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MULTILINGUALISM

Key terms and essential vocabulary:

1. monolingualism /bilingualism /trilingualism 1. одноязычие / двуязычие / трехъязычие


2. societal / individual / international multilingualism 2. социальное / индивидуальное / международное
многоязычие
3. monoglot area 3. область моноглота
4. native language / mother tongue 4. родной язык / родной язык
5. nation-state vs multinational state 5. национальное государство против
многонационального государства
6. titular language / nation 6. титульный язык / нация
7. regional vs immigrant language 7. региональный и иммигрантский язык
8. endangered / threatened / moribund / extinct language 8. исчезающий / находящийся под угрозой исчезновения
/ вымирающий / вымерший язык
9. official /national /majority /minority /dominant /first/ 9. официальный / национальный / большинство /
second /standardized language меньшинство / доминирующий / первый / второй /
стандартизованный язык
10. linguistic minority (indigenous / rural / urban) 10. языковое меньшинство (коренное / сельское /
городское)
11. linguistic diversity 11. языковое разнообразие
12. language loyalty 12. верность языку
13. linguistic revival / revitalization/ reversing language 13. лингвистическое возрождение / возрождение /
shift обращение вспять языкового сдвига
14. (bilingual) signage 14. (двуязычные) вывески
15. language forecast 15. языковой прогноз
16. “appreciation of dialect differences” approach 16. Подход «понимание диалектных различий»
17. “elimination of non-standard speech” approach 17. Подход «устранение нестандартной речи».
18. language “immersion” schools 18. школы с языковым «погружением»
19. European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages 19. Европейская хартия региональных языков или
языков меньшинств.
20. English Only Movement ( USA ) 20. English Only Movement (США).
21. Ebonics / AAVE ( USA) /ɪˈbɒn ɪks/ -a blend of ebony 21. Ebonics / AAVE (США) / ɪˈbɒn ɪks / - смесь эбенового
and phonics. дерева и акустики.
22. Spanglish (USA) 22. Spanglish (США)
23. artificial (constructed, planned) language 23. искусственный (сконструированный,
спланированный) язык
24. creole language 24. креольский язык
25. hybrid language 25. гибридный язык
26. lingua franca. 26. lingua franca.
27. pidgin language 27. пиджин
28. sign language 28. язык жестов
29. to acquire proficiency in (a language) 29. овладеть (языком)
30. to act as a focus of discontent 30. действовать как очаг недовольства
31. to act as a symbol of group consciousness and solidarity 31. действовать как символ группового сознания и
солидарности
32. to actively discourage ( a child ) from using a minority 32. активно отговаривать (ребенка) от использования
language языка меньшинства
33. to adopt a bilingual approach / policy to (education) 33. принять двуязычный подход / политику к
(образованию)
34. to be a barrier to one’s social advancement / effective 34. быть препятствием для социального продвижения /
communication эффективного общения
35. to be a continuous source of irritation 35. быть постоянным источником раздражения
36. to be compelled to learn multiple languages 36. быть принужденным к изучению нескольких языков
37. to be discriminatory (against smn / smth) 37. быть дискриминационным (в отношении smn / smth)
38. to be / remain at a political disadvantage 38. быть / оставаться в невыгодном политическом
положении
39. to be educated in one’s mother tongue 39. получить образование на родном языке
40. to be essential for upward social mobility 40. быть важным для восходящей социальной
мобильности
41. to be faced with a considerable / severe problem 41. столкнуться с серьезной / серьезной проблемой
42. to be reluctant to ( learn foreign languages ) 42. неохотно (учить иностранные языки)
43. to be spoken natively / indigenously 43. говорить на родном языке
44. to be taught through the medium of (one’s mother 44. быть обученным на родном языке на начальных
tongue) in the initial stages of schooling этапах обучения
45. to be under increasing threat 45. быть под растущей угрозой
46. to be (un)true to one’s cultural traditions 46. быть (не) верным своим культурным традициям
47. to campaign for independence 47. бороться за независимость
48. to cater for smb 48. заботиться о ком-л.
49. to depend on teacher’s individual commitment to the 49. зависеть от индивидуальной приверженности
subject учителя предмету
50. to eliminate non-standard speech 50. устранить нестандартную речь
51. to entail a well-intentioned effort 51. повлечь за собой благие намерения
52. to function as a full member of a national community 52. действовать как полноправный член национального
сообщества
53. to grant partial independence 53. предоставить частичную независимость
54. to have a linguistically sophisticated educational policy 54. Иметь лингвистически продуманную
образовательную политику
55. to have an outwardly monolingual appearance 55. иметь внешне одноязычный вид
56. to have an adverse effect on smn 56. отрицательно воздействовать на smn
