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安捷倫科技

LTE長期演進技術論壇
Volume 2
Agenda

• LTE Context and Timeline


• LTE Major Features
• LTE Transmission Schemes
• LTE vs. HSPA+ and WiMAX
• Multiple Antenna Techniques
• System Architecture Evolution
• Standards Documents
• Overview of Physical Layer Frame Structure
• Solutions Overview

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


9 Oct 2007
Page
Page 5151

LTE Physical Layer Overview


(…now on to the Really Cool Stuff!)

• LTE air interface consists of two main components – Signals


and Channels
• Physical Signals
• Generated in Layer 1
– Used for System Synchronization, Cell Identification and Radio
Channel Estimation
• Physical Channels
• These Carry Data from higher layers including Control, Scheduling
and User Payload
• The following is a simplified high-level description of the
essential Signals and Channels…

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


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26
Physical Signal Definitions
DL Signals Full name Purpose
P-SS Primary Synchronization Signal Used for cell search and identification by
the UE. Carries part of the cell ID
S-SS Secondary Synchronization Signal Used for cell search and identification by
the UE. Carries the remainder of the cell
ID
RS Reference Signal (Pilot) Used for DL channel estimation and
channel equalization. Exact sequence
derived from cell ID,
UL Signals Full name Purpose

LTE
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DM-RS (Demodulation) Reference Signal Used for synchronization to the UE and
UL channel estimation
Only used with active Transport Channel
SRS Sounding Reference Signal Used for channel estimation when there
is no transport channel (i.e., No active
PUSCH or PUCCH)
Used for CQI measurement.

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


9 Oct 2007
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Page 5353

Physical Channel Definitions

DL Channels Full name Purpose


PBCH Physical Broadcast Channel Carries cell-specific information
PMCH Physical Multicast Channel Carries the MCH transport channel
PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel Scheduling, ACK/NACK
PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel Payload
PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Defines number of PDCCH OFDMA
Channel symbols per sub-frame (1, 2 or 3)
PHICH Physical Hybrid ARQ indicator channel Carries HARQ ACK/NACK
UL Channels Full name Purpose
PRACH Physical Random Access Channel Call setup
PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel Scheduling, ACK/NACK
PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel Payload

Note: Absence of Dedicated Channels, which is a characteristic of Packet-Only Systems

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


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27
Signal Modulation and Mapping
Normal CP is assumed

DL Signals Modulation Sequence Physical Mapping Power*1


Primary 62/72 subcarriers centred
One of 3 Zadoff-Chu
Synchronization around DC at OFDMA [+0.65 dB] *2
sequences
Signal (P-SS) symbol #6 of slots #0, #10
Secondary
Two 31-bit M-sequences 62/72 subcarriers centred
Synchronization
(binary) – one of 168 Cell IDs around DC at OFDMA [+0.65 dB] *2
Signal
plus other info symbol #5 of slots #0, #10
(S-SS)
PS Gold sequence defined by Every 6th subcarrier of
Reference
Cell ID (P-SS & S-SS) OFDMA symbols #0 & #4 [+2.5 dB]
Signal (RS)
1 of 3x168 = 504 seq. of every slot
UL Signals Modulation Sequence Physical Mapping Power
Demodulation uth root Zadoff-Chu or
SC-FDMA symbol #3 of
Reference QPSK (<3 RB) [0 dB]
every slot
Signal (DM-RS)
Additional signals (UL) - Sounding Reference Signal (Z-C)
*1: 3GPP has not define power level yet. This information shows the current scale factor in the 89600 VSA and N7624B Signal Studio.
*2: Synchronization signal: 72 sub-carriers are reserved, but only 62 sub-carrier are used. [–0.65 dB = 10 x log10(62/72)]

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


9 Oct 2007
Page
Page 5555

DM-RS Signal Modulation (UE)

• The unity circle produced by the DM-RS may look random but is the result
of phase modulating each successive subcarrier to create a Constant
Amplitude Zero Auto-Correlation (CAZAC) Sequence
• There are 30 different sequences defined providing orthogonality between
users (similar to Walsh Codes in CDMA)
• The sequence follows a Zadoff-Chu progression
Sqm ( m 1)
j RS
N ZC RS
xq m e , 0 d m d N ZC 1
RS
where N ZC is the first prime number less than the required number of
subcarriers, and m is the subcarrier number of the qth sequence
• For allocations less than 3 Resource Blocks (36 subcarriers) it is not
possible to use a Zadoff-Chu sequence so the RS are modulated with a
simpler computer-generated QPSK sequence of length 12 or 24

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


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28
Channel Modulation and Mapping Normal CP is assumed

DL Channels Modulation Scheme Physical Mapping


72 subcarriers centred around DC
Physical Broadcast Channel
QPSK at OFDMA symbol #0 to #3 of
(PBCH)
Slot #1. Excludes RS subcarriers.
OFDMA symbol #0, #1 & #2 of
Physical Downlink Control the Slot #0 of the subframe NOT
QPSK
Channel (PDCCH) used by PCFICH or PHICH
Excludes RS subcarriers
Physical Downlink Shared
QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM Any assigned RB
Channel (PDSCH)

LTE
Physical Control Format 16 Resource Elements

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QPSK
Indicator Channel (PCFICH) Symbol #0 of Slot #0
Symbol #0 of Slot #0 (normal
Physical Hybrid-ARQ BPSK on I and Q duration)
Indicator Channel (PHICH) w/SF 2 or 4 Walsh Code Symbols #0, 1, and 2 of Slot #0
(extended duration)
Physical Multicast Channel
QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM Variable Resource Mapping
(PMCH)
Concepts of 3GPP LTE
9 Oct 2007
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Channel Modulation and Mapping (cont.)

