You are on page 1of 15

# c

c c
cc
 
c
 c
c

c
i i 
     
c


c     
 

c  

## c    

c i 

 

c
c

  c

  
 c

c

 c

## !  c c"#\$c c c

% c

c c  c c   c& c c c

c

## ccccc)  c ( c 

c

ccccc
c c"#\$c c c

ccccc*+,c cc+ 
c

## ccccc!  c c c

ccccc
 c

ccccc'  c

c
  
 c

  
           
 
  
 
  
 
 
                 
        
   


               
       
   
     
 

      
  
 

     
 

 

       
 
  
  
       


##             

   
 
    

    
 
      
        
    
        
           
   
 
    
 
  
 
 
  
  
     

  
   
    
  
    
        
!  
   
  
                
      "  

     
   
   
  
 
   
 
    
     #     
    
   
     
      
 

    \$
             


  

     
         
       

 



   
    
  
 
   

   
 %
  

##    

      

  
 
 
 && 
'
&&   
  
 
  
   
 
  
   
 ( 

##   & &    

  
   
      '
 )     
*+,-                
       
        
 
  
 . 
 (  && 
 
  
 /0   

   

 
  

 
        "   
   
  
      
 
 

               
       

     1&&
       
 
   
    
    

 

 

 
  2   
     
    
  
  
    
 
    
  
      
   
 3     
    
     
 " 

   


&& 
 
  
       
 (     
 
       
&&  
 
 
          
  
      
  3
 & &
  
  
          
   
    
  
 
  
 

  2

  &&   
         
       
    

  


" 
            

 

## &&    

  
 
 

  && 
  2
 
    
      4
  
 
  
          
   5  
 2
2
 
 
   

 
 

## % c c   c c c c-cc

-c

Graph of the normal distribution, which underlies the statistical assumptions of the Six Sigma model.
The Greek letter ʍ (sigma) marks the distance on the horizontal axis between the mean, µ, and the
curve's inflection point, in this case µ=1. The distance is equally distributed horzontally to both sides
of the mean µ as: [µ - ʍ/2, µ + ʍ/2]. The greater this distance, the greater is the spread of values
encountered. For the curve shown above, µ = 0 and ʍ = 1. The upper and lower specification limits
(USL, LSL) are at a distance of 6ʍ from the mean. Because of the properties of the normal
distribution, values lying that far away from the mean are extremely unlikely. Even if the mean were
to move right or left by 1.5ʍ at some point in the future (1.5 sigma shift), there is still a good safety
cushion. This is why Six Sigma aims to have processes where the mean is at least 6ʍ away from the
nearest specification limit.c

c
 c. c c  c

 
   & &     
   
     
  "  )
 3

"
6  4*7772*,885   
           
 
 & &   
 
   
   
  
      
  "    *+9-:    #

& 
    
  
            
  
 
 



##  '  

   
 4);< '=
    5
   
    
 
      
 >& &>     '
 
   ?
&4  >&&>  

 

 
"'
&.5

@"  
  
&&
 
 A

uc )    
         
  
 
  4 
  

  
 5
 
      
uc ' 
       
    

         

 ( 
   
 
uc .       
  
 
   
   


 ( 
 

2    

3 
 &&


  
       A

uc . 
     
       


 &
&
 
uc .  
      
         
  

uc .   
 

>) >>' 
?"?  >>?"?  > 
     &&

uc .  
   "           
  

 
    
"
uc   
 >& &>   
        "     
  
  
  


##    

 
 
  

 

       ;
 
 > 
  > 
   
 
 
     
    2
      
 /0   
 
  4;' 5&&:    

 
   
 


    
   2*+,-   )
  ? 6        '
 

   
    22 
        
  2
2 :
    
 
       
    
 

   '
        
   
       
   
         & &    '

(  
 
2 
   

 ( 2     
 B*C?  
    

&& 
 
&      
      
    
     & &     
          

     .
:   
   
    
  &&@ 
  @

## ? . & 4 \$  5 

D" #   6
 ! 
 )  E 
     @

   D"
  
   D"  @

##      &&  

 



 6! @

   "
   c

## && " 

   
        
   
       4


5    (  
    
      

                          

      
 

         
 (  4>?" ?  > >6

?  > 5
 
     !&&
 

    

 (               
   
   
   4 
  

 
 5

 
  


 4     
 5

## & F*2  

  
 
 
  
  

 

 #\$. G  H

## & F92  ) 

4 5


 

   
  
 

  ) 
E  
   

 

 #\$ &!&G E;E ).1&!EI)!&H

## & F/2 

  4
  
 J
      ) 
5

 

 #\$. G 1!!  G E# E<H

## & F02   

 
 

"

 

 \$ # G  G E# E<H

## & F82' " 2

 
        
   

 

 \$ #).1G  G E# E<?!!EH

& FC2!
   
