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PAPER MILL OPERATION

Authorised By
SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY
Email: help@matlabcodes.com
Engineeringpapers.blogspot.com
More Papers and Presentations available on
above site

ABSTRACT

The main objective of the Project is Automation of BMS


System in Liquor Fired Boiler using Programmable Logic Control at
J.K Paper Mills Jaykaypur , Rayagada. The problem of operation and
safety posed by a Recovery Boiler is much more than a conventional
utility/Industrial Boiler.The Black Liquor from Pulp Mill is acquired
by Evaporator which is sent to Liquor Fired Boiler .Recovery Boiler
is basically a chemical recovery process unit where the organic
material in the black liquor is burnt, while the sodium salt is reduced
and drained as molten smelt from the furnace bottom. At the same
time, Super Heated Steam which is the byproduct is utilized for steam
generation. Flue Gas is sent out through Chimney through I.D Fan.
The Green Liquor is sent to Causticizing Plant for Generation of
White Liquor.

The BMS System is a part of LIQUOR FIRED BOILER(LFB


5) of Soda Recovery Plant. HoneyWell PLC is used to study the BMS
System in BOILER Plant. In LFB5 the BMS system includes
Primary, Secondary/Tertiary fans, Liquor Guns, Oil Burner Valves,

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Induced Draft Fan, Electrostatic Precipitator, Economizers, Steam/
Mud Drum, Furnace and Pumps to circulate water.

In BMS system the Furnace is first Purged completely i.e., to


flush the Furnace with fresh air. In this duration of Purging (120ms)
all valves should be closed. The BMS provides for the proper
sequencing of equipment during the normal startup operating and shut
down procedures and provides for an auxiliary fuel trip and/or an
alarm during an adverse burner or unit operating condition. This is
accomplished through the use of pre-wired logic and various
Interlocks. The Industrial parameters like Temperature, Pressure,
Flow, Level are maintained according to the Safety concerned.

The Implementation section includes Level Control in a


Reaction Vessel which is performed using Siemens PLC. In Level
Control 4 Digital Inputs and 6 Digital Outputs are used. So , taking a
prototype of Level Control, I try to use PLC to automate the process.
Firstly, the Liquid-1 is filled into Tank/Vessel using a pump via Inlet
valve-1. There are 3 levels namely Low, Medium, High. When Low
and Medium levels are reached Inlet valve-1 stops and Inlet valve-2
supplies Liquid-2 until the High Level is reached. Then Motor mixes
both the Liquids for the specified time, the mixture is drained out
through Outlet valve. Timing is to be maintained for running of
Motor. Considering the PLC, digital input is taken from limit switch.

The programming can be done by using various Simulation


softwares like

1. VERSAMAX

2. SIMATIC S7 etc.
2
The ladder logic that is to be designed has timers, counters,
comparators, controllers and converters, shift registers, various logics.
We make the appropriate use of the various components to provide a
smooth control action. For a PLC, normally the final control element
will be the control value. Here the solenoid value will be the final
control element. We can control as many as parameters in the process
plant using PLC.

INTRODUCTION

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1. INTRODUCTION

• NEED for AUTOMATION

Automation is the use of control systems (such as numerical control,


programmable logic control, and other industrial control systems), in
concert with other applications of information technology (such as
computer-aided technologies [CAD, CAM), to control industrial machinery
and processes, reducing the need for human intervention. In the scope of
industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas
mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assist them
with the physical requirements of work, automation greatly reduces the need
for human sensory and mental requirements as well. Processes and systems
can also be automated.

Automation plays an increasingly important role in the global economy and


in daily experience. Engineers strive to combine automated devices with
mathematical and organizational tools to create complex systems for a
rapidly expanding range of applications and human activities.

Many roles for humans in industrial processes presently lie beyond the
scope of automation. Human-level pattern recognition, language
recognition, and language production ability are well beyond the capabilities
of modem mechanical and computer systems. Tasks requiring subjective
assessment or synthesis of complex sensory data, such as scents and sounds,
as well as high-level tasks such as strategic planning, currently require
human expertise. In many cases, the use of humans is more cost-effective
than mechanical approaches even where automation of industrial tasks is
possible.

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Specialised hardened computers, referred to as programmable logic
controllers (PLCs), are frequently used to synchronize the flow of inputs
from (physical) sensors and events with the flow of outputs to actuators and
events. This leads to precisely controlled actions that permit a tight control
of almost any industrial process.

Human-machine interfaces (HMI) or computer human interfaces (CHI),


formerly known as man-machine interfaces, are usually employed to
communicate with PLCs and other computers, such as entering and
monitoring temperatures or pressures for further automated control or
emergency response. Service personnel who monitor and control these
interfaces are often referred to as stationary engineers.

Currently, for manufacturing companies, the purpose of automation has


shifted from increasing productivity and reducing costs, to broader issues,
such as increasing quality and flexibility in the manufacturing process.

The old focus on using automation simply to increase productivity and


reduce costs was seen to be short-sighted, because it is also necessary to
provide a skilled workforce who can make repairs and manage the
machinery. Moreover, the initial costs of automation were high and often
could not be recovered by the time entirely new manufacturing processes
replaced the old. (Japan's "robot junkyards" were once world famous in the
manufacturing industry.)

Automation is now often applied primarily to increase quality in the


manufacturing process, where automation can increase quality
substantially.

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• Evolution of PLC

A Programmable logic controller (PLC) is a device that was invented to


replace the necessary sequential relay circuits for relay control. A relay acts
as an electromagnetic switch. A relay may be defined as an electrically
actuated contact maker or breaker. It consists of an iron bar with a through a
base and a movable contact through iron. When voltage is applied to the
coil, a magnetic field is generated. This magnetic field sucks the contact of
the relay in causing them to make a connection. They allow current to flow
between two points thereby closing the circuit. When the switch is open, no
current can flow through the coil causing the magnetic field to build up.

The PLC was first developed for General Motors Corporation in 1968 to
eliminate costly scrapping of assembly line relays during model
changeovers. By 1971, PLC was being used in applications outside
automobile industry.

As per NEMA standards, a programmable logic controller (PLC) may be


defined as a digital electronic apparatus, which uses a programmable
memory for storing instructions to implement specific functions such as
logic, sequencing, timing, counting and arithmetic, to control machines and
processes.

Major drawbacks of conventional electric control system are:

1. The switchgears either are electromagnetic devices when this device


is energized; there is a mechanical movement of plunger and
corresponding action close or open result. Due to this mechanical
movement, the life span of relays, contactors is limited. It needs
replacement after a period of time.

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2. Since each control action corresponds to switch gear, so for every
element control wiring has to be done. So there is extensive control
wiring attributing to complexity.

3. If at all any modifications are to be done, then the elements should be


connected again and so it increase not only cost but is also time
consuming. Therefore, it has; limited expandability and modification.

4. In any control system, troubleshooting is to be done. When any


problem arises in the sequence of operation but in CECS, since wiring is
complex it is very difficult to understand and troubleshoot.

5. Since they are electromagnetic devices, sometimes even when supply


is given, they may not energize and so a group of people have to be
maintained to constantly and periodically check all the switchgears,
therefore it increase the maintenance cost.

6. For the timers to be accurate, frequent calibration is required.

7. Due to lot of hardware and complex wiring, switchgears panel


occupies lot of space.

8. Inventory of hardware increases the cost of production.

To replace switchgear in case of failure, spare switchgear has to be


stored.

9. In case of emergency shutdown, relay logic takes time to achieve


shutdown, which may prove dangerous in critical processes.

10.In order to overcome all these drawbacks of CECS, PLC was


preferred as an alternative for its enhanced performance and flexibility.