UL Channels Modulation Scheme Physical Mapping

FDD = 64 Preambles, 4 Formats


Physical Random Access
uth root Zadoff-Chu TDD = 552 Preambles, 1 Format
Channel (PRACH)
Occupies 6 RB’s (1.08MHz)

Physical Uplink Control Any assigned RB but NOT


BPSK & QPSK
Channel (PUCCH) simultaneous with PUSCH

Any assigned RB but NOT


Physical Uplink Shared simultaneous with PUCCH
QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
Channel (PUSCH) Can be hopped

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


9 Oct 2007
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29
Slot Structure and Physical Resource Element
Downlink – OFDMA
One downlink slot, Tslot •A Resource Block (RB) is basic
scheduling unit.

DL
• A RB contains:
N symb OFDM symbols
• 7 symbols (1 slot) X 12
subcarriers for normal cyclic prefix
Resource block or;
: DL
N symb x N sc
RB

• 6 symbols (1 slot) X 12
subcarriers for extended cyclic
Resource prefix
element
(k, l)
DL
N RB RB
x Nsc subcarriers •Minimum allocation is 1 ms (2 slots)
RB
and 180 kHz (12 subcarriers).
N sc subcarriers
RB
N sc
Condition DL
N RB DL
N symb

Normal
㺁f=15kHz 12 7
cyclic prefix
:

Extended 㺁f=15kHz 12 6
cyclic prefix 㺁f=7.5kHz 24 3
l=0 l= N symb
DL
–1
Concepts of 3GPP LTE
9 Oct 2007
Page
Page 5959

Slot Structure and Physical Resource Element


Uplink – SC-FDMA
One uplink slot, Tslot

UL
N symb SC-FDMA symbols
Resource Block =
Resource block 0.5 ms x 180 kHz
: UL
N symb x N sc
RB

Resource element
UL
N RB RB
x Nsc subcarriers (k, l)

RB
N sc subcarriers

Condition NRBsc NULsymb


Normal
: 12 7
cyclic prefix
Extended
12 6
cyclic prefix
l=0 l=NULsymb – 1
Concepts of 3GPP LTE
9 Oct 2007
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30
Physical Layer Definitions
Frame Structure
Frame Structure type 1 (FDD) FDD: Uplink and downlink are transmitted separately

One radio frame = 10 ms


One slot = 0.5 ms

#0 #1 #2 #3 ………. #18 #19


One subframe = 1ms

Subframe 0 Subframe 1 Subframe 9


•5ms switch-point periodicity: Subframe 0, 5 and DwPTS for downlink,
Frame Structure type 2 (TDD) Subframe 2, 5 and UpPTS for Uplink
•10ms switch-point periodicity: Subframe 0, 5,7-9 and DwPTS for downlink,

LTE
One radio frame, Tf = 307200 x Ts = 10 ms Subframe 2 and UpPTS for Uplink

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One half-frame, 153600 x Ts = 5 ms

One subframe, 30720 x Ts = 1 ms


For 5ms switch-point periodicity

#0 #2 #3 #4 #5 #7 #8 #9

DwPTS, T(variable) UpPTS, 䌔(variable) For 10ms switch-point periodicity


One slot,
Guard period, T(variable) Tslot =15360 x Ts = 0.5 ms

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


9 Oct 2007
Page
Page 6161

Downlink Frame Structure Type 1


DL
N symb OFDM symbols (= 7 OFDM symbols @ Normal CP)

160 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 (x Ts)

CP 0 CP 1 CP 2 CP 3 CP 4 CP 5 CP 6 1 slot
etc. = 15360 Ts
The Cyclic Prefix is created by prepending each = 0.5 ms
symbol with a copy of the end of the symbol
Ts = 1/(15000 x 2048) = 32.552ns

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 P-SS - Primary Synch Signal [Sym 6 | Slots 0,10 | 62/72]


S-SS - Secondary Synch Signal [Sym 5 | Slots 0,10 | 62/72]
1 Sub-Frame PBCH - Physical Broadcast Channel [Syms 0-3 | Slot 1 | 72/72]
= 2 slots PDCCH -Physical DL Control Channel [Syms 0-2 | Every Subframe]
= 1 ms
PDSCH - Physical DL Shared Channel [Available Slots]
Reference Signal – (Pilot) [Sym 0,4 | Every Slot]

#0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 #15 #16 #17 #18 #19

1 frame
= 10 sub-frames
= 10 ms
Note 1: Position of RS varies w/Antenna Port number and CP Length
Note 2: PMCH, PCFICH, and PHICH not shown here for clarity
Concepts
Page 62 of 3GPP LTE
9 Oct 2007
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31
Downlink Physical Mapping

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


9 Oct 2007
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Page 6363

Uplink Frame Structure Type 1


PUSCH Mapping
DL
N symb OFDM symbols (= 7 OFDM symbols @ Normal CP)

160 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 (x Ts)

CP 0 CP 1 CP 2 CP 3 CP 4 CP 5 CP 6 1 slot
etc. = 15360 Ts
The Cyclic Prefix is created by prepending each = 0.5 ms
symbol with a copy of the end of the symbol
Ts = 1/(15000 x 2048) = 32.6 ns
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

1 sub-frame PUSCH - Physical Uplink Shared Channel


= 2 slots Reference Signal – (Demodulation) [Sym 3 | Every Slot]
= 1 ms

#0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 #15 #16 #17 #18 #19

1 frame
= 10 sub-frames
= 10 ms
Concepts of 3GPP LTE
9 Oct 2007
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32
Uplink Frame Structure Type 1 (FDD)
PUCCH Mapping (Formats 1, 1a, 1b )

