more than a “caretaker” president.
Addressing an open event earlier this month, Ma made it very clear that the
word “caretaker” was not in his dictionary. The recent actions taken by Ma
in the South China Sea suggests that despite his South China Sea Peace
Initiative, the outgoing President still wants to prove that Taiwan is not a
marginal player in the region.
4. That Ma once said, “I still have four months before the Presidential
inauguration on May 20”, indicates that he will make the most out of his
remaining term. An active President will not necessarily be a good thing for
political stability, especially during the power transition, when the
Presidency and the Legislature are headed by two different parties.
5. With more than 93 per cent of the vote counted, figures from the Central
Election Commission on Monday showed that United Russia, the main pro-
Kremlin party, had secured 54.1 per cent of votes for party lists and bagged
203 of the 255 seats allocated through single-member constituencies.
6. Italy has had a hybrid system, in which three-quarters of the seats in both
chambers are won on a "first-past-the-post" basis, with the remainder
decided by proportional representation. The PR vote is subject to a 4%
threshold meant to keep tiny parties out of parliament (they tend to get in all
the same, because, in the horse-trading to form broad alliances of right and
left, bigger parties win over smaller ones by giving them safe seats decided
by majority vote).
7. Preliminary results from 30 percent of precincts counted by early Monday
indicated that five parties would clear the 5 percent threshold of the national
vote needed to win seats in the 120-member Parliament. These included two
parties, the Social Democrats and Ata Meken, that had supported the interim
government.
8. Tunisia’s parliament passed a vote of no confidence in Prime Minister Habib
Essid on Saturday, effectively disbanding the government of the U.S.-trained
agricultural economist. The no-confidence motion was passed by 118 votes,
easily crossing the 109-vote threshold, following a debate that stretched late
into the night.

127
9. The Communist party, the nationalist Liberal Democrats and the centre-left
A Just Russia, which are represented in the lower house of parliament now,
will return according to the preliminary results. “Unfortunately, not one of
the other parties managed to overcome the 5 per cent hurdle,” said Ella
Pamfilova, chairperson of the Central Election Commission.
10.The failure of any party to win an outright majority had left Rajoy’s party
acting as a caretaker government during months of often bad-tempered
negotiations. In January, Rajoy told King Felipe VI that the PP did not have
sufficient support to offer a minority or coalition government. At the
beginning of May, the king signed a decree dissolving parliament and fixing
a date for new elections.
11.During the following year Egypt’s only elected officials were Mohamed
Morsi, who became Egypt’s first democratically chosen president in June
2012, and members of the Shura council, Egypt’s upper house. Both were
deposed this July, after a military intervention transferred all executive and
legislative power to an interim president.
12.Today Germany, and Europe, are wondering whether Frau Merkel – if she
can form a government coalition – really represent a fresh start or whether
she will be an interim chancellor, a brief interruption in the country’s steep
decline… In the coming weeks, the Germans will find out how much
Maggie there is in Angie.
13.A hung parliament now seems likely. Both leaders have embarked on a
frantic round of horse-trading with a green parliamentarian and possibly four
independents, who seem likely to hold the balance of power and thus the
power to decide which side forms the government. The result may not be
known for days.
14.The most likely outcome from the intense horse-trading that will begin today
is a "Grand Coalition" of the Christian and Social Democrats, with Frau
Merkel emerging as Germany's first woman chancellor but her plans for
radical economic reform in tatters.
15.One of America’s principal contributions to political language is the
expression “lame duck,” referring to the limited — or frankly nonexistent —
ability of a public administrator to perform during his last term in office —
that is, when he is no longer in a position to qualify for re-election.
16.All second-term presidents become lame ducks (though they seldom limp
and quack this early).
17.Complicating the legislative picture in the short term is the fact that,
although the Republicans will assume power in January, the Democrats will
retain control during a so-called lame duck session of Congress scheduled to
begin November 15. Such post-election sessions gain their name from the
fact that members who did not run for re-election or were defeated — the
“lame ducks” — retain their seats and voting rights during that time.
18.Kim Jong-il, North Korea's dictator, yesterday staged a rare cabinet
reshuffle, replacing several top officials with younger men in an apparent

128
attempt to strengthen his power base. Mr Kim replaced his prime minister,
two of his three deputy premiers and five ministers in what South Korean
reports said was the most far-reaching government shake-up for five years.
19.Mr Thein Sein, who launched the reform process that has sparked a new
attitude toward Myanmar around the world, has discussed possible changes
with his reformist allies, say people close to the government, who added that
the overhaul of the 37-member cabinet could come within weeks.
20.Argentina’s new political map fell into sharp focus this week as votes were
counted in the last of a batch of regional elections and senators-elect were
preparing to be sworn into office today.
21.The Bolivian constitution allows a president just two terms, but Morales’s
party argued that because his first term was under the country’s former
constitution, which was replaced in 2009, he can legitimately stand again.
The constitutional court agreed, and public opinion seems to support the
move. Morales has a great deal of company in Latin America when it comes
to legally justifying extending a presidency, including Alberto Fujimori in
Peru, Rafael Correa in Ecuador, and perhaps, most famously, Hugo Chavez
in Venezuela.
22.The view at Westminster remains that Mr Blair will go in the second half of
the next Parliament. The timing will be designed to give his successor,
almost certainly Gordon Brown, enough leeway to get his feet under the
table but also to enjoy a voter honeymoon before the next election.

IV. Fill in the blanks with suitable words in the necessary form from the list
given below:

1) to concede defeat, to sweep to power (2), to win a straight majority, to


tally, defeat, constituency, majority

Modi and BJP (………………….) in Indian election


Narendra Modi and the BJP are poised to win the first (……………..) in an Indian national
election for a single party in three decades

Narendra Modi and his Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party


(…………………) in India on Friday as voters put their faith in his promises of an
economic revival and left the Congress party nursing its worst (………………)
since independence more than 60 years ago.

129
The Election Commission, (……………….) over 500m votes cast over five weeks
through electronic voting machines around the country, said the BJP had won 282
of the 543 (…………………….), compared with 44 for Congress.
That puts Mr Modi and the BJP on track (……………………………) without the
need for allies, the first such victory for a single party in three decades. Mr Modi,
aged 63, will be the first Indian prime minister born after independence in 1947
and the first from such a humble background. As a child he worked as tea-seller for
his father and uncle in his native Gujarat, before becoming a Hindu activist and
politician.
Rahul Gandhi, figurehead of Congress and great-grandson of Jawaharlal Nehru,
India’s first prime minister, (…………………………) at the party’s headquarters
in New Delhi. “The Congress party has done pretty badly and there’s a lot for us to
think about,” he said.

2) to claim victory, to concede defeat, rout, sweeping victory, to turn out, to


amass, to impeach, the impeachment, challenger, presidency, the
contest, exit polls, removal, a decade of conservative rule, predecessor,
the former president

Pyongyang detente advocate wins South Korean (…………………)


Moon Jae-in’s victory could cause strains with hardliners in Trump administration

South Korea has chosen an advocate of engagement with Pyongyang as its


president, in a vote that draws a line under almost ( ……………………………….)
but which could also increase tensions with the US.
Around midnight local time Moon Jae-in ( …………………………..) when both
of his main opponents (…………………………….). (……………….) showed
that Mr Moon, a former human rights lawyer, ( …………………..) more than 41
per cent of the vote in Tuesday’s election, almost twice that of his nearest
(………………..).
Mr Moon’s (…………….) of his two main rivals, conservative Hong Joon-pyo
and centrist Ahn Cheol-soo, put an end to nine years of conservative rule by Park
Geun-hye and her (…………………) Lee Myung-bak.“Today’s ( ..……………....)
is the result of our people’s desperate wish for a regime change,” the 64-year-old
Mr Moon said as the result become apparent.

130
(……………….) was triggered by a corruption scandal that led to (……………...)
of Ms Park, (………………………..), this year. It was closely watched
internationally at a time of mounting concern about North Korea’s nuclear
ambitions, which the US regards as its number one national security challenge.
Ms Park (……………....) in March after weeks of peaceful protests over
accusations of graft and influence-peddling in the presidential Blue House. Her
(……………) was hailed as a watershed in the country’s democratic development
and appears to have reignited citizens’ civic spirit. A record 77 per cent of the
electorate (…….....) to vote on Tuesday.

V. Replace the words in brackets with their English equivalents in the


necessary form:

1) Justin Trudeau Elected Prime Minister of Canada

OTTAWA—Canada’s Conservative leader (был смещен с должности)


________________________ in a national vote Monday after almost
(десятилетие у власти) ______________, as (недовольство избирателей)
_______________ and a souring economy helped the son of long-serving Prime
Minister Pierre Trudeau sweep into (самый высокий пост)
_____________________.
Justin Trudeau’s centrist Liberal Party secured (правительство большинства)
___________________________, with his party elected in 184 of the 338 districts
across the country, after (ожесточенная борьба с действующим президентом)
__________________________________ Stephen Harper. Mr. Harper said last
night that he (уйдет с поста руководителя партии)
____________________________, (признав поражение) __________________
to Mr. Trudeau.
Mr. Harper’s campaign for (четвертый срок) _________________ faltered, his
former aides and political analysts say, because it lacked a big idea despite having
the deepest (предвыборный бюджет) _______________ and being well
organized.

131
(В условиях, на фоне) ___________ the faltering economy and a string of
controversies surrounding the Conservatives, Mr. Trudeau’s newcomer status may
have played into a deep-seated desire for change. Polls found 70% of voters said
they were tired of Conservative rule in (опросы) ___________ near the end of the
campaign.
Early in the campaign, (старт которой дали) ___________________ in August
by the Conservatives, the Liberals appeared to have little chance, and the left-
leaning New Democratic Party (вырвалась вперед) _______________. The
Conservatives then moved into (отрыв, преимущество) ____________, and only
in the last couple of weeks of the 11-week campaign did the Liberals move into
and hold first place (в общенациональных опросах) ________________.
In a speech at a Montreal hotel Monday night, Mr. Trudeau promised to lead an
inclusive government that would support the middle class and draw strength from
the country’s diversity.
(Переходный период) ______________ before Mr. Trudeau officially (вступит в
должность) ________________ could take a few weeks.

2) Emmanuel Macron (пообещал) ________ unity after winning French


presidential election

Centrist independent wins by 66% to 34% (перевес, преимущество) _________, but


Marine Le Pen’s (поражение) __________ still marks historically high vote for France’s
(ультра-правые силы) ___________

The pro-EU centrist Emmanuel Macron (пообещал) ___________ to unite a


divided and fractured France (одержав убедительную победу над)
____________________________ the far-right Front National candidate Marine
Le Pen in the country’s presidential election.
Macron, 39, (бывший министр экономики) __________________ who
(баллотировался в качестве) ___________ a “neither left nor right” independent
promising to shake up the French political system, took 66% to Le Pen’s 34%. His
victory was hailed by his (сторонники) _______________ as holding back a tide
of populism after the Brexit vote and Donald Trump’s victory in the US election.

132
(Несмотря на значительное преимущество) _________ of the final result, Le
Pen’s score nonetheless marked a historic high for the French (ультра-правые
силы) ___________. Even after (вялая, неактивная кампания) __________ that
ended with a calamitous performance in the final TV debate, she was projected to
have taken almost 11m votes, double that of her father, Jean-Marie Le Pen, when
he reached (решающий тур президентской гонки) ______________in 2002. The
anti-immigration, anti-EU Front National’s (сторонники) ___________ asserted
that the party had a central place as an opposition force in France.
(Явка была самой низкой) _______________ in more than 40 years. Almost one-
third of voters chose neither Macron nor Le Pen, with 12 million (не приняли
участие в голосовании) _______________ and 4.2 million spoiling (бюллетени)
_______________.
Macron, who (никогда не занимал выборную должность) ____________and
was unknown until three years ago, is France’s youngest president. Next Sunday,
(к нему перейдет руководство страной) ____________________ under a state
of emergency, still facing a major terrorism threat and struggling with a stagnant
economy after decades of mass unemployment. France is divided after
(избирательная кампания) ____________ in which anti-establishment anger saw
the traditional left and right ruling parties ejected (из гонки в первом туре)
________________________ for the first time since the period after the second
world war.
Le Pen swiftly (признала поражение) _______________. She said she had won a
“historic and massive” score that made her leader of “the biggest opposition force”
in France and (пообещала провести кардинальные изменения)
___________________ her Front National party.
On Monday (уходящий с поста) ____________ Socialist president, François
Hollande, who was once Macron’s (наставник) _______ and (назначил его
министром экономики) _________________________ , embraced his
(преемник) ___________ as the two men attended a ceremony at Paris’s Arc de
Triomphe to commemorate victory over the Nazis in the second world war.
His victory comes after (ожесточенная кампания) _______________with Le
Pen in which she accused him of being part of an elite that did not understand
ordinary people and he said Le Pen represented the “party of hatred” that wanted a
“civil war” in France. (Решающий тур) ____________ pitted France’s most
Europhile candidate against its most Europhobe.

VI. Translate the headlines.


A.
1. THERESA MAY SET FOR LANDSLIDE IN SNAP ELECTION
2. INCUMBENT SOCIALISTS CONCEDE DEFEAT
3. ANGELA MERKEL SWORN IN FOR THIRD TERM AS GERMAN
CHANCELLOR

133
4. KOREAN PRESIDENT NAMES ‘ACTING’ PRIME MINISTER
5. ZAMBIA: PARTY PENALIZES INTERIM LEADER
6. SPANISH PARLIAMENT DEBATES NO CONFIDENCE VOTE ON
CARETAKER GOVERNMENT
7. MYANMAR’S PRESIDENT WEIGHS RESHUFFLE
8. MERKEL’S SLIM ADVANTAGE MEANS PLENTY OF HORSE TRADING
AHEAD
9. SHORT HONEYMOON FOR PRESIDENT-ELECT
10. STATE OF THE UNION ADDRESS: LAME DUCK PRESIDENT’S
FAREWELL SPEECH

B.
1. EVO MORALES HEADING FOR THIRD-TERM LANDSLIDE IN THRIVING
BOLIVIA
2. ZAMBIA SWEARS IN NEW PRESIDENT
3. HAITI’S INTERIM LEADER BEGINS TO FORM CABINET AS UNREST
CONTINUES
4. PUTIN BACK TO BUSINESS AFTER LANDSLIDE WIN
5. BREXITERS ATTACK “LAME DUCK” OBAMA OVER EU
6. SAAKASHVILI CONCEDES DEFEAT IN GEORGIA
7. VLADIMIR PUTIN TIGHTENS GRIP ON RUSSIA’S PARLIAMENT WITH
ELECTION ROUT
8. VICTOR VOWS TO REMAKE JAPAN
9. NICARAGUA’S RIGHT HAILS POLL VICTORY
10. SICK OR SACKED, HONG KONG CHIEF QUITS
11. CANADA RESHUFFLE

C.
1. FRANCOIS HOLLANDE: A LAME DUCK PRESIDENT?
2. JAPAN PICKS CABINET
3. BEIJING’S ELECTION TRIUMPH FORCES RETHINK
4. MODERATES CLAIM A BIG VICTORY IN POLLS
5. REPUBLICANS CLAIM OBAMA IS A “LAME DUCK”
6. AGEING OFFICIALS OUSTED IN N KOREAN RESHUFFLE
7. LEE DASHES RESHUFFLE HOPES
8. ACTING PRESIDENT POISED TO WIN VENEZUELAN POLL
9. AUSTRIAN TO NAME CABINET MONDAY
10. CZECH PARTIES AGREE CARETAKER GOVERNMENT

VII. a) Translate the sentences into English.

1. Центральная избирательная комиссия объявила правящую партию


победителем. Согласно официальным данным, она набрала 54%
голосов.
2. Так как этот кандидат одержал убедительную победу на выборах, ему
нет необходимости заключать какие-либо политические сделки с
представителями оппозиции.
3. Несмотря на то что во время инаугурации президент торжественно
обещал сотрудничать с оппозицией, не похоже, что он на самом деле
собирается это делать.