57. to ignore / discourage a minority language 57. игнорировать / препятствовать языку меньшинства
58. to impair educational progress (of a child) 58. ухудшать успеваемость (ребенка)
59. to opt for (Russian) / against 59. выбрать за (русский) / против
60. to obliterate a culture / language 60. уничтожить культуру / язык
61. to observe an increase in the number of fluent speakers 61. Наблюдать за увеличением количества свободно
говорящих
62. to post public notices in several languages 62. размещать публичные объявления на нескольких
языках
63. to provide bilingual signage 63. установить двуязычные вывески
64. to protect / observe linguistic rights (of a minority 64. защищать / соблюдать языковые права (группы
group) меньшинств)
65. to put a language on / out of the school curriculum 65. включить / исключить язык из школьной программы
66. to rectify the state of affairs 66. Исправить положение дел
67. to reduce the danger of revolt 67. уменьшить опасность восстания
68. to retain one’s independence / a passive knowledge of 68. сохранять независимость / пассивное знание
one’s mother tongue родного языка
69. to tend to be bilingual 69. быть двуязычным
70. to undertake a separatist movement 70. предпринять сепаратистское движение
MULTILINGUALISM IN THE MODERN WORLD
Introduction. APPROACHES TO MULTILINGUALISM.
Multilingual nations exist in all parts of the world, and very many examples could be cited. Difficulties only arise
when one attempts to locate a country that is genuinely monolingual. There appear to be few. Even in Europe there are not
many true examples. Nearly all European countries contain linguistic minorities – groups of speakers who have as their
native variety a language other than that which is the official, dominant or major language in the country where they live.
In some cases, where the minorities are relatively large, the nation state usually has more than one official language.
Examples are Belgium (Flemish, the Dutch language as spoken in northern Belgium ,German, and French), Switzerland
(German, French, Italian, and Romansch).
There is a distinction between social and personal bilingualism. Many countries, such as Belarus, Belgium,
Canada, India, Ireland, South Africa and Switzerland, which are officially multilingual, may have many monolinguals in
their population. Officially monolingual countries, on the other hand, such as France, can have sizable multilingual
populations. Some countries have official languages but also have regional and local official languages, notably Brazil,
China, Mexico, Russia, Spain and Taiwan.
Where the minority is smaller or less influential, the minority language or languages are unlikely to have official
status, and their speakers, often out of sheer practical necessity, will tend to be bilingual. This last factor is what helps to
give Europe its outwardly monolingual appearance. The UK, for instance, also gives every appearance of being
monolingual, and visitors certainly need to learn no other languages than English. But this appearance is somewhat
deceptive. Welsh is the first language of about a quarter of the population of Wales. Scots Gaelic is spoken natively by
about 80 000 people largely in the West Highlands and Hebridean Islands of Scotland. Irish Gaelic is still spoken by small
numbers of speakers in parts of Northern Ireland.
Perhaps the most multilingual of all the countries in Europe is Romania. About 85% of the population have
Romanian as their mother tongue, but at least fourteen other languages are spoken natively in the country.
Multilingualism clearly brings problems for governments and for individuals and groups of individuals, especially
those who are members of linguistic minorities. Unlike members of the majority-language group, they have to acquire
proficiency in at least two languages before they can function as full members of the national community in which they
live. Perhaps the biggest problem they have to face is educational. Children have to learn to read and write in dialects that
are radically different from their own. Or it may be that the educational policy of the country concerned is reasonably
sophisticated linguistically, and the children learn to read and write in and are taught through the medium of their native
language in the initial stages of their schooling, with the majority language being introduced later on. This approach has
been adopted in many parts of Wales, as well as in Romania and many other places. Its aims are that the children should
acquire an ability to read, write and speak both their native language and the majority language, and has clear parallels
with the bidialectalism approach to non-standard dialects of English. In both cases the two linguistic varieties are
considered as respectable linguistic systems in themselves, and the child is encouraged to use both.
In other cases the minority child may be faced with very considerable difficulties. This may occur where the two
languages involved are not clearly related and also, more importantly, where the educational policy of a particular nation-