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Programmable logic controllers:

A programmable logic controller, PLC, or programmable controller is a


small computer used for automation of real-world processes, such as control
of machinery on factory assembly lines. The PLC usually uses a
microprocessor. The program can often control complex sequencing and is
written by skilled engineers. The program is stored in battery- backed
memory and/or EEPROMs.

The main difference from other computers is the special I/O arrangements.
This connects the PLC to sensors and actuators. The I/O arrangements may
be built into a simple PLC, or the PLC may have external I/O modules
attached to a proprietary computer network that plugs into the PLC.

PLCs were invented as less expensive replacement for older automated


system that would use 100s or 1000s of relay and cam timers. Often, a
single PLC can be programmed to replace 1000s of relays. Programmable
controllers were initially adopted by the automotive manufacturing industry,
were software revision replaced the re-wiring of hard-wired control panels.

The functionality of the PLC has evolved over the years to include typically
relay control, sophisticated motion controller, process control, distributed
control systems and complex networking.

However, it should be noted that PLCs have a high cost (often 100s of
dollars) typical of a "generic" solution. There are other ways for automating
machines, such as custom micro controller- based design, but there is
difference among both: PLCs while more expensive, contain every thing
needed to handle high power loads right out of the box

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In addition, a micro controller- based would not have the flexibility of
infield programmability of a PLC. That is why PLCs are used in production
lines, for example. This typically are highly customized systems so the cost
of a PLC is low compared to the cost of contacting a designer for a specific,
one time only design. On the other hand, in the case mass produced goods,
customized control systems quickly pay for themselves due to the lower
cost of components. In high volumes, for example, a microcontroller with
5m relays and a power supply (for driving a dish washer for example) would
cost about 10 USD or less.

Early PLCs, up to the mid- 1 980s, were programmed using proprietary


programming panels or special- purpose programming terminals, which
often had dedicated function keys representing the various logical elements
of PLC programs. The very oldest PLC used non volatile magnetic core
memory but now the program is stored in the PLC either in battery-backed-
up RAM or in some other non volatile flash memory.

Five programming languages for programmable control systems:

FED (Function block diagram), LD (ladder diagram), ST (structured text,


similar to the Pascal programming language), IL (instruction list, similar to
assembly language) and SFC (sequential function chart). These techniques
emphasize logical organization of operations.

PLCs are used in many different industries and machines such as packaging
semiconductor machines. Well known PLC brands are Honeywell, Siemens,
Schneider electric, Omron, Rockwell (Allan Bradley), general electric,
Panasonic and Mitsubishi.

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• WHY PLCs?

Less cost to implement:

For the cost of relays and timers to alternate about three lines for conveying
product from finishing machine to packaging machine, it is better to pay A
PLC to do the same job. In general, a PLC system would make production
more flexible and responsive.

Reliability:

Relays and electromagnetic timers (magnetic control) are susceptible to


electrical/mechanical failure, hi addition, with PLC, it can be programmed
extra logic to monitor and test itself for possible failure at no extra cost.
This would make safety circuits safer and reduce process variability. By
using PLC, control compatibility can be increased with existing equipment,
scalability, improving ease of use, and providing a common look and feel.

Speed:

The PLC can speed up operations of machines that cannot be obtained with
that old outdated relay logic. Control logic makes decisions more accurate
and faster than a human operator could hope to achieve. Timers can be set to
hundredths of a second to compensate for external variables, and enhance
safety.

Greater functionality:

PLCs have the ability to compare real-time values and make decisions based
on that comparison. They can do complex mathematical functions, and
adjust the machine accordingly. The greater functionality allows designing

10
logic that can automatically adjust for different machine products, there by
reducing downtime for setups and machine change over.

Little or no cost to modify or upgrade the system: If the basic PLC system is
used in a place, most cost of adding circuits and machine control is
minimum.

Safety:

In the past with relay control logic, safety circuit implementation was
weighed out on a cost versus likelihood method. In other words, the basic
emergency stop button, relying on operators to stop the machine before an
accident occurred. Usually due to distractions and slow reaction time of
humans, the buttons wasn't pressed until after the damage was done. PLCs
can cover 99% of all the possible safety risk, and the only cost is the tune it
takes to add a few rungs of logic to the program. Safety curtains are about
the most expensive item, but well under the cost an accident. Using the PLC
to monitor safety risks are equivalent to having a full time employee
watching, but with quicker reaction tune than any human. The PLC logic
should never be a substitute for hardwired safety circuits, just used as an
enhancement to machine safety. Safety curtains should be run in series with
hardwired emergency stops.

Less down time:

Downtime can be broken down into separate areas. Scheduled and


nonscheduled.

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Scheduled downtime will be less it is for machine modifications, which
require less work with PLCs. Some of the preventive maintenance can be
automated through the PLC to even further reduce down tune.

Unscheduled downtime can be broken down further into groups:

Troubleshooting and repairs:

The more complex our systems become, the more beneficial it is to write
logic that will not only isolate failures but also indicate potential failures
that may occur in the near future. This allows maintenance to change
unscheduled downtime into scheduled downtime. Scheduled downtime, hi
turn reduces the amount of time down and loss of production.

The troubleshooting downtime can be replaced by 90%. This is


accomplished by utilizing the sensors already in place, to do testing through
PLC logic to isolate where trouble is originating.

Repair is usually only a fraction of the time it takes to find the problem. It is
not uncommon to spend hours tracking down a limit switch that is bent, or a
dirty proximity sensor. The cost to find the problem is more expensive than
the cost to repair it. With PLC the cot to find the problem is greatly reduced.

Implementing PLC technology in the ways mentioned above could result in


a 43% or more reduction in installation costs, Maintenance and variability in
addition; we cannot put a price on human health and well-being.

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• Architecture of PLC:

Here the central processing unit is considered to be the heart of the


programmable logic controller. We can program the PLC in the field itself.
This can be done using a programming device which can be a hand held
computer or a personal computer. The communication with the system will
be a serial communication using a RS-232 or RS-485 cable. The control
program is stored memory. The external power supply module caters the
need of all the modules. It directly controls the outputs taking into
consideration of the various inputs.

Programmable logic controllers (PLC) have been evolved out from Relay
logic circuits (RLC).

The relay logic circuits are hard wired. When the process became
complicated and [automation level increased so did the circuits. There
RLC's had many drawbacks. Viz.,

1. Circuits were bulky.

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2. Troubleshooting was very difficult

3. Inflexible.

4. To overcome the above drawbacks, a new product called


the PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS (PLC) emerged.

Programmable logic controller (PLC) is a solid - state device, basically


designed to perform logical decision making or industrial control
application.

Characteristic features of PLC:

• Field programmable without rewiring.

• Faster and easier access with field sensors.

• Easy communication with other PLC's as well as a DCS.

Advantages of a PLC:

• Nowadays, all the process industries need continuous monitor which


cannot be achieved manually.

• Perfect consistency and timing of the process can be maintained using


a PLC.

• PLC can handle even complex process control loops.

• Higher levels of reliability.

• Economical

14
The PLC's is composed of electronic circuit with a microcomputer centered.
However, it can be equivalently regarded as an integrated body of ordinary
relay, timer, counter etc.

15
PLC used in BMS :

HONEYWELL 620LCS AND MOELLER IPC620 PLCS

Powerful, modular easy to use system with a vast range of expansion


options

Honeywell 620LCS - Moeller IPC620

The Honeywell 620LCS is an extremely versatile, modular PLC system


offering high speed control of both discrete and analogue applications.

Also marketed by Klockner-Moeller as the IPC620PLC, the system


features many special purpose modules for enhanced network
communications and functionality. The 621 series universal I/O expands the
620 to build systems of up to 2040 I/O points in any mix of analogue or
digital.