134
4. Изменения в составе кабинета после выборов неизбежны: все
представители оппозиции наверняка покинут его.
5. Этот кандидат повел себя очень достойно: он признал поражение и
призвал своих сторонников сотрудничать с победителем на благо
страны.
6. Вновь избранному президенту не удалось договориться с
представителями временного правительства, что привело к кризису в
стране.
7. Представители оппозиционных фракций в парламенте планируют
отстранить президента от должности и начать процедуру импичмента.
8. С тех пор как партия одержала убедительную победу на парламентских
выборах, многое изменилось: она превратилась в политического
неудачника, растерявшего всю свою популярность.
9. Несмотря на то что процесс передачи власти был сложным, партиям
наконец удалось договориться, и коалиция была сформирована.
10.Большинство оппозиционных партий не смогли преодолеть
пятипроцентный барьер и попасть в новый парламент. Теперь они
требуют пересчета голосов.

b) Translate the texts into English.

1. Президент Габона приведен к присяге

Во вторник в столице Габона Либревиле 57-летний Али Бен Бонго Ондимба принес
присягу в качестве президента страны.
В 2009 году он сменил во главе государства своего отца Омара Бонго, правившего
Габоном с 1967 года.
Победа на выборах с минимальным перевесом действующего президента привела к
массовым беспорядкам, инициированным его соперником. 73-летний лидер оппозиции
Жан Пинг не признал поражение и призвал своих сторонников к всеобщей забастовке.
В конце прошлой недели Конституционный суд признал победу действующего
президента.

2. Дилма Русеф смещена с поста президента Бразилии


Бразильские сенаторы сместили Дилму Русеф с поста президента страны. За ее отставку
проголосовал 61 человек при необходимом минимуме в 54 голоса.
Бурные дебаты по вопросу об импичменте Русеф проходили в ее присутствии -
президента, уже временно отстраненного от должности, один за другим допрашивали
более 50 сенаторов.
Исполнять обязанности президента до окончания срока Русеф - 1 января 2019 года -
продолжит вице-президент и бывший союзник Русеф Мишел Темер.
Сенаторы признали Дилму Русеф виновной в нарушении бюджетного законодательства -
в частности, в сокрытии истинного размера дефицита бюджета страны во время ее
избирательной кампании в 2014 году.

135
Сама Русеф заявляла, что невиновна, а своих противников обвиняла в политическом
мошенничестве и попытке госпереворота.
Адвокат Дилмы Русеф заявил, что она подаст апелляцию на решение сената в Верховный
суд Бразилии.
При этом сенат 42 голосами против 36 не поддержал запрет для Русеф занимать любые
государственные должности.

3. В Канаде оппозиция одержала триумфальную победу на выборах


В Канаде оппозиционная Либеральная партия одержала триумфальную победу на
всеобщих выборах. Партия, возглавляемая Джастином Трюдо, заручилась большинством
мест в федеральном парламенте в Оттаве.
Трюдо сменит пробывшего девять лет на посту премьер-министра Стивена Харпера от
Консервативной партии. Сам Харпер уже признал поражение своей партии. В партии
говорят, что Стивен Харпер уйдет с поста лидера.
После закрытия избирательных участков он заявил, что уже поздравил Трюдо, и что его
Консервативная партия несомненно примет вердикт избирателей.
Тем временем третья по величине Новая демократическая партия (НДП), судя по всему,
потеряет примерно треть своих мест в федеральном парламенте, несмотря на то, что в
начале предвыборной кампании некоторые обозреватели предрекали ее победу.
На всеобщих выборах избираются 338 депутатов федерального парламента в Оттаве.
Премьер-министром становится лидер партии, заручившейся поддержкой большинства
депутатов парламента.

VIII. REVISION. Translate the text into Russian.


France turns to parliamentary battle after Macron victory
President-elect faces challenge of gaining enough support in National Assembly polls
France’s politicians charged straight into battle for next month’s parliamentary elections only
hours after Emmanuel Macron won the presidency in a decisive victory over Marine Le Pen.
After the Brexit vote and the election of Trump as US president, the race for the Élysée was the
latest election to shake up establishment politics by kicking out the figures that stood for the
status quo, ejecting the mainstream parties that have dominated French politics for 50 years and
leaving the political novice Macron to do battle with the far right.
Preparations are under way for the two-round National Assembly poll on June 11 and 18,
underlining the importance to the new president of obtaining a majority that would allow him to
govern and push through his reform plans.
Mr Macron beat his far-right opponent with 66.1 per cent of the vote, according to final results
published by the interior ministry on Monday morning. While it was a comfortable margin of
victory over Ms Le Pen that will give him momentum in the coming weeks, the high level of
abstention and spoiled ballots suggest many French still have doubts about him and his agenda.
Mr Macron, a former government adviser and economy minister, needs to build a stable majority
from a party that as yet has no MPs.Pro-Macron candidates will stand for election under the
banner of “La République en Marche”. A poll last week suggested En Marche! could win
between 250 and 290 MPs in a 577-strong chamber. But June’s legislative elections are even

136
more unpredictable since any candidate reaching the 12.5 per cent threshold in the first round
goes through to the second round run-off. An Ipsos poll carried out for Le Monde on Sunday
found that 61 per cent of voters did not want Mr Macron to command an absolute majority in the
National Assembly.
The centre-right Republicans have high hopes of emerging as the strongest party in June’s
elections despite failing to qualify for the presidential run-off. But the party is split on whether to
co-operate with Mr Macron’s presidency. Some moderates have offered to work in a new
administration.
Without a legislative majority for his fledgling En Marche! party, Mr Macron, a self-styled
independent, may become a prisoner of traditional parties, determined to thwart his attempts to
brush aside what he sees as the outworn orthodoxies of left-versus-right political struggle.
Still, Mr Macron’s victory is incomplete. This election legitimised the French far right as never
before. France’s fractured political landscape, widespread social discontent, pessimism about the
nation’s future and the decline of the presidency as an institution will make Mr Macron’s five-
year term the most difficult of any head of state since Charles de Gaulle established the Fifth
Republic in 1958.
Moreover, Mr Macron’s honeymoon with the French electorate is likely to be short. The aura of
the presidency is not what it was, thanks to the policy failures and personal shortcomings of
Jacques Chirac, Nicolas Sarkozy and François Hollande, the presidents from 1995 to the present
day.
If Mr Macron should stumble, it is altogether unclear what solution might keep Ms Le Pen at bay
in 2022. Ms Le Pen’s score of 34 per cent is almost twice the 18 per cent won by her father Jean-
Marie Le Pen in 2002. That she won about 10.6m votes points to a depth of disaffection and
anger towards France’s political elite that could nourish the far-right for years to come,
especially if Mr Macron fails to deliver on his promises.
Based on the FT article May 8, 2017

IX. Comment on the cartoons. **

1. 2.

137
“No need to leave your towel. The
Germans are all watching the
election”

3.

www.usnewscom.
www.cartoonstock.com.
UNIT VI. REVISION

I. TRANSLATION MATTERS (MIXED BAG). Translate the sentences into


Russian.

A.

1. Serbia holds elections this Sunday, trying for a third time to elect a new
president, after two previous efforts failed because of low voter turnout.
2. Though Mr. Sisi had said parliamentary elections were the second step in a
three-step “roadmap to democracy” after the coup, the vote was repeatedly
delayed in favor of a constitutional referendum and presidential elections that
brought the former military chief to power.
3. Six other candidates officially accepted by the French constitutional council
have not been invited but are expected to join a second debate nearer to the
first-round vote at the end of April.
4. The result means the home secretary is almost certain to be among the final
two candidates selected by Tory politicians to be put forward for a vote by the
grassroots of the party.
5. Thousands of opposition candidates poured into the capital yesterday,
determined to block the president convening a new parliament whose election
they insist was rigged.
6. Fillon said his British wife Penelope had worked for him since his first
election in 1980 and that he had no intention of quitting the presidential race
because he had not been formally charged with any crime.
7. Theresa May is on course to win a majority of more than 100 in a June snap
election as Labour’s pro-Brexit voters desert Jeremy Corbyn, according to
new polling data for The Times.
8. France’s traditional political party system is fighting for survival as the
presidential campaign kicks off this weekend, with the mainstream left and
right at risk of being knocked out by two outsiders: the independent centrist
Emmanuel Macron and the far-right Front National’s Marine Le Pen.
9. If Le Pen did win the presidency, she would very probably not win a
parliament majority. But her party hopes to increase its MPs in the 577-seat
house. Currently Le Pen has only two MPs.
10.Mr Roh cited the scandal as the main reason for his decision last week to call
a referendum on his leadership and resign if he failed to secure a confidence
vote.

139
11.The ruling coalition retained power in yesterday's lower house election in
Japan but with a slightly smaller majority as the opposition Democratic Party
of Japan made substantial gains.
12.Mélenchon was counting on as many as 100,000 supporters joining his march
from Place de la Bastille to Republique.
13.The process of choosing his successor will now begin, with Tory MPs
selecting a two-person shortlist, which will then be presented to the party’s
members in the country to make a final decision.
14.If pyramids could fly, there might have been a chance of Hosni Mubarak,
after 24 years as Egypt’s dictator, being voted out of pharaonic power in his
country’s first-ever multi-candidate presidential election this week.
15.The party campaigned on a promise to reverse a generation-long economic
decline and to redefine Tokyo’s relationship with Washington.
16.French Socialist party presidential candidate Benoît Hamon has called for the
country’s divided left to join forces following the decision by former Socialist
prime minister Manuel Valls to switch sides in next month’s election.
17.Another Russian election, another victory for Vladimir Putin. With almost all
of the ballots counted, United Russia, Mr Putin’s party, appears to have won
the legislative election on September 18th, with about 54% of the vote. The
result was so predictable that most Russians did not bother to visit their
polling station: turnout dropped to a record low of 47.8%.
18.The tiny republic of Moldova erupted in violence today as anti-communist
demonstrators stormed the parliament in protest at what they said were rigged
elections.
19.Shortly before Mélenchon’s rally on Saturday, France’s Constitutional
Council released the official list of 11 candidates who will take part in the
first round of the presidential elections on 23 April, following the deadline for
names to be registered and accepted.
20.No party presented a strong economic program to counter the current
recession, he said, so in the end, those who voted chose the status quo. Mr.
Putin himself, saluting the outcome at a cabinet meeting, said voters had
chosen stability in the face of continued internal and external attempts to
destabilize Russia, including threats and economic sanctions.
21.The public also envisages the Lib Dems outperforming most polls by
achieving 14%, and Ukip underperforming somewhat, with 10%.
22.The centre-right party of Dutch prime minister, Mark Rutte, beat the populist,
anti-Islam, anti-EU Geert Wilders into second place in Netherlands
parliamentary elections this week.
23.On Friday, Fillon accused “shadowy” forces of seeking to crush him, in what
has become known as Penelopegate.
24.Opinion polls suggest Macron could easily beat Le Pen in the second round,
but faith in pollsters has been shaken after they failed to predict the election of

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Donald Trump, the US president, or Britain’s vote to leave the European
Union last June.
25.Sporadic clashes between protesters and riot police outside the small South
American country’s legislative palace on Friday afternoon also resulted in
Efraín Alegre – the president of the Liberal party – being injured and carried
away by colleagues.
26.If re-elected, he would be the first eurozone leader to fully carry out such a
program and win a new mandate.
27.Preliminary results from Canada’s elections agency indicate the Liberals won
184 of the 338 electoral districts up for grabs in the Canadian legislature,
while the incumbent Conservatives were left with 99.
28.At least 42 government politicians didn’t vote for the chancellor on Tuesday,
but given the new coalition’s enormous majority, that is unlikely to worry her.
29.While his position on immigration is the opposite of Le Pen’s, Mélenchon is
not so far removed from the Front National leader in foreign affairs,
advocating a “new role” for France in the EU, withdrawal from Nato and
warmer ties with Russia.
30.“Melenchon: the crazy programme of the French Chavez,” read the front-page
headline in the conservative Le Figaro daily on Wednesday, comparing the
Communist-backed candidate to the late Venezuelan leader.
31.The voting followed a new system this year, with half the members of the
Duma chosen from individual races instead of party lists.
32.Kenyatta is among four Kenyans facing ICC charges for engineering ethnic
violence that killed more than 1,100 people and uprooted 600,000 after the
last election.

B. **
1. The election race was full of extraordinary twists and turns. Hollande became
the first president since the war to decide not to run again for office after
slumping to record unpopularity with a satisfaction rating of 4%.
2. Initial results set off a carnival of celebration that sent a sea of New
Democracy supporters to the party’s headquarters in central Athens.
3. The ruling African National Congress (ANC) took a clear lead on Thursday in
South Africa's first "born free" election, featuring voters with no memory of
the white-minority rule that ended in 1994.The party that swept to power two
decades ago under the leadership of Nelson Mandela had 63.75% of the vote
with about half of ballots counted, the electoral commission said.
4. But opinion polls predict the ANC will cruise to around 64% of the vote, only
a slight dip since the last election in 2009. "Do it for Madiba, vote ANC!" read
some campaign posters, referring to the former president Nelson Mandela by
his clan name, although few commentators believe that the statesman's death
at the age of 95 last December has been a significant factor.