state is to discourage or simply to ignore or not to encourage minority languages. In extreme cases the minority language
may be forbidden or disapproved of in school, and children punished or actively discouraged from using it there. This was
formerly true both of Welsh in Wales and Gaelic in Scotland – at one time a law was in force that actually made the
speaking of Gaelic illegal. This Approach to minority languages has distinct parallels with the ‘elimination of non-
standard speech’ approach towards non-standard dialects. In both cases the language variety to be eliminated or
discouraged is regarded as inferior. This is in all cases a social judgement. ‘The Welsh language is inferior to English’ has
absolutely no basis in linguistic fact. And in both cases the psychological, social and pedagogical consequences are
serious. But where Welsh, Gaelic and other minority languages are concerned, the effects of the attempted imposition of
an alien standard such as English may be much more serious. The attempted replacement of one language by another
entails an effort to obliterate whole cultures; it’s indicative of illogical ethnic attitudes; and it can very seriously impair the
educational progress of a child who has to learn a new language before he/she can understand what the teacher is saying,
let alone read and write.
This approach was for many years official policy in the United States, where it may have been at least partly
responsible, together with the broader social attitudes to minority languages that went with it, for the widespread and rapid
assimilation of minority language groups to the English-speaking majority. Generally, children of parents born outside
America who spoke languages such as Chinese, Yiddish, Italian, Greek, Polish, Dutch, Norwegian, Swedish and many
more have not retained more than a passive knowledge of their parents’ languages. Today provisions are made for some
groups, notably Spanish-speakers in the South-West, to be educated in their own language, and certain other steps have
also been taken: public notices in NYC, for example, are posted in Spanish as well as English, to cater for the large Puerto
Rican community now living there. However, even the larger, more rural linguistic minorities such as those consisting of
speakers of French (in Louisiana) and Pennsylvania Dutch (a form of German) are rapidly declining in size.
Happily, this approach and the attitudes associated with it have almost disappeared from the educational scene in the
UK.
The next approach presupposes ‘appreciation of dialect differences’. This view states that there’s no need for a
child to learn a new dialect because there’s nothing wrong with the one he/she already has. To translate that into equivalent
linguistic minority terms would be to say something like’ There is no need for Spanish Basques to learn Spanish because
Basque itself is a perfectly good language’. The parallel does not quite work, because clearly , there is a need for Basques
to learn Spanish, since they live in Spain and have to function as part of Spanish society. The argument, therefore, has to
be taken one stage further: there would be no need for Basques to learn Spanish if, as Basque nationalists advocate, they
did not live in Spain, but were given their political independence and could form a nation-state of their own. This is the
type of argument that minority groups are able to use in their campaigns for independence. Their solution to the problem is
to convert linguistic minorities through political autonomy into linguistic majorities. Some governments have responded
to this sort of pressure by granting partial independence.
Where language is a defining characteristic of a minority ethnic group wanting independence, particularly where
other characteristics are not significant, linguistic factors are likely to play an important role in any separatist movement
they might undertake. This is partly in response to practical problems but mainly the result of the fact that language acts as
an important symbol of group consciousness and solidarity. The extent to which this is true is revealed in the part played
by linguistic groupings in the development of independent nations in Europe after the breakdown of the older, multilingual
empires. As national consciousness grew, languages like Czech, Serbo-Croat and several others, developed a literature,
underwent standardization, and emerged as national languages of fairly monoglot areas when independence was achieved.
Thus, the problems of the multilingual situation for the individual can be overcome or minimized either through
political independence or semi-independence, or, less drastically, through adequate educational programmes and policies.
As for the governments, however, many of them believe that a language can act as a focus of discontent for minorities
wanting more power, independence, or annexation by a neighbouring state. Where governments do not regard this as
threatening or undesirable, they may well regard linguistic minorities favourably.

