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# Ref.

(4)-G77700-S0019-L063-A

Project:

## Gilgel Gibe – II PROJECT

ETHIOPIA

Description:

400 kV SWITCHYARD
DESIGN
REPORT’s & CALCULATION’s

Subject:

## Report on Direct Stroke Lightning Protection of

Electrical Equipments in Outdoor Switchyard

Note:
This report gives the calculations in justification of the lightning protection
system designed for protecting the switchyard equipments and conductors
from direct strokes of lightning.
D.S.L.P. Calculation : 400kV Switchyard Page: 3 of 6

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Contents
page

1. Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 4

2. System Data...................................................................................................................... 5

## 3. Conductor Data ................................................................................................................. 5

4. Installation Data…………………………………………………………………………………..5

5. Attachments ...................................................................................................................... 5

6. Conclusion ........................................................................................................................ 6

7. References........................................................................................................................ 6

Siemens Power Engineering Pvt. Ltd. The reproduction, transmission or use of this document or its contents is not
permitted without express written authority. Offenders will be liable for
damages. All rights, including rights created by patent grant or registration
of a utility model or design, are reserved.

(4)-G77700-S0019-L063-A
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1 Introduction
The basic intent of this report is to provide design information to minimize direct lightning strokes
on equipment and bus work within the substation. The method employed for design of the
shielding system is Electrogeometric model – Rolling Sphere Method.

The Electrogeometric Model (EGM) is a geometric representation of a facility, that, together with
suitable analytical expressions correlating its dimensions to the current of the lightning stroke is
capable of predicting whether the lightning stroke will terminate on the shielding system, the
earth, or the element of the facility being protected.

The Rolling Sphere method is a simple technique for applying the EGM theory for shielding of
substations. The technique involves rolling an imaginary sphere of prescribed radius over the
surface of the substation. The sphere rolls up and over (and is supported by) the lightning masts,
shield wires and other grounded metal objects intended for lightning shielding. A piece of equip-
ment is protected from a direct stroke of lightning if it remains below the curved surface of the
sphere by virtue of the sphere being elevated by shield wires or other devices. Equipment that
touches the sphere or penetrates its surface is not protected from direct stroke of lightning.

For the facility under consideration in this design report i.e. 400 kV Switchyard, shield wires at
elevation of 27.75 metres is employed to protect the phase conductor at El+22M and bus work at
EL+13.125M. The calculations as per Attachment – 1 justifies the design and the zone of protec-
tion is shown in the DSLP Layout.

Siemens Power Engineering Pvt. Ltd. The reproduction, transmission or use of this document or its contents is not
permitted without express written authority. Offenders will be liable for
damages. All rights, including rights created by patent grant or registration
of a utility model or design, are reserved.

(4)-G77700-S0019-L063-A
D.S.L.P. Calculation : 400kV Switchyard Page: 5 of 6

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2 System data
400kV AC Switchyard

## Nominal System Voltage 400 kV

System Frequency 50 Hz

## Limiting Corona Gradient 1500 kV/m

3 Conductor Data
Jack Bus Conductor at Coupling Bay

## Outer Diameter 250 mm

Thickness 6 mm

4 Installation Data
Jack Bus Conductor at Coupling Bay

## Height of installation above FGL 13.125 m

5 Attachments
Attachment-1: DSLP Calculation for 400kV Switchyard

Siemens Power Engineering Pvt. Ltd. The reproduction, transmission or use of this document or its contents is not
permitted without express written authority. Offenders will be liable for
damages. All rights, including rights created by patent grant or registration
of a utility model or design, are reserved.

(4)-G77700-S0019-L063-A
D.S.L.P. Calculation : 400kV Switchyard Page: 6 of 6

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6 Conclusion
1. The results as per Case – 1 of the attached calculation reveals that for protection of the phase
conductors of the Jack Bus in the Coupling Bay at 22.0 m elevation by shield wires at elevation
of 27.75 m, the maximum allowable horizontal separation of the shield wire is 37.73 m. As
shown in the DSLP layout, the shield wires protecting the phase conductor at the Coupling Bay
have a horizontal separation of 24.0 m. Thus the phase conductor is protected from direct
strokes of lightning.

2. The results as per Case – 5 of the attached calculation reveals that for protection of the rigid
conductors at the Main Buses at 13.125 m elevation by shield wires at elevation of 27.75 m, the
maximum allowable horizontal separation of the shield wire is 58.12 m. As shown in the DSLP
layout, the shield wires protecting the bus work have a horizontal separation of 48.0 m. Thus the
Main Bus conductor is protected from direct strokes of lightning. All other equipments in the
switchyard are at lower elevation than the Main Bus work and are hence protected by the shield
wires.