CNC & PTP applications are handled by the Honeywell 622 motion control
system which integrate seamlessly into the 620 rack to give up to 6 axis of
servo control.

The entire 620 range is programmed using the 623-60 loader suite which
has a comprehensive instruction set including full floating point maths and
user definable function blocks. Pre-tested function blocks are also available
to download. WinLoader, a windows based version of the programming
suite is now available for use with Windows XP.

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• PLC used is TATA HONEYWELL.

• CPU : IPC 620-35.

• SOFTWARE : 620 WINLOADER,VERSION 5.4

• DC POWER SUPPLY

• DI’S : 26, DO’S : 25.

• INPUT : 110V/220V or 240V,5.5A Max.

• OUTPUT : 25V DC,20A.

• FREQUENCY : 50 HZ.

• PLC SPECIFICATIONS :-

• 32K EXPANDABLE MEMORY.

• PLC used is a Redundant System.


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• I/O Handling Capacity : 2048 Real IO’s.

• Scan Rate : 50msec.

• PLC consists of 5 Modules:

• Memory module

• Register module

• System Control module

• Processor module

• I/O Control module.

• The PLC is Redundant type.

• Redundant system has Running mode and Standby mode slots.

• If Running mode won’t work then Standby mode is used by PLC for
functioning.

• A Key is present in the PLC.

• It has four modes:

• Program

• Disable

• Run/Prog.

• Run.

18
• SIEMENS Automation

Programmable logic controllers (PLC) have been evolved out from


Relay logic circuits (RLC).

19
A typical RLC circuits is as shown in Figure.

Circuit Functioning :

When PB1 is pressed, R1 & R12 coils pickup. This makes R12 Normally
open (NO) Contact to close. Once R12 contact closes even if PB1 is
released, R12 will remain ON as there is a alternative path for the coil
(Termed as Latching). The only way to break the latch is to press PB2.

As seen the logic circuits are hard wired. When the process became
complicated and automation level increased so did the circuits. There RLC's
had many drawbacks. Viz.,

1. Circuits were bulky.

2. Troubleshooting was very difficult

3. Inflexible.

4. To overcome the above drawbacks, a new product called the


PROGRAMMABLE

20
LOGIC CONTROLLERS (PLC) emerged.

Programmable logic controller (PLC) is a solid - state device, basically


designed to perform logical decision making or industrial control
application.

The PLC's is composed of electronic circuit with a microcomputer centered.


However, it can be equivalently regarded as an integrated body of ordinary
relay, timer, counter etc.

The block diagram of a PLC is shown in Fig:

Power Supply:

It is basically required for the circuits of the PLC to function. These


power supplies are designed and rated only to operate the internal structure
and not the field elements. The external supply to the PLC can be AC/DC
and can be of different ranges, but the PLC power supply converts these to

21
the appropriate voltages required for internal functioning of the PLC
circuits.

The common voltages are:

AC: 110V,220V

DC: +24V, 110V.

Processor :

This is the heart of the PLC. It interfaces the input and out subsystems
through software written to it. The input and output subsystems are
explained in the preceding discussions.

INPUT SUBSYSTEMS

The sensing elements (input elements) are wired to the input section of the
PLC. These elements sense the dynamic status of the machine operation or
process. Inputs are classified into two :

1. Digital

2. Analog

1. Digital inputs :

These inputs have only to states, viz., ON or OFF (digitally 1 or 0).


Therefore these are also called as discrete inputs. Elements used to give the
various commands for e.g. push buttons. Limit switches, Selector switches,
Proximity switches, Level Switches and Pressure switches etc. are directly
connected to the input of the PLC
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2. Analog inputs:

These inputs have multiple states and rather continuously changing one and
are having a range of values. Electrically these are categorized into two:

i) Voltage: The commonly used ranges are

1. 0 to 10 Vdc -unipolar

2. -10 to + 10 Vdc - bipolar

ii) Current: The commonly used ranges are

1. 0 to 20mA

2. 4 to 20 mA

The field parameters like pressure, flow, temperature etc. are converted to
electrical parameters through transducers and are converted further to the
above voltage / current signals through transmitters. The output of
transmitters is then connected to analog inputs of the PLC. The PLC in turn
converts these voltage / current signals to their equivalent digital values
through the analog to digital converters. Typical example is shown below:

23
The most commonly used range is 4-20mA, as it has no voltage drop for
longer distances and wire cut can be detected as the minimum signal voltage
is 4mA.

OUTPUT SUBSYSTEMS:

The actuating elements (output elements) are wired to the output section.

Output is classified into two:

1. Digital

2. Analog

1. Digital Output:

These have only two states, viz., ON or OFF (digitally 1 or 0). There these
are also called as discrete outputs. These elements are mainly actuators like
contactors. Relays, solenoid coils, indicating lamps, annunciation lamps
etc., and are directly connected to outputs of the PLC.

2. Analog Output:

These output have multiple states and rather continuously changing one and
are having a range of values electrically these are categorized into two :

i) Voltage: The commonly used ranges are

1. 0 to 10 V DC -unipolar

2. -10 to + 10 VDC -bipolar

3. 0 to 5 VDC

ii) Current: The commonly used ranges are

24
1. 0 to 20mA DC

2. 0 to 20 mA DC

In case of analog outputs, the digital value is converted to analog signals


and these signals are fed to actuators such as control valves. These control
valves in rum open / close from 0 to 100% depending on digital values fed.

A typical example for analog output is as shown below:

Sample Ladder Program:

Consider the electrical network shown in Fig. If the same has to be replaced
by the PLC, then the pushbutton PBl, PB2 would be the inputs and relay
coil Rl as output.

The auxiliary contactor R12 can be omitted. Suppose PBl, PB2 are
connected to 1st and 2nd channel of the digital input card of the PLC and Rl
is connected to 1st channel of the digital output card of PLC then the PLC
program will be as shown in the above example.

25
The auxiliary relay is omitted and is replaced by a contact of output itself.
This is permitted in PLC. Outputs are memory addresses, which can be read
as well as written.

Hence if it read, a contact is placed and when it is written a coil placed in


the logic. As seen looks like a ladder, that is why this is termed as ladder
program.

• Programming Software used in Programming of SIEMENS S7 PLC


is SIMATIC MANAGER 7 or STEP 7 LITE.

26
HOW DOES A PLC WORK ?

Most PLC system executes a scan sequence. Figure displays the various
blocks in this sequence.

House keeping consists of internal checksums and diagnostics that the


processor executes every scan cycle. These can be done at the beginning or
the end of the scan cycle or both depending upon the PLC.

Input scan consists of reading the current state for each input connected to
the PLC system and updating the input memory tables (buffer memory).

Logic scan consists of reading the use program that has been stored in the
PLC memory. These programs can be written in ladder logic, instruction
list, sequential Flow charts, function block, structure text, c code or state
logic depending upon their manufacturer of (he system. Some system
supports programming using combination of languages within the same
program-Output scan consists of adjusting the values of the outputs

27
connected to the system based upon the status of inputs and execution of the
logic.

Service communications consists of opening the window of time for the


processor to communication to other devices. These can be programming
devices, operator interface devices, remote IO controllers, other PLC's or
any other devices having communication capability that is compatible with
the PLC system.

• LADDER PROGRAMMING and FUNCTIONS:

As earlier discussed, ladder program is one of the methods of programming


the PLC's. the flow of the program is "Left to right top to bottom". GE
Fanuc PLC's has a powerful set of functions and categorically divided as
under

1. Relay functions

2. Timers and counters

3. Math functions

4. Relational functions

5. Bit operation functions

6. Data move functions

7. Table functions

8. Conversion functions

9. Control functions

1. RELAY FUNCTIONS:

Relay function is composed of contacts and coils as is so in a relay.

