Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 16

Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No:-2456-2165

A Study on Impact of Covid -19 on Retail Shopping


Behavior of Groceries in Bangalore City
1
TANIA THOMAS
1
Assistant Professor
1
Department Of MBA,
1
SIR MVIT COLLGE, BANGALORE, INDIA

Abstract:- The COVID-19 pandemic in India is part of Keywords:- Lockdown ,COVID 19, Pandemic Retail Store
the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease Choice and Consumer Behaviour,
2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory
syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first case of I. INTRODUCTION
COVID-19 in India, which originated from Wuhan in
China, was reported on 30 January 2020. India currently Retail Grocery shopping behavior is changing at
has the largest number of confirmed cases in Asia, and unprecedented speed. With already existing challenges,the
has the third highest number of confirmed cases in the coronavirus pandemic has created a new challenge. The fear
world after the United States and Brazil. of contracting the virus and the nationwide lockdown led to
panic buying and people started hoarding essentials. There
On 24 March, India was locked. The initial was a widespread confusion among people as to where to
lockdown was followed by extended Lockdown and buy. The pandemic had a significant impact on how people
thereafter based on cases the State governments took shop and this has posed a new challenge for Retailers. In
further decision. to continue the lockdown. Overall this Bangalore city itself it was observed that many consumers
led to severe disruptions and widespread confusion rushed to their nearby stores and some purchased online
among people. People panicked and it saw grocery depending on the situation. Even many brick and mortar
shopping behavior change seemingly overnight. Covid-19 retailers like Big Bazaar have announced that they would
has changed the way consumers shop as availability of provide home delivery as consumers couldn’t come to the
product and convenience of getting the product became store.
priority. Hence to buy a grocery product the choice of a
retail store was made on different variables unlike before Therefore this study was conducted to understand
the pandemic. With social distancing and safety in mind, Retail grocery shopping behaviour in these pandemic times
many have turned to online grocery and click-and-collect and to identify if consumer priorities have changed with
to fulfill their shopping needs. Others have continued to specific reference to choice of retail store.As factors
rely on trips to physical grocery stores, often struggling influencing the choice of retail store during these pandemic
to navigate the disruption in that experience brought on times are very different than before pandemic. The
by the crisis. With these shifting dynamics in mind, the lockdown to combat Covid-19 has altered consumers’
question for many retailers and manufacturers is how to purchase decisions in terms of higher spends on health and
handle the current crisis, and the changes it has brought, hygiene products, adapting to limited product availability,
and to analyze if this will impact future shopping and preferring home deliveries over store visits leading to a
behavior once the country returns to a new. decisive shift in consumer behaviour post lockdown.

This study is done to investigate and identify Significance of Study: Prior to the Covid-19 pandemic,
factors affecting retail shopping behavior of grocery traditional enterprise retailers were focused on driving
purchase with special reference to the choice of retail growth and acquiring market share with physical stores as
store format chosen during this pandemic.It also helps their epicentre. According to Market research, the COVID-
to so as to suggest strategies for Retailers to manage this 19 recovery is likely to result in a more permanent shift in
crisis. The study has been conducted on 59 respondents consumers’ attitudes and shopping behaviour, especially in
from the different areas of Bangalore city through online urban areas, with increased usage of home and personal
mode by using an online questionnaire using convenience hygiene products and an accelerated shift to digital
sampling technique. After data collection through online purchases.
survey, it is analyzed using factor analysis,cluster
analysis,chi-square and paired T-test. The overall
findings provide implications to marketers, retailers and
advertisers to implement future strategies according to
the current pandemic situation towards consumer
purchase behavior in retail sector.

