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Y YY (short for electronic government, also known as Y ,

YY, or YY YY) is digital interaction between a government and citizens
(G2C), government and businesses/commerce/eCommerce (G2B), and between government
agencies (G2G), Government-to-Religious Movements/Church (G2R), Government-to-Households
(G2H). This digital interaction consists of governance, information and communication
technology (ICT), business process re-engineering (BPR), and e-citizen at all levels of government
(city, state/provence, national, and international).

Essentially, the term e-Government or also known as Digital Government, refers to 'How government
utilized IT, ICT and other telecommunication technologies, to enhance the efficiency and
effectiveness in the public sector' (Jeong, 2007).

Examples of e-Government and e-Governance

E-Government should enable anyone visiting a city website to communicate and interact with city
employees via the Internet with graphical user interfaces (GUI), instant-messaging (IM), audio/video
presentations, and in any way more sophisticated than a simple email letter to the address provided
at the site´ and ³the use of technology to enhance the access to and delivery of government
services to benefit citizens, business partners and employees´.[2] The focus should be on:

 The use of Information and communication technologies, and particularly the Internet, as a tool to
achieve better government.
 The use of information and communication technologies in all facets of the operations of a
government organization.
 The continuous optimization of service delivery, constituency participation and governance by
transforming internal and external relationships through technology, the Internet and new media.[5]

Whilst e-Government has traditionally been understood as being centered around the operations of
government, e-Governance is understood to extend the scope by including citizen engagement and
participation in governance. As such, following in line with the OECD definition of e-Government, e-
Governance can be defined as the use of ICTs as a tool to achieve better governance.

Delivery models and activities of e-Government

The primary delivery models of e-Government can be divided into:

 Government-to-Citizen or Government-to-Consumer (G2C)

 Government-to-Business (G2B)
 industry sectors (producers)
 [[ - primary farming, mining L1]]
 [[ - secondary manufacturing L2]]
 [[ - tertiary wholesale / distribution L3]]
 [[ - quad retail L4]]
 [[ - pent professional services L5]]
 [[ - hex financial services (neg. instruments of transfer of value/transactions, asset classes,
commodities, future contracts)]]
 - per capita
 - per household
 - per community
 - per social group (socio-national-political, socio-national-political-religious, socio-national-
 - per region (socio-economic-geospatial, socio-linguistic-geospatial, socio-religious-tehological-

 Government-to-Government (G2G)
 Government-to-Employees (G2E)
 Government-to-Religious Movements/Church (G2R)
 Government-to-Households (G2H)

Within each of these interaction domains, four kinds of activities take place:[6][7]

 pushing information over the Internet, e.g.: regulatory services, general holidays, public hearing
schedules, issue briefs, notifications, etc.
 two-way communications between the agency and the citizen, a business, or another government
agency. In this model, users can engage in dialogue with agencies and post problems,
comments, or requests to the agency.
 conducting transactions, e.g.: lodging tax returns, applying for services and grants.
 governance, e.g.: online polling, voting, and campaigning.

a Y Y


 Korea¶s E-Government project first started as part of the office automation efforts for statistical
analysis work in the Economy Planning Board(EPB) with the introduction of computers in 1967. At
the time, it was the Committee on Coordination for Development of Computerized Organization
established in 1967 under the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) that supplied
computers to each ministry in the government.

 In a survey conducted a decade later on supply and management of computers in government

agencies by MOST in 1977, it was found that computers had greatly contributed to fast and
accurate results in simple arithmetic tasks such as payroll and personnel management,
calculations for phone bills, grading tests and so on, in central agencies such as the Ministry of
Culture and Education, Ministry of Communication and Postal Service, and the National Tax

 However, in 1978, the need for informatization rather than simple automation of menial tasks
brought about the start of the E-Government initiative that could realize a more advanced model
of E-Government.

 In order to reform the government into a highly efficient, productive, and democratic organization,
innovating the way government operates by utilizing ICT took shape as E-Government projects
for building necessary infrastructure to achieve this end and became the "Five Year Basic Plan on
Informatizaton of Public Administration".