[Syms 0,1,5,6 | Every Slot]

LTE
՗ଢ଼೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ
1 [Syms 2-4 | Every Slot]

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


9 Oct 2007
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Frame Structure Type 1 (UL)


- Physical Mapping

OOK, BPSK
Rotated
QPSK

Unlike DL, UL DM-RS


Is confined only to User

Note 1: When no PUCCH or PUSCH is scheduled in the uplink, the eNB can request transmission of the
Sounding Reference Signal (SRS), which allows the eNB to estimate the uplink channel characteristics
Note 2: PRACH and SRS not shown for clarity
Concepts of 3GPP LTE
9 Oct 2007
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33
Agenda

• LTE Context and Timeline


• LTE Major Features
• LTE Transmission Schemes
• LTE vs. HSPA+ and WiMAX
• Multiple Antenna Techniques
• System Architecture Evolution
• Standards Documents
• Overview of Physical Layer Frame Structure
• Solutions Overview

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


9 Oct 2007
Page
Page 6767

LTE Design Flow Solutions

RF Proto RF Chip Dev RFIC Digital


Design
Interface
Design Validation
Simulation System Level Testing
FPGA ASIC Development BB RF & Protocol
BB L1/PHY BB L1/PHY ASIC
Design
Protocol Development Integration
L2/L3 MAC/RLC Pre-
Conformance

Conformance

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


9 Oct 2007
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34
LTE Agilent Solutions in the Design Lifecycle
Signal Studio LTE VSA SW

Spectrum
Battery Drain
Analyzers Logic Analyzers Characterization
EDA
Signal Generators & Scopes

RF Proto RF Chip Dev RFIC Digital Design


Interface
Design Validation
Simulation FPGA ASIC Development
System Level Testing
BB RF & Protocol
BB L1/PHY BB L1/PHY ASIC
Design

LTE
՗ଢ଼೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ
Protocol Development Integration
L2/L3 Pre-
Conformance

Conformance
DC Power
Anite Protocol
E6620A Test Set Analyzer Systems for RF and Protocol Conformance
Development System
Concepts of 3GPP LTE
9 Oct 2007
Page
Page 6969

Advanced Design System


3GPP LTE Wireless Library
For system and circuit design & verification
• Downlink OFDMA and uplink SC-FDMA
sources and receivers
• Pre-configured examples with EVM and
BER measurements
• Connectivity with Agilent test equipment
Combine simulation with sources and analyzers for
powerful R&D prototype hardware testing..
Download Signal generator

RF or
Mixed-
Signal DUT

Logic Analyser
Analyze

Spectrum Analyser
http://eesof.tm.agilent.com/products/ads_main.html

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


9 Oct 2007
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35
Signal creation software
N7624B Signal Studio for LTE
User-friendly, parameterized and reconfigurable 3GPP LTE signal
generation software for Agilent ESG-C or MXG RF Signal Generators.
• PHY Layer partially coded signals for component test
• Transport Layer fully coded signals for Rx Test
• Downlink MIMO pre-coding up to 4x4 (Spatial Multiplexing/Tx
Diversity)
• Multiple UE setup for UL Download your free demo copy at:
• Fixed-tap Fading www.agilent.com/find/signalstudio

MXG

ESG-C
Concepts of 3GPP LTE
9 Oct 2007
Page
Page 7171

Wireless Physical Layer Validation


Signal Creation Software

N4860A
Stimulus Probe
Tx RF-IC Signal Generator
Rx
Spectrum Analyser

N4850A
Logic Analyzer Acquisition Probe Vector Signal Analysis

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


9 Oct 2007
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36
LTE Signal Analysis Using Agilent 89601A Vector
Signal Analyzer software
• Works with multiple signal
acquisition front ends including logic
analyzers, scopes, simulation tools
and spectrum analyzers EVM
equalizer amplitude and phase
response
• Waterfall displays
• Gate (by time and channel type)

LTE
՗ଢ଼೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ
• Customizable GUI with up to 6
simultaneous colour coded traces
• Analysis in multiple domains - slot,
subcarrier, resource block and Download your free
symbol 89601A demo copy at:
• Full coupled marker functionality www.agilent.com/find/89600

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


9 Oct 2007
Page
Page 7373

Agilent and Anite in partnership


- accelerating LTE test solutions

Combining strengths to bring a full- NEW!


range of LTE solutions to market
faster
• Anite Protocol development
system built on Agilent E6620A
hardware platform
• Agilent E6620A wireless
communications test set with a Anite SAT LTE Protocol Tester
3GPP Release 8 LTE protocol with Development Toolset
stack built on the Agilent E6620A

First to market toolset for UE protocol development

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


9 Oct 2007
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37
E6620A Integrated Mobile Test Platform
Scripted testcases
Scalable single box base station emulator
• 2G/3G/3.9G (LTE) capable
Protocol Processor
• LTE L1-L2 signaling stack + scripting API
• 20MHz BW
PDCP A
• Data rates up to 100 Mbps DL / 50 Mbps UL
• 2x2 MIMO
RLC • Support for two independent cells

MAC P • Built-in Fading


• RF Parametric Measurements
DSP Engine I
digital I/O L1 PHY
RF I/O
SISO RF I/O
UP/DOWN CONV.
MIMO RF I/O* 20MHz B/W RF
(2x2 DL)

*Optional 2nd Source/Receiver for 2x2 MIMO Introduction: Mid-2008


Concepts of 3GPP LTE
9 Oct 2007
Page
Page 7575

Agilent's position in LTE

• Providing the broadest range of solutions for LTE design and test -
from simulation to RF and digital design to protocol development to
network deployment.
• Representation on 3GPP standards committees
• Providing "connected solutions" – systems that combine
simulation with real-world signal generation and analysis to permit
early module test
• Is the only company that provides all the cross-domain test
capability for new-generation radio products which feature direct
"digital to RF" architectures (eg. CPRI and OBSAI base stations and
DigRF and MIPI D-PHY handsets)
• First-to-market Protocol test solution in partnership with Anite
• Providing a common scalable platform across protocol and RF
solutions for development, functional, and conformance test

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


9 Oct 2007
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38
Learn more at
www.agilent.com/find/lte
LTE Poster (5989-7646EN)

LTE
՗ଢ଼೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ
Brochure (5989-7817EN)

Webcasts on LTE
• LTE Concepts
• LTE Uplink
• LTE Design and Simulation
Application Note coming

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


9 Oct 2007
Page
Page 7777

Questions?

