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STAPHYLOCOCCAL MASTITIS AND ITS showed depression, and lost appetite.

TREATMENT IN GOAT: A CASE REPORT . Typically, the mammary gland was hard,
swollen, almost touching the ground,
reddish in colour and sensitive to touch with
Introduction: watery milk greenish brown in colour with
Mastitis is a general term used to denote the flakes and clots , unsuitable to feed the kids.
inflammation of the mammary gland The case was tentatively diagnosed as
regardless of the cause. It is characterized by Clinical Mastitis based on history and
physical, chemical and usually clinical findings.
bacteriological changes in milk and by Milk samples from both the teats were
pathological changes in the udder. The most collected aseptically and sent for the lab
common bacteria that cause mastitis in goats tests and microbiological study for definitive
are Coagulase-negative staphylococci diagnosis which revealed CMT + and
including Staphylococcus aureus, culture showed following characteristics-
Streptococcus agalactiae, S. uberi, S. Nutrient agar: large, round, smooth, raised,
dysgalactia, and S. caprae olum. shiny and opaque colonies. MacConkey’s
Enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli, agar: very small and pink colonies, which
Coliforms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and was confirmed as Staphylococcus spp. based
Clostridium spp.) are also commonly on colony characteristics. The bacteria was
reported. Although several bacterial found sensitive to Gentamycin.
pathogens can cause mastitis,
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most Treatment and Result
important etiologic agents in mastitis of As the treatment regimen, 2 ml Proxyvet TM (
cows, goats, and sheep and is probably the meloxicam + paracetamol) was injected I/m
most infectious agent in goats because it to control fever and inflammation. Inj. E-
causes a chronic and deep infection in the care-Se (vitamin E and selenium) 1.5 ml was
mammary glands that is extremely difficult injected I/m in alternate days. The owner
to cure (Miles et al, 1992). It is found in was advised to empty the udder as the milk
both non-clinical and acute clinical cases. collects and not let the kids suck the teats.
Acute or per-acute attacks are quite similar 200 ml Normal saline was injected I/v for 3
to blue bag, the common form recognized in days. The owner was advised to clean the
sheep and goat. udder regularly, spray Phenol all over the
shed, and regular tip dipping with iodine
Case history and investigation: solution was recommended. Ice fomentation
A 5 years old recently parturated goat in 5th was advised in the inflamed half 2/3 times a
parity, was attended belonging to a local day. This was continued till the lab findings
farmer of Phulbari village in Mangalpur were achieved. After the lab reports
VDC with the complaints of excessively
swollen udder and general illness. The case
was attended at the premises of the owner.
History revealed abnormally swollen
mammary glands since 15 days before
parturition which was confused with normal
udder growth during pregnancy. Clinical
examination revealed a temperature of 105°
F and an accelerated pulse. The goat
Fig: swollen udder
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antibiotic therapy was started. Gentamycin chronic and treatment should be indicated to
was used parenteraly, 3 ml I/m twice in the inhibit infection and to necessarily check
first day and 3 ml once daily for remaining 4 systemic involvement that may lead to death
days. Intramammary infusion was done with of animal. Thus treatment was focused on
Normal saline 50 ml + Dexamethasone 2 ml subsiding the fever, inflammation and to
+ Gentmycin 3 ml in both halves, massaged arrest systemic infection by the organism.
for 5 mins, milked and finally infused the Paracetamol and meloxicam are NSAIDs
solution into the halves. This was done twice and act as systemic anti-inflammatory drugs
a day for 5 days. The fever and when injected via parenteral route. The use
inflammation gradually subsided and the of intramammary infusion containing
doe recovered normal appetite. The swollen Dexamethasone and antibiotic in normal
udder slowly came to the normal size saline gives promising results during
although not completely and milk recovered mastitis to control udder inflammation.
its normal colour and consistency. Finally Dexamethason also possesses fibrinolytic
after 2 weeks of therapy the goat was normal property which is essential in chronic
and actively feeding the kids. mastitis. In the last ten years, several
researchers have looked into the use of
Discussion: supplements and the role of selenium and
Staphylococcus aureus is the most important vitamin E in the prevention and treatment of
mastitic pathogen in most goat herds. mastitis. Maintaining an adequate level of
Symptoms vary from acute clinical to selenium in the organism helps prevent
subclinical. In particularly severe cases the mastitis, reduce the severity of infection and
infection may progress to gangrene. It is causes it to last for a shorter period of time.
characterized by the presence of a watery, Selenium serves to reinforce the immune
dark red secretion which may be system response by increasing the release of
accompanied by gas bubbles resulting from leucocytes and increasing the efficiency of
secondary infection with gas forming phagocytes(Erskine, R.J., R.J. Eberhart, P.J.
organisms (particularly Clostridium spp.). Grosso, R.W. Scholz. 1989). Selenium and
Death may be immediate or occur after vitamin E work together in the organism.
several days. Some animals will recover and Thus, a vitamin E supplement of 1000
eventually slough away the necrotic tissue lU/day alone reduces the somatic cell count
(Radostitis et al., 1994). In the present case but not the incidence of mastitis(Batra, T.R.,
severe clinical mastitis with systemic signs M. Hidiroglou and M.W. Smith. 1992)
may have been produced by staphylococcus Normal saline is infused I/V to flush the
probably occurred due to the action of toxins and pathogens.
different toxins that led to the extensive
tissue infections and systemic reaction. Staphylococcus aureus is difficult to
eradicate than other agents, but definitely
Shearer and Harris (2010) have controllable. Infected udders are the most
recommended investigating the involvement important source of infection. The organism
of generalized condition during mastitis readily colonizes teat skin lesions and the
infection in goat before treatment to decide teat canal, and eventually passes into the
whether there is systemic involvement or mammary gland. High bacteria counts in
not. Upon clinical examination, the signs of bulk milk are generally not seen with Staph.
fever, tachycardia and malaise indicate the mastitis. However, as the number of infected
systemic infection thus the condition is animal increases, the bulk milk SCC

2
increases, resulting in decreased milk
quality. Herds with bulk tank milk SCC Refrences
greater than 300,000 to 500,000 cells/ml
often have a high prevalence of Staph.
infected quarters. The bacteria damage the Blood, D.C., O.M. Radostiits and J.A
duct system and establish deep-seated Henderson. 1994. Veterinary
th
pockets of infection in the milk secreting medicine, 8 edition.ELBS
tissues followed by abscess formation and Publication.
walling-off of bacteria by scar tissue. This Miles, H., W. Lesser, and P. Sears. 1992.
walling-off phenomenon is partially The economic implications of
responsible for poor cure rates of Staph. bioengineered mastitis control. J.
aureus infections by antibiotic therapy. Dairy Sci. 75:596–605.
During the early stages of infection, damage Shearer J.K and B. Harris Jr. 2010. Mastitis
is minimal and reversible. However, in Dairy Goat. University of Florida
abscesses may release staphylococci to start IFAS Extension DS85
the infection process in other areas of the
gland with further abscess formation and
irreversible tissue damage. Occasionally,
infection by Staph. aureus may result in
peracute mastitis with gangrene. This
gangrenous mastitis is characterized by a
patchy blue discoloration and coldness of
the affected tissue. Staphylococcal mastitis
is very difficult to treat and may lead to
gangrenous form and even up to culling of
the animal but early and prompt treatment
with suitable antibiotic and proper
prophylactic measures is recommended for
good results.