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5. The Roaring Twenties saw three more consecutive GOP wins: Warren Harding
in 1920, Calvin Coolidge in 1924 and Herbert Hoover in 1928.
6. The party has had some successes during its time in office. President Asif Ali
Zardari, Benazir Bhutto's widower, managed to hold together an unwieldy,
fractured coalition government for a full five-year term — making it the first
elected civilian government in Pakistan's history to finish its term and hand
power to another elected civilian government. The PPP government also
pushed through legislation devolving power to the provinces and restricting
the power of the presidency.
7. After South Carolina, the Republican presidential campaign is about to rapidly
pick up steam in March when dozens of states hold nominating contests.
Another candidate, Ohio Governor John Kasich, is concentrating on
midwestern and northern states in the state-by-state contest to pick nominees
for the Nov. 8 election.
8. The first three Republicans to join the 2016 presidential campaign—Sens.Ted
Cruz, Rand Paul and Marco Rubio, who announces his candidacy Monday—
have one big thing in common: Each rose to power with support from the tea-
party movement. Now the three, who all beat establishment-backed candidates
in Senate primaries, will be competing for the loyalty of tea-party voters as
they seek the GOP presidential nomination.
9. A social conservative who campaigned on the slogan “Neither corrupt nor a
thief,” Mr. Morales capitalized on the popular fury against the political
system, rising quickly in the polls in recent months. On Sunday, he capped off
his remarkable journey from outsider to president-elect.
10.After weeks of speculation, Valls announced he was supporting Emmanuel
Macron, breaking a signed agreement to back his party’s elected candidate.
The decision sparked anger and fear that it could spell the final nail in the
coffin of the now bitterly divided Socialist party (PS).
11.Since Hamon won the Socialist party primary elections in January, a
succession of leading Socialist ministers have thrown their weight behind rival
Emmanuel Macron, who refused to take part in the PS primary process.
12.There may be nothing new about leftwingers falling out, but polls suggest
uniting behind one candidate is the French left’s best hope of being in the
second round of the presidential election. Remaining divided – as it seems
certain it will – spells almost sure defeat.
13.But in a country reeling from power cuts that last more than half the day,
rising inflation and deteriorating security, those political victories don't put
food on people's plates or money in their wallets. The party has to defend a
record that many have pilloried, and it's running as an incumbent — not as the
underdog it likes to portray itself as.

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14.The London stock market plunged at the start of trading at 8am on Friday, as a
wave of selling swept the City amid fears about the economic consequences of
Britain trying to survive outside the EU single market.
15.After an agonising night with the results trickling in, all hinged on the result in
Ohio, which for months had been seen as the key battleground.
16.Backbench MPs will take their choice from a field of five contenders, with
work and pensions secretary Stephen Crabb; former defence secretary Liam
Fox; and the pro-Brexit energy minister Andrea Leadsom also joining the
fray. Crabb is running on a joint ticket with business secretary Sajid Javid,
who would be his chancellor of the exchequer, the pair painting themselves as
the champions of working-class voters. He is estimated to have obtained 20
backers.
17.Cameron had said he wanted to stay on to trigger article 50 and start
negotiations to take the UK out of the EU in the event of a vote to leave but
there is likely to be considerable pressure for him to quit given the public’s
defiance of his forceful calls for the UK to remain in the EU.
18.But even as Mrs. Clinton attempts to set aside her celebrity and offer herself
as a fighter for ordinary voters, her finance team and the outside groups
supporting her candidacy have started collecting checks in what is expected to
be a $2.5 billion effort, dwarfing the vast majority of her would-be rivals in
both parties.
19.The first round of voting will take place on 5 July, with the weakest candidate
eliminated in successive rounds, until the field is whittled down to two
candidates, who will be presented to the Conservatives’ grassroots members.
The result will be announced on 9 September.
20.Fillon’s presidential bid has been floundering since it emerged that his British-
born wife was paid more than €800,000 from public funds between 1998 and
2013 as a parliamentary assistant.
21.The electorate has little patience for a political class it instinctively distrusts
and many are wary of what they sees as undue perks and privileges available
to politicians.
22.Negotiations to form a Dutch coalition government are under way and
expected to take several weeks, with an array of parties in the line-up refusing
to work with Wilders.
23.With Hamon struggling with damaging defections by socialist ministers, and a
widespread disaffection with François Hollande, in whose government
Hamon served, Mélenchon believes France is witnessing the death throes of its
Socialist party.
24.The crisis risks further damage to Paraguay’s democracy following the 2012
impeachment of the leftwing former president Fernando Lugo. Lugo was
absent on Tuesday, but most of his party’s senators voted in favour of the

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changes. The 65-year-old former bishop appears to be gambling on a
constitutional amendment working in his favour: polls suggest that he would
win more than half the vote were he able to run again in 2018.
25.The political manoeuvring – decried as a “coup d’etat” by opposition parties –
sparked violent protests in the capital and ended in demonstrators storming the
country’s congress and setting it on fire.
26.But the furtive manner in which the Cartes administration has sought to
change the constitution seems to have antagonised Paraguayans of all political
sectors.
27.She accused opposition parties of trying to jeopardise her government’s
preparations for exiting the EU as she called for what would be a third
nationwide poll in three years – while the Labour leader, Jeremy Corbyn,
responded by saying he would welcome the opportunity to fight an election
opposing Tory austerity.
28.Supporters of the prime minister said she would use the election to crush
dissent over Brexit, with one projection by the election expert Michael
Thrasher suggesting she could secure a majority of 140 on the basis of current
polls. His estimate suggests the number of Tory MPs could rise from 331 to
395, with Labour potentially slumping from 229 to 164.
29.Labour sources pointed out that polls had not been consistent, with one
recently placing the Tory lead at just nine points.
30.But broadcasters are likely to avoid heated clashes with Downing Street, as
seen during the 2015 election, which ended with David Cameron taking part
in special election programmes instead of head to heads.
31.On the Republican side of the ledger, the Register/Bloomberg poll showed the
real-estate mogul Donald Trump leading the 17-strong field with 23%, to 18%
for another outsider candidate, the neurosurgeon Ben Carson.
32.Hours before the end of campaigning on Friday night, Macron’s campaign was
hacked, which Paris prosecutors are investigating. Hundreds of thousands of
emails and documents were dumped online and spread by WikiLeaks in what
his campaign called an attempt at “democratic destabilisation”.
33.His troubled five-year term left France still struggling with a sluggish
economy and a mood of disillusionment with the political class.
34.The ruling Socialist party, under its candidate Benoît Hamon, saw its score
plunge to 6%, while the hard-left Jean-Luc Mélenchon finished fourth.
35.After fighting Mrs. Clinton to what appears to be essentially a draw in
the Iowa caucuses, the Vermont senator predicted his campaign would
“astound the world again” in the next presidential contest.
36.The presidential election’s two rounds revealed broad support for Ms Le Pen,
the radical leftist Jean-Luc Mélenchon and a clutch of minor extremist
candidates.

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II. Fill in the blanks with suitable words in the necessary form from the list
given below:

1) parliamentary elections, to contest elections, on the campaign trail,


competitive poll, to run for president, upcoming elections, campaign,
presidential candidate, ruling

Mamphela Ramphele (………………………………..) in South Africa

Mamphela Ramphele, the prominent academic and activist, is to lead South


Africa’s main opposition party in its battle against the (………..) African National
Congress at (………………….) after agreeing to be its (……………………….).
The surprise move means the Democratic Alliance will for the first time have a
black politician at the forefront of its (…………………..) as it attempts to dent the
ANC’s political dominance.
(…………………………..) are expected to be held in April or May, with many
commentators forecasting that the ANC will face its most (…………………….)
since it took power after the first democratic election 20 years ago.
By signing up with the DA, Dr Ramphele is joining an organisation that has
national structures, strong sources of funding and a record of (………………….).
While its vote has steadily grown, the DA has struggled to shed the perception that
it represents white interests in a nation where the scars of apartheid remain raw.
This has enabled ANC officials to tap into the issue of race (……………………),
at times warning black voters that an opposition victory would return the “boers” –
Afrikaners – to power.

2) to succeed (2), to take over as, surveys of grassroots Conservatives,


campaign (2), to campaign (2), to campaign for Brexit, favourite (2), to back,
supporters, to declare bids, to take an early lead, to run, to run for the
leadership, to throw one’s hat into the ring, a crowded field

Boris Johnson (………………) to replace David Cameron as PM after Brexit

Boris Johnson is (…………………) to be the new prime minister in what is likely


to be (………………..) of MPs hoping (………………) Conservative leader. The
former London mayor and leader of the leave campaign (…………………….)
with the bookmakers after years of speculation about his ambitions (…………….)
David Cameron.
Theresa May, the home secretary, is the leading potential candidate from the
remain camp, while other Brexit MPs such as Andrea Leadsom, Priti Patel and
Dominic Raab might also fancy their chances. Tory modernisers are also pushing

145
Amber Rudd, the energy secretary who clashed with Johnson during a television
debate, (………………………………).
Johnson has always dodged questions about his desire to be prime minister, once
saying it was as likely as being reincarnated as an olive or finding Elvis on Mars.
But it is now almost certain that he (……………………….).
Many remain Tory MPs are likely to want to rally around a candidate to stop
Johnson. The most likely candidate for this is May, despite her having
(……………..) the prime minister’s call for Britain to stay in the EU.
She kept a low profile during (…………….), refusing (…………………) for
remain with the same force as Cameron and Osborne. This may allow her to pitch
herself as a unifying bridge between the Eurosceptic and modernising wings of the
party. She burnished her credentials among Eurosceptics during (………………...)
by calling for a withdrawal from the European convention on human rights.
Her (…………….) may also value her reputation for seriousness and as a safe pair
of hands in a crisis, which forms a sharp contrast with Johnson’s jovial image.
Throughout the campaign, May managed to keep above the day-to-day fray of the
Tory feuding and has experience (……………..) one of the great offices of state
for the past six years.
George Osborne, the chancellor, has seen his chances of (…………….) Cameron
effectively destroyed, after he (……………….) so forcefully alongside the prime
minister.
Among those who (……………………), Andrea Leadsom, an energy minister,
Liam Fox, the former defence secretary, Priti Patel, the employment minister and
Dominic Raab, the justice minister, could all possibly (…………………).
Michael Gove, the justice secretary, and friend of both Cameron and Osborne, has
always strongly denied he wants the top job but has consistently polled well in
(…………………………) in recent months.

3) president-elect, a landslide victory, the runoff, the resignation, rival,


landslide, an outright majority, four-year term, field, to take office, margin of
victory, ballots, the polls

Jimmy Morales Wins Guatemalan Presidential Election in (…………………)


Former TV comedian is political outsider who now must meet his promise to tackle
country’s rampant corruption
GUATEMALA CITY— Jimmy Morales, a former television comedy actor who
promised to clean up Guatemala’s corrupt politics, won
( …………………………..) in Sunday’s presidential election.
With 92% of (………………) counted, Mr. Morales had 70% of the vote,
compared with 30% for his (……………….), former first lady Sandra Torres. If

146
the trend holds, it would be the largest (……………………..) in a presidential vote
here since democracy was restored in 1985 after a military dictatorship.
Mr. Morales, who once played the role of a bumbling cowboy who accidentally
becomes president, was a virtual unknown until about six months ago, when a
string of corruption scandals led to widespread protests and ultimately
(…………………….) and imprisonment of former President Otto Pérez Molina,
his vice president and other top officials.
A social conservative who campaigned on the slogan “Neither corrupt nor a thief,”
Mr. Morales capitalized on the popular fury against the political system, rising
quickly in (……………) in recent months. On Sunday, he capped off his
remarkable journey from outsider to (………………………….).
(……………………) vote followed a first round of balloting in early September
amid a crowded (…………………..) of 14 candidates. Mr. Morales and Ms.
Torres rose to the top of the pack after both made the fight against corruption their
main campaign platform.
Mr. Morales won’t have it easy. No party has (……………………………..) in a
fragmented Congress and the winner will likely be forced to negotiate with
traditional politicians to get bills passed. Analysts say Mr. Morales should
announce specific, bold actions even before (………………………) on Jan. 14 for
a nonrenewable (……………………).

III. Replace the words in brackets with their English equivalents in the
necessary form:

1) Nicolas Sarkozy announces return (заявка на участие в президентских


выборах во Франции) __________________________
The French conservative party leader has announced plans (уйти с поста) _________as
its head, paving the way to enter (первичные выборы) ______________ ahead of the 2017
(президентские выборы) _________________
Nicolas Sarkozy has announced he (будет баллотироваться на пост
президента Франции) ______________________ next year, (стремясь,
пытаясь) _____________a return to the post he lost to Francois Hollande in 2012.
Mr Sarkozy announced his decision at a meeting with (соратники по партии)
______________ on Saturday, and said he (покинет пост) ________________as
head of Les Republicains to make way for his return (заявка на участие в
президентской гонке) ___________________________.
He (будет баллотироваться) ______________ in France’s 2017 election
(против) __________13 others in his party who (уже заявили о своем участии)
________________________.
Mr Sarkozy's main (соперник) ______________is said to be mayor of Bordeaux
and former Prime Minister Alain Juppé, who criticised on Saturday the “confusion
between Nicolas Sarkozy, (председатель партии) ________________, and

147
Nicolas Sarkozy, candidate (проводящий предвыборную кампанию)
___________________________for the primaries”.
(Сторонники) ___________ of Les Republicains and other right and centre-right
parties will vote in November to decide who will be their candidate (на
президентских выборах в 2017 году) ___________________________.
The winner will face the far-right National Front’s Marine Le Pen and a Socialist
candidate, likely to be François Hollande.
Initially Mr Sarkozy, 61, said he had intended to step away from (политическое
руководство) __________________, especially (учитывая) _________ the
unpopularity his abrasive style had generated among (избиратели) ___________.
(Последние опросы общественного мнения показывают)
_______________________________, however, that he (опережает)
_____________Mr Juppé as the centre right’s preferred presidential candidate.
(Ожидается, что Олланд будет добиваться выдвижения на еще один срок)
______________________________________________ as president while
Marine Le Pen (будет баллотироваться ) _________________for the far right
Front National.

2) In Nigeria’s Election, Muhammadu Buhari (нанес поражение,


победил) ______________ Goodluck Jonathan

KANO, Nigeria — With anger swelling over corruption, inequality and a


devastating Islamist insurgency in the nation’s north, Nigerians (со
значительным перевесом голосов) __________________ chose an austere
former general who once ruled with an iron hand to be their next president,
according to election results on Tuesday.
The election was (самая конкурентная президентская гонка)
______________________ ever in Nigeria, one of the largest democracies in the
world. Now, (если процесс передачи власти пройдет мирно)
___________________, it will be a major shift for the nation — the first transfer
between civilians of different parties in a country that has spent much of its post-
colonial history shaken by (военные перевороты) __________________.
With results from all of Nigeria’s 36 states counted, the former military ruler,
Muhammadu Buhari, (нанес сокрушительное поражение)
___________________ to President Goodluck Jonathan, getting nearly 55 percent
of the vote to Mr. Jonathan’s 45 percent.
Since the end of (военное правление) ________ in 1999, Nigeria has been
governed by a single, dominant party — Mr. Jonathan’s Peoples Democratic Party.
But on Tuesday, Mr. Buhari’s campaign said that the president had called
(соперник действующего президента)__________________ at 5:15 p.m.
(чтобы признать поражение) ___________________— an act many Nigerians
considered a big step forward after previous elections marred by

148
(мошенничество, фальсификации) ___________ and incumbents clinging to
office.
Later on Tuesday, Mr. Jonathan publicly thanked Nigerians for “the great
opportunity I was given to lead this country,” congratulated Mr. Buhari and said he
had kept his word to deliver («свободные и демократические выборы»)
_______________________.
(Аналитики, эксперты) ______________ said that the election could mean the
beginning of (конкурентная двухпартийная система)
_______________________________in Nigeria, Africa’s biggest economy and
most populous nation with about 180 million people.
Others noted that (мирная передача власти) ___________________from one
party to another was a relative rarity on a continent where (диктаторы)
_________________ or dominant parties rule in many countries.
It is “a giant leap for democracy in Nigeria and Africa, particularly at a time when
many (находящиеся у власти лица) _________________ are trying to change
their constitution (чтобы продлить предусмотренный законом срок их
пребывания в должности) _____________________________,” said Pierre
Englebert, an African politics specialist at Pomona College.
(В период правления Джонатана) ___________________ , Nigeria has been
pummeled by Boko Haram, its economic fortunes have plunged with falling oil
prices, inequality is rampant, and corruption scandals (нанесли ущерб, повредили)
________________ the president’s image.