IJISRT21FEB184 www.ijisrt.com 599


Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
II. LITERATURE REVIEW eased on both offline and online retail, focus will be more on
health and hygiene products. In order to sustain retail stores
Customer behaviourr refers to the actions and the should focus on contactless deliveries and in-store pick-up;
decision processes of people who purchase goods and and social distancing in stores with fewer customers and
services for personal consumption or to meet the collective footfall per store in the short term. This will likely put more
needs of their family and household needs. It includes both pressure on retailers’ productivity and margins. The role of
mental and physical actions. Belch and Belch (2007) defines offline stores may change to focus on experience and
consumer behaviourr as 'the process and activities people collection, as people choose to ‘buy online, pick up in store’.
engage in when searching for, selecting, purchasing, using, There could be an increase of online purchases across
evaluating, and disposing of products and services so as to categories, including essentials and food products.
satisfy their needs and desires. In other words, it reflects the
totality of consumer decisions with respect to acquisition, According to SaurabhUboweja, founder, BOD
consumption and disposition of goods, services, time and Consulting in article published in financial express May 11
idea by (human) decision making units. 2020 ‘New consumer will be frugal, more conscious’ has
mentioned that Consumers have shifted from splurging on
non-essential goods and services to preserving essentials and
The decision making process of the customer is making them last longer. They are also reflecting on their
influenced by both internal / individual and external / consumption a lot more than earlier. The survivalist
environmental variables. An analysis of the basic variables mentality will give way to the growth mind-set in a few
influencing the customer behavior will be much useful to the months.
marketers to frame suitable marketing strategies. https://www.financialexpress.com/brandwagon/coronavirus-
impact-how-consumer-behaviour-will-change-post-
The determinants of consumer behavior could be lockdown/1954443/
classified into economic factors, sociological factors and
behavioural factors.One of the major external factor that has Objectives:
both direct and indirect impacting the world is the pandemic 1. To study the factors affecting grocery shopping through
caused due to Covid-19.As the pandemic caused an impact retail stores(Both physical and online) in pre lockdown
on external factors like the economy, legal environment, and post lockdown in Bangalore city.
social environment etc it also impacted internal factors like 2. To compare and analyse the variables affecting grocery
social and psychological factors. shopping before and after COVID 19 lockdown both in
physical store and online.
Gangal& Kumar (2013) signifiedthat the shopping 3. To study the factors affecting the change in shift from
habits and the purchase patterns of the Indian consumers physical store to online
have seen a drastic change in the past decade.Customer 4. To suggest possible measures to marketers to reach
buying habits or behavior patterns are not permanently consumers after COVID 19 lockdown
fixed. Many factors areoperating in combination to change
customer purchase behavior patterns. A Descriptive Research was done with sample of 60
consumers from Bangalore city and the Sampling Design
According to Market research firm Euro monitor used is Convenient Sample .Primary data was collected by
International report titled,’Coronavirus Effecton Indian Survey method that is through google forms and secondary
FMCG Industries and Services’ report dated 20 th April Data was collected through websites.
2020this pandemic is likely to result in a more permanent
shift in consumers’ attitudes and shopping behaviour, Data Analysis is done by using SPSS using statistical
especially inurban areas, with increased usage of home and tools like Frequency, Percentages, Factor analysis,Paired T-
personal hygiene products and an accelerated shift to digital test,Chisquare are used to analyze the data.
purchases.
FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS:
According to a survey conducted by National Retail H0-1: There is a significant difference for choice of factors
Federation datedMarch 31, 2020 the findings show before and after COVID-19 in a physical store.
consumer behaviour changes during Covid-19 that is 9 in H0-2 There is a significant difference for choice of factors
10 consumers have changed their traditional shopping before and after COVID-19 in a online store.
habits. Also as per the survey more than 50% of consumers H0-3: There is no significant relationship between impact of
have ordered products online that they would normally COVID-19 and change in grocery purchase pattern due to
purchase at the store and 6 in 10 consumers say they are this Pandemic
worried about going to the store due to fear of being infected H0-4There is no significant relationship between age and
change in grocery purchase pattern changed due to this
According to RajatWahi, partner, Deloitte India Pandemic
articletitled ‘Coronavirus Impact: How consumer behaviour H0-5There is no significant relationship between annual
will change post lockdown‘published in Financial Express income and change in grocery purchase pattern changed due
dated 11th May 2020 the author mentioned that ‘Out-of- to this Pandemic
home consumption will be slow’,and as restrictions will be

