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Torque Ripple

Document By

SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY

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Abstract—This paper describes its application motors often employ concentrated windings

to brushless dc drives, and highlights the [3], since these results in shorter end

essential differences in its implementation, windings, which is conducive to a high

as regards torque estimation and the efficiency and torque density. Further, while

representation of the inverter voltage space

BLAC drives require a precision rotor position

vectors. Simulated and experimental results

are presented, and it is shown that, sensor, such as encoder, BLDC drives only

compared with conventional current control, require discrete position sensors, such as Hall

DTC results in reduced torque ripple and a devices [2], [3]. Therefore, in general, BLDC

faster dynamic response. The application of drives are relatively low cost. This paper

direct torque control (DTC) to brushless ac focuses on the control of such BLDC drives.

drives has been investigated extensively. Generally, BLDC drives employ current

control, which essentially assumes that the

Index Terms—Brushless dc (BLDC) drives, torque is proportional to the phase current.

direct torque control (DTC), permanent-

Since, in practice, the relationship is

magnet motor.

nonlinear, various current control strategies

have been adopted to minimize torque

I. INTRODUCTION pulsations, by employing pre-optimized

waveforms for the reference current, for

The permanent magnet brushless ac (BLAC) example. Such an optimal current excitation

and brushless dc (BLDC) drives [2], [3] are scheme was proposed in [4], which resulted in

used extensively for many applications, minimal copper loss and ripple-free torque

ranging from servos to traction drives. They from a BLDC drive. However, it was based on

differ primarily in their current and back- the d–q axes transformation, and could not

electromotive-force (EMF) waveforms. In a respond to rapid torque changes. A current

BLAC drive, the phase current is controlled by controller, which estimated the

a pulse width-modulation (PWM) inverter to electromagnetic torque from the rate of

have a sinusoidal waveform and vector change of co-energy was described in [5].

control is often employed, while in a BLDC However, in its implementation to a BLDC

drive, the PWM phase current has an drive, the estimated torque was obtained

essentially rectangular waveform. In theory, a from a lookup table, and the control algorithm

permanent magnet brushless motor with any did not directly involve flux control. An

back-EMF waveform can be operated in either instantaneous torque controller based on

BLAC or BLDC mode, although, in practice, it variable structure control in the d–q reference

is desirable for a BLAC motor to have a frame was proposed in [6]–[8]. However,

sinusoidal back-EMF waveform and BLDC although experimental results showed that it

motor to have a trapezoidal back-EMF was effective in reducing torque ripple, it was

waveform in order to minimize the torque only applicable to three-phase BLDC

ripple and maximize the efficiency and torque operating in the 180° conduction mode, and

capability. A sinusoidal back-EMF waveform

not to the more usual 120° conduction mode.

can be obtained by skewing the stator slots

In [9], electromagnetic torque pulsations were

and/or rotor magnets,

reduced with a torque controller in which the

employing a distributed stator winding,

torque was estimated from the product of the

shaping the magnets, or employing a

instantaneous back-EMF and current.

sinusoidal magnetization distribution. BLDC

However, the winding resistance was harmonics, 11th and 13th harmonics

neglected and the inverter output voltage had transform into 12th harmonics, 17th and 19th

to be calculated, which assumed that the harmonics transform into 18th harmonics, and

back-EMF waveform was known. The real-time so on. Thus, for a machine having a sinusoidal

estimation of the back EMF, using the model permanent-magnet flux, ψ rd = constant and

reference adaptive method, was reported in ψ rq= 0. However, ψ rd for nonsinusoidal flux, is

[10], which also employed a variable- composed of a dc component and 6th, 12th,

structure torque controller with space-vector 18th harmonics, etc., while ψ rq consists of

PWM. 6th, 12th, 18th harmonics, etc.

Direct torque control (DTC) was Torque pulsations are associated

originally developed for induction machine mainly with the flux harmonics, the influence

drives [11], [12], and directly controls the flux of higher order harmonics in the stator

linkage and electromagnetic torque. A winding inductance usually being negligible

relationship is established between the [17]. Therefore, for machines equipped with a

torque, the flux and the optimal inverter surface-mounted magnet rotor (i.e.,

switching so as to achieve a fast torque nonsalient), it can be assumed that Ld and Lq

response. DTC has been applied, more are constant, i.e., Ld= Ld0 , Lq= Lq0 , and the

recently, to BLAC machines [13], [14]. electromagnetic torque can be expressed as

This paper considers the application of

direct torque control, to a three-phase BLDC

drive operating in the 120° conduction mode

(i.e. two phases conducting) to achieve

instantaneous torque control and reduced

torque ripple. As will be shown, the essential

differences between the DTC of BLDC and (4)