3) Zambian Elections Underway (на фоне беспорядков) ______________

President Edgar Lungu (стремится, добивается) _____________a full term against a


wealthy businessman, Hakainde Hichilema. The vote comes (на фоне) _______ an
economic downturn in Zambia, as well as killings and political (беспорядки) ___________.
Millions of Zambians (отправились на выборы) ________________on Thursday
to elect a president and national (законодатели) _______________, (на фоне)
_________warnings that the campaign (беспорядки) _________could reduce
(явка) ___________. The main contest, pitting President Edgar Lungu against a
wealthy businessman, Hakainde Hichilema, was considered (непредсказуемый)
________________. It was a replay of a 2015 special election that Mr. Lungu won
(с минимальным перевесом) _____________to complete (срок)__________ of
President Michael Sata, who died suddenly in October 2014.
(Голосование)____________ on Thursday appeared to go smoothly in the capital,
Lusaka, where Election Day is a national holiday. Shops closed and roads were
clear of traffic.
In a region known for presidents brutally clinging to office for decades, Zambia
had smooth elections and (передача власти) _____________since 1991, long

149
before multiparty democracies emerged elsewhere on the continent. But a handful
of people have been killed and many others injured in recent political
(беспорядки) __________.
(Наблюдатели) ______________have attributed (беспорядки) ____________to
the two main parties, the Patriotic Front of Mr. Lungu and the United Party for
National Development of Mr. Hichilema. On Tuesday, Esau E. Chulu,
(председатель Избирательной Комиссии) ________________________, said
that (беспорядки) ____________was “unprecedented and (бросили тень,
омрачили) ______________Zambia’s historic (репутация, опыт)
____________of peaceful elections.”
(Ожидается, что бюллетени будут подсчитаны) ____________________in a
few days. But if no (кандидат на пост президента) _____________________
earns more than half the votes, (второй тур) ____________will be held within 37
days.

IV. Complete the texts with the Topic Vocabulary words. The first letters
are given to help you. ***

1. Liberia opposition calls poll ‘f___________’

Monrovia, Liberia - Opposition parties in Liberia say they're p____________


o____ of a recent presidential p__________ which they called “f____________”
and say they won't a___________ the r__________.
A Saturday statement from eight opposition parties including those of the second-
and third-place c___________ say the e_____________ c_____________
manipulated v_____-c_________ in favor of President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf.
The statement also called for a Sunday rally but gave no details.
Sirleaf l_____late on Friday with 45.4 percent of the vote, falling short of the
m___________ needed to avoid a r_______, according to p_________ results.
The Harvard-educated Sirleaf faced 15 c_________ on Tuesday. She is viewed
abroad as a reformer and was awarded this year's Nobel Peace Prize for her role in
stabilising Liberia after a 14-year c__________ w_______.

2. South Korea e________ polls point to win for presidential


f_____________ Moon Jae-in
Moon Jae-in, a f_______________ human rights lawyer and political veteran, is
set to become South Korea’s new leader according to e_______ polls, in a historic
election that paves the way for the country to return to stability after months of
turmoil.

150
His likely election fills a leadership vacuum created following the
i______________ of president Park Geun-hye over corruption a__________ in
March. It has also ends nine years of conservative r_________ by Ms Park and her
p________________ Lee Myung-bak.
Early indications suggest Mr Moon g__________ more than 41 per cent the vote,
defeating his two main r_________— Hong Joon-pyo, a conservative from Ms
Park’s party and former provincial governor, and Ahn Cheol-soo, a centrist with
the People’s party and former software mogul.
The election is expected to have record t_____________ after Ms Park’s
i_________________ fuelled an apparent s_____________ in civic spirit.

3. Moldova Set to Press on With Pro-Europe Course After Election

CHISINAU — Moldova's pro-Europe parties appeared certain on Monday of being


able to form a new c____________ to press on with a drive toward Europe after
e___________ even though the pro-Moscow Socialist Party took first place.
With almost all votes c_______ from Sunday's p______, election authorities said
the Liberal Democrats, the Liberals and the Democratic Party had s___________ a
combined vote of 44 percent, enough to win a s_________ m_________ in the
101-seat parliament and form a new g____________ team.
But the strong s___________ by the socialists, who c____________ in favor of
joining a Russia-led economic bloc rather than moving toward the European
Union, took the edge off any jubilation by the pro-Europe lobby.
The coalition's poor r_________ of tackling corruption and conducting deep
reform, as well as in-fighting among its leaders, appeared to have cost it support at
the b_________b________.
Relations are poor between former Prime Minister, who leads the coalition's
Liberal Democrats, and former a________ p___________ , leader of the Liberals,
and are always likely to put any c___________ formed under strain.
The next weeks will be dominated by b______________ among the parties to
hammer out a working arrangement. A government may not emerge until the New
Year.

4. French conservative p___________: François Fillon expected to


b__________ Alain Juppé
Millions of French voters head to the p________ on Sunday to select a
p____________ c____________ for the centre-right Republicans party, with ex-
premier François Fillon tipped to emerge the winner and become the
f____________ for next year’s election.

151
The US-style p_______ contest, the first for the Republicans, is a battle between
socially conservative and economic “radical” Fillon and the more moderate Alain
Juppé, also a former p_______ m_________ who is nine years older at 71.
Whoever wins on Sunday will face fierce c__________ from far-right National
Front leader Marine Le Pen, who is waiting in the wings ready to attack the
v___________ as a symbol of France’s ruling class.
“I think I am best placed with my programme to b___________ Marine Le Pen,”
Juppé said on the last day of c______________ on Friday.
But it is Fillon who has all the m__________ heading into Sunday’s r____-
o_____ vote.
He won the first r__________ of the p________ last Sunday with 44% and has
since picked up e______________ from party heavyweights including former
President Nicolas Sarkozy, who was k___________ out last weekend in perhaps a
final blow to his career.
Several s________ last week forecast Fillon to emerge as winner on Sunday with
around 60 percent, but after a topsy-turvy year that has made fools of analysts and
p___________, no one should take his victory for granted.
As well as Le Pen, Sunday’s winner will face c_____________ in next year’s vote
from a Socialist party candidate, probably President Francois Hollande who
appears intent on trying to defy his historically low a___________ r__________.
After a troubled five years in power, a s_________ on Friday showed
c___________ prime minister Manuel Valls would be a far more popular
c____________ than Hollande.
Hollande’s former protege and economy minister, 38-year-old Emmanuel Macron,
is also set to s__________ for the p__________ as a centrist independent, injecting
some youth and another element of uncertainty into the r________.
Current p__________ forecast that Le Pen and the Republicans candidate will
make it through to the final r______-o______ round of the election in May, with
the Republicans candidate set to win by drawing moderate voters from the right
and left to block the far-right.

V. Translate the headlines into Russian:

A.

1. MAY HEADS FOR ELECTION LANDSLIDE


2. PARAGUAY FEARS DICTATORSHIP AS PRESIDENT MOVES TO AMEND
CONSTITUTION
3. FRENCH ELECTION SHAKEN BY SURGE IN SUPPORT FOR FAR-LEFT
CANDIDATE
4. SOUTH AFRICAN ELECTIONS: ANC TAKES CLEAR LEAD WITH THIRD OF
VOTES COUNTED

152
5. RUSSIA’S RULING PARTY TIGHTENS ITS GRIP ON LOWER HOUSE
6. FRENCH ELECTION 2017: VOTERS GO TO POLLS IN WIDE-OPEN CONTEST
7. CANDIDATES COMPLAINS OF BELARUS ELECTION FRAUD
8. EGYPT BEGINS FIRST EVER FREE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS
9. GABON’S ELECTORAL RECOUNT

B.

1. FRANCOIS FILLON ADMITS ERROR BUT REFUSES TO QUIT FRENCH


PRESIDENTIAL RACE
2. RUSSIAN ELECTION: BIG VICTORY FOR PUTIN-BACKED PARTY UNITED
RUSSIA
3. UGANDAN AUTHORITIES GAG MEDIA IN RUN-UP TO PRESIDENTIAL
ELECTION
4. LESOTHO VOTERS HOPING TO RESTORE STABILITY AFTER COUP BID
5. GREECE’S NEW SYRIZA-LED GOVERNMENT WINS PARLIAMENTARY VOTE
OF CONFIDENCE
6. ITALIAN CONFIDENCE VOTE EASES PATH FOR APPROVAL OF BUDGET
7. PROTESTERS DEMAND FRESH BELARUS POLL
8. VICTORY FOR PUTIN, DESPITE ECONOMIC WOES
9. UKRAINE PRESIDENT SACKS HIS CABINET

C.
1. WITH BOLD STAND, JAPAN OPPOSITION WINS A LANDSLIDE
2. SWISS FAR-RIGHT POLL SUCCESS SET TO STRAIN TIES WITH EU
3. MYANMAR ELECTION MONITORS WARN OVER RIGID ARMY POWER
4. MAIN OPPOSITION PARTY PULLS PUT OF LIBERIA VOTE
5. RUSSIA POLL OFFICIALS REPORT IRREGULARITIES
6. TUNISIA’S PARLIAMENT PASSES VOTE OF NO CONFIDENCE IN PRIME
MINISTER HABIB ESSID
7. ZAMBIA VOTES AMID ECONOMIC SLOWDOWN AND POLITICAL VIOLENCE
8. PUTIN’S UNITED RUSSIA KEEPS CONTROL AFTER POLL
9. THE TORIES ARE USING THE BOUNDARY CHANGES FOR RUTHLESS
GERRYMANDERING

VI. Translate the texts into English. **

1. Выборы в Канаде дают надежду на потепление отношений с


Россией
Выборы в Канаде завершились поражением Консервативной партии и победой
либералов. Премьер-министру Стивену Харперу пришлось уступить кресло
молодому политику Джастину Трюдо. Сын знаменитого Пьера Трюдо,
совершившего в свое время прорыв в отношениях Канады и СССР, новый премьер-
либерал, скорее всего, возьмет курс на улучшение отношений с Россией.
Выборы в Канаде обернулись провалом для премьер-министра Стивена Харпера, который
планировал занять этот пост в четвертый раз. Впервые за много лет партию
консерваторов, возглавляемую Харпером, обошли либералы под руководством Джастина
Трюдо.

153
Победа оппозиционного Джастина Трюдо стала неожиданностью для Стивена Харпера,
который был уверен, что сохранит за собой пост премьер-министра страны, занимаемый
им последние девять лет.
Предварительные опросы показывали, что рейтинги у партии консерваторов и либералов
практически сравнялись, а незадолго до выборов либералы и вовсе ушли вперед. Новая
демократическая партия (НДП), которую возглавляет Том Малкер, также претендовавший
на премьерский пост, тоже имела хорошие рейтинги. Последний опрос, опубликованный в
воскресенье, показал, что Либеральную партию поддерживают 37,7% избирателей,
Консервативную – 30,5%, а НДП – 22,1%. Предел погрешности составляет 2,2%.

2. Спецдокладчик ООН считает, что на выборах в Белоруссии была


подтасовка
Результаты выборов главы белорусского государства, на которых в пятый раз
победил действующий лидер Александр Лукашенко, были подтасованы, а сам
процесс голосования прошел с нарушениями, заявил спецдокладчик ООН Миклош
Харасти, сообщает РИА Новости.
По итогам состоявшихся 11 октября выборов президента Белоруссии победу одержал
действующий глава государства Александр Лукашенко, набравший 83,4% голосов
избирателей. Явка на выборах составила более 87%.
Спецдокладчик ООН приветствовал тот факт, что нынешние выборы прошли
без насилия — в отличие от выборов 2010 года, но указал на заявления о многочисленных
нарушениях, включая вбросы и использование метода "карусели" при голосовании.
Как заявили ранее ЦИК Белоруссии и наблюдатели из СНГ, серьезных нарушений
на выборах не было.
Белорусские оппозиционеры отказались признать итоги выборов президента. В частности,
они раскритиковали досрочное голосование, по итогам которого с 6 по 10 октября на
избирательные участки пришло 36% избирателей.

3. Преемник Чавеса выиграл президентские выборы в Венесуэле


Николас Мадуро победил в первом туре с 50,7% голосов; лидер оппозиции Энрике
Каприлес заявил, что итоги выборов пытались сфальсифицировать
По предварительным данным подсчета голосов, президентские выборы в Венесуэле
выиграл вице-президент Николас Мадуро, передает ВВС. Избирательная комиссия
официально объявила, что он набрал 50,7% голосов, а его главный соперник, кандидат от
оппозиции Энрике Каприлес - 49,1%. Явка на выборах составила почти 80%. За пост
президента боролись семь кандидатов.
Ранее в день голосования Каприлес высказывал подозрение, что результаты выборов
могут сфальсифицировать. По его сведениям, на ряде избирательных участков людям
пытались разрешить проголосовать уже после официального времени закрытия, сообщает
"Интерфакс". Оппозиционер сказал, что признает итоги голосования только после
пересчета голосов. Мадуро, которого президент Уго Чавес перед своей последней
операцией представил как возможного преемника, заявил своим соратникам, что одержал
честную и законную победу.
Президентские выборы прошли в Венесуэле после смерти Уго Чавеса, который выиграл
прошлые выборы в сентябре 2012 г., но так и не вступил формально в должность из-за
тяжелого онкозаболевания. Он умер 5 марта.

154
После того как Чавес улетел на Кубу для последней в своей жизни онкооперации, Мадуро
исполнял обязанности президента страны. В ходе предвыборной кампании он обещал
сохранить политический курс своего предшественника.