28
Contacts:

1. Logical "Normally Open" contact (NO)

A NO contact acts as a switch that passes power flow if associated


reference is ON (1).

2. Logical "Normally Closed" contacts (NC)

A NC contact acts as a switch that passes power flow is associate reference


is OFF (0).

Ladder logic permits only 9 contacts and a coil in series. If the number of
contact is more than 9 then, continuation contact "<+>—"

Coils:

------------- ( )
-----
Normal open coil

------------- (/ ) Negated coil. The referenced coil will be ON when the


-----
conditions previous to it i.e., the contacts does not satisfy
the power flow.

------------- ( S ) Set coil. The referenced coil will be ON when the


-----
conditions previous to it i.e., the contact satisfies. Once
the coil is ON will remain ON even when the conditions
previous to it does not satisfy the power flow anymore.
The only way to reset the coil by a reset coil to the same
referenced address.

------------- (R ) Reset coil. The referenced coil, which made ON through


-----
a set coil, is made OFF through reset coil. The set and
29
reset coil together form a latch. In the example shown in
the exercise 1, ladder logic can also, be written as under
using the set and reset coils.

------------- (↑ ) Positive transition coi1. The referenced coil will be ON


-----
once the condition (contacts) previous to it satisfy and
give a power - flow to the coil. The coil will be ON only
for one PLC scan time.

------------- (↓ ) Negative transition coil. The referenced coil will be ON


-----
once the condition (contacts) previous does not satisfy
and there is power — flow to the coil. The coil will be
ON only for one PLC scan time. Here %M001 will be
ON the moment %I001 is OFF from ON. %M001 will be
On only for 1 PLC scan. If %M001 has to become On
again, then %I001 has to go ON and become Off again.

30
• USER PROGRAMMING FORMS

• Instruction List (IL)

• Function Block Diagram(FBD)

• Ladder Diagram(LAD)

• Structured Text(ST)

• Sequence Function Chart(SFC)

• TIMERS

• There are 5 types of Timers in SIEMENS PLC.

1. Pulse Timer

2. Extended Pulse Timer

3. ON Delay Timer

4. Retentive ON Delay Timer

5. OFF Delay Timer.

• Address of Timer range from T0-T127,Address of Timer should be


unique.

31
• Timer has Digital Inputs and Digital Outputs only. Timer occupies 2
Bytes of memory space.

• Timer is diagramatically represented below.

ADDRESS CS

I0. NAME Q0.


0
S Q

TV BI
I0.
1 R BCD

32
J
R a w m a te
M ix e d H a r
& B am b

33
34
BURNER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION

The problem of operation and safety posed by a Recovery Boiler is much


more than a conventional utility/Industrial Boiler. It is basically a chemical
recovery process unit where the organic material in the black liquor is burnt,
while the sodium salt is reduced and drained as molten smelt from the
furnace bottom. At the same time, the heat released is utilized for steam
generation.

Though predominantly the heat for the process is obtained from the
burning of the black liquor, supplementary heat from oil fired auxiliary fuel
burners is required to start up the unit, regulate the charbed , avoid blackouts
and to augment additional steam.

35
FEATURES

Auxiliary fuel system is comprised of one level of starting burners (4


burners Oil fired with oil ignitors) at the hearth and one level of load
S
carrying burners at the secondary(famous)air registors.

The BMS provides for the proper sequencing of equipment during the
T and shut down procedures and provides for an
normal startup operating
auxiliary fuel trip and/or an alarm during an adverse burner or unit operating

various Interlocks.
E
condition. This is accomplished through the use of pre-wired logic and

A
M

36
BURNER
1

BOILERBURNE BURNE OIL


EMERGENCY R ON R ENG
TRIP OFF

37
FUNCTION

The following operations of the function are achieved in the BMS.

1. Boiler purge.

2. Main oil header trip valve open/close operation.

3. Ignitor oil header trip valve open/close operation.

4. Auxiliary fuel burner ignitor ‘ON/OFF’ operation.

5. Ignitor Flame scanning.

6. Auxiliary fuel burner start/stop operation.

7. Auxiliary fuel trip production.

8. Emergency drain trip protection.

The BMS is a local-manual relay system. Starting burners are started and
stopped locally from their associated local switch boxes while the
various header trip valves are opened and closed remotely from
associated Push Buttons on BOILER CONTROL DESK(BCD).All the
commands of BMS are given from BCD and all the feed-back from BMS
are indicated in BCD.

FURNACE PURGE

Before any auxiliary fuel can be introduced in the unit(initial or after an


auxiliary fuel trip)a satisfactory furnace purge cycle must first be
completed. To start a furnace purge cycle, proceed as follows:

1. Establish an (I.D. Fan Start,Permissive)by completing all of the


following conditions.

*1A. All Emergency drain valves are closed.

*1B. Main oil header trip valve and ignitor trip valve closed.

38
*1C. Feed Water shut off valve is open.

1D. Evaporator outlet temperature less than 525oF.

1E. Precipitator outlet temperature less than 525oF.

(*) Conditions preceded by an asterish are not required once the ID fan is
running.

2. Place I.D. Fan in service.

3. Place the F.D. Fan in service.

4. Adjust the primary air flow to maintain a minimum of 30% of full


load air flow.

5. See that all of the starting and all of the load carrying burner valves
are fully closed.

6. Reset the boiler trip by depressing the BOILER TRIP RESET Push
Button.

7. When the purge ready light comes on indicating that all of the purge
requirements have been completed depress the PURGE START PUSH
BUTTON.

TRIP VALVE OPERATION

MAIN OIL HEADER TRIP VALVE:

Depressing the main oil header trip valve open push button once the
furnace purge is completed, will open the main oil header trip valve.

Depressing the main oil header trip valve close push button will close the
main oil header trip valve.

39
IGNITOR OIL HEADER TRIP VALVE

Depressing the Ignitor Oil Header trip valve open push button once the
purge cycle has been completed and the main oil header trip valve is fully
opened, opens the ignitor oil header trip valve.

40
OPERATION (SHUT DOWN)

AUXILIARY FUEL SHUT DOWN

STARTING BURNER & LOAD CARRYING BURNER

An orderly shutdown of an individual burner takes place by turning the


associated starting burner local control switch to the TRIP GUN
POSITION which will close the burner shut-off valve. This will leave
the associated ignitor in service for manually scavenging the gun as
follows:

1. Open the associated steam scavenge valve and scavenge the gun.

2. After scavenging for approximately one minute close the steam


scavenge valve.

3. Close the manual atomizing steam valve.

4. Place the associated burner local control switch to the OFF


position,this will shut down the ignitor.

5. Retract the oil gun from the firing position. However, it must be noted
that following a fuel trip the guns shall not be scavenged.

Any one of the following conditions being present, results in the


automatic shutdown of the burner oil gun:

*1. Associated ignitor fails to prove flame.

*2. Ignitor Oil Header trip valve not fully open.

*3. Auxiliary fuel trip.

4. Oil temperature below 160oF.

5. Steam to oil differential pressure below 5 PSIG.

6. Associated Oil gun not engaged in the firing position.

(*) Any of the conditions preceded by an asterisk will also trip the
associated ignitor.

41
AUXILIARY FUEL TRIP

Any one of the conditions below will cause an auxiliary fuel trip to
occur,and results in the immediate shutdown of all of the auxiliary fuel
in service and necessitates completion of another furnace purge cycle
before any auxiliary fuel firing may be reinstated.

1. Evaporator outlet temperature greater than 525oF.

2. Precipitator outlet temperature greater than 525oF.

3. I.D. Fan not in service.

4. F.D. Fan not in service.

5. Primary Air Flow less than 30% of full load of flow.

6. Furnace pressure greater than +4”W.G.

7. Ignitor oil pressure not within controlled limits.(75% to 125% of full


load pressure).

