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If you sleep less than six


hours per night and have
disturbed sleep
symptom, you stand a
48% greater chance of
developing or dying from
heart disease and a 15
per cent greater chance of
developing or dying of a
19th Edition
stroke
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Root cause analysis (RCA) is a methodology for
finding and correcting the most important reasons for
performance problems. It differs from troubleshooting
and problem-solving. These disciplines typically seek
solutions to specific difficulties, whereas RCA is
directed at underlying issues.

•As a business process improvement tool, RCA seeks out unnecessary


constraints as well as inadequate controls.
•In safety and risk management, it looks for both unrecognized hazards
and broken or missing barriers.
•It helps target CAPA (corrective action and preventive action) efforts.
•RCA is an essential ingredients in guiding an organizational efforts to the
right direction of addressing issues arise.
•Finally, it is probably the only way to find the core issues contributing to
your toughest problems.

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The Cause Mapping method of Root Cause Analysis
In the Cause Mapping method, the word root, in root cause
analysis refers to the causes that are beneath the surface. Most
organizations mistakenly use the term "root cause" to identify the one,
main cause. Focusing on a single cause can limit the solutions set
resulting in better solutions being missed. A Cause Map provides a
simple visual explanation of all the causes that were required to
produce the incident. The root is the system of causes that reveals all of
the different options for solutions.
There are three basic steps to the Cause Mapping method :
1. Define the issue by its impact to overall goals
2. Analyze the causes in a visual map
3. Prevent or mitigate any negative impact to the goals by selecting the
most effective solutions.

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What is a Cause Map
A Cause Map provides a visual explanation of why an incident
occurred. It connects individual cause-and-effect relationships to
reveal the system of causes within an issue. A Cause Map can be very
basic and it can be extremely detailed depending on the issue.

Effect Cause
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What is a Cause Map
Start on the left. Read to the right saying "was caused by" in place of
the arrows. Investigating a problem begins with the problem and then
backs into the causes by asking Why questions.

Problem , 3- Because
The questions begin, "Why did this effect happen?" The response to
this question provides a cause (or causes), which is written down to
the right.

Problem , 3- Because , 3- Because

The next question is again, "Why did this effect happen?" The cause
that was written down last becomes the effect for the next Why
question. Anyone who's ever had a three-year-old in their life will
immediately recognize how “Why” questions change a cause into an
effect. This is fundamentally how causes and effects link together to
create a chain of events. Writing down 5-Whys, shown below, is a
great way to start an investigation because it's so simple.
Problem Because Because Because Because
, 3- , 3- , 3- , 3-
, 3-
Because

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In the Cause Mapping method, a problem within an organization is
defined by the deviation from the ideal state. A Cause Map always begins
with this deviation which is captured as the impact to the organizations
overall goals.
Goal
Because Because Because Because
Impacted , 3- , 3- , 3- , 3-
, 3-
Because

In addition to the standard “Why” questions, which tend to create linear


cause-and-effect relationships, the Cause Mapping method also asks
"What was required to produce this effect?" Anything that is required to
produce an effect is a cause of that effect. This question, "What was
required?," builds a detailed Cause Map that provides a more complete
representation of the actual issue. , 3-
Because Because
Goal
, 3- Because , 3- Because , 3- Because , 3-
Impacted

Because Because
, 3-

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Why does the Cause Map read Left to Right?

It should be noted that the popular fishbone cause-and-effect diagram


starts with the problem on the right and builds the causes to the left. It
was created by Kaoru Ishikawa (1915-1989) in Japan. The fishbone
diagram builds from right to left because the Japanese language reads
from right to left. The Cause Mapping method actually uses Ishikawa's
convention by asking Why questions in the direction we read.
The fishbone is widely recognized as one of the standard quality
tools. Ishikawa was a pioneer with his approach. The fishbone cause-
and-effect diagram is part of every six-sigma program. A Cause Map
builds on the original lessons with the fishbone with some subtle, but
important distinctions. A fishbone starts with just one, single problem
which doesn't reflect the nature of real world issues. It reads right
to left because the Japanese language reads that direction. It mixes
causes and possible causes without specifying evidence. And, it
breaks apart the fundamental cause-and-effect relationships within
an issue by grouping the causes into general categories.

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5-Why on Cause Map
The 5-Why approach is an excellent example of basic cause-and-
effect analysis. Just as a journey of a thousand miles begins with the
first step; every investigation, regardless of size, begins with one Why
question. The Why questions then continue, passing through five, until
enough Why questions have been asked (and answered) to
sufficiently explain the incident. The 5-Why approach, created by
Sakichi Toyoda (1867 - 1930), the founder of Toyota, is a simple way
to begin any investigation. A Cause Map can start with just 1-Why and
then expand to accommodate as many Why questions as necessary.
Some refer to the Cause Mapping method as "5-Whys on Steroids."
Because Because
Goal
Because Because Because AND
Impacted
Because
Because AND
Because
AND
Because

Problems within an organization are typically not singular. In the real


world, a problem typically impacts more than one goal. The Cause
Map starts with the impact to the goals even if more than one goal is
impacted. If the causes are all part of one incident then the causes
and the goals will all be connected on one Cause Map.

Goal
Because
Impacted Because Because

Because Because AND


Because
Because AND
Because
Goal
Impacted AND
Because

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Some causes are linked with AND in between

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Cause

Effect

Cause

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Reducing the Risk of developing Chronic Illnesses
- risk of heart disease, stroke and other serious health problems

If you sleep less than six


hours per night and have
disturbed sleep you stand a
48 per cent greater chance of
developing or dying from heart
disease and a 15 per cent
greater chance of developing or
dying of a stroke
! &' & &
( & & "& &)

Lack of sleep a 'ticking time bomb' for health

• The trend for late nights and early mornings is actually a


ticking time bomb for our health so you need to act now to
reduce your risk of developing these life-threatening
conditions.

• Chronic lack of sleep leads to the production of hormones


and chemicals in the body which increase the risk of
developing serious health problems such as high blood
pressure, cholesterol, obesity and diabetes, as well as
heart disease and stroke.

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Reducing the Risk of developing Chronic Illnesses
- risk of heart disease, stroke and other serious health problems

Lack of sleep a 'ticking time bomb' for health


• The whole work/life balance struggle is causing too many
of us to trade in precious sleeping time to ensure we
complete all the jobs we believe are expected of us. But in
doing so, we are significantly increasing the risk of
suffering a stroke or developing cardiovascular
disease resulting in, for example, heart attacks.

• By ensuring you have about seven hours sleep a night, you


are protecting your future health, and reducing the risk
of developing chronic illnesses

“Get the sleep you need to stay healthy and live


longer”

It’s danger of going too far the


other way, as sleeping for too
long – more than nine hours
at a stretch – can be an indicator
of illness, including
cardiovascular disease.

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( & & "& &)

Organizational Improvement and Compliance


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