Thank you for your attention!

Concepts of 3GPP LTE


9 Oct 2007
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39
LTE Uplink and Downlink Signal Generation

Agilent has built a solid reputation in the Agilent ESG signal generator. Additionally
mobile communications industry with the Signal Studio software can be used with
combination of our signal generators and the Agilent PXB MIMO receiver tester for
Signal Studio signal creation software. applications that require MIMO fading,
The versatile and comprehensive software creation of interfering stimulus, digital
is available for the development and I/Q inputs and outputs, real-time signal
manufacturing of existing and evoling creation or closed loop testing of advanced
2G, 3G, 3.5G and 4G communication LTE capabilities like HARQ. Highlights of
systems. You can quickly and easily create LTE Signal Studio Software include:
performance-optimized LTE reference
signals for component-level parametric • Create FDD and TDD frame structures
test, baseband subsystem verification, (type 1/type 2)
receiver performance verification and • Physical layer coded signals for
advanced functional evaluation. component test
• Transport channel coded signals for
Speed Signal Simulation with Signal receiver test
Studio LTE Applications
• Create all LTE bandwidths: 1.4 MHz to
20 MHz
Signal Studio applications for 3GPP LTE
enable the configuration of standard- • Create all modulation types: BPSK,
based FDD and TDD LTE test signals to QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM
verify the performance of components, • Up to 4x4 MIMO configurations (spatial
receivers, and baseband ASICs. Use this multiplexing / TX diversity)
software with the Agilent MXG signal • Real-time fading with the Agilent PXB
generator for the industry’s for up to 4x2 or 2x4 MIMO
best adjacent channel
leakage ratio (ACLR) • Predefined setups for fi xed reference
performance making it ideal channels and E-UTRA test models
for the characterization • Mixed-carrier configuration with
and evaluation of BTS W-CDMA
components such as multi- • Co-existence testing using the
carrier power amplifiers. Agilent PXB with 4 independent
For applications that baseband generators
require lower phase noise,
• Create multi-carrier signals for uplink
the best level accuracy,
and downlink
or digital I/Q inputs and
outputs then use Signal • Real-time HARQ feedback for perfor-
Studio software with the mance requirements testing

Industry-leading performance with the Agilent PXB


MIMO receiver tester and the Agilent MXG and ESG
vector signal generators.

Flexible resource mapping with scalable system bandwidth


is available with Agilent’s Signal Studio Software.

www.agilent.com/find/lte
3GPP LTE protocol Primer

Agenda

LTE
೽ଉ‫ۡڞ‬அᙃ
• LTE major features and documents
• SAE, S1 and X2 overview
• LTE Protocol Stack overviews
• Data flow through the UE LTE stack
• PHY function Overview
• RRC- focus on Handover
• Summaries/Solutions

3GPP LTE Protocol Primer


Sandy Fraser 5th March 2008

1
LTE major features

Feature Capability
UE Categories 10 Mbps - 300 Mbps on DL
(Provisionally five) 5 Mbps to 75 Mbps in UL
Access modes FDD with frame structure 1
TDD with frame structure 2
Baseline UE capability 20 MHz UL/DL, 2 Rx, one Tx antenna
Downlink transmission OFDMA using QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
Uplink transmission SC-FDMA using QPSK,16QAM, 64QAM
DL Spatial diversity Open loop TX diversity
Single-User MIMO up to 4x4 supportable
UL Spatial diversity Optional open loop TX diversity, 2x2 MU-
MIMO, Optional 2x2 SU-MIMO

3GPP LTE Protocol Primer


Sandy Fraser 5th March 2008

LTE major features

Feature Capability
Transmission Time 1 ms
Interval
H-ARQ Retransmission 8ms (At LTE peak data rates this is a very hard
Time spec to meet at baseband)
Frequency hopping Intra-TTI UL once per .5ms slot - DL once per 66Ӵs symbol
Inter-TTI Across retransmissions
Bearer services Packet only – no circuit switched voice or data
services are supported Î voice must use VoIP
Multicasting Enhanced MBMS with Single Frequency Network and
cell-specific content

3GPP LTE Protocol Primer


Sandy Fraser 5th March 2008

2
LTE 3GPP Specifications (Rel-8)

• After the LTE study phase in Rel-7, the LTE specifications


are defined in the 36-series documents of Rel-8
• There are six major groups of documents
• 36.8XX & 36.9XX Technical reports (background information)
• 36.1XX Radio specifications (and eNB conformance testing)
• 36.2XX Layer 1 baseband
• 36.3XX Layer 2/3 air interface signalling
• 36.4XX Network signalling
• 36.5XX UE Conformance Testing
• The latest versions of these documents can be found at
www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/36-series.htm

3GPP LTE Protocol Primer


Sandy Fraser 5th March 2008

Agenda

LTE
೽ଉ‫ۡڞ‬அᙃ
• LTE major features and documents
• SAE, S1 and X2 overview
• LTE Protocol Stack overviews
• Data flow through the UE LTE stack
• PHY function Overview
• RRC- focus on Handover
• Summaries/Solutions