IJISRT21FEB184 www.ijisrt.com 600


Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
H0-6There is no significant relationship between education Secondary data were collected from various published
and change in grocery purchase pattern changed due to this journals, reports, internet, magazines, news articles and
Pandemic newspapers and helped a lot to frame the above mentioned
H0-7 There is no significant relationship between literature reviews. Convenience sampling method of
occupation and change in grocery purchase pattern changed collecting data was adopted and used for survey process. An
due to this Pandemic. online structured questionnaire was designed by using
Google forms and it was sent through e-mails to friends,
III. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION colleagues, students, professors, homemakers and other
known people also and they were invited along with the
This study was analyzed and examined with the help form to share the survey link to as many people as possible
of the questionnaire. The major findings of the research are according to their convenience and comfort. Finally, 59
explained below: This study has design to study change in responses were recorded from Bangalore area for this study.
purchase pattern pre COVID-19 and post COVID-19 the
dependent variable was analysis of consumer purchase Validity and Reliability of Data: To assure the validity
behaviourr in retail sector in Bangalore. Primary data of the collected data, factor analysis was attempted for this
collection process was conducted through online structured study as shown below:
questionnaire inclusion of close-ended questions The data
generated with the help of the questionnaire were analyzed
through SPSS software to test the hypotheses.

Table 1: KMO and Bartlett's Test

Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin and Bartlett’s Test to measure suitability of data for processing the factor analysis. Therefore, KMO
value greater than 0.6 reflects positive data representation process. Then the Bartlett’s test of sphericity with an associated p value
is less than 0.05 which indicates strong evidence of validity of the measures. To analyze reliability of questionnaire, Cronbach’s
alpha was used as depicted in below;

Table 2:Descriptive Statistics: Gender, Age, Education, Occupation and Income (N = 59

IJISRT21FEB184 www.ijisrt.com 601


Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
Table-3:Ranking of means of factors affecting grocery purchase in physical store Pre-Covid
Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Convenient(Nearby/Free home
59 1.00 5.00 4.0847 .83642
delivery)
Broad variety of products-
59 2 5 4.02 .777
Prelockdown
Stock availability 59 1 5 3.92 .952
Prices 59 1 5 3.88 .853
Hygiene 59 2.00 5.00 3.8136 .70649
Valid N (listwise) 59

From this table we can interpret that Convenience is the most important factor for purchase in physical store,followed by
variety of products ,stock availability, price and hygiene.This analysis clearly indicated that hygiene was least important factor
precovid.

Table-4:Ranking of means of factors affecting grocery purchase in physical store Post-Covid-19


Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation
Convenient(Nearby/Free home
59 1 5 3.83 .913
delivery)
Hygiene 59 1 5 3.76 .953
Prices 59 1 5 3.61 .891
Postlockdown Broad Variety 59 1 5 3.53 1.040
Stock availability 59 1 5 3.27 1.157
Valid N (listwise) 59

From this table we can interpret that Convenience is the most important factor for purchase in physical store post
Covid,followed by Hygiene then price variety of products ,and then stock availability, and hygiene.This analysis clearly indicated
that hygiene became second most important factor postcovid.

Table-5Ranking of means of factors affecting grocery purchase in online store Pre-Covid-19


Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation

Convenient 59 2 5 3.98 .777


Payment options 59 2 5 3.95 .705
Availibity of products/brands 59 2 5 3.88 .721
Quality of product 59 3 5 3.85 .611
Store name 59 2 5 3.82 .789
Easy Return/ Exchange process 59 1 5 3.77 .934
Contactless shopping 59 2 5 3.69 .853
Valid N (listwise) 56

From this table we can interpret that Convenience is the most important factor for purchase in online store Pre Covid,
followed by payment options, availability of products ,quality of product, store name, easy return and contactless shopping This
analysis clearly indicated that hygiene in least important factor pre covid

IJISRT21FEB184 www.ijisrt.com 602


Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
Table-7Paired T-Test
H0-1: There is no significant difference for choice of factors before and after COVID-19 in a physical store.
Ha-1 There is a significant difference for choice of factors before and after COVID-19 in a physical store.