TASK: Use the expressions given below as well as the text to describe the three approaches introduced in the Text:
bidialectalism approach, ‘appreciation of dialect differences’, ‘elimination of non-standard speech”.
 2 linguistic varieties are respected  elimination of non-standard speech
 a (normal) medium of instruction  entail an effort to obliterate cultures
 a minority lg is perfectly good itself  impair educational progress
 acquire proficiency in a lg  important symbol of group consciousness and solidarity
 attempted imposition of an alien standard variety  lg loyalty
 be regarded inferior  minority lg forbidden, disapproved
 bilingual policy  rapid assimilation
 both native and minority lg  separatist movement
 convert linguistic minorities into majorities  teach through the medium of the native lg
 disfavored minority

ANSWER THE QUESTIONS:


1. Do you think multilingualism is a recent phenomenon? Do you believe there were multilingual nations in the past?
2. What is the role of multilingualism in modern world?
3. Is monolingualism beneficial today? Do you know many countries that are officially monolingual today?
4. Do you think immigrants should learn the language/-s of the country they want to settle in? Is it possible for them to preserve their
mother tongue in a new linguistic environment?
5. Is there any difference between ‘migrant’ languages and the languages of linguistic minorities?
6. Does the state have to preserve each language spoken there indigenously?
7. What is the role of public education in language learning?
8. Why is it essential to preserve each and every person’s mother tongue? What might the loss of a language result in?
9. What actions are offered to preserve the endangered languages? From your point of view, will they be efficient?
10. How many languages are there in the world today?