7 References
1. IEEE Std.998 – 1996(R2002) – IEEE Guide for Direct Lightning Stroke Shielding of Substations

## 2. Technical Data sheet for ACSR Conductor: Manufacturer – HASCELIK.

3. Technical Data sheet for Aluminum Alloy Tubular Conductor: Manufacturer – Corus

## 4. 400kV Switchyard DSLP Layout – Drawing No. (1)-G77700-S0019-L069-A

Siemens Power Engineering Pvt. Ltd. The reproduction, transmission or use of this document or its contents is not
permitted without express written authority. Offenders will be liable for
damages. All rights, including rights created by patent grant or registration
of a utility model or design, are reserved.

(4)-G77700-S0019-L063-A
S (4)-G77700-S0019-L063-A

ATTACHMENT - 1

## D.S.L.P CALCULATION FOR 400kV Switchyard

By Rolling Sphere method, as per IEEE-std 998-1996

Conductor Data:
Flexible conductor bundle
Sub conductor Type = 954 MCM ACSR Cardinal
Diameter = 0.03042 m
Sub-conductor Spacing = 0.45 m for 400kV Twin Bundle
height of the conductor = 22 m
Rigid conductor
Conductor Type = Tubular Aluminium Alloy
Outer Diameter = 0.25 m
height of the conductor = 13.125 m

## In case of a twin conductor bundle, the equivalent radius is given by

R0 = ¥(r x l) ( eqn. C.5, IEEE 998 - 1996)
= 0.082731 m
where r = radius of subconductors in m
l = spacing between adjacent conductor in m

## In case of a single conductor bundle, the equivalent radius is given by

Rc x ln {(2xh)/Rc} - (Vc/E0) = 0 ( eqn. C.1, IEEE 998 - 1996)

## where h = average height of the conductor

Vc = Rated Lightning Impulse withstand voltage
= 1425 kV
= 1500 kV / m
By solving the equation for R c, we have
Rc = 0.171194 m

## For Bundle Conductor , the radius of the bundle under corona is

R'c = R0 + Rc = 0.253925 m for Twin Bundle

## For tubular conductor the equivalent radius is given by Rc x ln {(2xh)/Rc} - (Vc/E0) = 0

By solving the equation for R c, we have
Rc = 0.193255 m
The surge impedence of conductors under corona is given as,
Zs = 60 x ¥( ln ( 2xh / R'c ) x ln ( 2xh / R 0 ) ( eqn. C.7, IEEE 998 - 1996)

## where h = average height of the conductor

R'c = Corona radius of the bundle conductor
R0 = Equivalent radius of bundle conductor
hence ZS = 341.2832 ohms for Twin Bundle

## For Single conductor the expression to determine surge impedance is

Zs = 60 x ¥( ln ( 2xh / R'c ) x ln ( 2xh / r )
where h = average height of the conductor
R'c = Rc = Corona radius of the single conductor
r = metallic radius of single conductor
ZS = 307.4778 ohms for Tubular Conductor

## where BIL = Rated Lightning Impulse withstand voltage

ZS = Surge Impedence of the conductor carrying the surge

## Gilgel Gibe II Hydroelectric Project 1

S (4)-G77700-S0019-L063-A

ATTACHMENT - 1

## hence IS = 9.185918 kA for Twin Bundle

10.19586 kA for Tubular Conductor

## where S = Strike distance in m

k = 1 for strikes on Shield Wire (pg.25 IEEE 998 - 1996)
IS = Allowable return stroke current in kA
hence S s wire = 33.8158 m for Twin Bundle
= 36.18807 m for Tubular Conductor

## here,` 'O' is the origin of the Rolling Sphere

'SW' denotes the location of the shield wire
Case - 1 :- Object to be protected : Twin Conductor Bundle of Coupling Bus

Now,
allowable strike distance (S) = 33.8158 m
height of shield wire (H) = 27.75 m
height of object to be protected (A) = 22 m
elevation difference between Shield wire & Object to be protected
D= H-A = 5.75 m
elevation difference between Origin of the Rolling Sphere & Shield Wire
E= S-D = 28.0658 m
horizantal distance between Origin of the Rolling Sphere & Shield wire
¥S - E
2 2
L= = 18.863 m

Maximum allowable horizontal seperation of the shield wires ensuring protection of object at height (A)
X= 2L = 37.73 m

## Case - 2 :- Object to be protected : Tubur Rigid Bus Conductor of Main Bus

Now,
allowable strike distance (S) = 36.188073 m
height of shield wire (H) = 27.75 m
height of object to be protected (A) = 13.125 m
elevation difference between Shield wire & Object to be protected
D= H-A = 14.625 m
elevation difference between Origin of the Rolling Sphere & Shield Wire
E= S-D = 21.563073 m
horizantal distance between Origin of the Rolling Sphere & Shield wire
¥S - E
2 2
L= = 29.062 m

Maximum allowable horizontal seperation of the shield wires ensuring protection of object at height (A)
X= 2L = 58.12 m