Paired Samples Correlations


N Correlation Sig.
Broad variety of products-Prelockdown Postlockdown
59 .187 .157
Broad Variety
Pair 1
Pair 2 Prices & Prices 59 .198 .132
Pair 3 Stock availability & Stock availability 59 -.017 .899
Pair 4 Hygiene & Hygiene 59 .016 .907
Convenient(Nearby/Free home delivery) &
Pair 5 59 .079 .552
Convenient(Nearby/Free home delivery)

Paired Samples Test


Paired Differences t df Sig. (2-
Mean Std. Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval tailed)
Deviation Mean of the Difference
Lower Upper
Pair Broad variety of products-Prelockdown -
.746 1.268 .165 .415 1.076 4.519 58 .000
1 Postlockdown Broad Variety
Pair
Prices - Prices .119 1.146 .149 -.180 .417 .795 58 .430
2
Pair
Stock availability - Stock availability .085 1.330 .173 -.262 .431 .489 58 .626
3
Pair -
Hygiene - Hygiene -.356 1.256 .164 -.683 -.029 58 .034
4 2.176
Pair Convenient(Nearby/Free home delivery) - -
-.237 1.040 .135 -.508 .034 58 .085
5 Convenient(Nearby/Free home delivery) 1.753

Intrepretation: . A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare preference of factors Pre- Covid and Post Covid in a physical
store . There was no significant difference in the scores for factors like prices and stock availability pre-Covid and post-Covid in a
physical store.But there was a significant difference in the scores for Broad variety,Hygiene and Convenience as the p-value is
less than 0.05. These results suggest that Broad variety,Hygiene and Convenience these factors varied post Covid in a physical
store.

Table-8Paired T-Test
H0-1: There is no significant difference for choice of factors before and after COVID-19 in a physical store.
Ha-1 There is a significant difference for choice of factors before and after COVID-19 in a physical store.

Paired Samples Correlations


N Correlation Sig.
Availibity of products/brands & Availibity of
Pair 1 59 .270 .039
products/brands
Pair 2 Quality of product & Quality of product 59 .363 .005
Pair 3 Promotional offers & Promotional offers 59 .179 .174
Pair 4 Payment options & Payment options 59 .378 .003
Pair 5 Convenient & Convenient 59 .306 .018
Pair 6 Contactless shopping & Contactless shopping 56 .280 .037
Easy Return/ Exchange proces & Easy Return/
Pair 7 56 .402 .002
Exchange proces
Pair 8 Store name & Store name 56 .626 .000

IJISRT21FEB184 www.ijisrt.com 603


Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165

Count
Paired Samples Test
Paired Differences t df Sig. (2-
Mean Std. Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval of tailed)
Deviation Mean the Difference
Lower Upper
Pair Availibity of products/brands - Availibity
.271 .997 .130 .011 .531 2.089 58 .041
1 of products/brands
Pair
Quality of product - Quality of product .102 .781 .102 -.102 .305 1.000 58 .321
2
Pair
Promotional offers - Promotional offers .068 .998 .130 -.192 .328 .522 58 .604
3
Pair
Payment options - Payment options .017 .820 .107 -.197 .231 .159 58 .874
4
Pair
Convenient - Convenient .119 .966 .126 -.133 .370 .943 58 .350
5
Pair Contactless shopping - Contactless
.089 1.014 .136 -.182 .361 .659 55 .513
6 shopping
Pair Easy Return/ Exchange proces - Easy
.107 1.003 .134 -.162 .376 .799 55 .428
7 Return/ Exchange proces
Pair
Store name - Store name .071 .684 .091 -.112 .255 .782 55 .438
8

Intrepretation: . A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare preference of factors Pre- Covid and Post Covid in a online
store . There was no significant difference in the scores for all the factors except availability of products pre-Covid and post-Covid
in a online store.But there was a significant difference in the scores for Availability of products as the p-value is less than 0.05.
These results suggest that Availability of products is the most factor post Covid in a online store.