8. Ignitor air pressure greater than 75% of full load pressure.

9. Main oil pressure below 75% of full load pressure.

10.Starting burner oil header pressure above 125% of full load pressure.

11.Load carrying burner oil pressure above 125% of full load pressure.

12.Recirculation selector switch not in OPERATE position.

13.A Boiler trip condition exists.

14.Either of the local auxiliary fuel trip push button depressed.

15.Both of the auxiliary fuel trip push buttons on the BCD depressed.

42
ESP

CBL
43
EMERGENCY DRAIN AND TRIP

An emergency drain and trip procedure is initiated if water in any


amount is known to be entering the furnace and cannot be stopped
immediately or if any leaks external to the furnace such as failure of
gaskets, gage glasses etc.

An emergency drain is initiated by simultaneously depressing the two


“Emergency Drain push button” on the BCD panel.

An emergency drain trip initiates the following.

*1. Auxiliary fuel trip.

*2. F.D.Fan trip.

3. Closing of the feed water valve.

4. Opening of the emergency drain valve.

* Conditions preceded by an asterisk are the same trip inputs .

BOILER TRIP

Depressing the two emergency drain push buttons results in an


instantaneous boiler trip. The feed water supply valve will not close,
however, until the following conditions are also satisfied.

1. All trip valves closed OR

2. Ignitor trip valve closed and

All oil scanner valves closed.

The emergency drain valves should not open until the feed-water valve is
closed (This is an externally interlocked circuit).

The emergency drain condition will remain, “Scaled in ” until the circuit is
reset by means of a reset push button on the BCD panel. This action is to be
taken by responsible personnel after assessing the particular situation which
warranted the emergency drain trip initially.

44
Alarms

The following alarm conditions will cause an annunciator alarm to sound if


the appropriate terminals on the BCD panel are connected to the customers
annunciators. The contacts are normally open for the alarm conditions.

1. Furnace pressure greater than +4”W.G.

2. Air flow less than 30%.

3. Ignitor oil pressure less than 75%.

4. Ignitor air pressure less than 75%.

5. Main oil pressure less than 75%.

6. Starting Burner Oil pressure greater than 125%.

7. Boiler trip.

8. Auxiliary fuel trip.

9. I.D. Fan not running.

10.F.D. Fan not running.

11.Precipitator outlet temperature greater than 525oF.

12.Feedwater shut off valve not open.

13.Emergency drain valves not closed.

14.Evaporator outlet temperature greater than 525oF.

15.Emergency drain and trip.

45
ECONOMIZER

 In boilers, economizers are heat exchange devices that heat fluids,


usually water, up to but not normally beyond the boiling point of that
fluid.

 Economizers are so named because they can make use of the enthalpy
in fluid streams that are hot, but not hot enough to be used in a boiler,
thereby recovering more useful enthalpy and improving the boiler's
efficiency. They are a device fitted to a boiler which saves energy by
using the exhaust gases from the boiler to preheat the cold water used
to fill it (the feed water).

DIGITAL I/P’s

1. OIL GUN ENGAGED

2. HOBV CLOSED

3. SCNR FLM

4. IGNITOR

5. FURNACE PRESSURE

6. HO PRESSURE

7. ATOM STEAM PRESSURE

8. HO TEMPERATURE

9. HORV OPEN

10.HORV CLOSE

11.HOTV OPEN

12.HOTV CLOSE

13.EP O/L TEMP

14.AIR FLOW

15.DRUM LEVEL

46
16.SA/TA FAN RUNNING

17.ID FAN RUNNING

18.PA FAN RUNNING

19.FW SHUT OFF VLV OPEN

20.FW SHUT OFF VLV CLOSE

21.EMERGENCY TRIP

22.EM DRAIN & TRIP

23.AUXILIARY FUEL TRIP

24.PURGE START

25.SCANNER FAN-A ST/SP

26.SCANNER FAN-B ST/SP

DIGITAL O/P’s

1. ATOMISING STEAM V/V

2. HOBV OPENED

3. SCAVENGE V/V

4. HEA IGNITOR

5. HOTV OPEN CMD

6. HOTV CLOSE CMD

7. HORV OPEN CMD

8. HORV CLOSE CMD

9. SCANNER FAN-A START

10.SCANNER FAN-B START

11.NO BOILER TRIP

12.SA/TA FAN START PMT

47
13.PA FAN START PMT

14.ID FAN START PMT

15.BL PMP

16.EP ASH PUMP

17.AFT

18.PURGE COMPLETE NO AFT

19.EP O/L TEMP

20.FW SHUT OFF V/V CLOSE

21.TRIP SA/TA FAN

22.TRIP PA FAN

23.STM-BL V/V

24.STARTUP V/V

25.EMRG DRN V/V

48
LADDER LOGICS

49
INDUSTRIAL SPECIFICATIONS

• FURNACE TEMP. : 600deg.C(inlet),650deg.C

• FURNACE STEAM: 35TPH

• ECONOMISER TEMP. :
380deg.C(inlet) , 160deg.C(outlet)

• ESP TEMP. : 160deg.C(inlet),150deg.C(outlet)

• STEAM DRUM WATER LEVEL : 54%

• SUPER HEATED STEAM TEMP. : +/- 410 deg.C

• CHIMNEY TEMP. : 140 - 150 deg.C

• GREEN LIQUOR OUTLET : 1000 TPH/DAY

• STEAM PRESSURE O/L : 36kg/cm2

• STEAM TEMP. O/L : 410 – 415 deg.C

• STEAM FLOW O/L : 36 TPH.

50
METHODOLOGY

51
IMPLEMENTATION

Level Control in a Reaction Vessel

• The SIEMENS PLC specifications used for Level Control are :

• Software : STEP 7 LITE.

• MODEL : S7 300

• 16 DIGITAL INPUTS

• 4 ANALOG INPUTS

• 16 DIGITAL OUTPUTS

• 9 RELAY OUTPUTS

• 2 ANALOG OUTPUTS

• Q1 : 24 V DC 0.5A MAX

• The Inputs and Outputs used in this project are Digital I/O ‘sonly.

• The Inputs to PLC are :

52
1. START/STOP Push Button Switch

2. LOW

3. MEDIUM

4. HIGH.

• The Outputs from PLC are :

1. INLET-1

2. INLET-2

3. AGITATOR / MOTOR

4. OUTLET

5. PUMP-1

6. PUMP-2

PLC WIRING DIAGRAM

53
54
Terminal no Terminal name

1 24v

2 I-1

3 I-2

4 Motor

5 Outlet

6 Pump-1

7 Pump-2

8 Common line

9 START

10 STOP

11 MIN

12 MID

13 MAX

14

15

16 0V

• HARDWARE USED

1. PLC

2. Solenoid value -3

55
Pressure:0~0.8Mpa

Power:4.8W

Voltage: dc 24v

3. Pumps -2

Voltage: 220-240v ac

Fl max: 600 l/h

Frequency: 50 hz

Power : 8.5w

4. Motor -1

Voltage : 12v DC

Speed : 100rpm

Torque :1/2 kg.

5. Wanes -3

6. Tank -1

7. Relay – single change over

8. Voltage regulator -1

7812

Voltage :12v DC

9. PCB Board(4*4)-1

10.pipe -1 5Mts

Outer diameter : ¼ inch

11.Push buttons -2

56
NO -1

NC -1

11.PCB connector -1

PBT

13. Table -1

14. Terminal connector-1

15. Single strand cable -2

• WORKING

1. Initially the Tank is Empty.

2. When the Start Push Button is pressed the Pump-1 and Inlet v/v-
1will be ON i.e., liquid-1 shall flow from Pump-1 to Tank.