TEXT 1. LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY


Linguistic diversity is a major guarantee for cultural diversity. Like multilingualism, it contributes to sustainable
development, the strengthening of dialogue, social cohesion and peace.
Languages are a fundamental component of culture and serve as tools and means of communication. But they are
also an essential factor for establishing the identity of individuals and groups. Through language, people build, understand
and express their emotions, intentions, values, notions and practices.
As tools in the service of a number of social practices, languages constitute a highly interdisciplinary domain and a
precondition for the enjoyment of fundamental human rights. They are also strategically important to meet the great
challenges facing humanity. Yet over 50 % of the world's 6,000 languages are endangered. Some 96% of them are spoken
by 4% of the world's population, and less than 25 % are used in cyberspace. Moreover, multilingualism promotes the
harmonious coexistence of local, national and international languages and thus is a factor of mutual respect and
intercultural dialogue.
It is estimated that the most extensive catalog of the world’s languages, generally taken to be as authoritative as
any, is that of Ethnologue (published by SIL International), whose detailed classified list as of 2009 included 6,909 distinct
languages.
TEXT 2. THE LANGUAGE STEAMROLLERS
S.GRIFFITHS
Over the last few centuries, thousands of native languages have been destroyed; “steamrollered” out of existence
by the handful of language groups that dominate the world today. Just how did this happen? Why is it that some cultures
have survived while others have been forced into extinction?
In Language Steamrollers , Sarah Griffiths traces the cultural origins of the world’s dominant languages. Where did
these so-called steamrollers come from? How did they come to conquer the world? And how many of today’s languages
will survive? As the spread of Internet technology brings us together into one global village, will we be forced to speak in
one global tongue? Or should we try to preserve our multilingual society?
Throughout history, many native languages were wiped out of existence by the so-called “steam rollers” –
languages that came to power with the spread of trade, conquest or political pressure. The demise of languages
throughout the worlds is still an enormous threat as linguist David Crystal explains,
‘There are some 6000 languages in the world at the moment and it’s been estimated that half of these languages will
die out during the next 100 years. If you work it out, it means that one language is dying somewhere in the world every
two weeks.’
Even today, languages are dying out in remote regions of the world, because of the development of land by large
multinational companies. Crystal continues,
‘We’ve seen it in South East Asia such as Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. In Brazil, the exploitation of Amazon
rainforest has led to the destruction of local communities and their languages’.
Three thousand of the languages spoken in the world today are in the process of dying out because they are not
being learned as a first language by the next generation of speakers. But according to Jean Aitchison, Professor of
Language and Communication at Oxford University, the situation could be far worse.
‘Of 6000 languages, it’s claimed only that 10%, that is about 600, will be in the safe category in 100 years time.
This is reached by calculating how many languages are moribund, that is in the process of dying, which is half of these. A
further 2400 will come near extinction because it is assumed that any language with fewer than 100,000 speakers is
unsafe.’
With so many languages under threat, it is difficult to know which ones will survive, but it is likely to be the
language steamrollers, the languages of power. Jared Diamond, Professor of Physiology at UCLA, explains:
‘The languages, which will survive, are big national languages such as English, French, Spanish, Chinese,
Portuguese, and Arabic. The languages that will die out will be most of the languages of New Guinea, native Australia,
most native American languages, most languages of South Africa south of the Equator and many of the languages of the
Indian subcontinent other than major languages.’
Yiddish is just one of thousands of languages which are now under threat. But should we be worried about losing
languages?
According to Crystal, preserving rare languages is just as important as preserving animals and plants.
‘Here we’ve got linguistic diversity. Six thousand languages or so are preserving 6,000 ways of thinking, distinct
ways of seeing the world, distinct histories of knowledge, cultural traditions all the things that make you who you are and
who your community is. All of this is encapsulated in your language and as soon as a language dies, if it has never been
written down, it is as if it never existed. It has gone from the face of the earth. Consequently the loss to human kind, the
fact that a whole area of knowledge has just disappeared is inconceivable but is happening every two weeks at the
moment.’
Aitchison, like Crystal, believes that it would be a great loss to all of us if languages die out.
‘The world would be diminished if everybody stopped talking all these languages. People get so upset about all
these plants and trees dying but no one worries about the languages going and this seems to me to be worse.’
The loss of a language means not just the loss of one people’s culture and identity. It affects the whole of our human
cultural heritage. So what can be done to preserve these endangered languages?
There is a slowly growing movement to record or document languages that have not been written down, before
they disappear, and also to try to encourage communities to take a pride in their heritage and continue to speak their
language. As Crystal explains,
‘Welsh is a good example of a language that has been preserved: Welsh is one of those languages which in the
1950s was deteriorating very, very rapidly and then there was a major movement in the 1960s and ‘70s leading to a new
Welsh television channel and all sorts of other developments. As a result the Welsh language is beginning to rise in
numbers.’
Many communities, such as the Welsh speakers in the UK, continue to feel pressurised to speak the language of
power (in this case English) to enable them to work. But by being bilingual, they are able to speak English as well as and
not instead of their own language. This is one way that many languages could be saved.
Successful language preservation projects have also been achieved in areas of Mexico and Australia. Crystal
explains, ‘You’ll find that although most of the aboriginal languages are unsavable there have been some superb
examples of a local language being brought back from the brink. Communities are proud of their language and are now
developing language materials for schools in order to give the language a future.’
However this is an expensive task. Estimates show it can cost up to $300 000 a year for just one language, and
many governments may not be willing to pay this. In fact, as Linguist Peter Ladefoged explains, it may be in the
government’s interest to limit the number of languages spoken in their country.
‘Producing textbooks for school children in vast numbers is difficult. Producing radio broadcasts in a vast number
of languages is even more difficult and when you get to movies and television it is just too expensive to have a very large
number of languages supported.’
So where could the money be found? Well according to Rhodes, from governments, who already spend far more on
other scientific projects: ‘Whilst I have nothing against the Mars Lander, the $100 million spent on the Lander if
channelled into linguistic enterprise, could probably provide better documentation for 200 languages.’
Crystal has another suggestion. ‘We are not talking about vast sums of money here, compared to profits of
international organisations. Wouldn’t it be wonderful if some of those international organisations that have been
responsible for exploiting the minority cultures of the world, were to actually put some money back into it.’

READING COMPREHENSION CHECK:


Read the text The Language Steamrollers and answer the questions.
1. What kind of languages are language steamrollers?
2. What is the role of multilingualism?
3. Why is it essential to preserve each and every person’s mother tongue?
4.What might the loss of a language result in?
5. What actions are offered to preserve the endangered languages? From your point of view, will they be efficient?

MULTILINGUALISM TEST 1

Task 1. Match the words with their definitions:

1. National language G) A language (or language variant, i.e. dialect) which uniquely represents the national identity of a
nation or country. It is used for political and legal discourse and so designated by a country’s
government.
2. Official language d) A language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. It is
typically the language used in the nation’s legislative bodies, though the law in many nations may
require that government documents be produced in other languages as well.
3. Standard language E) It is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. It is
standardized for education and public performance.
4. Minority language B) A language traditionally used by the citizens of the state that either has a territorial basis or is
used by a linguistic minority.
5. Mother tongue C) A language that was learnt first by the person. Often a child learns the basics of his or her first
language from his/her family.
6. Bilingual education H) A type of education that refers to the teaching of academic content in two languages, in a native
and second language. Varying amounts of each language are used depending on the outcome goal of
the model.
7. Ethnolect A) It is a linguistic variety spoken by a certain ethnic/cultural subgroup and serves as distinguishing
mark of social identity.
8. Lingua franca F) A language used as a means of communication between populations speaking vernaculars that are
not mutually intelligible. The term was first used during the Middle Ages to describe a French- and
Italian-based jargon, or pidgin that was developed by Crusaders and traders in the eastern
Mediterranean.