BLAC drives are in the torque calculation and At this stage, it is worth considering the

the representation of the voltage space following cases. 1) When the stator flux

vectors. Simulated and experimental results linkage due to the permanent magnets varies

are presented to illustrate the application of sinusoidally, ψ rd is constant and ψ rq= 0,

DTC to a BLDC drive. dψ rd/dθ e= 0, and dψ rq/dθ e= 0 . The

II. DTC OF BLAC AND BLDC DRIVES electromagnetic torque equation, for both

In general, neglecting the influence of mutual coupling BLAC and BLDC operation, with either a

between the direct and quadrature axes, the nonsalient- or salient-pole rotor, can then be

electromagnetic torque of a permanent-magnet brushless simplified as

machine in the synchronously rotating d–q reference

frame can be expressed as [10], [15], [16]

(5)

or, in the stationary α -β reference frame, as

(6)

(1) where isα , isβ , ψ sα , and ψ sβ are the α - and β -axes

where stator currents and flux linkages, respectively, viz.

(2)

(7)

(3) (8)

and θ e is the rotor electrical angle, p is the

number of poles, isd and isq are the d- and q-

axes currents, Ld and Lq are the d – and q-axes (9)

inductances, respectively, and ψ rd, ψ rq , ψ sd ,

and ψ sq are the d- and q -axes rotor and (10)

stator flux linkages, respectively. However, if the stator flux-linkage variation is

After a d–q transformation, a nonsinusoidal, which is generally the case for

fundamental component of flux linkage is BLDC machines, the general torque equation

transformed into a dc component, while 5th (1) must be employed, since dψ rd/dθ e≠ 0,

and 7th harmonics transform into 6th dψ rq/dθ e≠ 0.

2) For nonsalient-pole brushless machines (18)

with a nonsinusoidal stator flux linkage, since where R is the stator winding resistance. The

Ld0 = Lq0 = Ls , the magnitude and angular position of the stator

electromagnetic torque, for both BLAC and flux-linkage vector is obtained as

BLDC operation, can be simplified as

(19)

(11)

in the rotating d–q -axes reference frame, or (20)

as The rotor flux linkages can be deduced

from the stator flux linkages. For example, for

a surface-mounted permanent-magnet rotor,

they are given by

(12)

in the stationary α –β reference frame,

where ψ rα and ψ rβ (21)

are the α - and β -axes rotor flux linkages,

respectively, viz. (22)

while the torque can be calculated from (12).

(13) To simplify the calculation, however, the

differential terms in (12) can be pre-

(14) determined from the back-EMF waveform

However, for a nonsalient BLAC motor with a assuming that the EMF is proportional to the

sinusoidal rotor speed.

Six nonzero-voltage space vectors are

flux linkage, ψ rd = ψ m and ψ rq = 0, and the

defined for a BLDC drive as shown in Fig. 1(a),

torque equation can be further simplified as

the sectors of the circular voltage vector

which enable the voltage vector to be

selected in terms of the stator flux-linkage

(15) vector being shown in Fig. 1(b). For

or, in the stationary reference frame as comparison, the six nonzero-voltage space

vectors and the sectors of the circular voltage

vector for a BLAC drive are shown in Fig. 2(a)

and (b), respectively. Figs. 1(c) and 2(c) show

(16) the idealized phase current waveforms for

which is the same as (6). BLDC and BLAC operation, and their

Equation (16) is a particular case of relationship with the voltage space-vector

(12) when the back-EMF waveform is sectors and switching states.

sinusoidal, or represents the fundamental From the foregoing, the main

component of electromagnetic torque when differences between the representation of the

the back-EMF waveform is nonsinusoidal. In voltage space vector in BLAC and BLDC drives

general, (12) should be used to calculate the are as follows.

torque when the back-EMF waveform is 1) In a BLAC drive, all three phases are

nonsinusoidal. conducting at any

As with the application of DTC to BLAC instant and the voltage space vectors can be

drives [13], its implementation to BLDC drives represented by three digits [Fig. 2(a)] which

is based on flux-linkage observers. The stator fully represent all the states of the inverter

flux-linkage vector can be obtained from the switches, since only one digit is required for

measured stator voltages and currents and as each switching leg, as the upper and lower

switches operate in tandem mode. In a BLDC

drive, however, only two phases are

conducting in the 120° conduction mode,

(17) except during commutation periods when all

three phases conduct, the unexcited phase phase difference relative to those for a BLAC

drive, as will be seen by comparing Figs. 1(b)

and 2(b). Two nonzero-voltage space vectors

now bound each sector of the vector circle, as

will be seen

in Fig. 1(b), while in a BLAC drive each sector

is centered on a nonzero-voltage space

vector.

drive.

conducting via a freewheeling diode. Since the upper and

lower switches in the same phase leg may both be

simultaneously off in BLDC drive, irrespective of the

state of the associated freewheel diodes [Fig. 1(a)] six

digits are required to represent the states of the

inverter switches, one digit for each switch.