3. Liquid reaches Minimum/Low Level then it reaches Medium Level.

4. As the Mid Level is reached liquid-1 stops flowing from Pump-1 and
liquid-2 is supplied by Pump-2 via Inlet v/v-2.

5. As Maximum/High Level is reached by liquid-2 ,Pump-2 cease to


supply liquid-2.

6. Then Motor shall be ON for specified time for mixing of both the
liquids with Agitator that is connected to Motor.

7. When Motor Stops the Outlet v/v will drain the liquid Outside.

8. This process continues until Stop Push Button is pressed.

57
• LIST OF I/O ‘s in LADDER DIAGRAM

I0.0 : INPUT SWITCH

I0.1 : INPUT LOW

I0.2 : INPUT MEDIUM

I0.3 : INPUT HIGH

M0.1: MEMORY OF MOTOR OUTPUT

M0.5: MEMORY OF TIMER OUTPUT

M3.0: SET/ RESET MEMORY OF MOTOR OUTPUT

M3.1: MEMORY OF OUTLET VALVE

M3.5: MEMORY OF VALVE-1

Q0.0: OUTPUT OF VALVE-1

Q0.1: OUTPUT OF VALVE-2

Q0.2: OUTPUT OF MOTOR

Q0.3: OUTPUT OF PUMP-1

Q0.4: OUTPUT OF PUMP-2

Q0.5: OUTPUT OF DRAIN VALVE.

58
I0. I0. I0. I0. Q0.1 Q0.2 M3.0 M3.1 Q0.0
0 1 2 3

Q0.
0
Q0.4

M3.5 M3.5
S
I0. I0. I0. I0.
Q0.0 Q0.2 M3.0 M3.1 Q0.1
0 1 2 3

Q0.5

M3.
I0. Q0.1 Q0.3 I0. 5
Q0.0 R
3 0
M0.1
M0.
1
M3.0
S
I0.
M0.1 M0.5 M3.1 Q0.2
0

T1
S_OD
M0.1 M0.5
T
S Q

10s TV

Ladder Logic Diagram R

I0. I0. I0.


M0.5 Q0.3
0 1 0

M3.
1 M3.0
R
Q0.3 M3.0 M3.1
S

I0. I0.
M3.1
0 1
R

59
60
• APPLICATIONS

1. Used in Bottling plants.

2. Used in Chemical Industries like Fertilizers,Drugs.

3. Used in Paper,Cement Industries.

61
RESULTS AND
CONCLUSION

62
4. Results and Conclusion

• The main theme of this project is Purging the Furnace at initial stage
and activating the Emergency Trip and Drain valves during abnormal
conditions while continuous running of process.

• This project can be used for better functioning of Boiler plant without
any malfunctions by continuously monitoring the Industrial
parameters and protecting the Boiler from destruction.

• So, we can use the Programmable Logic Controller(PLC) in order to


control a particular process by taking real time signals as inputs.

• PLC plays a major role in present day industry. Though the


installation cost is high but the advantages with the PLC overcome
these minor disadvantages.

• As it is easy to program, we can easily configure the control logic as


required.

• PLC requires hardwiring only once and if there is any change in


wiring , we can easily change it.

• So, the BMS system and Level Control in a Reaction Vessel are being
controlled using a PLC.

63
5. FUTURE SCOPE

 Multi Inputs and Outputs can be added according to requirement for


higher Productivity.

 Counters along with Timers can be used for multifunction purposes.

64
6. REFERENCES

1. SIMATIC PLC User Manual.

2. PLC Material from Internet.

3. Boiler Plant of J.K Paper Mills.

4. Instrumentation Manuals.

65
7. APPENDIX

LIST OF EQUIPMENTS :-

ON/OFF Valve:-

DI:-2 DO:-1 Unit:- open/close

• Two Digital inputs to the Dcs/Plc

1 input for ON indication

1 input for OFF condition.

• One digital output from Dcs.


• Operation is either fully open or fully close.
• Solenoid valve is attached to on/off valve.
• Feed back is provided by Limit switch.

Limit Switch:-

Primarily Controlled By: Valve position indicator

Located: Attached to the valve position indicator

Purpose:

1. To signal if the valve is opened or close

2. To start or stop allied equipment

Control valve:-

DI-1 AI-1 unit:-kg/cm2

• One digital input to dcs is limit/proximity switch.


• One analog input from dcs is current i.e 4-20ma
• Current and pressure are applied to I(ma) to pressure converter and
output pneumatic signal controls valve position.
• Positioner is present for control valve.

66
Valve pressure(kg/cm2) current(ma)

0% 4 0.2

25% 8 0.4

50% 12 0.6

75% 16 0.8

100% 20 1.0

Motor:-

DI-3 AI-1 DO-1 unit:-start/stop

• Motor converts electrical to mechanical energy.


• Digital inputs are:

1) Local/remote: if motor is in remote position then it can be operated


from dcs. If it is in local position it cannot be operated from dcs.

2) RUN: it indicates status of running motor. In dcs green means motor


is in running state. Red means off state.

3) TRIP: motor takes high current then it will stop, red blinking is seen
in dcs monitor

Analog input is voltage signal i.e load of motor.

Pressure transmitter:-

AI-1 unit:-kg/cm2 range:-0-5 bar.

• Pressure is the force per unit area.

• To measure pressure in a tank this transmitter is used.

• In dcs pressure is indicated as numeric value.

67
Level transmitter:-

AI-1 unit:-mmwc range:- 0-100%

• Level of liquid present in a tank is measured using level transmitter.

• The level of tank is displayed as a value in dcs screen.

• If the level is less, than dcs gives signal to input and valve is opened
to attain certain level and then level transmitter indicates it in dcs.

Flow transmitter:-

AI-1 unit:-m3/hr range:0-100%

• Flow of liquid (ex:- black liquor) in a line or tube can be measured


using flow transmitter.

• Flow rate is displayed on dcs as a numeric value correspondingly


flow can be monitored.

• Orifice plate are used for creating differential pressure in water and
steam lines

• Magnetic flow meters are used for flow measurement of pulp and
liquor.

Temperature transmitter:-

AI-1 unit:0c

• Temperature transmitter is used to measure the temperature present in


a tank.

• RTDs are connected at the bottom tanks in order to measure


temperature.

68
Level switch:-

DI-1 unit:on/off

Level switch features include:

1) Point level operation(fixed differential).

2) Adjustable differential mode for pump on/off type of operation.

3)The led indication in dcs

Green: normal level(healthy condition)

Red: abnormal level(alarm)

Flow switch:-

DI-1 unit:-on/off

• Flow switch monitors the flow of liquids, gases and lubricants.

• Flow switch is ideal for wet/dry detection in protecting pumps where


sudden, unexpected reductions in flow rates may leave pumps
vulnerable to overheating condition that result in being damage.

• In Dcs screen

Green: normal flow

Red: abnormal flow.

Pressure switch:-

DI-1 unit:- on/off

• Pressure switch is a contact instrument.

• It has NO-normal open and NC- normal close contacts.

69
0.2 kg/cm2 – low pressure

1.0 kg/cm2 – high pressure.

* The switch acts oppositely to applied pressure.

Speed switch:-

DI-1 unit:-on/off

• If pulp or water in lime or pump is accumulated then motor trips i.e


speed switch will be off.

• Indication goes to DCS as Red which signals that pump is stopped


due to some problem.

• Red: problem exist.

Green: normal.

Oxygen Analyser:-

AI-1 unit:-% Range:0-100

• Oxygen analyser is present in oxygen generation plant and chlorine


dioxide plant.

• Model 3020m belongs to oxygen generation plant.