4. Пан Ги Мун отказался от участия в борьбе за пост президента


Южной Кореи

Бывший генеральный секретарь ООН Пан Ги Мун внезапно отказался выставлять свою
кандидатуру на предстоящих в текущем году президентских выборах в Республике Корея.
Отказ Пан Ги Муна от участия в выборах еще более укрепляет позиции Мун Чжэ Ина,
политика из оппозиционного лагеря, который в нынешней ситуации становится главным
фаворитом. В то же время консерваторы теперь вынуждены будут начать спешные поиски
нового кандидата, которым, как считается, может стать нынешний и.о. президента,
премьер-министр Хван Гё Ан.

В декабре прошлого года парламент Южной Кореи проголосовал за импичмент


президента Пак Кын Хе, которую обвинили в коррупции и злоупотреблении властью.
Теперь импичмент должен утвердить или отменить Конституционный суд. Ожидается,
что свой вердикт он вынесет до 13 марта. В случае подтверждения отставки Пак Кын Хе
досрочные президентские выборы могут состояться уже в апреле-мае, в противном случае
они пройдут согласно плану - в декабре этого года.

5. Франк-Вальтер Штайнмайер избран 12-м президентом Германии


Экс-глава МИД ФРГ получил поддержку 931 делегата Федерального собрания.
БЕРЛИН, 12 февраля. Бывший министр иностранных дел ФРГ Франк-Вальтер
Штайнмайер был избран 12-м президентом страны.
Он получил необходимую для победы поддержку более половины делегатов
Федерального собрания — органа, который созывается специально для того, чтобы
избрать главу государства. Федеральное собрание состоит из 1260 делегатов, одна
половина из которых — депутаты Бундестага, вторая — выборщики, выдвинутые
парламентами федеральных земель.
«Кандидат Франк-Вальтер Штайнмайер получил необходимое количество голосов и тем
самым избран президентом ФРГ», — подчеркнул председатель Бундестага Норберт
Ламмерт. По его словам, проголосовали 1253 делегата, 14 голосов были признаны
недействительными. Штайнмайер получил 931 голос, воздержались 103 представителя.
Согласно законодательству, для победы кандидат должен заручиться поддержкой более
половины делегатов. Помимо экс-министра за пост главы государства боролись еще
четыре кандидата.
К присяге новый глава государства будет приведен лишь в марте.
Срок полномочий действующего президента Йоахима Гаука истекает 18 марта. Летом
прошлого года он заявил, что не пойдет на новый срок.
Президент ФРГ выполняет преимущественно представительские функции, внешняя и
внутренняя политика находятся в ведении правительства во главе с канцлером.
Президент представляет государство на международной арене, заключает от имени
Германии договоры с другими странами, обладает правом помилования. Он участвует в

155
формировании правительства, предлагая Бундестагу кандидатуру на пост федерального
канцлера (после консультаций с руководством партийных фракций он выдвигает
кандидатуру от крупнейшей фракции), по предложению канцлера назначает и
освобождает от обязанностей министров.
В исключительных случаях имеет право досрочно распустить парламент и назначить
новые выборы.

KEYS TO EXERCISE II

1. to run for president, ruling, upcoming elections, presidential candidate,


campaign, Parliamentary elections, competitive poll, contesting elections, on the
campaign trail

2. favourite
the favourite, a crowded field, to take over as, took an early lead, to succeed
to run for the leadership
will throw his hat into the ring
backed
the campaign to campaign, the campaign
supporters, running
succeeding, campaigned, campaigned for Brexit, declare bids
surveys of grassroots Conservatives

3. Landslide
a landslide victory
With 92% of ballots counted, rival, margin of victory
the resignation
in the polls, president-elect
The runoff, field, an outright majority, taking office, four-year term

KEYS TO EXERCISE III

1. bid for French presidency


to step down, primaries, presidential elections

will run for French presidency, seeking , fellow party members ,would be stepping
down, return bid for presidency
will run against declared their candidacies

156
competitor , president of the party, campaigning
Supporters, in the 2017 presidential election, political leadership, given, voters
Latest opinion polls show, has overtaken, Mr Hollande is expected to seek another
term, will run for
2. Defeats
by a wide margin
the most competitive presidential race, if power is handed over peacefully, military
coups
delivered a crushing defeat, military rule
the challenger, to acknowledge defeat, fraud
free and fair elections
Analysts, a competitive two-party system, the peaceful handover of power,
strongmen
Incumbents, to extend their legal term in office
On Mr. Jonathan’s watch, have tarnished

3. amid violence, is seeking, amid


went to the polls, lawmakers, amid, violence, turnout. too close to call, by a
slim margin, the term
Voting transfers of power violence.
(Observers the violence the chairman of the Electoral Commission, the violence
has marred Zambia’s record
Ballots are expected, presidential candidate, a runoff

157
SUPPLEMENTARY READER

US ELECTIONS

1. Quick guide: US presidential elections


The road to the White House is long, complicated and expensive. BBC News
explains the process.
The early stages
A politician with presidential ambition usually forms an exploratory committee to
test the waters and raise money, sometimes up to two years before the election.
They then formally declare their candidacy and campaign in key states.
The primaries
The primary season begins in the January before the election and lasts until about
June. This is where candidates fight within the two main parties, Republican and
Democratic, for their party's nomination.
Voters in each of the 50 states select party delegates, who in most cases have
pledged to support a particular candidate. Some states use a caucus - a local
meeting system - rather than primaries.
The party convention
The national party conventions, held a few months before the election, are where
the candidates are formally nominated.
Delegates who have been chosen during the state primaries pick the nominee,
though by this stage, the party normally knows who has won.
The winning candidate then picks a running-mate, sometimes from among the
defeated rivals.

158
The final lap
Only now do the candidates fully square up against each other. There is massive
spending on advertising, and a major flurry of state-by-state campaigning. Much
attention is paid to the televised debates between the candidates. This can, but does
not necessarily involve any independent candidate.
In the final weeks, the contenders typically concentrate their attention on big so-
called "swing states", where the outcome is uncertain.
The election
American presidential elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first
Monday in November.
Voters do not, technically, participate in a direct election of the president. They
choose "electors", who are pledged to one or another candidate. This is known as
the Electoral College.
Each state has a certain number of electors to the college, based on the size of its
population.
In almost every state, the winner of the popular vote gets all the electoral college
votes in that state. Because of this system, a candidate can take the White House
without winning the popular vote, such as in the 2000 contest between George W
Bush and Al Gore.
2. US election 2016: How to become the president of the US
20 January 2016
The US presidency is described as the world's hardest job and the election
campaign is said to be its toughest job interview. How do you run for president?
BBC News explains the process.
The early stages
A politician with presidential ambition usually forms an exploratory committee to
test the waters and raise money. This can begin up to two years before the election.
The US constitution requires only that a person be a "natural born citizen" of the
US, at least 35 years old, and a resident of the US for 14 years.
If the candidate attracts significant favourable notice from the news media, party
officials, prospective campaign strategists, and donors, he or she formally declares
his or her candidacy and launches campaigns in key early states.
Not just anyone can credibly stand for election: In the last 70 years, every non-
incumbent major party presidential nominee has been either a sitting or former US
senator, governor, vice-president or five-star general.
However, the current Republican race has seen the rise of outsider candidates such
as businessman Donald Trump and retired neurosurgeon Ben Carson who have not
held elective office.

159
On the Democratic side, Hillary Clinton (a former first lady, New York senator and
secretary of state) and Bernie Sanders (a member of Congress since 1989) have
more traditional presidential resumes.
The nomination fight
After declaring, the candidates begin vying for their party's nomination for the
presidency.
Typically - but not always - they spend the next several months campaigning
heavily in the early primary and caucus states of Iowa, New Hampshire and South
Carolina.
Those states hold the first contests of the campaign in the January before the
election, and good performances there can make or break a candidacy.
US primaries and caucuses
Voters in each of the 50 states, plus Washington DC and some US territories,
select party delegates who in most cases pledge to support a particular candidate.
Some states use a caucus - a local meeting system - rather than primaries.
The primary election campaign lasts until about June, by which point one
candidate has amassed enough delegates to win the nomination or has driven every
other contender from the race.
The party convention

The national party conventions are held in the late summer about two and a half
months before the election.
There, the parties formally nominate the candidates chosen by party voters in the
state primaries and caucuses.
Before or at the convention, the nominee picks a running-mate, sometimes from
among the defeated rivals.
Because the nominee is almost always known before the start of the convention,
the conventions are mostly geared toward promoting and celebrating the nominee
and laying out the party's message and agenda.

160
However, some analysts have suggested that this Republican convention could be a
"brokered convention" where the result is decided over rounds of negotiations and
voting among party delegates.
Some in the Republican Party are concerned that the current front-runner Mr
Trump - a political novice with hard line views on immigration - could hurt the
party in Congressional races, particularly among Latino voters.
The final lap
After the conventions, the candidates fully square up against each other on the
campaign trail, over the airwaves and in widely viewed debates.
Each spends millions of dollars on advertising and a major flurry of state-by-state
campaigning.
This year, there will be three debates between the presidential candidates and one
between the vice-presidential candidates, according to the Commission on
Presidential Debates.
In the final weeks, the contenders typically concentrate their attention on big so-
called "battleground" states, where the electorate is more or less evenly divided
and hence the outcome is uncertain.
Hordes of campaign volunteers and paid staff converge on the key states, where
they work the telephones and go door to door to try and persuade voters to go to
the polls to support their candidate.
Watch for the candidates to blanket the airwaves with adverts in Florida, Ohio,
Pennsylvania and Virginia.
The election
American presidential elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first
Monday in November. This year, it is 8 November.
Voters do not, technically, participate in the direct election of the president.
They choose "electors", who are pledged to one or another candidate, in a process
known as the US electoral college.
Each state has a certain number of electors to the college, based on the size of its
population.
In almost every state, the winner of the popular vote gets all the electoral college
votes in that state.
Because of this system, a candidate can take the White House without winning the
popular vote, such as in the 2000 contest between George W Bush and Al Gore.
The inauguration
In the days and weeks after the election - if the vote is decisive - the victor will
assemble a cabinet and begin crafting a more thorough policy agenda.

161
Meanwhile, the departing "lame duck" president works to shape his legacy and
begins packing up his belongings.
Under the US constitution, the president is inaugurated on 20 January of the year
following the election.
Congratulations

You won.
For your efforts, you become a virtual prisoner in the White House, unable even to
walk across the street without a contingent of Secret Service agents and a gaggle of
aides.
You will have to endure 24-hour scrutiny and criticism of your every word and
action, surround yourself with aides planning tell-all memoirs and scheming
among themselves for power, and work 12-hour days in which your schedule is
planned almost down to the minute.
Expect a constant battle with a hostile news media and an opposition party
dedicated to frustrating and impeding your every move, from your grand economic
agenda to your lowest appointments.
Only difficult decisions reach your desk - the easy ones have all been answered at
lower levels of your administration.
But you will have the chance to put your personal stamp on a country of 318
million people and indeed on the entire world.
You will shape its economy, culture and society, and win a chapter for yourself in
the history books alongside George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Franklin
Roosevelt, Ronald Reagan and other American luminaries.
3. How to become US president
20 January 2016
In January 2017, the most powerful nation on earth will have a new leader, after a
drawn out and expensive campaign - but how does a US presidential election
work?
When the US picks its president, it is not only choosing a head of state but a head
of government and a commander-in-chief of the largest military on the planet.
It's a big responsibility. So how does the process work?

162
Who can be president?
Technically, to run for president, you only need to be "a natural born" US citizen,
at least 35 years old, and have been a resident for 14 years. Sounds easy, right?
In reality, however, every president since 1933 has been a governor, senator, or
five-star military general. And that's before you even consider getting a party
nomination and securing national media attention.
In this 2016 election, at one stage there were 10 governors or former governors and
10 who are or were senators, although many have since dropped out.
One person is nominated to represent the Republican and Democratic parties in the
presidential election.
Who gets to be the presidential pick for each party?
A series of elections are held in every state and overseas territory, starting in
February, which determine who becomes each party's official presidential
candidate.
The winner of each collects a number of "delegates" - party members with the
power to vote for that candidate at the party conventions held in July, where
candidates are formally confirmed.
The more state contests a candidate wins, the more delegates will be pledged to
support them at the convention.
As President Barack Obama cannot run again, both parties are holding competitive
primaries this year.
The Republican candidate will need 1,237 delegates to win a majority, while the
Democratic contender must secure 2,383.
What are the key dates between now and election?
The first votes will be cast in Iowa on 1 February - it's the first US state to have a
contest (although in Iowa's case, it's a caucus, which is a vote of people present
rather than through a ballot).
Other early states include New Hampshire and South Carolina, which means they
have presidential candidates visiting them for months on end.
On 1 March, a dozen states pick their presidential nominees, so it's called Super
Tuesday. In 2016, the primaries held on 15 March, including Florida, Ohio and
North Carolina, could be significant because so many delegates are up for grabs.
By the end of April, most states have cast their votes and in most election
campaigns, it's clear by then who each party has picked as their presidential
candidate. But it's not official until the party conventions in July.
If you're still with us, you'll be glad to know the real campaigns haven't even
started yet.

163
That happens after the summer, when the two candidates hold a manic, mammoth
journey whizzing across the country to make their case.
There are three televised presidential debates in the last six weeks before - finally -
votes are cast on Tuesday, 8 November.
How does the vote in November work?
The candidate with the most votes in each state becomes the candidate which that
state supports for president.
It's all down to a system called the electoral college, a group of people who
choose the winner - 538 of them, in fact. Just half of them - 270 - are needed to
make a president.
But not all states are equal - California, for example, has more than 10 times the
population of Connecticut, so they don't get an equal say.
Each state has certain number of these "electors" based on their population in the
most recent census (it so happens that it's the same number of districts in a state,
plus two senators).
When citizens vote for their preferred candidate, they're actually voting for the
electors, some of which are pledged to one candidate, some for another.
But here's where it gets interesting. In almost every state (except Nebraska and
Maine), the winner takes all - so the person who wins the most electors in New
York, for example, will get all 29 of New York's electoral votes.
In the race to get to the magic number - 270 - it's the swing states that often matter
most.
What are swing states?
So, we've got two candidates, both in a race to get to 270 electors by winning
whole states at a time.
Both parties think they can bank on certain states, big and small. Republicans will
count on Texas, and not waste their money campaigning to a great extent there.
Similarly, California is likely to sit in the Democrats' column.
The others are known as "swing states" - where it could go either way. Florida in
particular, with its 29 votes, famously decided the 2000 election in favour of
George W. Bush, who lost the popular vote nationally but, after a Supreme Court
case, won the electoral college.
Other swing states include: Ohio, Virginia, Colorado, North Carolina, Nevada.
When does the new president start work?
In the days and weeks after the election - if the vote is decisive - the victor will
assemble a cabinet and begin crafting a more thorough policy agenda.
Meanwhile, the departing "lame duck" president works to shape his legacy and
begins packing up his belongings.

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Under the US constitution, the president is inaugurated on 20 January of the year
following the election.