3GPP LTE Protocol Primer


Sandy Fraser 5th March 2008

3
HSS - Home subscriber server
High level SAE IMS - IP multimedia subsystem
Inter AS anchor - Inter access system anchor
MME - Mobility management entity
Architecture Op. IP Serv. - Operator IP service
PCRF - Policy and charging rule control function
UPE - User plane entity

3GPP LTE Protocol Primer


Sandy Fraser 5th March 2008

Simplified LTE network elements and interfaces

MME = Mobile
Management
entity

SAE =
System
Architecture
Evolution

3GPP TS 36.300 Figure 4: Overall Architecture

3GPP LTE Protocol Primer


Sandy Fraser 5th March 2008

4
LTE 3GPP – S1 and X2

3GPP LTE Protocol Primer


Sandy Fraser 5th March 2008

3GPP TR 23.401 / 25.813

LTE
೽ଉ‫ۡڞ‬அᙃ
• PLMN – Public Land Mobile Network
• EPS – Evolved Packet System
• MME – Mobility Management Entity
• eNB – E-UTRAN Node B
• TAI - Tracking Area ID
• E-UTRAN – Evolved Universal Radio
Access Network
• C-RNTI – Cell Radio Network
Temporary Identifier
• RA-RNTI – Random Access RNTI
• UE – User Equipment
• IMEI – International Mobile Equipment
Identity
• IMSI – International Mobile Subscriber
Identity
• S-TMSI – SAE Temporary Mobile
Subscriber Identity

3G PP LTE P ro toco lP rim er


Sandy Fr ase r 5th Ma
r c h 2008

5
What is Protocol?
¾An agreed-upon set of rules governing the exchange of
information.
¾“An agreed-upon set of rules”: what, how, and when
information is communicated must conform to some mutually
acceptable set of conventions referred to as ‘the protocol’
¾“Information” : Two types
• “Control” -used to setup, maintain, and end the communication link
• “Data” -the actual content that is intended to be exchanged packaged
into “messages”
¾The protocol defines and governs the exchange of
messages

3G PP LTE P ro toco lP rim er


Sandy Fr ase r 5th Ma
r c h 2008

Terminology

3G PP LTE P ro toco lP rim er


Sandy Fr ase r 5th Ma
r c h 2008

6
Agenda

• LTE major features and documents


• SAE, S1 and X2 overview
• LTE Protocol Stack overviews
• Data flow through the UE LTE stack
• PHY function Overview
• RRC- focus on Handover
• Summaries/Solutions

3G PP LTE P ro toco lP rim er


Sandy Fr ase r 5th Ma
r c h 2008

LTE 3GPP Stack overview 3GPP 3.60, Fig 4.3.2

LTE
Control plane protocol stack

೽ଉ‫ۡڞ‬அᙃ
UE eNB MME

NAS NAS
RRC RRC Handovers, mobility

PDCP PDCP Ciphering, RoHC

RLC RLC Segmentation, Concatenation,


ARQ

MAC MAC HARQ, mapping to/from PHY

PHY PHY Modulation, coding

3G PP LTE P ro toco lP rim er


Sandy Fr ase r 5th Ma
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7
LTE 3GPP Stack overview

UE eNB

PDCP PDCP

RLC RLC

MAC MAC
3GPP 3.60, Fig 4.3.1
User plane protocol stack
PHY PHY

3G PP LTE P ro toco lP rim er


Sandy Fr ase r 5th Ma
r c h 2008

LTE 3GPP Stack overview – PDCP


• The main services and functions of
PDCP for the user plane include:
• Header compression and
decompression: ROHC
• Transfer of user data: transmission of
user data means that PDCP receives
PDCP SDU from the NAS and forwards
it to the RLC layer and vice versa
• Ciphering;

• The main services and functions of


PDCP for the control plane include:
• Ciphering and Integrity Protection
• Transfer of control plane data:
transmission of control plane data
means that PDCP receives PDCP
SDUs from RRC and forwards it to the
RLC layer and vice versa.

PDCP layer, functional view

3G PP LTE P ro toco lP rim er


Sandy Fr ase r 5th Ma
r c h 2008

8
LTE 3GPP Stack overview – PDCP PDU Structure

• Robust Header
Compression (RoHC)
• For more info see
IETF RFC 4995. IP
Data
• Reduced overhead, Header
more efficient
• Once RoHC has been Data
RoHC applied
applied the whole packet
(data AND header) are
ciphered as TS35.201 Header and
Ciphered
• Header and Message data ciphered
Authentication codes are
added PDCP
C%^b£$^8Df%^xz(£”$nf$%MAC-I
Header

IETF (The Internet Engineering Task Force)


http://www.ietf.org/
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LTE 3GPP Stack overview - RLC

LTE
೽ଉ‫ۡڞ‬அᙃ
• Concatenation, segmentation, re-segmentation of SDU’s to match transmission
(Transport Block –TB) parameters set by MAC or radio condiction
• Three service Mode:
9 Transparent mode (TM)
9 Unacknowledged Mode (UM)
9 Acknowledge Mode (AM)

• In sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs


• Error Correction through ARQ (CRC check provided by the physical layer, that is,
no CRC needed at RLC level)
• Re-ordering of PDU’s received out of order
• Duplicate detection and RLC SDU discard.
In general, the data entity from/to a higher protocol layer is known as a Service Data
Unit (SDU) and the corresponding entity to/from a lower protocol layer entity is denoted
Protocol Data Unit (PDU).