Thus, the voltage space vectors are

represented as switching signals (100 001),

(001 001), (011 000), (010 010), (000 110), Fig. 2. Nonzero-voltage space vectors for BLAC

(100 100), respectively, where, from left to right, drive.

the logical values express the states of the upper and

lower switching signals for phases A, B, and C,

respectively. The zero-voltage space vector is

defined as (000 000).

2) The voltage space vectors in the α -β

reference frame for a BLDC drive have a 30°

Fig. 3. Schematic of DTC BLDC drive.

Fig. 3 shows a schematic of a DTC

BLDC drive, which is essentially the same as

that for a DTC BLAC drive, except for the

switching table and torque estimation.

Sampling the stator phase currents and In addition, when the actual flux

voltages and employing a stationary linkage is smaller than the commanded value,

reference transformation can obtain the stator the non zero-voltage space vector is used to

flux linkage in the stationary reference frame. increase the flux linkage, while when the

The rotor flux linkage in the stationary actual flux linkage is greater than the

reference frame can be calculated from (21) commanded value; the non zero-voltage

and (22), while the magnitude of the stator space vector is used to decrease the stator

flux linkage and the electromagnetic torque flux linkage.

can be obtained from (19) and (12), III. SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

respectively. The speed feedback derived The utility of the foregoing application of DTC

from rotor position sensors is compared to the to a BLDC drive has been validated by simulations and

speed command to form the torque command measurements on two surface-mounted magnet brushless

from the proportional– integral (PI) speed motors, whose parameters are given in Table II, the

regulator. The stator flux-linkage and torque motors having significantly different back-EMF

commands are obtained from hysteresis waveforms (Fig. 4). Motor 1 has three stator slots, a

controllers by comparing the estimated concentrated winding, and a two-pole diametrically

electromagnetic torque and stator flux linkage magnetized rotor, a motor topology, which is often

with their demanded values. As can be seen employed for BLDC drives due to its simplicity [3]. Thus,

from Table I, the switching pattern of the

inverter can be determined according to the

stator flux-linkage and torque status from the

outputs of two regulators shown in Fig. 3, and

the sector in which the stator flux linkage is

located at that instant of time. In each sector,

if the actual stator flux linkage is the same as

the commanded stator flux linkage, only one

non zero-voltage space vector and a zero-

voltage vector are used to control the

increase or decrease of the torque, since

during any 60° electrical period only two

phases are excited and controlled in a BLDC

Fig. 4. Back-EMF waveforms. (a) Motor 1. (b) Motor 2.

drive, as indicated in Table I.

Fig. 4. Back-EMF waveforms. (a) Motor 1. (b) Motor

2.

its air-gap field distribution and back-

EMF waveform are inherently sinusoidal. It

was selected for investigation since its torque

can be estimated from (16), which has the

same form as that for a BLAC motor, while

conventional PWM current control (constant

current demand over 120° electrical) results in

a significant low-frequency torque ripple, as

shown in the simulated results (Fig. 5) which

were obtained by employing a hysteresis

controller. Motor 2 also has a concentrated

winding and fractional slot and pole number

combination, viz. ten poles, 12 slots (its

design parameters being given in [18]).

However, since its back-EMF waveform is

essentially trapezoidal, the torque should be

estimated from (12).

A Matlab/Simulink based simulation

model has also been used to predict the

performance of both motors. By way of

Fig. 5. Current and torque waveforms with

example, Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 shows the conventional PWM current control. (a) Motor 1

simulated phase to ground voltage, and the (1500 r/min). (b) Motor 2 (400 r/min).

phase voltage and current, the locus of the Further, it will be seen that the phase

stator flux linkage, and the estimated current waveform inherently follows the

electromagnetic torque for both motors. inverse of the back-EMF waveform within

These simulated are compared with the each 60° electrical sector of the 120° electrical

measured values, which are not shown. conduction periods so as to maintain the

electromagnetic torque constant. In addition,

it should be noted that whilst in a BLAC motor

the ideal locus of the stator flux linkage is

circular, in a BLDC motor it is noncircular due

to the incremental rotation of the stator flux

during communication events, which occur

every 60° elec. in a 120° electrical conduction

BLDC drive. Thus, the flux-linkage locus tends

to be hexagonal in shape, as for a six-step

drive, the sides being curved due to the

influence of the back EMF of the unexcited

phase while discrete changes in amplitude

occur every 60° electrical due to the action of

the freewheeling diodes. Further, it will be

noted that, while a high-frequency torque

ripple exists in both the simulated and

experimental results as a consequence of the

low winding inductances and PWM events, the

low-frequency torque ripple which would have

resulted with conventional vector control have

been eliminated by optimizing the phase

current waveform in accordance with the

back-EMF waveform.