• 4-20 ma DC current output signal represents oxygen concentration in


the sample i.e clo2.

• When clo2 gas is sent to o2 analyser then the amount of oxygen


present is analysed and range is displayed.

Ph Analyser:-

AI-1 unit:-% Range:0-14

• Ph is potential of hydrogen.

70
• Measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution numerically equal to 7
or neutral solution.

• Increase with increasing alkalinity and decreasing with increasing


acidity.

• When a solution is passed through Ph analyser it indicates whether the


solution is acidic or alkaline.

Ph < 7(acidic)

Ph > 7(alkaline)

Ph = 7(neutral)

Alkali Analyser:-

AI-1 unit:% Range:0-100

• It is used to measure clo2 concentration

• It is present in clo2 plant.

• Clo2 percentage is detected by sensor and fed to Dcs.

• The amount of light passing through sensor determines clo2


concentration.

Consistency Transmitter:-

AI-1 unit:% Range:0-5

• Thickness of pulp present in liquid is measured using consistency


transmitter.

• The transmitter is connected by means of a 3-wire system for analog


output and low voltage supply.

71
• Measuring principle is force measurement, time measurement by
reciprocating sensing element.

• The consistency depends on pulp type i.e 0.5% min. and 5% max.

• Insensitive to flow variations.

Conductivity Transmitter:-

AI-1 unit:% Range:0-5

• Conductivity increases with increase of impurity.

• Conductivity transmitter is used to measure level of impurity present


in condensate..

• If impurity is more than max. range then it indicates.

Weightometer:-

AI-1 unit: TPH(tons per hour) Range:0-250

• Chips from live bottom silo falls on conveyor belt and they are sent to
digester section where the chips fall on screw.

• Weightometer is present at chips screw. It indicates the weight of


chips falling on chips screw.

• The weight is displayed on DCS screen in terms of tons.

Load indicator:-

AI-1 unit: amp%, TPH Range:0-125

• Load indicator is used to indicate the number of chips entering the


digester.

• In field it is shown as level indicator.

72
• Level indicator displays level on a scale as red colour mounted inside
a meter.

Load cell:-

AI-1 unit: tons Range:0-230

• It is attached to the digester.

• It also indicates pumping out of pulp from digester

• In DCS screen it is displayed as say 110.52 tons.

Indicator:-

Unit:% Range:0-100

• Indicator is used to show the range of values depending upon the


transmitter output signal.

• Generally the transmitter output ranges from 4-20 ma. The indicator
range may be 0-500, 0-1000, etc..

• In field indicator is used.

73
Proximity switch:-

DI-1 unit: on/off

• There are two types of proximity switches

1) capacitive

2) inductive

a) cylinder.

b) rectangular.

• Capacitivity proximity switch detects both metallic and non-metallic


objects( glass, water, oil, plastic) without direct contact.

• It indirectly detects objects buried in a non-metallic wall.

• Proximity switch senses the metallic particles and gives output signal
in pulse.

Controller:-

Unit:% Range:0-100

• A controller is present in every purpose.

• It is an important block in every operation of plant/process.

• A controller has 3 parameters.

1) Process variable.

2) Set point

3) Output.

• The output from transmitter( pressure, level, flow, temperature) is


called process variable.

74
• It is fed to controller as 4-20 ma signal.

• The controller has set point. It adjusts the output according to


requirement.

ClO2 Analyser:-

A.I-1 unit:% Range:0-15

• Chlorine dioxide analysis is performed in calorimetric method.

• Gaseous or Aqueous mixture is brought near analyser in pipes.

• Strength of ClO2 is analysed.

• It is displayed in DCS as value.

ClO2: GPL( grams per litre)

Cl2 Detector:-

A.I-1 Unit: ppm Range: 0-7

• A separator is present in Cl2 Detector.

• ClO2 + Cl2 gas mixture is passed and the cell in detector detects
chlorine in that gas.

• The output is fed to amplifier and current is obtained.

• The amount of chlorine detected in displayed on meter.

• LEDs are present in the detector.

• It is present at DP filterate tank.

75
Switches, process actuated:-

• It is very important to keep in mind that the "normal" contact status of


a process-actuated switch refers to its status when the process is
absent and/or inactive, not "normal" in the sense of process
conditions as expected during routine operation.

• For instance, a normally-closed low-flow detection switch installed


on a coolant pipe will be maintained in the actuated state (open) when
there is regular coolant flow through the pipe.

• If the coolant flow stops, the flow switch will go to its "normal" (un
actuated) status of closed.

• A limit switch is one actuated by contact with a moving machine part.


An electronic limit switch senses mechanical motion, but does so
using light, magnetic fields, or other non-contact means.

76
Switch types :-

An electrical switch is any device used to interrupt the flow of electrons in a


circuit. Switches are essentially binary devices: they are either completely
on ("closed") or completely off ("open"). There are many different types of
switches, and we will explore some of these types in this chapter.

Though it may seem strange to cover this elementary electrical topic at such
a late stage in this book series, I do so because the chapters that follow
explore an older realm of digital technology based on mechanical switch
contacts rather than solid-state gate circuits, and a thorough understanding
of switch types is necessary for the undertaking. Learning the function of
switch-based circuits at the same time that you learn about solid-state logic
gates makes both topics easier to grasp, and sets the stage for an enhanced
learning experience in Boolean algebra, the mathematics behind digital
logic circuits.

The simplest type of switch is one where two electrical conductors are
brought in contact with each other by the motion of an actuating
mechanism. Other switches are more complex, containing electronic circuits
able to turn on or off depending on some physical stimulus (such as light or
magnetic field) sensed. In any case, the final output of any switch will be (at
least) a pair of wire-connection terminals that will either be connected
together by the switch's internal contact mechanism ("closed"), or not
connected together ("open").

Any switch designed to be operated by a person is generally called a hand


switch, and they are manufactured in several varieties:

Toggle switches are actuated by a lever angled in one of two or more


positions. The common light switch used in household wiring is an example
of a toggle switch. Most toggle switches will come to rest in any of their
lever positions, while others have an internal spring mechanism returning
the lever to a certain normalposition, allowing for what is called
"momentary" operation.

77
Pushbutton switches are two-position devices actuated with a button that is
pressed and released. Most pushbutton switches have an internal spring
mechanism returning the button to its "out," or "unpressed," position, for
momentary operation. Some pushbutton switches will latch alternately on or
off with every push of the button. Other pushbutton switches will stay in
their "in," or "pressed," position until the button is pulled back out. This last
type of pushbutton switches usually have a mushroom-shaped button for
easy push-pull action.

Selector switches are actuated with a rotary knob or lever of some sort to
select one of two or more positions. Like the toggle switch, selector
switches can either rest in any of their positions or contain spring-return
mechanisms for momentary operation.

A joystick switch is actuated by a lever free to move in more than one axis
of motion. One or more of several switch contact mechanisms are actuated
depending on which way the lever is pushed, and sometimes by how far it is
pushed. The circle-and-dot notation on the switch symbol represents the
direction of joystick lever motion required to actuate the contact. Joystick
hand switches are commonly used for crane and robot control.

Some switches are specifically designed to be operated by the motion of a


machine rather than by the hand of a human operator. These motion-
operated switches are commonly called limit switches, because they are
often used to limit the motion of a machine by turning off the actuating
power to a component if it moves too far. As with hand switches, limit
switches come in several varieties:

78
These limit switches closely resemble rugged toggle or selector hand
switches fitted with a lever pushed by the machine part. Often, the levers are
tipped with a small roller bearing, preventing the lever from being worn off
by repeated contact with the machine part.