Table-9H0-3:There is no significant relationship between impact of Covid 19 and change in grocery purchase pattern changed
due to this Pandemic
Ha-3: There is a significant relationship between impact of Covid 19 and change in grocery purchase pattern changed due to this
Pandemic

Cross tabulation
Count
9. Has your grocery purchase pattern changed Total
due to this Pandemic
Yes No
Yes Significantly 19 4 23
7.Does Covid 19 Impact your life?
Yes partially 22 14 36
Total 41 18 59

Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- Exact Sig. (2-sided) Exact Sig. (1-sided)
sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 3.059a 1 .080
Continuity Correctionb 2.129 1 .145
Likelihood Ratio 3.216 1 .073
Fisher's Exact Test .003 .027
Linear-by-Linear Association 3.007 1 .083
N of Valid Cases 59
a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 7.02.
b. Computed only for a 2x2 table

IJISRT21FEB184 www.ijisrt.com 604


Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
Interpretation: As the p-value is less than 0.05 we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is a significant relationship
between impact of Covid 19 and change in grocery purchase pattern changed due to this Pandemic

Table-10H0-4There is no significant relationship between age and change in grocery purchase pattern changed due to this
Pandemic
Ha-4: There is a significant relationship between age and change in grocery purchase pattern changed due to this Pandemic

2. Age. * 9. Has your grocery purchase pattern changed due to this Pandemic Crosstabulation
Count
9. Has your grocery purchase pattern changed due to this Pandemic Total
Yes No
18-25 10 8 18
26-35 11 5 16
2. Age. 36-45 18 5 23
46-55 1 0 1
56-65 1 0 1
Total 41 18 59

Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 3.365a 4 .499
Likelihood Ratio 3.893 4 .421
Linear-by-Linear Association 3.246 1 .072
N of Valid Cases 59
a. 5 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .31.

Interpretation:As the p-value is greater than 0.05 we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that age has no significant impact
on change in purchase pattern.

Table-11
H0-5:There is no significant relationship between annual income and change in grocery purchase pattern changed due to this
Pandemic
Ha-5: There is a significant relationship between annual income and change in grocery purchase pattern changed due to this
Pandemic

4.Annual Income * 9. Has your grocery purchase pattern changed due to this Pandemic
Crosstabulation
Count
9. Has your grocery purchase pattern changed Total
due to this Pandemic
Yes No
1 21 12 33
2 12 3 15
4.Annual Income
3 5 1 6
4 3 2 5
Total 41 18 59

Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 2.070a 3 .558
Likelihood Ratio 2.172 3 .537
Linear-by-Linear Association .282 1 .595
N of Valid Cases 59
a. 5 cells (62.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.53.

IJISRT21FEB184 www.ijisrt.com 605


Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
Interpretation:As the p-value is greater than 0.05 we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that annual income has no
significant impact on change in purchase pattern.

Table-12
H0-6:There is no significant relationship between education and change in grocery purchase pattern changed due to this Pandemic
Ha-6: There is a significant relationship between education and change in grocery purchase pattern changed due to this Pandemic

5.Education * 9. Has your grocery purchase pattern changed due to this Pandemic Crosstabulation
Count
9. Has your grocery purchase pattern changed due to this Total
Pandemic
Yes No
1 6 7 13
5.Education 2 31 10 41
4 4 1 5
Total 41 18 59

Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
a
Pearson Chi-Square 4.324 2 .115
Likelihood Ratio 4.080 2 .130
Linear-by-Linear Association 2.355 1 .125
N of Valid Cases 59
a. 3 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.53.

Interpretation: As the p-value is greater than 0.05 we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that education has no significant
impact on change in purchase pattern.

Table-13
H0-7:There is no significant relationship between education and change in grocery purchase pattern changed due to this
Pandemic
Ha-7: There is a significant relationship between education and change in grocery purchase pattern changed due to this
Pandemic

6.Occupation * 9. Has your grocery purchase pattern changed due to this Pandemic Crosstabulation

Count
9. Has your grocery purchase pattern changed Total
due to this Pandemic

Yes No
Business 1 2 3
Salaried/Professional 32 8 40
6.Occupation
Student 6 8 14
Others 2 0 2
Total 41 18 59

Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 9.496a 3 .023


Likelihood Ratio 9.610 3 .022
Linear-by-Linear Association 1.576 1 .209
N of Valid Cases 59

IJISRT21FEB184 www.ijisrt.com 606


Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
a. 5 cells (62.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .61.

Interpretation: As the p-value is less than 0.05 we accept the null hypothesis and conclude that occupation has significant
impact on change in purchase pattern.