(a) Phase-to-ground voltage. (b) Phase voltage. (c)

Phase current. (d) Locus of stator flux linkage. (e)

Electromagnetic torque.

[3] T. Kenjo and S. Nagamori, Permanent-Magnet and

Brushless DC Motors. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon, 1985.

[4] P. J. Sung,W. P. Han, L. H. Man, and F. Harashima, “A

new approach for minimum-torque-ripple maximum-

efficiency control of BLDC motor,”

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 109–114,

Feb. 2000.

[5] C. French and P. Acarnley, “Direct torque control of

permanent magnet drives,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 32,

no. 5, pp. 1080–1088, Sep./Oct. 1996.

[6] T. S. Low, K. J. Tseng, K. S. Lock, and K.W. Lim,

“Instantaneous torque control,” in Proc. Fourth Int. Conf.

Electrical Machines and Drives, Sep. 13–15, 1989, pp.

100–105.

[7] T. S. Low, K. J. Tseng, T. H. Lee, K. W. Lim, and K. S.

Lock, “Strategy for the instantaneous torque control of

permanent-magnet brushless DC drives,” in Proc. IEE—

Elect. Power Appl., vol. 137, Nov. 1990, pp. 355–363.

[8] T. S. Low, T. H. Lee, K. J. Tseng, and K. S. Lock, “Servo

performance of a BLDC drive with instantaneous torque

control,” IEEE Trans. Ind Appl., vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 455–

462, Mar./Apr. 1992.

[9] S. J. Kang and S. K. Sul, “Direct torque control of

brushless DC motor with nonideal trapezoidal back-emf,”

IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 796–802,

Nov. 1995.

[10] S. K. Chung, H. S. Kim, C. G. Kim, and M. J. Youn, “A

new instantaneous torque control of PM synchronous

motor for high-performance direct-drive applications,”

IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 388–400,

May 1998.

[11] M. Depenbrock, “Direct self-control of inverter-fed

induction machine,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 3,

no. 4, pp. 420–429, Oct. 1988.

[12] I. Takahashi and T. Noguchi, “A newquick-response

and high-efficiency control strategies of an induction

motor,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 820–827,

Sep./Oct. 1986.

[13] L. Zhong, M. F. Rahman, W. Y. Hu, and K. W. Lim,

“Analysis of direct torque control in permanent magnet

synchronous motor drives,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,

vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 528–536, May 1997.

[14] I. Boldea and S. A. Nasar, “Torque vector control—a

class of fast and robust torque-speed and position digital

controllers for electric drives,” Elect. Mach. Power Syst.,

vol. 15, pp. 135–147, 1988.

[15] P. C. Krause, Analysis of Electric Machinery. New

York: McGraw-

Hill, 1987.

Fig. 7. Simulated results for Motor 2 (400 r/min). [16] V. Gourishankar, Electromechanical Energy

(a) Phase-to-ground voltage. (b) Phase voltage. (c) Conversion. Scranton,

Phase current. (d) Locus of stator flux linkage. (e) PA: International Textbook, 1965.

Electromagnetic torque. [17] B. H. Ng, M. F. Rahman, and T. S. Low, “An

IV. CONCLUSION investigation into the effects of machine parameters on

torque pulsation in a brushless dc drive,” in Proc. IEEE

DTC has been applied to a BLDC drive, and its

IECON’88, 1988, pp. 749–754.

utility has been validated by simulations and [18] D. Ishak, Z. Q. Zhu, and D. Howe, “Permanent

measurements on two BLDC motors which have very magnet brushless machines with unequal tooth widths

different back-EMF waveforms. The main difference and similar slot and pole numbers,”

between the implementation of DTC to BLAC and BLDC IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 584–590,

Mar./Apr. 2005.

drives is in the estimation of torque and the representation [19] F. G. Capponi, G. De Donato, L. Del Ferraro, O.

of the inverter voltage vectors. It has been shown that Honorati, M. C. Harke, and R. D. Lorenz, “AC brushless

DTC is capable of instantaneous torque control and, drive with low resolution hall-effect sensors for an axial

thereby, of reducing torque pulsations. flux PM machine,” in Conf. Rec. 39th IEEE-IAS Annu.

Meeting, Oct. 3–7, 2004, pp. 2382–2389.

REFERENCES [20] Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives by B.K. BOSE

[1] J. R. Hendershort Jr and T. J. E. Miller, Design of

Brushless Permanent-Magnet Motors. Oxford, U.K.:

Magana Physics/Clarendon, 1994.

[2] J. R. Hendershort Jr and T. J. E. Miller, Design of

Brushless Permanent-Magnet Motors. Oxford, U.K.: Document By

Magana Physics/Clarendon, 1994. SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY

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