4. U.S. Elections: Frequently Asked Questions

iipdigital.usembassy.gov
01 November 2011

TYPES OF ELECTIONS
What types of elections are held in the United States?
There are two basic types of elections — primary and general. In addition to the
primaries and general elections held in even-numbered years, which include
political races for the U.S. Congress, some states and local jurisdictions also hold
“off-year” elections (both primary and general) in odd-numbered years for their
elected officials.
A primary election is a nominating election in which the field of candidates that
will run in the general election is chosen. Victory in a primary usually results in a
candidate being nominated or endorsed by a political party for the general election.
A general election is an election held to choose among candidates nominated in a
primary (or by convention, caucus or petition) for federal, state and/or local office.
The purpose of a general election is to make a final choice among the various
candidates who have been nominated by parties or who are running as
independents (not affiliated with a major political party) or, in some cases, write-in
candidates. Measures such as proposed legislation (referendums), bond issues
(approving the borrowing of money for public projects) and other mandates on
government also can be placed on the ballot.
In addition, many states provide for special elections, which can be called at any
time, to serve a specific purpose, such as filling an unexpected vacancy in an
elected office.
What are midterm elections?
The elections in which Americans vote for their congressional representatives but
not for their president are known as midterm elections. Every two years,
Americans elect members of the U.S. House of Representatives to two-year terms
and about one-third of their U.S. senators, who serve six-year terms. Voters also
will select officials to state and local government posts.
What is a convention?
Conventions are meetings sponsored by political parties for members of the party
to discuss issues, candidates and campaign strategies. These meetings can last
several days.
In presidential elections, after state primaries are concluded, each party holds a
national convention to formally select the presidential nominee — usually the

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candidate who secured the support of the most convention delegates, based on
victories in primary elections. Typically, the presidential nominee then chooses a
running mate to be the party’s candidate for vice president.
Political parties hold national conventions only in presidential election years. The
parties usually hold smaller, state-level conventions in other years. The Democratic
National Convention will be in Charlotte, North Carolina, September 3–6, 2012.
The Republican National Convention will be in Tampa, Florida, August 27–30,
2012.
What is a caucus?
A caucus is a meeting at the local level in which registered members of a political
party in a city, town or county gather to express support for a candidate. For
statewide or national offices, those recommendations are combined to determine
the state party nominee. Caucuses, unlike conventions, involve many separate
meetings held simultaneously at multiple locations. Both the Democratic and
Republican parties have their own rules governing caucuses. Those rules vary from
state to state.

REQUIREMENTS FOR VOTING, RUNNING FOR OFFICE


Who can vote?
American citizens ages 18 and older can register to vote. To register, voters must
meet the residency requirements of their states, which vary, and comply with
voter-registration deadlines.
What are the requirements for running for elected office in the United States?
Each federal elected office has different requirements, which are laid out in
Articles I and II of the U.S. Constitution.
A candidate for president of the United States must be a natural-born citizen of the
United States, be at least 35 years old and have been a resident of the United States
for at least 14 years. A vice president must meet the same qualifications. Under the
12th Amendment to the Constitution, the vice president cannot be from the same
state as the president.
U.S. House of Representatives candidates must be at least 25 years old, have been
U.S. citizens for seven years and be legal residents of the state in which they seek
election.
U.S. Senate candidates must be at least 30 years old, have been a U.S. citizen for
nine years, and be legal residents of the state in which they seek election.
Officials seeking state or local office must meet the requirements established by
those jurisdictions.

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SCHEDULING ELECTIONS
When are general elections held?
They are held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday of November. The 2012
general election will be held on November 6.
Why are general elections held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in
November?
For much of U.S. history, America was a predominantly agrarian society.
Lawmakers considered their convenience when choosing a November date for
elections — after harvest time but before winter weather made travel difficult — as
the easiest month for farmers and rural workers to go to the polls.
Because many rural residents lived a significant distance from the polls, Tuesday,
rather than Monday, was selected to allow those who attended Sunday church
services to begin travel after worship and still reach their destinations in time to
cast their votes.
Lawmakers wanted to prevent Election Day from falling on the first of November
for two reasons. First, November 1 is All Saints Day, a day on which Roman
Catholics are obligated to attend Mass. Also, merchants typically balanced the
accounts from the preceding month on the first of each month.
When are primary elections held?
State and local governments determine the dates on which primary elections or
caucuses are held. These dates, and the amount of time between a primary and
general election, significantly influence how early candidates begin campaigning
and the choices they make about how and when campaign funds are spent.
In the run-up to presidential elections, victories in primaries held very early in the
election year, such as that in New Hampshire, can influence the outcome of later
state primaries.
ELECTORAL COLLEGE
What is the Electoral College?
The Electoral College is the group of citizens designated by the states to cast votes
for the president and vice president on behalf of state citizens. The process for
selecting electors varies from state to state, but usually the political parties
nominate electors at state party conventions or by a vote of the party’s central
committee. The voters in each state, by casting votes for president and vice
president, choose the electors on the day of the general election. The Electoral
College, not the popular vote, elects the president, but the two votes are tied
closely.
How does the Electoral College elect the president?
The Electoral College system gives each state the same number of electoral votes
as it has members of Congress. The District of Columbia is allocated three

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electoral votes. There are a total of 538 votes in the Electoral College; a candidate
for president must get 270 to win (a simple majority). All but two states have a
winner-take-all system, in which the candidate who gets the most popular votes in
the state is allocated all of the state’s electoral votes.
The electors usually gather in their state capitals in December to cast their votes.
The electoral votes then are sent to Washington, where they are counted in the
presence of a joint session of Congress in January.
If no presidential candidate wins a majority of electoral votes, the 12th
Amendment to the Constitution provides for the presidential election to be decided
by the House of Representatives. In such situations, the House selects the president
by majority vote, choosing from the three candidates who received the greatest
number of electoral votes. Each state would cast one vote.
If no vice presidential candidate wins a majority of electoral votes, the Senate
selects the vice president by majority vote, with each senator choosing from the
two candidates who received the greatest number of electoral votes.
For which races is the Electoral College used?
The Electoral College is used only to select the president and vice president.
Has any president been elected without a majority of the popular vote?
There have been 17 presidential elections in which the winner did not receive a
majority of the popular vote cast. The first of these was John Quincy Adams in the
election of 1824, and the most recent was George W. Bush in 2000.
The founders of the United States devised the Electoral College system as part of
their plan to share power between the states and the national government. Under
the federal system adopted in the U.S. Constitution, the nationwide popular vote
has no legal significance. As a result, it is possible that the electoral votes awarded
on the basis of state elections could produce a different result than the nationwide
popular vote. Nevertheless, the individual citizen’s vote is important to the
outcome of each election.

OTHER QUESTIONS
Why is voter turnout sometimes low in the United States?
Several factors seem to influence voter turnout, which was approximately 41
percent of eligible voters in 2006 and 61 percent in 2004. Many observers believe
that current registration laws hinder voter turnout. The demographic composition
of the electorate, long periods of political or economic stability, predictable
outcomes in many races and some candidates’ lack of popular appeal are other
factors affecting voter turnout. Turnout tends to be higher in general elections than
in primary elections. Turnout also tends to be higher in years in which the
president is elected than in midterm elections.

168
What are the symbols of the U.S. political parties?
The elephant represents the Republican Party, and the donkey represents the
Democratic Party. Political cartoonist Thomas Nast created both images for the
publication Harper’s Weekly in 1874. Nast created a marauding elephant to
represent the “Republican vote.” Republicans quickly embraced the symbol as
their party’s own.
In a separate cartoon, Nast criticized the Democrats for posthumously maligning a
Republican by picturing the Democratic Party as a donkey or mule (animals
considered stubborn and stupid) kicking a lion (the dead Republican). The
Democratic Party, demonstrating a sense of humor, accepted the animal as its
symbol, observing that it has many fine qualities, such as not giving up easily.
Do organizations tell people how to vote? What does it mean when a union or
newspaper “endorses” a candidate?
Voting in U.S. elections is conducted by secret ballot, and a voter’s choice is
private. The “endorsement” of a candidate by an organization means the
organization publicly supports the candidate and approves the candidate’s stand on
issues. Although organizations can encourage members to join in that support, it is
unlawful for them to coerce a member to vote against his or her own judgment.

5. Q&A: US primaries and caucuses


29 November 2011
The route to a spot on the ballot in November's US presidential election runs
through a series of electoral contests known as primaries and caucuses.
This is the process by which supporters of the Democratic and Republican parties,
in each US state, determine which candidate they would like to represent their
party in the presidential poll.
How does it work?
The parties' presidential nominees are formally chosen at national conventions held
in the late summer. There, delegates sent by each state party vote for the candidate
chosen by the voters back home.
The voters have their say in primary elections or party caucuses held between early
January and the summer.
The more state contests a candidate wins, the more delegates will be pledged to
support the candidate at the national convention.
Why did Iowa and New Hampshire come first?
No particular reason, it just happened that way. This year Iowa holds its caucuses
on 3 January and New Hampshire holds the first primary on 10 January.
Critics of the two states' role argue they do not merit the influence because they are
not representative of the US population as a whole.

169
Iowa and New Hampshire are relatively small and rural and are overwhelmingly
white.
But the states argue the voters are serious and politically-educated and put the
candidates through their paces.
What is Super Tuesday?
Super Tuesday is a day when a lot of states hold primaries or caucuses
simultaneously.
In 2000, 16 states held primaries on 7 March, at which about 60% of all delegates
were up for grabs.
In 2004, Super Tuesday split in two. There was a Mini-Tuesday (or Super Tuesday
I) on 3 February, followed by a Super Tuesday II on 2 March. California, Ohio and
New York all held their votes on Super Tuesday II.
On 5 February 2008, 24 states took part in "Super-Duper Tuesday", including
California, New York, Illinois and New Jersey.
Caucus or primary - what's the difference?
A primary is a traditional election, where a broad electorate of voters cast secret
ballots at polls open all day. The winner of the primary election takes the state's
delegates to the national convention.
A caucus is a meeting of registered party voters and activists that takes place at an
appointed time of day or evening.
Caucus procedures vary according to state law, but in most states, such as Iowa,
voters meet in private homes, schools and other public buildings to discuss the
candidates and the issues.
They then hold a vote of the caucus to chose a candidate and elect delegates
pledged to support that candidate at county conventions.
County convention delegates elect delegates in turn to state conventions, where
delegates to the national conventions are chosen.
At Democratic caucuses, the voters sometimes publicly divide into groups,
gathering in different corners of a room to show their support for the different
candidates, and delegates are allocated accordingly.
Republican caucuses usually take the form of a secret ballot, the results of which
inform the allocation of delegates.
Are the caucuses and primaries held at the same time every election year?
No, and the national parties are frequently at odds with their state affiliates over
timing.
States often vie with one another to hold their contests earlier in the season in an
effort to boost their influence, with Iowa and New Hampshire striving to protect
their status as the first in the nation caucuses and primary.

170
From 1972 to 1992 the exercise began in late January (or occasionally early
February) and the nominations were not usually settled until the first Tuesday in
June, when California, New Jersey and Ohio held their primaries.
In 2008 they began on 3 January, and the Republican nomination was effectively
settled on 5 February, the earliest ever Super Tuesday (though John McCain only
became certain of victory on 4 March).
The Democrat battle between then-Senators Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton
continued until June - more than five months.
Is a long nomination contest a bad thing?
Yes and no.
Spending several months criss-crossing the country meeting voters is a good test of
a candidate's strengths and weaknesses and breadth of support ahead of the
gruelling general election fight in the autumn.
The long nomination calendar gives the parties an opportunity to build lists of
voters, supporters and potential campaign volunteers for the general election.
Also, a little-known candidate who does well in the early caucuses or primaries has
a chance to attract financial support, and organise a strong campaign.
The shorter the primary campaign, the less time there is for an outsider to gather
momentum.
However, a long primary season can mean the eventual nominee has less time to
prepare for the general election battle against the other party's candidate.
It could leave the party divided, and exhaust donors needed for the general
election.

6. Q&A: US election delegates


The delegates to the Democratic and Republican parties' national conventions
officially choose the nominees for the presidency.
So anyone who wants to run for the presidency representing either party has to try
to win the support of as many as possible - and the key is to do well in the state
primaries and caucuses held between January and June.
A big vote in favour of candidate X, in a given state, usually mandates a certain
proportion of that state's delegates to vote for candidate X at the convention.
Do all states have the same number of delegates?
No. There is a huge variation. The most populous states - California, Texas and
New York - have many times more delegates than the smallest states.

171
Do both parties have the same number of delegates?
No. The Democratic Party convention will have almost twice as many delegates as
the Republican Party convention in 2008.
But in both cases a candidate only needs a simple majority (50% +1) of delegate
votes to win the nomination - that's currently 2,118 in the case of the Democrats,
and 1,191 in the case of the Republicans.
The goal of all candidates is to win the support of as many delegates as possible, as
early as possible in the primary season.
Even before a candidate secures the winning number of delegates, he or she may
notch up an effectively unassailable lead.
Do all delegates have to vote at the convention as directed by the result of the
primaries and caucuses?
No. Both parties have a certain number of elected delegates (also known as
pledged delegates), whose vote is determined by the result of the primary or caucus
in their state, but they also have a certain number of unelected/unpledged delegates
(known as super-delegates in the Democratic Party).
These delegates are free to choose which candidate to support. Many of them hold
elected office, but they do not owe their place at the convention to a primary
election or caucus.
How crucial are the unelected delegates?
In both parties they form a minority within the ranks of delegates at the convention
- about 20% in the Democratic case, and between 5% and 20% of Republican
delegates (the Republicans do not provide an official breakdown, and different
experts give different figures).
They are mostly high-ranking party officials, members of Congress and state
governors.
In most years, candidates do not have to worry too much about wooing unelected
delegates. But if the race gets very close - as it is in 2008 on the Democratic side -
they cannot be ignored.
Is the number of pledged delegates a candidate wins in a primary or caucus
always proportionate to the number of votes he or she receives?
No, not always. The rules vary from state to state and from party to party.
In some states the Republicans operate a winner-takes-all system, where the
candidate who wins most support state-wide gets all the delegates.
In others, the winner-takes-all principle operates at the level of congressional
districts: the candidate who does best in a district wins all the delegates available in
that district.
The Republicans also use a proportional system in some states.