 These efforts by the MOGAHA paved the way for efficient and far-reaching implementation of
Korea¶s advanced informatization policies in the 1980s.

  Y  Y   YY 

 The decision to build a ´National Backbone Computer Network´ and subsequent enactments of
laws such as the ©  
   in 1986, and the  
       in 1987, secured technology
and infrastructure vital to realizing e-governance.
 These efforts led to a concrete plan and project engagements for the ´National Backbone
Computer Network´ project that would become the communications and information network for
the public sector.

 Five national networks - administration, finance, education and research, defense, and security -
projects were kicked off as laid out by the plan for the ´National Backbone Computer Network.

 In September 1993, the term ´Electronic Government´ first appeared in official documents, on
page 112 of a report for government reform by the Clinton administration(µCreating A Government
that Works Better and Costs Less: From Red Tape to Results¶).

 This period was also a turning point for the infrastructure of e-governance in Korea. In 1993, a
basic plan for building the foundation for the Information Super-Highway was announced and the
Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC) was launched the next year, in 1994.

 The following year of 1995 saw the enactment of the ³Framework on Informatization Promotion
Act´ by the National Assembly which became the basis for policies on informatization and e-
governance. Based on this act, the ´Informatization Promotion Committee´ was created along with
the ´Informatization Promotion Fund,´ to act as the steering head for informatization and E-
Government initiatives.

 Moreover, this act also provided a firm basis for implementing E-Government initiatives such as
the Chief Information Officer(CIO) system. During the latter half of the 90s, the first Informatization
Promotion conference was held at the Blue House(BH) on October 14, 1996, where President
Kim Young-sam¶s ideas on E-Government was announced in the form of a report, ´Informatization
Strategy for Strengthening National Competitiveness.´

 In 1997, an evaluation system for informatization projects was introduced while plans were made
for implementation of the 2nd stage of advanced information and communication technology.
Ë  Y  YY 
   YY  YY

 With the inauguration of the Kim Dae-jung administration in 1998, the official government
homepage went online and Internet-based civil services, such as real estate registration, became
available. Presidential executive orders for appointing CIOs in the public sector and guidelines for
sharing administrative information were established as well. In the following year(1999), a
comprehensive E-Government implementation plan was created while civil services based on
integrated civil application information system and comprehensive statistical information system
were introduced.
 By the year 2001, half into the term of the Kim Dae-jung administration, Korea passed the first
comprehensive legislation on E-Government , the ´Promotion of Digitalization of Administrative
Work for E-Government Realization Act´.

 The year 2001 was also an active year for the SCEG which started its activities in earnest in
February of the same year. After its founding, the SCEG held 12 executive and two general
meetings where specific and detailed plans for implementation as well as funding for the 11 newly
selected key E-Government projects, listed in (Table 1), were drawn up and reported to the
President on 7 May, 2001.

 With the inauguration of the Participatory Government, policies for E-Government naturally
became focused on ways to improve upon the outstanding results of informatization from the
previous Kim Dae-jung administration.

 In this respect, in order to carry out the task of government innovation carried over from the
previous administration, the former PCGI was restructured into PCGID(Presidential Committee on
Government Innovation and Decentralization), encompassing E-Government, administrative
reform, fiscal and tax reform, and decentralization. From each of the sub-committees in charge of
these areas, implementation plans centered on the presidential agenda were announced as
Roadmap tasks.

 For e-governance, the ³The Participatory Government¶s Vision and Direction of E-Government´
was announced in May 2003, and the ´E-Government Roadmap´ based on the vision of realizing
the ³World¶s Best Open E-Government´ was released in August of the same year.

 The roadmap outlines very concrete and specific performance indicators to realize the vision to
become the ³World¶s Best Open E-Government´ as follows:
U increase online public services to 85%
U rise into top 10 ranking in the world for business support competitiveness
U reduce visits for civil service applicants to 3 visits per year and
U raise the utilization rate of E-Government programs to 60%.

 The roadmap is divided into four areas, 10 agenda, 31 tasks and managed in terms of 45
detailed subtasks.


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