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9
RLC Segmentation and Concatenation

• Multiple RLC SDU’s are segmented / concatenated into a single RLC


PDU
• MAC knows what physical resources are available and RLC provides
RLC PDU’s to the size that MAC requests.
• RLC PDU size varies dynamically.
• RLC SDU’s can be control information, voice, data etc

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LTE 3GPP – RLC, Transparent Mode (TM)

• Transparent mode PDU’s are


passed on by RLC as received
• No Headers
• No Concatenation
• No segmentation

• Associated with the following


logical channels
• BCCH 36.322 Figure 4.2.1.1.1-1: Model of two transparent mode peer entities

• UL CCCH
• DL CCCH
• PCCH

TMD PDU (No Header)

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10
LTE 3GPP – RLC, Unacknowledged Mode (UM)
• RLC conducts:
• No retransmission service (No ARQ)
• Segmentation and /or concatenation
of PDU’s depending on Transport
Block information provided by MAC
• Adds necessary headers
• Re-orders out of sequence PDU’s
• Detects lost PDU’s
• Discard duplicate PDU’s
• Associated with the following logical
channels
• UL &DL DCCH
• UL &DL DTCH
• MCCH & MTCH 36.322 Figure 4.2.1.2.1-1: Model of two unacknowledged mode peer entities

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LTE 3GPP – RLC, Unacknowledged Mode (UM)

LTE
೽ଉ‫ۡڞ‬அᙃ
• RLC is instructed by RRC to use
either 5 or 10 bit Sequence Number
• The construction of the UM RLC
PDU differs for each of these

36.322 Figure 6.2.1.3-1: UMD PDU with 5 bit SN (No LI)


Data Data
FI Framing Info
SN Sequence Nunber (5 or 10 bit)
E Extension bit
R1 Reserved
LI Length Indicator 36.322 Figure 6.2.1.3-2: UMD PDU with 10 bit SN (No LI)

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11
LTE 3GPP – RLC, Acknowledged Mode (AM)

• For AM RLC conducts:


AM-SAP

• Retransmission and in-sequence delivery.


• Segmentation and /or concatenation
Transmission
of PDU’s depending on Transport buffer
RLC control SDU reassembly

Block information provided by MAC


• Adds necessary headers Segmentation & Retransmission
Remove RLC header

• Re-orders out of sequence PDU’s


Concatenation buffer

• Detects lost PDU’s Reception


buffer & HARQ
reordering

• Discard duplicate PDU’s


• Number of re-segmentation is not Add RLC header
Routing

limited
• Associated with the following logical DCCH/DTCH DCCH/DTCH

channels
• UL &DL DCCH 36.322 Figure 4.2.1.3.1-1: Model of an acknowledged mode enttiy

• UL &DL DTCH

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LTE 3GPP – RLC, Acknowledged Mode (AM)

• Acknowledged Mode PDU frame


structure
• Shown here is a PDU with no additional E & LI
fields showns
• If there are an add number of LI fields, there is
additional 4 bits padding. 36.322 Figure 6.2.1.4-1: AMD PDU (No LI)
• If there is an even number of LI fields then no
additional padding is necessary.

D/C Data / Control Indicated either Data or Control PDU


RF Re-segmentation Flag Indicates either a PDU or a PDU segment
P Polling Bit Status report required / not required
FI Framing Info Segmentation info
SN Sequence Number (5 or 10 bit) Sequence number of the RLC PDU
E Extension bit Data or more E and LI to follow
LI Length indicator Data field length in bytes

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12
LTE 3GPP – RLC, Acknowledged Mode (AM)

• Acknowledged Mode PDU SEGMENT 㪛㪆㪚 㪩㪝 㪧 㪝㪠 㪜 㪪㪥 㪦㪺㫋㩷㪈


㪪㪥 㪦㪺㫋㩷㪉
㪣㪪㪝 㪪㪦 㪦㪺㫋㩷㪊
㪪㪦 㪦㪺㫋㩷㪋
㪛㪸㫋㪸 㪦㪺㫋㩷㪌

㪦㪺㫋㩷㪥

36.322 Figure 6.2.1.5-1: AMD PDU segment (No LI)

D/C Data / Control Indicated either Data or Control PDU


RF Re-segmentation Flag Indicates either a PDU or a PDU segment
P Polling Bit Status report required / not required
FI Framing Info Segmentation info
SN Sequence Number (5 or 10 bit) Sequence number of the RLC PDU
SO Segment Offset Start/end of PDU portion detected as lost
LSF Last Segment Flag This is the last segment of the PDU

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LTE 3GPP – RLC, Acknowledged Mode (AM)

LTE
೽ଉ‫ۡڞ‬அᙃ
• Acknowledged Mode STATUS PDU

36.322 Figure 6.2.1.6-1: STATUS PDU

D/C Data / Control Indicated either Data or Control PDU


CPT Control PDU Type Status PDU or TBD
ACK_SN Acknowledged SN Lowest SN not received or lost
NACK_SN Neg. Acknowledged SN SN of PDU detected as lost
E1 Extension bit 1 Indicates whether NACK_SN & E2 follows
E2 Extension bit 2 Indicates whether SO start/end follow
SOStart Sequence Offset Start 1st byte of portion of lost PDU
SOend Sequence Offset End Last byte of portion of lost PDU

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13
MAC function location and link direction
association
MAC function UE eNB Downlink Uplink
Mapping between logical channels and x x x
transport channels x x x
Multiplexing x x
x x
Demultiplexing x x
x x
Error correction through HARQ x x x
x x x
Transport Format Selection x x x
Priority handling between UEs x x x
Priority handling between logical x x x
channels of one UE
Logical Channel prioritisation x x
Scheduling information reporting x x

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LTE 3GPP – MAC PDU structure