172
The Democrats always use some form of proportional system, but even then a
candidate's share of the vote in a state and his or her share of the delegates can turn
out to be quite different.
For example, when delegates are awarded on the basis of results in individual
congressional districts, the rules do not guarantee strict proportionality.
Under party rules, it's possible for one candidate to beat the other soundly in a
district with an even number of delegates, but for the delegates to be split between
them equally nonetheless.
Meanwhile, in a district with an odd number of delegates, even a narrow win gives
the winner an extra delegate.
Is it always clear who has won a primary?
It can be confusing when one candidate wins the most votes and another wins the
most delegates.
In 2008, Hillary Clinton won more votes than Barack Obama in Nevada's and
Texas's Democratic contests - but he won more delegates, according to AP's
projections.
Are delegates awarded immediately after the primary or caucus?
After a primary, which takes the form of a state-wide ballot, delegates are usually
awarded quickly.
Caucuses are a different matter. The candidates and the media focus only on the
first stage of the caucus, when voters at precinct level choose delegates to send to
the county caucuses.
But the caucus process often goes through several stages, ending only weeks later,
at a state convention where delegates are chosen to send to the national party
convention.
This does not stop experts projecting the final allocation of delegates from the
results of the precinct caucuses, though they often come up with very different
results.
When do unelected/unpledged delegates declare their support for a
candidate?
They can do this any time they like. They can also change their mind before the
convention.
How tightly bound are elected delegates to a given candidate?
It varies from state to state. In some cases they are not really bound at all.
In others they may be bound to support a given candidate in the first ballot held at
the convention, and then be free to make their own choice.
Or they may be bound to support the candidate through two or three, rounds of
voting, or even all the way to the final vote of the convention.

173
If no candidate accumulates a winning number of delegates before the
convention, then what?
A convention that begins without a clear winner is referred to as a brokered, or
contested convention.
If no winner emerges from the early ballots, the rivals may have to negotiate.
If candidate X offers candidate Y the Vice-Presidency, say, candidate Y's
supporters may then help candidate X defeat candidate Z.
Could the numbers of delegates at the convention change?
The number of Democratic super-delegates changes regularly, as politicians leave
office, or die, and are replaced by others.
The party also disqualified delegates from Florida and Michigan, when the states
broke party rules by holding their primaries too early.
However, in June 2008, the Florida and Michigan delegates were re-instated -
though only with half-votes. Finally, on the eve of the convention, the decision was
taken to allow them full votes after all.
Story from BBC NEWS:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/americas/7224970.stm

7. Q&A: The US electoral college


2 December 2011
An American president is not chosen directly by the people but by a group of
officials known as the electoral college, in a manner prescribed by the US
constitution and a complex set of state and federal laws. In theory, the electoral
college chooses the candidate who won the most votes - but not always.
How does the electoral college work?
Each state has a number of electors in the electoral college proportionate to its
population: the sum of its number of senators (always two) and representatives in
the House.
Technically, Americans on election day cast votes for electors, not the candidates
themselves, although in most cases the electors' names are not on the ballot.
California, the most populous state, has 55 electoral votes. A few small states and
the District of Columbia have only three.
Today, the electoral college has 538 electors, and in all but two states, Maine and
Nebraska, all of the state's electors are awarded to the winner of the popular vote
within that state.
A candidate needs to win 270 electoral votes - half of the total plus one - to win the
White House.
Part of a presidential candidate's grand strategy entails drawing a map of states the
candidate can and must win to gather 270 electoral votes.
174
John Quincy Adams, left, won the presidency in 1824 though Andrew Jackson had more votes
Why was the system chosen?
When the United States was founded in the late 18th Century, a national campaign
was virtually impossible given the size of the country and the difficulty of
communication.
Also, the US at the time had little in the way of national identity, states were
jealous of their rights, political parties were suspect, and the popular vote
somewhat feared.
The framers of the constitution in 1787 rejected both the election of the president
by Congress and election by direct popular vote, on the grounds that people would
vote for their local candidate and the big states would dominate.
The Southern states favoured the electoral college system because while slaves had
no votes, under the constitution they were tallied as three-fifths of a person in the
census.
Isn't it unfair that the winning candidate might get fewer popular votes?
Contested elections
2000: Republican George W Bush wins the White House with 271 electoral votes,
though Democrat Al Gore won 540,520 more votes
1888: Republican Benjamin Harrison elected president with 233 electoral votes,
though Democrat Grover Cleveland won more 100,456 votes
1876: Republican Rutherford B Hayes wins with 185 electoral votes, even though
Democrat Samuel J Tilden won 264,292 more votes
1824: After four candidates split the electoral college, the House elects John
Quincy Adams even though Andrew Jackson won more popular votes and electoral
votes
Indeed, this is seen as a major drawback of the system.
Since 1804, four presidents have been elected who did not win the popular vote.
Most recently, in 2000 Al Gore won 48.38% of votes nationwide compared to
George Bush's 47.87%. Yet Mr Bush won because he got 271 electoral votes
compared with 266 for Mr Gore.

175
The winning votes came from Florida, whose 25 votes all went to Mr Bush even
though he won only 537 more popular votes.
Another drawback is that in many states the result is a foregone conclusion and
there is thus little incentive for the individual to vote. It is also a disincentive for
candidates to campaign there.
For example, large states California, Illinois and New York are solidly Democratic
and Texas is solidly Republican.
So what are the advantages?
The electoral college system is respected for its historical roots and because it does
usually reflect the popular vote (48 out of 52 elections since 1804 produced a
popular mandate).
It also gives greater weight to smaller states - one of the checks and balances the
US constitution values.
For example, the largest state, California, has 12.03% of the US population but its
55 electoral college votes represent only 10.22% of the college total.
Wyoming, a sparsely populated state, has 0.18% of the US population but its three
seats in the electoral college give it 0.56% of the college votes.
The college system also means that a candidate needs to get a spread of votes from
across the country.
What happens if no candidate gets a majority of electoral college votes?
Under the 12th amendment to the US constitution, the House of Representatives
elects the president.
Each state delegation, however, has only one vote, which means that the majority
party in each delegation controls the vote. An absolute majority of states is
required for election.
The vice-president is chosen by the Senate, with senators having an individual
vote.
This has happened only once since 1804, when the electoral college system took its
current shape with the 12th amendment.
In 1824, four candidates split the electoral vote, denying any one of them a
majority.
Democrat Andrew Jackson had the most electoral votes and the greatest share of
popular votes and expected to be president.
But the fourth-place finisher, House Speaker Henry Clay, thought little of Jackson
and persuaded the House to back second-place finisher John Quincy Adams.
Adams was voted in as president.

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Are the electors bound to vote for their candidates?
In some states they have a free vote but in practice they vote for the candidates
they are pledged to, while in other states they are required to do so.
Only nine electoral votes have been cast against the state's instructions by so-called
"faithless" electors, and no result has been changed by it, according to the
Congressional Research Service. And in 2000 an elector from the District of
Columbia abstained.
If the result is extremely close, a "faithless" elector could cause real trouble. The
issue would probably have to be decided by the courts.
The electors are chosen by the parties before the election, often in a vote at a
convention. The electors then meet in state capitals after the election to cast their
votes. The results are formally declared to the Senate on 6 January. The new
president is inaugurated on 20 January.

8. US Election Glossary

Financial Times January 27, 2012

The US democratic process is notoriously complicated, with its primaries and caucuses, its
convention delegates and its electoral colleges. This is the FT’s guide to the process.

1,114
Number of delegates needed to clinch Republican nomination
Ballot access
Ballot access refers to the requirements, unique to each state, for a candidate to
appear on the ballot for the state’s primary or caucus. Virginia made headlines
recently for having an unusually high threshold of 10, 000 signatures in order to
qualify, causing Mitt Romney and Ron Paul to be the only eligible candidates.
Battleground state
A battleground state (also called a swing state or purple state) is a state that is not a
will for a specific candidate or the race is too close to call during the campaign.
Battlegrounds will attract more visits from the candidates in an attempt to rally
support for one party. Extra money is likely to be spent on advertising and
volunteers often swarm the area before voting day. Historical battlegrounds are
Florida, Iowa and Ohio. Also referred to as purple states as they can neither be
categorized as red or blue.
Caucus
A caucus is a meeting organized by a political party to award the delegates of a
particular state in the party’s nominating process. Each precinct of the caucus,

177
which takes place in the stead of a primary, meets locally and reports the results to
the state party. Caucuses sometimes require individuals to publicly announce their
vote and the voting period is often preceded by speeches from representatives from
each candidate’s campaign. Since 1972, Iowa has kicked off the presidential
nominating process with its first-in-the-nation caucuses.
Closed primary
In a closed primary, only those voters registered to the relevant political party can
participate.
Convention
Both parties organize a national convention in which delegates officially cast their
votes in accordance with the results of each state’s primary or caucus results. The
event lasts several days and prominent members of the party address the delegates
and assorted audience, with the party’s Vice Presidential and Presidential
candidates making concluding speeches to accept their party’s nomination.
Delegate
Delegates are chosen in each state with primaries and caucuses. Delegates then go
to the party’s national convention to cast their votes, typically bound by the result
of their state’s primary/caucus.
Electoral college
The body that formally elects the president. Made up of 538 electors, representing
all 50 states, they are expected to follow the wishes of how their states vote and
they typically do with a few exceptions. A candidate must win at least 270 votes to
become president.
Non-binding primary
Also known as a “beauty pageant” primary, non-binding designates a primary in
which delegates are awarded at a state convention, and the distribution is not
necessarily a reflection of how the state voted in its primary. Instead, the delegates
at the state convention are free to vote how they choose.
Open primary
In an open primary, any registered voter can cast a ballot, regardless of the party
with which he is registered.
Pac
A political action committee is an organized group that raises money in order to
support or defeat a candidate or issue in an election. Some PACs are associated
directly with a campaign or politician, some are associated with a corporation or
union and others completely independent. The rules and regulations that govern
where a PAC’s money comes from and how much it can raise – there is a $2,500
donation limit – are strictly monitored by the Federal Election Commission.
However, the fundraising landscape was fundamentally altered by the Citizens

178
United Supreme Court decision in 2010, which paved the way for the creation of
super-Pacs.
Primary
A majority of states use a primary system to award their delegates. Primaries are
operated by the state rather than a political party, and the results are calculated with
standard private ballots, similar to general elections. After the Iowa caucuses, New
Hampshire holds the nation’s first primary, followed by primaries in South
Carolina and Florida.
Straw poll
Straw polls are non-binding votes that simply serve as a precursor to an actual
election, primary or caucus to give an indication of the current status of the race.
Before Iowa, the media and campaigns alike have viewed the Ames Straw Poll as
an important test of candidates’ viability. A September straw poll in Florida won
by Herman Cain is widely credited with giving rise to the underdog candidate.
Super-Pac
The citizens United Supreme Court decision loosened the restrictions on who can
give how much to political action committees, giving rise to what has become
known as “super-Pacs”. These groups can raise unlimited amounts of money from
corporations, unions, trade groups and individuals, with very loose rules dictating
how and which contributions must be disclosed. They are technically independent
and cannot coordinate with a political candidate for office in any way, but can run
advertisements for or against any candidate or issue. In reality, however, each
candidate has a super-Pac that supports them and few voters can tell the difference
between ads run by a candidate’s campaign and those by the super-Pac of its
supporters. Many super-Pacs, such as Karl Rove’s American Crossroads, have
created sister “charity” organizations to filter money through to further muddy the
origins of their contributions.
Superdelegate
Superdelegates are typically prominent members of a political party, such as
elected officials or former office holders and party leaders, who are free to vote
for whomever they want. Some of these unpledged delegates will choose to simply
vote for whoever wins in his or her home state. Superdelegates have played a
larger role in the Democratic nominating process, as they made up almost one fifth
of the party’s total voting delegates in 2008.
Super Tuesday
The day in which the largest number of states hold their primary or caucus. This
year’s “Super Tuesday” will take place on March 6th, with ten states and 526
Republican delegates (roughly half of those needed to clinch the nomination) at
stake. This year, the states include: Alaska, Georgia, Idaho, Massachusetts, North
Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Vermont and Virginia.

179
Видео ресурсы:
1. Telegraph.co.uk
Video: US Election 2016 explained
2. US election 2016: Primaries, caucuses and delegates
15 February 2016 http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-35350890
3. youtube: Primary Elections Explained, What is Super Tuesday and Why is
it important, How the Electoral College Works, The Trouble with the
Electoral College
4. theguardian.com: What’s the deal with Super Tuesday? A super explainer –
video
5. BBC: US Election 2016: What makes Super Tuesday so super?
APPENDIX 1

КОНТРОЛЬНО-ИЗМЕРИТЕЛЬНЫЕ МАТЕРИАЛЫ

№1 (образец задания для промежуточного контроля)


Факультет МО
Английский язык, первый иностранный, III курс, 5 семестр

Время выполнения: 90 мин.


Объем текста: 1400 п.з.

Переведите текст на русский язык с помощью словаря.

Theresa May wins first round of voting in Tory leadership race

Home secretary backed by 165 MPs and Leadsom comes second as Liam Fox is knocked
out and Stephen Crabb withdraws

Theresa May has swept to victory in the first round of voting in the Conservative leadership race,
winning the support of 165 of her party’s MPs, placing her far ahead of her closest rival, Andrea
Leadsom. The result means the home secretary is almost certain to be among the final two
candidates selected by Tory politicians to be put forward for a vote by the grassroots of the party.

Leadsom secured the backing of 66 MPs, including many Eurosceptic figures who want to see
someone who campaigned to leave the EU in charge of negotiating Britain’s exit. She was
followed by Michael Gove, with 48 votes, and Stephen Crabb, with 34. The fifth-placed
candidate, who has been knocked out of the race, was the former defence secretary Liam Fox, on
16 votes. Crabb withdrew from the race about 90 minutes after the results were announced,
saying he would support May and that she was “the only person who can unite our party and
form a strong government at this serious moment”.

The result is a major blow for Gove, the justice secretary, who wrecked Boris Johnson’s
campaign for leadership by abandoning him at the last moment in order to run himself. The
former London mayor endorsed Leadsom on Monday night in a move that is likely to have
attracted a number of other leave campaigners to her campaign.

Sources said that 80% of the party had already cast their vote by halfway through the day. The
vote followed two sets of hustings in parliament on Monday night after which many
Conservative MPs discussed the candidates in House of Commons bars.

The Guardian July 2016

181
№2 (образец задания для промежуточного контроля)
Факультет МО
Английский язык, первый иностранный, III курс, 5 семестр

Время выполнения: 90 мин.


Объем текста: 1391 п.з.

Переведите текст на русский язык с помощью словаря.

Ukraine Holds Local Elections in Test of Support for President

Petro Poroshenko’s party leads in polls, despite slip in recent months

The Wall Street Journal Oct. 25, 2015

Ukrainians voted Sunday in local elections that will test support for the country’s pro-Western
President Petro Poroshenko, who is under pressure over a deep economic contraction and
perceived lack of progress fighting corruption.

Vote monitor Opora said once polls closed that voter turnout across the country had been at
46.5%

Mr. Poroshenko’s ruling party was leading in polls, marginally ahead of other parties from his
governing coalition. But surveys showed his support has slipped in recent months. The economy
is forecast to contract 11.5% this year, and many Ukrainians are disappointed with the lack of
progress fighting graft since a popular revolution in February 2014. Nearly 40% of voters
remained undecided on how to cast their ballot, according to a survey in mid-October by the
Democratic Initiatives Foundation.