   
  (   
  

 
    '.)4 
  5

 

 \$ #;!E3!)@G.E!G  16G E)& '!E23 )&!
# E<H
    c c   c c c

&&
  
    
  : ; 22) "2
. )       
         
   
   '.)
 '.I

uc '.)  

   
        
 
uc '.I  

   
  
 

   

c

 '.)
     A

uc m m 
      
  
    
uc 0mm"     


   
  
uc ? m         
  2 2  
    
 
 
  
  

   

& " 
     
  
uc u| 
m 
 (    

 
                
    
   " 
    

"
  
 
  
 &  
  
 
uc x
 
  
  
 
   

 


 
 
  
       ) 
     
         

   
 
   
      
"      
   
    


 

 '.I
   "   3&&4>  
  >5 

  A

## uc m m       

       
         

 

 
uc 0mm     )   4

    
 
  / 5 
 
 
  
  
 " 
uc ? m         
  
   2         
        
uc m   (      
  
   

 
   
uc èm         
      
   
      

 
 
4 5

## !  c c c"#\$cc c

!
        

   

    
   
. 
  
     
    
  
    

 
   
2

  
 
2  
  
  
 
   
2
 *8    
      .
   
 
       
      
     
2

    
 08  % 
   
    

 
    2
  
   
  

 

   




## \$           

   
  /0
   
 
 
  4;' 5     
 
  
 
   /0
 
     08  

   
    4 2    5& /0;' >&
&>
  

##   08    C    *8  

 
   
 2
 
     
 
 
     "    
 
2 
 

% c
c c  c c   c& c c c

## # c c c c c"#\$c c

V

m



  
|
 

 

  
   
  
         

 
  

  4    
 J   5      


     

   
 
    
      
     



!
   

   

   
    
 
    
  
 3
 
 
        
  
 " 
    
      

   
 

. 
     
     
  &   4&5
  '     


    
  KJ2/&    

.
 97--
 
 
 J        
 
 KJ2
/&       
  
 \$
    
 
   *9--
 J       /90   
 4*9----975 
 
   
   
       0L     
   0    

*-- 
   
 
 
       
  
  
       
    2
           


  
   
 KJ2/ 
   

##         #)!\$!1 E'.@I.E. 1 


 
KJ2C        
 /0
 
    

 

   
   
    KJ2*8  
        
      *9-- 
 J              
---0*     
  4*9--  ------/05         ++C      *---
   
    
  
  
             
)  4)5  M
A



 &  #
)  )N 

;
 #

.     KJ2C& 
 KJ2/&  )
 *9JC N 9 \$
   
        #    
         

##        )       

"   )"
)"N)4*2"5
A

;
 &

"3
N 

##  &  #



 "

KJ2C&  *8&
  

*8J4*9J95
*8JCN-98

  

)"N94*2-985N*8


 

&&  2 (      \$  
4
 "    . & 5 6
 ! 

D" #   
   
 ?  *++-  2
  3
 8--
 (   &
&   
     
   

 
  
  

  &&     
 
    @  &&c

   c  c

##  "       & &      >

  ( >       
   ;

  & &         
    
 
     

   
          
     
  & & 

 

 
 
 "  
       

 4  

 5    
  
    

##     &&  



3

  
    
  
    

 ( 

3
  
 
 &&    
 2  
 


 '.)\$

   2  &&
?
"
 ;
  
 ( 
  

"    
     AE  (   ' 
. ( 
 ) 
& 
(  
  
 
c
' c (  c c  c)
c

  & & 
   
   
 
 (    

  c 


 

  )

      "
    

      c    
'  
    & & 
   
   

     c  
          

  
 c
  
& &                #    
   c

            
 .    
  & & 
    

   
  
  

         : &
& " "   c

c R   p           

    & & #       

   
   
    &&  
 

 
" G  
   
"   "     
  
      
  
 (  
   
  

 

 "      
 
  

c Gr   p 6
   
     
      
   2 "  

        
           & & 
     


 

   B98---       
   

   
     

  
       
                    
     
 (      '  & & 
   
    

   . & & 
 (        
   

 B*-----    



c 
  p #
  
      
              
 

  "          
 

 "            
  "     
  &&
      
. & & 
 (        "   

 B*------    

 ?"   
    