Task 2. Fill in the gaps with most appropriate prepositions where it is necessary:
1. to acquire proficiency in a language
2. to be a fluent speaker in Welsh
3. to be taught through the medium of a language
4. to be a member of linguistic minority
5. to obliterate - a language
6. to impair - educational process
7. to cater for a linguistic minority
8. to be fluent in German
9. to prohibit - bilingual education
Task 3. Name the official language/languages and the citizens of the following countries:
the Rep of Belarus - Belarusian Israel – Israeli – an Israeli - Hebrew France – French – Frenchman/woman -
USA – American – English lang Poland – Polish – Pole - Polish French
the Russian Feder – Russian - Russian Finland – Finnish – a Finn – Finnish Switzerland – Swiss – a Swiss – German,
the UK – British – English lang Ireland – Irish – Irishman/woman – Irish/ French, Italian, Romanish
Denmark – Danish – Dane – Danish English Sweden – Swedish – a Swede – Swedish
Germany – German – a German – German Spain – Spanish – a Spaniard – Spanish
Task 4. Mark the following statements as true or false:
1. Societal multilingualism is a very wide spread phenomenon.
2. Few genuinely monolingual countries can be identified on the world map.
3. Europe’s outwardly monolingual appearance is deceptive.
4. The least multilingual of all the countries in Europe is Romania.
5. Disfavoured linguistic minorities may promote separatist or nationalist movement.
6. Many Welsh and Gaelic speakers are nowadays deeply frustrated with the status of their languages in the UK.
7. The U.S. government and the government of the UK try against all odds to assimilate minority languages into the
dominant English-speaking majority.

Task 5. Translate into English:


выступать в роли катализатора недовольства act as a focus of discontent
язык глухонемых / язык жестов sign language
языковое возрождение linguistic revival
вымерший язык extinct language
делать выбор в пользу английского как языка обучения choose English as the language of instruction
коренные языковые меньшинства indigenous linguistic minorities
сохранять/ поддерживать пассивное знание родного языка maintain passive knowledge of the native language
ухудшать / затормаживать образовательный процесс worsen / slow down the educational process
оказывать неблагоприятный эффект на ч-л. have an adverse effect on smth.
устранять нестандартную речь eliminate non-standard speech
язык са`ами Sami language
ретороманский язык Romansh language

Task 6. Insert the right preposition:


1. Multilingualism brings problems for governments and for groups of individuals.
2. Members of linguistic minorities have to acquire proficiency in at least two languages before they can function as full
members of the national community in which they live.
3. In different parts of the world children are faced - precisely this difficulty: they have to learn to read and write in a
language which is radically different from their own.
4. If the policy of the country is reasonably sophisticated linguistically, the children learn to read and write in and are
taught through the medium of their native language in the initial stages of their schooling, with the majority language
being introduced later on.
5. In extreme cases the minority language may be forbidden or disapproved of in school, and children actively
discouraged from using it there.
6. The attempted replacement of one language by another entails - an effort to obliterate whole cultures.
7. The child’s access to the majority language is likely to be essential for upward social mobility.
8. Some parents object to their children learning their native language, as it may be a barrier - their social advancement.
9. Basque nationalists see the solution to their problem in converting linguistic minorities through political autonomy
into linguistic majorities.
10. There was time in our history when the pressure was exercised in favour for Russian and for the maintenance of
minority languages. In Belarus parents who opted for Russian at the school medium were officially praised and it became
increasingly necessary to know Russian - social advancement.

Task 5. Answer the following questions. Use an encyclopaedia to collect more information where necessary.
1. Name some minority languages that have won greater recognition lately.
2. Name some languages which are everywhere minority languages.
3. What problems does multilingualism bring for individuals?
4. What problems does multilingualism bring for governments?
5. What kind of policy may the government adopt towards linguistic minorities?