Proximity switches sense the approach of a metallic machine part either by a


magnetic or high-frequency electromagnetic field. Simple proximity
switches use a permanent magnet to actuate a sealed switch mechanism
whenever the machine part gets close (typically 1 inch or less). More
complex proximity switches work like a metal detector, energizing a coil of
wire with a high-frequency current, and electronically monitoring the
magnitude of that current. If a metallic part (not necessarily magnetic) gets
close enough to the coil, the current will increase, and trip the monitoring
circuit. The symbol shown here for the proximity switch is of the electronic
variety, as indicated by the diamond-shaped box surrounding the switch. A
non-electronic proximity switch would use the same symbol as the lever-
actuated limit switch.

Another form of proximity switch is the optical switch, comprised of a light


source and photocell. Machine position is detected by either the interruption
or reflection of a light beam. Optical switches are also useful in safety
applications, where beams of light can be used to detect personnel entry into
a dangerous area.

In many industrial processes, it is necessary to monitor various physical


quantities with switches. Such switches can be used to sound alarms,
indicating that a process variable has exceeded normal parameters, or they
can be used to shut down processes or equipment if those variables have
reached dangerous or destructive levels. There are many different types of
process switches:

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These switches sense the rotary speed of a shaft either by a centrifugal
weight mechanism mounted on the shaft, or by some kind of non-contact
detection of shaft motion such as optical or magnetic.

Gas or liquid pressure can be used to actuate a switch mechanism if that


pressure is applied to a piston, diaphragm, or bellows, which converts
pressure to mechanical force.

An inexpensive temperature-sensing mechanism is the "bimetallic strip:" a


thin strip of two metals, joined back-to-back, each metal having a different
rate of thermal expansion. When the strip heats or cools, differing rates of
thermal expansion between the two metals causes it to bend. The bending of
the strip can then be used to actuate a switch contact mechanism. Other
temperature switches use a brass bulb filled with either a liquid or gas, with
a tiny tube connecting the bulb to a pressure-sensing switch. As the bulb is
heated, the gas or liquid expands, generating a pressure increase which then
actuates the switch mechanism.

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A floating object can be used to actuate a switch mechanism when the liquid
level in an tank rises past a certain point. If the liquid is electrically
conductive, the liquid itself can be used as a conductor to bridge between
two metal probes inserted into the tank at the required depth. The
conductivity technique is usually implemented with a special design of relay
triggered by a small amount of current through the conductive liquid. In
most cases it is impractical and dangerous to switch the full load current of
the circuit through a liquid.

Level switches can also be designed to detect the level of solid materials
such as wood chips, grain, coal, or animal feed in a storage silo, bin, or
hopper. A common design for this application is a small paddle wheel,
inserted into the bin at the desired height, which is slowly turned by a small
electric motor. When the solid material fills the bin to that height, the
material prevents the paddle wheel from turning. The torque response of the
small motor than trips the switch mechanism. Another design uses a "tuning
fork" shaped metal prong, inserted into the bin from the outside at the
desired height. The fork is vibrated at its resonant frequency by an
electronic circuit and magnet/electromagnet coil assembly. When the bin
fills to that height, the solid material dampens the vibration of the fork, the
change in vibration amplitude and/or frequency detected by the electronic
circuit.

Inserted into a pipe, a flow switch will detect any gas or liquid flow rate in
excess of a certain threshold, usually with a small paddle or vane which is
pushed by the flow. Other flow switches are constructed as differential
pressure switches, measuring the pressure drop across a restriction built into
the pipe.

Another type of level switch, suitable for liquid or solid material detection,
is the nuclear switch. Composed of a radioactive source material and a
radiation detector, the two are mounted across the diameter of a storage
vessel for either solid or liquid material. Any height of material beyond the
level of the source/detector arrangement will attenuate the strength of
radiation reaching the detector. This decrease in radiation at the detector can

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be used to trigger a relay mechanism to provide a switch contact for
measurement, alarm point, or even control of the vessel level.

RS-232 :

In RS-232, user data is sent as a time-series of bits. Both synchronous and


asynchronous transmissions are supported by the standard. In addition to the
data circuits, the standard defines a number of control circuits used to
manage the connection between the DTE and DCE. Each data or control
circuit only operates in one direction, that is, signaling from a DTE to the
attached DCE or the reverse. Since transmit data and receive data are
separate circuits, the interface can operate in a full duplex manner,
supporting concurrent data flow in both directions. The standard does not
define character framing within the data stream, or character encoding.

[edit]

Voltage levels:

Diagrammatic oscilloscope trace of voltage levels for an uppercase ASCII


"K" character (0x4b) with 1 start bit, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit.

The RS-232 standard defines the voltage levels that correspond to logical
one and logical zero levels for the data transmission and the control signal
lines. Valid signals are plus or minus 3 to 15 volts - the range near zero
volts is not a valid RS-232 level. The standard specifies a maximum open-
circuit voltage of 25 volts: signal levels of ±5 V, ±10 V, ±12 V, and ±15 V
are all commonly seen depending on the power supplies available within a
device. RS-232 drivers and receivers must be able to withstand indefinite
short circuit to ground or to any voltage level up to ±25 volts. The slew rate,
or how fast the signal changes between levels, is also controlled.

For data transmission lines (TxD, RxD and their secondary channel
equivalents) logic one is defined as a negative voltage, the signal condition
is called marking, and has the functional significance. Logic zero is positive
and the signal condition is termed spacing. Control signals are logically
inverted with respect to what one would see on the data transmission lines.
When one of these signals is active, the voltage on the line will be between
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+3 to +15 volts. The inactive state for these signals would be the opposite
voltage condition, between -3 and -15 volts. Examples of control lines
would include request to send (RTS), clear to send (CTS), data terminal
ready (DTR), and data set ready (DSR).

Connectors:

RS-232 devices may be classified as Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) or


Data Circuit-terminating Equipment (DCE); this defines at each device
which wires will be sending and receiving each signal. The standard
recommended but did not make mandatory the D-subminiature 25 pin
connector. In general and according to the standard, terminals and
computers have male connectors with DTE pin functions, and modems have
female connectors with DCE pin functions. Other devices may have any
combination of connector gender and pin definitions. Many terminals were
manufactured with female terminals but were sold with a cable with male
connectors at each end; the terminal with its cable satisfied the
recommendations in the standard.

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The LM78XX series of three terminal regulators is available with several fixed
output voltages making them useful in a wide range of applications. One of these is local
on card regulation, eliminating the distribution problems associated with single point
regulation. The voltages available allow these regulators to be used in logic systems,
instrumentation, HiFi, and other solid state electronic equipment. Al-though designed
primarily as fixed voltage regulators these devices can be used with external components
to obtain adjustable voltages and currents. The LM78XX series is available in an
aluminum TO-3 package which will allow over 1.0A load current if adequate heat
sinking is provided. Current limiting is included to limit the peak output current to a safe
value. Safe area protection for the output transistor is provided to limit internal power
dissipation. If internal power dissipation becomes too high for the Heat sinking provided,
the thermal shutdown circuit takes over preventing the IC from overheating.
Considerable effort was expanded to make the LM78XX series of regulators easy
to use and minimize the number of external components. It is not necessary to bypass the
output, although this does improve transient response. Input bypassing is needed only
if the regulator is located far from the filter capacitor of the power supply.
For output voltage other than 5v,12v and 15v the LM117 series provides an
output voltage range from 1.2v to 57v.

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Features:
n Output current in excess of 1A

n Internal thermal overload protection


Voltage Range
n No external components required

LM7805C 5Vn Output transistor safe area protection


n Internal short circuit current limit
LM7812C 12Vn Available in the aluminum TO-3 package

LM7815C 15V

Authorised By
SANTOSH BHARADWAJ REDDY
Email: help@matlabcodes.com
Engineeringpapers.blogspot.com
More Papers and Presentations available on
above site

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