A strong showing for Mr. Poroshenko would help him consolidate power amid plans to amend
the constitution to hand more authority to local governments. Ukraine’s parliament has given
preliminary approval to the measures, which are likely to come up for final approval later this
year.

But polls show populist forces of various stripes have gained in recent months. The Fatherland
party, led by firebrand former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko, has remained part of the ruling
coalition but has built a campaign lobbying against many of the government’s austerity
measures. Powerful industrial tycoons who were allied with ousted, pro-Russian former
President Viktor Yanukovych have spread their support among a number of parties that have
gained ground, particularly in their traditional strongholds in the east.

182
№3 (образец задания для промежуточного контроля)
Факультет МО
Английский язык, первый иностранный, , III курс, 5 семестр

Время выполнения: 45 мин.


Объем текста: 900 п.з.

Переведите текст на английский язык без словаря.

В американском штате Флорида началось досрочное голосование на президентских


выборах

Во Флориде, самом крупном из так называемых “колеблющихся штатов”, где явного


преимущества нет ни у демократов, ни у республиканцев, началось досрочное
голосование. На кону почти полтора миллиона голосов: столько жителей штата имеют
право прийти на участки раньше остальных американцев. В США эта практика очень
распространена. До 40 процентов избирателей приходят на участки раньше.

В 2000-м году как раз в этом штате решалась судьба президентских выборов. Тогда после
скандальных многочисленных пересчетов бюллетеней в Белый дом въехал республиканец
Джордж Буш, хотя его соперник, демократ Альберт Гор, получил на полмиллиона больше
голосов избирателей. Вот только в США система устроена так, что люди отдают свой
голос не кандидату, а выборщикам, которые потом и голосуют за президента. Почти во
всех штатах действует принцип «победитель получает все». То есть кандидат-лидер
забирает голоса всех выборщиков. В итоге четырежды в истории США президентом стал
политик, получивший меньшинство голосов американцев.

25 октября 2016

№4 (образец задания для промежуточного контроля)


Факультет МО
Английский язык, второй иностранный, III курс,
начинающий/продолжающий поток,
6 семестр
Аспект «Общественно-политический перевод»

Время выполнения: 80 мин.

Translate from English into Russian using a dictionary (1403 symbols):

Argentina elections: Voters pick new president


Argentines have been voting to choose a new president to replace Cristina Fernandez de
Kirchner, who is constitutionally barred from seeking a third term. Ms Fernandez stands down
after eight years in power. Her hand-picked successor, left-winger Daniel Scioli, led opinion
polls before the vote. He is facing a strong challenge from the centre-right mayor of Buenos
Aires, Mauricio Macri. Another candidate, Sergio Massa, a former ally of Ms Fernandez, is
polling behind Mr Macri. There are three other names on the ballot paper.
Sunday sees the first round of voting. To win outright a candidate needs 45% of the vote or a
minimum of 40% as well as a 10-point lead over the nearest rival. In this country of more than
40 million people voting is compulsory and, in addition to the much-talked-about presidential

183
choices, Argentines are also electing members of Congress, governors and other local
representatives. Thirty-two million Argentines are eligible to vote.
The presidential race will be tight and we might have to wait for some time before the official
result is known - even then no clear winner may emerge, meaning a possible run-off at the end of
November. "We are voting today in a completely normal country," said Ms Fernandez said after
casting her vote. In previous decades, Argentines always went to the polls "in the middle of a
serious crisis," she added.
Mr Scioli, the governor of Buenos Aires province pledged tax cuts for workers earning under a
certain income, a move expected to affect half a million people.
He has also vowed to bring down Argentina's inflation in less than four years and promises to
introduce policy changes to invigorate the economy.

№5 (образец задания для промежуточного контроля)


Факультет МО
Английский язык, второй иностранный, III курс,
начинающий/продолжающий поток,
6 семестр
Аспект «Общественно-политический перевод»

Время выполнения: 80 мин.

Translate from English into Russian using a dictionary (1398 symbols):

Moldova election: Pro-EU parties edge pro-Russian rivals

Latest results from Moldova's parliamentary elections show that pro-EU parties have a narrow
lead over those backing closer ties with Russia. With most of the votes counted, the three pro-
Western parties have about 44%. The opposition has 39%. No party appears to be able to form a
government, and tough post-election bargaining is predicted.
The three pro-EU parties will have a big enough majority to form a government. But those
aspirations have been dented by the strong showing of the Socialist Party, which wants Moldova
to join the Russian Eurasian Union instead. One reason for the fall in support for the pro-EU
parties - from 52% at the 2010 elections, to 44.6% per cent now - was their history of infighting.
Another reason was their perceived corruption.
The election also showed a change in popularity for the three main pro-Russian parties. The
younger and more outspoken Socialists overtook the Communists.
According to latest results, the three pro-European parties are set to have 57-58 seats in
Moldova's 101-seat parliament, while the two pro-Russian opposition parties are expected to
hold 43-44 seats, reports say.
The pro-Russian Socialist Party came first with 21% of the vote. The Communist Party was in
third with almost 18%. The party is a Soviet-era survivor that still uses the hammer and sickle as
its symbol, although it is not seen as fundamentally opposed to EU integration.
The pro-EU Liberal Democrats were in second place with 19%. The party wants Moldova to
achieve EU candidate status by 2017 and full membership by 2020. Two other pro-Europe
parties - the Democrats and the Liberals - were on 16% and 9% respectively.
Turnout was just under 56% out of a total of 2.7 million eligible voters.

184
APPENDIX 2
ПАРАМЕТРЫ И КРИТЕРИИ ОЦЕНИВАНИЯ ПИСЬМЕННЫХ РАБОТ

1. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ КАК ПЕРВЫЙ ИНОСТРАННЫЙ


(ПРОДОЛЖАЮЩИЙ/НАЧИНАЮЩИЙ ПОТОК, МОДУЛЬ ОПП-5)
Критерии оценки знаний и компетенций

Вид работы Оценка/Процент Описание критериев оценки


Письм. перевод с А (90-100%) Допускается 1 суммарная ошибка, но нет
англ. языка на В (82-89%) искажений
Допускается 2 суммарные ошибки
русский С (75-81%) Допускается 2,5 суммарных ошибок
D (67-74%) Допускается 3 суммарные ошибки
Е (60-66%) Допускается 4 суммарные ошибки
F (менее 60%) Набрано более 4-х суммарных ошибок
Письм.перевод с А (90-100%) Допускается 1 суммарная ошибка, но нет
русского языка на В (82-89%) искажений 1,5 суммарных ошибок
Допускается
англ. С (75-81%) Допускается 2 суммарные ошибки
D (67-74%) Допускается 2,5 суммарных ошибок
Е (60-66%) Допускается 3 суммарные ошибки
F (менее 60%) Набрано более 3-х суммарных ошибок

Критерии оценки письменного перевода с английского языка на русский

(объем: 1200-1400 п.зн., время выполнения: 90 мин.)

Классификация ошибок

Смысловая ошибка – полное искажение смысла, опущение существенной информации,


привнесение неверной информации.

Принимается за основной критерий при выведении оценок и служит основной расчетной


единицей – полной ошибкой. -1

То же самое – искажение части предложения – 0,5

Неточность – опущение несущественной информации, привнесение лишней информации,


не приводящее к существенному изменению смысла; не совсем точное толкование текста,
не ведущее к его искажению. – 0,3/-0,2

Грамматическая ошибка – ошибка в передаче значения грамматической формы


(несогласование членов предложения, неправильное оформление временных форм
глагола, не приводящее к существенному изменению исходного смысла…). –
0,3/0,2

Лексическая (терминологическая) ошибка – ошибка в передаче контекстуального


значения слова, не носящая стилистического характера (использование слова в его

185
наиболее распространенном словарном значении, отсутствие необходимой адекватности
замены, обусловленной контекстом и нормами данного языка). – 0,3

Стилистическая ошибка – отступление от стилистических норм языка для данного стиля


речи (ошибочное употребление синонимов, нарушение правил сочетаемости, …). – 0,2

Нарушение норм орфографии и пунктуации – 0,2

Несколько раз повторяющаяся ошибка (неточность) – считается за одну ошибку


(неточность).

При незаконченном переводе оценка снижается:

если перевод незакончен не более чем на 10% - на одни балл;

если перевод незакончен не более чем на 20% - на два балла;

если перевод незакончен не более чем на 30% - выставляется оценка


«неудовлетворительно».

«ОТЛИЧНО» (90-100%, A) - перевод сделан полностью на правильном русском языке.


Допускается одна суммарная ошибка, кроме смысловых, т.е. например 3 неточности.

«ХОРОШО» - перевод сделан полностью на правильном русском языке. Допускается три


суммарные полные ошибки, в т.ч. не более двух смысловых ошибок

(Две ошибки – 82-89%, В; 2,5 ошибки – 75-81 %, С)

«УДОВЛЕТВОРИТЕЛЬНО» - перевод сделан полностью. Допускается пять полных


суммарных ошибки, в т.ч. не более четырех смысловых ошибок. (три ошибки – 67-74 %,
D; четыре ошибки – 60-66%, Е)

«НЕУДОВЛЕТВОРИТЕЛЬНО» - перевод выполнен ниже требований, установленных


для оценки «удовлетворительно», т.е. набрано более 4 суммарных ошибок – F.

Критерии оценки письменного перевода с русского языка на английский

(объем: 900 п.зн., время выполнения: 45 мин.)

Классификация ошибок и их оценка в баллах:

Искажение смысла - 1 балл -

Смысловая неточность - 0,3 балла

Грамматические ошибки

(неправильное употребление

186
временных форм, согласование - 0,3 балла/-0,2

времен, согласование множественного

и единственного числа и др. грубые

грамматические и лексические ошибки)

Неправильное употребление

артиклей, предлогов.

Ошибки в стиле, лексической - 0,2 балла

сочетаемости, орфографии

Пунктуация - 0,1 балла

При незаконченном переводе

оценка снижается:

если перевод не закончен не более, чем на 10 % - на один балл

если перевод не закончен не более, чем на 20 % - на два балла

если перевод не закончен более, чем на 30 % выставляется оценка «неудовлетворительно»

Оценка письменного перевода:

«отлично» - перевод сделан полностью и адекватно, на правильном английском языке.


Допускается одна суммарная ошибка, кроме искажения смысла. (90-100%, А)

«хорошо» - перевод сделан адекватно на правильном английском языке. Допускаются две


полные суммарные ошибки, в т.ч. не более одного искажения смысла. (1,5 ошибки - 82-
89%, В; две ошибки -75-81%, С)

«удовлетворительно» - перевод сделан адекватно. Допускаются 3 полные суммарные


ошибки. (2,5 ошибки - 67-74%, Д; три ошибки - 60-66%, Е)

«неудовлетворительно» - перевод неадекватен, выполнен ниже требований,


установленных для оценки «удовлетворительно», т.е. набрано более трех суммарных
ошибок)

187
2. АНГЛИЙСКИЙ КАК ВТОРОЙ ИНОСТРАННЫЙ
(ПРОДОЛЖАЮЩИЙ/НАЧИНАЮЩИЙ ПОТОК, МОДУЛЬ ОПП-6)
Критерии оценки знаний и компетенций

Вид работы Оценка/Процент Описание критериев оценки


Письм. перевод с А (90-100%) Допускается 1 суммарная ошибка, но нет
англ. языка на В (82-89%) искажений
Допускается 2 суммарные ошибки
русский С (75-81%) Допускается 2,5 суммарных ошибок
D (67-74%) Допускается 3 суммарные ошибки
Е (60-66%) Допускается 4 суммарные ошибки
F (менее 60%) Набрано более 4-х суммарных ошибок

Критерии оценки письменного перевода с английского языка на русский


(объем: 1200-1400 п.зн., время выполнения: 60 мин.)

Классификация ошибок

Смысловая ошибка – полное искажение смысла, опущение существенной информации,


привнесение неверной информации.

Принимается за основной критерий при выведении оценок и служит основной расчетной


единицей – полной ошибкой. -1

То же самое – искажение части предложения – 0,5

Неточность – опущение несущественной информации, привнесение лишней информации,


не приводящее к существенному изменению смысла; не совсем точное толкование текста,
не ведущее к его искажению. – 0,3/-0,2

Грамматическая ошибка – ошибка в передаче значения грамматической формы


(несогласование членов предложения, неправильное оформление временных форм
глагола, не приводящее к существенному изменению исходного смысла…). –
0,3/0,2

Лексическая (терминологическая) ошибка – ошибка в передаче контекстуального


значения слова, не носящая стилистического характера (использование слова в его
наиболее распространенном словарном значении, отсутствие необходимой адекватности
замены, обусловленной контекстом и нормами данного языка). – 0,3

Стилистическая ошибка – отступление от стилистических норм языка для данного стиля


речи (ошибочное употребление синонимов, нарушение правил сочетаемости, …). – 0,2

Нарушение норм орфографии и пунктуации – 0,2

Несколько раз повторяющаяся ошибка (неточность) – считается за одну ошибку


(неточность).

При незаконченном переводе оценка снижается:

188
если перевод незакончен не более чем на 10% - на одни балл;

если перевод незакончен не более чем на 20% - на два балла;

если перевод незакончен не более чем на 30% - выставляется оценка


«неудовлетворительно».

«ОТЛИЧНО» (90-100%, A) - перевод сделан полностью на правильном русском языке.


Допускается одна суммарная ошибка, кроме смысловых, т.е. например 3 неточности.

«ХОРОШО» - перевод сделан полностью на правильном русском языке. Допускается три


суммарные полные ошибки, в т.ч. не более двух смысловых ошибок

(Две ошибки – 82-89%, В; 2,5 ошибки – 75-81 %, С)

«УДОВЛЕТВОРИТЕЛЬНО» - перевод сделан полностью. Допускается пять полных


суммарных ошибки, в т.ч. не более четырех смысловых ошибок. (три ошибки – 67-74 %,
D; четыре ошибки – 60-66%, Е)

«НЕУДОВЛЕТВОРИТЕЛЬНО» - перевод выполнен ниже требований, установленных


для оценки «удовлетворительно», т.е. набрано более 4 суммарных ошибок – F.
REFERENCE LIST

1. www.bbc.com
2. www.ft.com
3. www.theguardian.com
4. www.nytimes.com
5. www.economist.com
6. www.wsj.com
7. www.telegraph.co.uk
8. www.usatoday.com
9. www.thetimes.co.uk,com
10.www.theobserver.com
11.www.lenta.ru
12.www.kommersant.ru
13.www.ria.ru
14.www.vedomosti.ru
15.www.tass.ru
16.www.politobzor.net
17.www.rosbalt.ru
18. www.ru.euronews.com
19. www.editorialcartoonists.com
20.www.cartoonstock.com
21. www.cleveland.com
22. www.usnews.com
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Осетрова Елена Евгеньевна


Яковлева Мария Александровна

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