• A MAC PDU consists of a MAC header, zero or more MAC Service Data
Units (MAC SDU), zero, or more MAC control elements, and optionally
padding

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14
LTE 3GPP - MAC PDU , DL-SCH, UL-SCH

• Similar to UMTS – Header, MAC SDU’s, MAC control elements, Padding


• Header and SDU’s can be variable in size
• MAC PDU Header consists of one or more sub-headers, relating to multiple MAC SDU’s,
MAC control elements or padding
• Normally the sub-header contains 6 header fields, R/R/E/LCID/F/L
• The LAST sub-header and FIXED sized MAC control elements only have 4 header fields –
R/R/E/LCID
36.321 Figure 6.1.2-1: R/R/E/LCID/F/L MAC sub-header

LCID Logical Channel ID


L Length
R Reserved
E Extension
F Format

Figure 6.1.2-2: R/R/E/LCID MAC sub-header

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MAC PDU with several headers/elements

LTE
೽ଉ‫ۡڞ‬அᙃ
•If there are multiple SDU’s in
the MAC PDU, then there will
be multiple sub-headers
•Each header could be data or
control information.

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15
LTE 3GPP - MAC Scheduling

• MAC’s main function will be the distribution and management of


common resources in both UL –SCH and DL-SCH to multiple UE’s
• eNB MAC must take account of:
• Overall traffic volume
• UE QoS needs for each connection type.
• Radio conditions through measurement by UE.
• If a UE requests resources via a Scheduling request, the eNB will
provide a scheduling grant identified by C-RNTI (unique identifier
provided by RRC) Scheduling grant will also include
• Physical Resource Blocks
• Modulation Coding Scheme
• A UE could have several streams of control or user data, identified by
Logical Control ID (LCID)

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LTE 3GPP - MAC ARQ and HARQ


N-Process Stop and Wait HARQ (LTE support maximum 8 HARQ processes)
•Downlink
•Asynchronous Adaptive HARQ
•PUSCH or PUCCH used for ACK/NACKS for DL (re-)transmissions
•PDCCH signals the HARQ process number and if re-transmission or
transmission

•Uplink
•Synchronous HARQ
•Maximum number of re-transmissions configured per UE
•PHICH used to transmit ACK/NACKs for non-adaptive UL (re-)transmissions.
Adaptive re-transmissions are scheduled through PDCCH

•MAC HARQ can also interact with RLC to provide information to speed up RLC
ARQ re-segmentation and re-transmission.
•HARQ re-transmissions could be delayed if they collide with GAP measurements
required for certain types of Handovers. The GAP Measurements take priority

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16
Function of Physical Layer Service

- Error detection on the transport channel and indication to higher layers


- FEC encoding/decoding of the transport channel
- Hybrid ARQ soft-combining
- Rate matching of the coded transport channel to physical channels
- Mapping of the coded transport channel onto physical channels
- Power weighting of physical channels
- Modulation and demodulation of physical channels
- Frequency and time synchronisation
- Radio characteristics measurements and indication to higher layers
- Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna processing
- Transmit Diversity (TX diversity)
- Beamforming
- RF processing.

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LTE 3GPP Stack overview - Physical

LTE
೽ଉ‫ۡڞ‬அᙃ
To/From Higher Layers

36.212
Multiplexing and channel
coding

36.211 36.213 36.214


Physical Channels and Physical layer procedures Physical layer –
Modulation Measurements

Relation between Physical Layer specifications

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17
LTE 3GPP Stack overview - RRC
• The main services and functions of the RRC subl-ayer include:
• Broadcast of System Information
• Paging (creation and management);
• Establishment, maintenance and release of an RRC connection between the
UE and E-UTRAN including:
– Allocation of temporary identifiers (C-RNTI) between UE and E-UTRAN;
– Configuration of signalling radio bearer(s) for RRC connection:
• Security functions including key management;
• Mobility functions including:
– UE measurement reporting and control of the reporting for inter-cell and
inter-RAT mobility;
– Inter-cell handover;
– UE cell selection and reselection and control of cell selection and
reselection;
• Notification for MBMS services;
• QoS management functions;
– UE measurement reporting and control of the reporting;
– NAS direct message transfer to/from NAS from/to UE.

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LTE 3GPP RRC


Cell (re)selection and handover procedures

• E-UTRAN Handovers will be possible from:


• E-UTRAN<>E-UTRAN
• E-UTRAN<>UTRAN
• E-UTRAN<>GERAN
• E-UTRAN<>Non 3GPP RAN’s

• Handovers will follow general GERAN/UTRAN procedures:


• MS measures neighbour cells
• MS reports RxLev, RxQual to BSE/NodeB
• When one of the neighbours looks more favourable, HO or
Cell (re)-selection occurs

• However there are some changes in E-UTRAN

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18
LTE 3GPP Stack overview
Handover measurement scenarios

• Intra E-UTRAN Handovers will be affected by differences between


the host and targeted neighbour cells:
• Centre Frequency Offset (or lack of)
• Bandwidth of target cell is greater or less than host cell

• Gap or no gap decision for cell measurements to assist HO is


detailed in 36-300 10.1.3

• RRC controls measurement gaps and patterns


• Scheduled gaps
• Individual gaps

NGA NGA NGA GA GA GA

NGA, No Gap Assistance, GA, Gap Assistance

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LTE 3GPP Stack overview

LTE
Handover measurement scenarios

೽ଉ‫ۡڞ‬அᙃ
• General concern (36-300, 10.2.3.4) over measurement times for a multi-RAT
device
• Full E-UTRAN 20MHz bandwidth
• GSM Multi-band access
• UTRAN Multi-band access
• Non-3GPP (WiMax, CDMA2000 etc) Interworking
• Load Limiting will be controlled by:
• E-UTRAN can configure the RATs to be measured by UE
• Limiting measurement criteria (TS 25.133)
• Awareness of E-UTRAN of UE capabilities
• Blind handover support (without measurement reports),