IJISRT21FEB184 www.ijisrt.com 607


Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165

IJISRT21FEB184 www.ijisrt.com 608


Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165

IJISRT21FEB184 www.ijisrt.com 609


Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165

IJISRT21FEB184 www.ijisrt.com 610


Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
IV. CONCLUSION [11]. Sustainable Management Practices and Economic
Slowdown in India, June 2020 11 | P a g e
This research investigates into the changes in purchase Google.2020.'Navigating the road ahead'.
pattern of consumers due to Pandemic.The pandemic [12]. Retrieved
brought in a change especially in choosing a retail store from:www.thinkwithgoogle.com/2020_covidadsplayb
format and also the factor influencing the purchase has been ook_en-us. Google. (2020). Retrieved from Google:
changed.It has been observed through empirical data that https://www.google.com/search?q=covid+death+india
Hygiene has become the most important factor post COVID &rlz=1C1GCEB_enIN856IN856&oq=covid+death+in
Mc.Kinsey report retrieved from dia&aqs=chrome..69i57j0l6.7074j0j7&sourceid=chro
https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business%2 me&ie=UTF-8
0Functions/Marketing%20and%20Sales/Our%20Insights/A [13]. Götz, O., Hansen, A.K., Jo, A.R. and Krafft, M.
%20global%20view%20of%20how%20consumer%20behav (2009), “The role of marketing and sales
ior%2 inorganizations and its impact on performance”, MSI
Working Paper Series, Marketing Science Institute,
REFERENCES Cambridge, MA, pp. 29-48.
[14]. Groenross, C., Strandvik, T. and Holmlund, M. (2013,
[1]. Accenture, 2020, retrieved from forthcoming), “How companies can offer something
https://www.accenture.com/_acnmedia/Thought- customers will buy”, Journal of Service Management.
Leadership-Assets/PDF2/Accenture-COVID-19-New- Gubler, D.J. (2002).
Human-Truths-That-Experiences-Need-To- [15]. Epidemic dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever as a
Address.pdf Allenby, G.M.; Jen, L.; Leone, R.P. public health, social and economic problem in the 21st
(1996). century. Trends Microbiol. , 10, 100–103.
[2]. Economic trends and being trendy: The influence of [16]. Gummesson, E, Kuusela, H. and Närvänen, E. (2013),
consumer confidence on retail fashion sales. J. Bus. “Reinventing marketing strategy by recasting
Econ. Stat. 14, 103–111. supplier/customer roles”, Journal of Service
[3]. Apptopia and Moengage, 2020. Retrieved from Management. Hamilton, J.D. (2009). ‘Causes and
https://www.moengage.com/coronavirus-business- Consequences of the Oil Shock of 2007–08; National
impactworldwide/ Bhatia,S. Dantewadia, P. (2020). Bureau of Economic Research: New York, NY, USA,
[4]. ‘How covid-19 has changed what we search online’. 2009’.
Retrieved from Livemint: [17]. Heracleous, L. and Wirtz, J. (2010), “Singapore