      

  
 
       
6
   

"  

     
&&
  

c       p          & & 
       & &
      
      
          "     
  
   
 
   "   
             

 (  
   
    " 
 .&& 
      
 
 ( :  
    


      
     
   & &   
  


   
 
"  

## uc[      r          )!    

  
        
   
& 
  

  
      
&
&         
   

  
    
  


  
   

"2
 
   

c
c c   A

)
    
       & &       
   
 (   
    
   
                     


    & & '     & &
 (        :
"          
 

   
 ( 
   

    &
&      
          
& &                

 
      !    
   
       

"              ( 
    &   

       
  
     
 
    
  



 
   
c
c c 

       '
  
  
 & &
    "     '


 '
  
     

      
 


   &&
  
    *-A* 8-A*3 
 (   
   
     
  
    
     
    

  
      
 

            & &   
  

 (       
   
  

  '           
       
 (        
      
    

  

c V   p              & & '  
 ( 
   
 
"
          
       \$

                  & & 
 
 
  
 " 
 2     

  

c x  r  p             & &     

  && 

   /0   
    
  
   
  M 
   
 


              

  

c0 r  p' 
 ( 
   

  !
 

 (  



( 
  
      
  

      

  
   & &    ) 
 ;


   
           
 (  
  .     
  
 

 &&  
   
  
 
 

  

c¦  r   p  
     &&  ) 

;

 
 
 (  
  

 

      .
     *++7
 

 . & 

   B*8         & & 6! 
 
D" #      
                
  



##    & &     G    


         

  
  
 (        
 

 
 
 
     
 &&    

 
  
c
c u r       r r     3  & &    
    
 
   
  &&      
     
       
 .  
 
 ( 
   "  

   
       
   
         
          
 

  
   
   
    
   

c ( c

. 

  
  
  *8 
  
   

  
    
  ) 

 
   
C        
       
  
      2  
 

;'   

   
  
2
 
  

## 1  

   
    *8 
   
   
       
 
        
      
 
     
2
       2
 )"    
    -8  
   
2
)"  &
   ;' 
 
*   
    2
 
        -8  m
       4)" N %
-*75

 *       
2
  4)"N-//51 
     
                        

       
          
     
         

  


  i i   i      !"#\$  !"#

Ôc Ôc c
Ô c

c Ôc

c

c
Ô c  c c Ôc

c  c   c 

c Ô c c

c Ô c  c 
 c Ô

c 
c

c 

c 
c   c Ô c Ô Ôc

## %c &'c ((((&')c *****%%)c +((c ,-c

c Ôc Ô c  Ô c 

c Ô 
c

)  c ( c 
c

. º
 m 
     > 8, 
            & &


  +* 
    
    &O; 8--   >        
    > 
     )
  \$      
   
 4      
 2
  
 5>  
 
   &&     
      > 

##       

 >  
  >   
  

    >'   
  
     



2 
 

. mmm 
     D  '1
:   
    & &  /' 
      
  #
 &
 
 
& &      
             2 " 
"  
     

 
   "
 m
   
3
: >C&>

    
 

##  c c'c c

# /0   
 
  
" 

 
  J
 
 
 
    

. "

  

  
 
  
 

    

 
       
  C4  8
7
  5 
  
  
     
     && 
   
   
  
 
     
  
 
   
  
 
       



  

&&




c c c"#\$cc c
     D# 
    *8   >>   



 
  
     

##  *8           

    >   >

  
2


  2


  A
   2
  
  

  08 

   &&   
  
>C 
 >   && 
           

 
  
 
    
  
     
 "      && 

    


  >C >
   2
  
 

  
08 

  

  C 

    
 

 
   &&    
"

## *+,c c c+ 

c

? 
          
 6!: 
 


  
  /20   /8---   
 
  .
 
       
B72*-     

##   





" 
 

 
  


     

  

.
     
 
"
    &&6!  
 *+,,  
   "    :#
" :

  
( 
  
 
  
     

  
   

 #
"2 

     
     
 6!: 

  

 

 
   
 
"

&&  
  A

Pc! 
 
 
( 6!   

  

        




P+ & c   .   

 
 
 "" 

 6!
   

 
  " 

 

 
 



## .        &&  # 

 
 2
   
     
  1


 
    
 &&  
    6!#   

    &&6!
     
 B98 

6!
 .   

" &&        6!
 
 
  
   
    


  
  

   

  


 c

## cccccccc c!!c"!ccÔc # c\$#c!!%cc

!"c c &c c c !c  ''!c c  c (! c c  c ! #c  #c c
#cc'!"!c"c"!cc

'  c

##  cAJJ " 

J"J&Q&

## R&    SD@ 

?
 
.  @@)

) cAJJ    
Jc

) c'*++*--- 
J  Q  J Q Q 2 Q c

## ) c'*++&&&  c

) cR 
    &    S) 2 2\$  ?  



