Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

Grammar to go!

Language health-check

Student worksheet: Relatives


Time for your language health-check. Find out how Grammar Scan can help you
achieve greater accuracy. First do the diagnostic tests to check your knowledge.
Then look at the extracts from Practical English Usage to fill in any gaps.

1. Right R or wrong W
A. I found the key I had lost. [ ]
B. This is the key opens the front door. [ ]

2. What, that or both?


A ……………………………………….. she said made me very angry.
B. The things ………………………………she said made me very angry.
C. Why can’t you give me ………………….……… I need?
D. The only thing ………………………………..….….keeps me awake at night is coffee.
(Upper Intermediate Test 22)

3. Right R or wrong W?
A. Tuesday’s the only day that is possible for our meeting. [ ]
B. Tuesday’s the only day possible for our meeting. [ ]

4. Jane’s having a party for the people in the office, who are friends of hers.
Is the writer saying …..?
A . … that all the people in the office are Jane’s friends? [ ]
B . … that Jane has only invited those people in the office who are friends? [ ]
(Advanced Test 22)

5. Which of these is/are right?


A. He’s written a book whose name I’ve forgotten.
B. He’s written a book the name of which I’ve forgotten.
C. He’s written a book that I’ve forgotten the name of.
D. He’s written a book of which I’ve forgotten the name.
E. He’s married to a woman of whom I’ve forgotten the name.

6. Right or wrong?
A. This is for whoever wants it. [ ]
B. Take whatever you want. [ ]
C. I often think about where I met you. [ ]
D. Look at how he treats me! [ ]
(Expert Test 21)

© Michael Swan 2010 Photocopiable page 1


Grammar to go! Language health-check

Student answer sheet: Relatives


What are the results?

1. A. Right. B. Wrong
Only the object pronouns can normally be left out.
(See PEU 495.4)

2. A. What B. that C. what D. that.


(See PEU 497.1-2)

3. Both of them are right. If you thought B was wrong see PEU 498.10

4. A. The writer might have meant B, in which case he or she should not have used the comma
(See PEU 495.2)

5. A, B, C and D are right. (See PEU 496.2)

6. All four sentences are right. (See PEU 498.9)

What’s the diagnosis?


0-2 correct. It looks like you may still have a lot to learn. You will need to revise the basics in Practical
English Usage.

2-4 correct. Not bad. You have a pretty high language level but there are some gaps. You will need to
study some sections of Practical English Usage.

4-6 correct. Congratulations on a very good command of English. Use Grammar Scan and Practical
English Usage to check any tricky points that are still not clear.

© Michael Swan 2010 Photocopiable page 2


Grammar to go! Language health-check

Here’s the treatment!


Relatives

495.4 relatives

leaving out object pronouns
In identifying relative clauses, we often leave out object pronouns, especially in an informal style. In
non-identifying clauses this is not possible. Compare:
– I feel sorry for the man she married.
She met my brother, whom she later married. (NOT She met my brother, she later married.)
– Did you like the wine we drank last night?
I poured him a glass of wine, which he drank at once. (NOT I poured him a glass of wine, he
drank at once.)

497 relatives (4): what


1 meaning and use: the thing(s) which
What does not refer to a noun that comes before it. It acts as noun + relative pronoun together,
and means ‘the thing(s) which’. Clauses beginning with what can act as subjects, objects, or
complements after be.
What she said made me angry. (subject of made)
I hope you’re going to give me what I need. (object of give)
This is exactly what I wanted. (complement)
2 what not used
What is only used to mean ‘the thing(s) which’. It cannot be used as an ordinary relative pronoun after a
noun or pronoun.
We haven’t got everything that you ordered. (NOT . . . everything what . . .)
The only thing that keeps me awake is coffee. (NOT The only thing what . . .)
We use which, not what, to refer to a whole clause that comes before (see 494.9).
Sally married Joe, which made Paul very unhappy. (NOT . . . what made . . .)

498 relatives (5): advanced points


10 reduced relative clauses: the girl dancing
A participle is often used instead of a relative pronoun and full verb.
Who’s the girl dancing with your brother?
(= . . . that is dancing with your brother?)
Anyone touching that wire will get a shock.
(= . . . who touches . . .)

© Michael Swan 2010 Photocopiable page 3


Grammar to go! Language health-check

Half of the people invited to the party didn’t turn up.


(= . . . who were invited . . .)
I found him sitting at a table covered with papers.
(= . . . which was covered with papers.)
Reduced structures are also used with the adjectives available and possible.
Please send me all the tickets available. (= . . . that are available.)
Tuesday’s the only date possible.

495 relatives (2) identifying and non-identifying clauses


2 pronunciation and punctuation
Identifying relative clauses usually follow immediately after the nouns that they modify, without a break:
they are not separated by pauses or intonation movements in speech, or by commas in writing. (This is
because the noun would be incomplete without the relative clause, and the sentence would make no
sense or have a different meaning.) Non-identifying clauses are normally separated by pauses and/or
intonation breaks and commas.
Compare:
– The woman who does my hair has moved to another hairdresser’s.
Dorothy, who does my hair, has moved to another hairdresser’s.
– She married a man that she met on a bus.
She married a very nice young architect from Belfast, whom she met on a bus.
Note how the identifying clauses cannot easily be left out.
The woman has moved to another hairdresser’s. (Which woman?)
She married a man. (!)
When a non-identifying clause does not come at the end of a sentence, two commas are necessary.
Dorothy, who does my hair, has moved . . . (NOT Dorothy, who does my hair has moved . . .)

496 relatives (3) whose


2 things: of which; that . . . of
Instead of whose, we can use of which or that . . . of (less formal) to refer to things, and these are
sometimes preferred. The most common word order is noun + of which or that . . . of, but of which
. . . + noun is also possible.
Compare the following four ways of expressing the same idea.
He’s written a book whose name I’ve forgotten.
He’s written a book the name of which I’ve forgotten.
He’s written a book that I’ve forgotten the name of.
He’s written a book of which I’ve forgotten the name.
We do not normally use noun + of whom in a possessive sense to talk about people.
a man whose name I’ve forgotten (NOT a man of whom I’ve forgotten the name)

© Michael Swan 2010 Photocopiable page 4


Grammar to go! Language health-check


498 relatives (5): advanced points
9 whatever, whoever etc
Whatever can be used rather like what, as noun + relative pronoun together.
Take whatever you want. (= . . . anything that you want.)
Other words that can be used like this are whoever, whichever, where, wherever, when, whenever and
how.
This is for whoever wants it. (= . . . any person that wants it.)
I often think about where I met you. (= . . . the place where . . .)
We’ve bought a cottage in the country for when we retire. (= . . . the time when . . .)
Whenever you want to come is fine with me. (= Any day that . . .)
Look at how he treats me. (= . . . the way in which . . .)

© Michael Swan 2010 Photocopiable page 5