https://www.livemint.com/news/india/how-covid-19- Airlines’ balancing act – Asia’s premier carrier
has-changed-what-we-search- successfully executes a dual strategy: it offers world-
online11589361813014.html class service and is a cost leader”, Harvard Business
[5]. Bloom, D.E.; Mahal, A.S. (1997). Does the AIDS Review, Vol. 88 No. 7/8, pp. 145-149.
epidemic threaten economic growth? J. Econ. , 77, [18]. Kalia, M. (2002). Assessing the economic impact of
105– 124. Bolton, R.N., Parasuraman, A., Hoefnagels, stress [mdash] The modern day hidden epidemic.
A., Migchels, N., Kabadayi, S., Gruber, T., Loureiro, Metabolism. 51, 49–53.
Y.K., and Solnet, D. (2013, forthcoming), [19]. Klaus, P., Edvardsson, B., Gruber, T., Maklan, S. and
[6]. “Understanding Generation Y and their use of social Keiningham T. (2013),“Putting marketing back on the
media: A review and research agenda,” Journal of CEO’s agenda – an empirical investigation and
Service Management, Vol. 24 No.3. Day, G.S. (2011), roadmap”,Journal of Service Management.
“Closing the marketing capabilities gap”, Journal of [20]. Kumar, V., Chattaraman, V., Neghina, C., Skiera, B.,
Marketing, Vol. 75, pp. 183-195. Aksoy, L., Buoye, A., and Henseler, J. (2013),
[7]. Deleersnyder, B.; Dekimpe, M.G.; Sarvary, M.; “Datadriven services marketing in a connected world,”
Parker, P.M. (2004) Weathering tight economic times: Journal of Service Management, Vol. 24 No.3. Lamey,
The sales evolution of consumer durables over the L.; Deleersnyder, B.; Dekimpe, M.G.; Steenkamp, J.-
business cycle. Quantit. Mark. Econ. 2, 347–383. B.E. (2007).
[8]. Deloitte. 2020.' Maintaining Customer Loyalty and [21]. How business cycles contribute to private-label
trust during times of uncertaininty'. Retrived from: success: Evidence from the United States and Europe.
https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/ie/Do J. Mark. 71, 1–15. Lee, R.P., Naylor, G. and Chen, Q.
cuments/covid19/gx-coronavirus-customerloyalty.pdf (2011), “Linking customer resources to firm success:
[9]. Engelen, A. and Brettel, M. (2011), “A Cross-Cultural the role of marketing program implementation”.
Perspective of Marketing Departments' Influence Journal of Business Research, Vol. 64 No.4, pp. 394-
Tactics”, Journal of International Marketing, Vol. 19 400.
No. 2, pp. 73-94. [22]. Local circles. (2020). Retrieved from:
[10]. Frankenberger, K.D.; Graham, R.C. (2003). Should https://www.localcircles.com/a/press/page/covid19-
firms increase advertising expenditures during lockdownessential-goods-availability#.XsDoPhozY2w
recessions? MSI Rep. 3, 65–85. Global web index, Lovelock, C. and Wirtz, J. (2011),
2020.' Coronavirus Research: Multi-Market Research [23]. Services Marketing: People, Technology, Strategy. 7th
Wave 3. Retrieved from: ed.,Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
https://www.globalwebindex.com/coronavirus Lukovitz, K. (2012), “Survey probes the ‘CEO-

IJISRT21FEB184 www.ijisrt.com 611


Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
marketer divide’”, Marketing Daily, 15 November [34]. Wirtz, J. and Ehret E. (2013), "Service-based Business
2012, available at: Models: Transforming Businesses, Industries and
http://www.mediapost.com/publications/article/187276 Economies," in: Serving Customers: Global Services
/survey-probes-the- Marketing Perspectives, by Raymond P. Fisk, Rebekah
ceomarketerdivide.html#axzz2JrKI2jwn (accessed 30 Russell-Bennett, and Lloyd C. Harris (eds.), Tilde
November 2019). University Press, Melbourne: Australia, 28-46.
[24]. Sustainable Management Practices and Economic [35]. Wirtz, J., den Ambtman, A., Bloemer, J., Horváth, C.,
Slowdown in India, June 2020 12 | P a g e McKinsey Ramaseshan, B., Van De Klundert, J., Gurhan Canli,
& company, 2020. ' COVID_19 India Consumer Pulse Z, and Kandampully, J. (2013, forthcoming),
Survey'. Retrieved from: “Managing Brands and Customer Engagement in
https://www.mckinsey.com/business- Online Brand Communities,” Journal of Service
functions/marketing-and-sales/our-insights/survey- Management, Vol. 24 No.3.
indian-consumersentiment-during-the-coronavirus- [36]. World health organization, 2020, retrieved from:
crisis https://www.who.int/
[25]. Merlo, O. (2011), “The influence of marketing from a [37]. Roshee Lamichhane.” Building Brands in Post-
power perspective”, European Journal of Marketing, COVID Era: A Consumer Behavior Perspective” THE
Vol. 45 No. 7/8, pp. 1152-1171. POLICY TIMES, April 20, 2020
[26]. Moorman, C. and Rust, R.T. (1999), “The role of https://brandequity.economictimes.indiatimes.com/ne
marketing”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 63 No. 4, pp. ws/marketing/post-covid-19-will-consumer-
180- 197. Moorman, C. (2012), The CMO Survey behaviourpatterns-mutate/75369733
Blog, available at: http://www.cmosurvey.org [38]. https://www.financialexpress.com/brandwagon/corona
(accessed 12 September 2019). virus-impact-how-consumer-behaviour-will-change-
[27]. Murphy, D. (2005), “The click in the bricks”, Research postlockdown/1954443/
World, (November), pp. 29-30. Nielsen and BARC. [39]. https://www.livemint.com/opinion/columns/opinion-
(2020, May, 14th). ‘HOW ARE MEDIA HABITS will-consumer-behaviour-see-shifts-post-covid-19-
CHANGING AS INDIA ENTERS WEEK 7 OF THE 11585771616107.html
LOCKDOWN’. [40]. http://www.millwardbrown.com/global-
[28]. Retrieved from: navigation/blogs/post/mb
https://images.assettype.com/afaqs/2020-05/ff474595- blog/2020/04/27/anticipating-consumerbehaviours-
8b81-4ae3-b852- after-covid-19
6229deea5e2d/Edition_8___COVID_19___TV_Smart https://home.kpmg/cn/en/home/insights/2020/02/respo
phone_Consumption_During_Crisis.pdf Sarkees, M. nding-to-crises-and-changing-consumer-
(2011), “Understanding the links between behaviour.html
technological opportunism, marketing emphasis and [41]. https://coresight.com/research/us-generations-and-
firm performance: implications for B2B”, Industrial spending-the-future-of-millennials-consumer-
Marketing Management, Vol. 40 No. 5, pp. 785-795. behaviorinfluenced-by-covid-19/
[29]. Sheth, J.N. and Sisodia, R.S. (2005), “A dangerous [42]. https://www.channelsight.com/changing-consumer-
divergence: marketing and society” Journal of Public behaviour-during-the-covid-19-pandemic/
Policy and Marketing, Vol. 24 (Spring), pp. 160-162. [43]. https://nrf.com/blog/covid-19-upends-how-we-shop
[30]. Srinivasan, R.; Rangaswamy, A.; Lilien, G.L. (2005) [44]. Read more at:
Turning adversity into advantage: Does proactive https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/service
marketing during a recession pay off? Int. J. Res. s/travel/travel-and-tourism-sector-likely-to-lose-rs-5-
Mark. 22, 109–125. lakh-crore-due-to-covid-19-crisis-
[31]. [CrossRef] Verhoef, P.C. and Leeflang, P.S.H. (2009), report/articleshow/78015214.cms?utm_source=content
“Understanding the marketing department's influence ofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst
within the firm”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 73 No. 2, [45]. Read more at:
pp. 14-37. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/service
[32]. Verhoef, P.C., Leeflang, P.S.H., Reiner, J., Natter, M., s/travel/travel-and-tourism-sector-likely-to-lose-rs-5-
Baker, W., Grinstein, A., Gustafsson, A., Morrison, P. lakh-crore-due-to-covid-19-crisis-
and Saunders, J. (2011), “A Cross-National report/articleshow/78015214.cms?utm_source=content
Investigation into the Marketing Department’s ofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst
Influence within the Firm: Toward Initial Empirical [46]. https://blog.euromonitor.com/coronavirus-effect-on-
Generalizations”, Journal of International Marketing, indian-fmcg-industries-and-services/
Vol. 19 No 3, pp. 59-86. [47]. https://www.financialexpress.com/brandwagon/corona
[33]. Webster, F.E., Malter, A.J. and Ganesan, S. (2005), virus-impact-how-consumer-behaviour-will-change-
“The decline and dispersion of marketing post-lockdown/1954443/
competence”, MIT Sloan Management Review, Vol. [48]. https://www.capgemini.com/in-en/research/the-
46 No. 4, pp. 35-43. consumer-and-covid-19

IJISRT21FEB184 www.ijisrt.com 612


Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165

IJISRT21FEB184 www.ijisrt.com 613


Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165

IJISRT21FEB184 www.ijisrt.com 614