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19
LTE 3GPP Stack overview
Handover measurement scenarios

• For Handovers, the network can provide some assistance


• E-UTRAN – no cell specific assistance or frequency only
• UTRAN – frequency list and scrambling codes
• GERAN – frequency list. The UE can also “leave” the E-UTRA cell to
read the target GERAN BCH to assess suitability prior to reselection.
• UTRAN to E-UTRAN Measurements - UE performs E-UTRAN
measurements in compressed mode
• GERAN to E-UTRAN Measurements performed during idle frame, 36-
300, 10.2.3.2 raises some concern over time constraints
• General worry 36-300, 10.2.3.4 over measurement times for a multi-
RAT device
• Support for non 3GPP Radio technologies is also being discussed

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LTE 3GPP Stack overview - NAS

•The main services and functions of the NAS layer include:


•EPS Bearer Management
•Authentication
•ECM-IDLE mobility handling
•Security
UE eNB MME

NAS NAS
RRC RRC

PDCP PDCP

RLC RLC

3GPP 3.60, Fig 4.3.2 MAC MAC


Control plane protocol stack
PHY PHY

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20
Agenda

• LTE major features and documents


• SAE, S1 and X2 overview
• LTE Protocol Stack overviews
• Data flow through the UE LTE stack
• PHY function Overview
• RRC- focus on Handover
• Summaries/Solutions

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Summary/Solutions

LTE
೽ଉ‫ۡڞ‬அᙃ
• Simplified all IP network, with fewer elements and more autonomy for the eNB
• No RNC, NO Soft HO
• Some specifications are almost complete, some are still FFS
• UL power control (PHY process defined 36.213, upper layer procedures FFS)
• RRC firming up, but still needs much work
• UMTS comparison:
• Much more in MAC to reduce higher level processing
• Higher layers similar to UMTS
• Reduced complexity and channel count
• Much simplified categorisation
• Some areas more complex because of Diversity, eg CQI, Power control
• Designed to interwork with existing UMTS and CDMA2000 networks

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21
Agilent and Anite

Industry Leaders Partnering to Deliver


World Class LTE Development Solutions

• Providing scalable test solutions to address the complete R&D life


cycle for LTE mobile development.
• Anite and Agilent are partnering to deliver industry leading UE LTE R&D test
solutions.
• Anite will provide industry leading development, conformance and
interoperability protocol test solutions for LTE
• Agilent will be providing an industry leading RF platform, OBT based solutions
and RF conformance solutions for LTE.
• These solutions will use a common RF hardware platform and a common
protocol stack providing a truly scalable solution to address all phases of UE
development – enabling customers to bring LTE UEs to market faster and more
efficiently.

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Agilent LTE UE Test Across the


E6620A R&D
lifecycle

Early Protocol
Conformance
Development
test RF and
Protocol
RF Design Bench top Interoperability and
Verification Interactive validation
Functional test

A Portfolio of scalable solutions


with ONE common hardware platform and protocol stack

•Improve efficiency & consistency with all developers using the same platform
•Ensure the best utilization of valuable test assets

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22
Agilent and Anite
in partnership - to accelerate LTE test solutions

NEW!
Combining strengths to bring a
full-range of LTE solutions to
market faster

• Anite Protocol development &


conformance systems built on
Agilent E6620A hardware
platform

• Agilent bench top one box Anite SAT LTE Protocol


test set and RF conformance Tester
test leveraging common with Development Toolset
Anite/Agilent protocol stack built on the Agilent E6620A

First to Market toolset for LTE UE protocol developer


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LTE
೽ଉ‫ۡڞ‬அᙃ

23
LTE Baseband Analysis

Logic Analysis To validate RFIC operation, engineers can


also leverage the combination of signal
In next-generation architectures the generation software and the RDX tester
physical link between the RF front-end and connected to the system-under-test
baseband processing evolves from an ana- through a DigRF v3 or v4 digital connection
log to parallel, or high-speed, serial digital to test the transmit signal path.
bus. New interface standards require test
equipment to provide appropriate serial For R&D engineers designing or integrating
digital inputs and outputs. MIPI (Mobile Industry Processor Alliance)
D-PHY devices within a mobile handset,
The combination of an Agilent RDX tester the same logic analysis solution can be
or logic analyzer and Agilent’s Vector used as a MIPI D-PHY protocol test solu-
Signal Analysis (VSA) software provides tion, with support for display (DSI) and
the only digital VSA (DVSA) package for camera (CSI-2) interfaces. The solution
digital baseband, IF and RF signal analysis. includes a configurable stimulus platform
This combination enables digital signal which offers bit-to-video level test capa-
processing (DSP) designers to effectively bilities for embedded displays, real-time
design and debug interfaces that were analysis and protocol viewing capabili-
once analog and are now digital. The ties. Engineers can gain valuable insight
VSA software performs signal analysis into the exchanges between MIPI D-PHY
functions such as I/Q analysis, EVM, enabled devices.
Fourier spectrum, etc., using the digital
signal captured by the logic analyzer as
the input.

Characterize behavior of devices, from baseband to antenna, with access throughout the block diagram.
LTE Baseband Analysis

LTE Digital Real-Time Decode & Debug signals. Two-channel Infiniium scopes
can also make the coherent two-channel
Combine Agilent’s vector signal analysis MIMO measurements needed for IEEE
software with Agilent’s Infiniium 90000A 802.11n and WiMAX™. The digitized
series oscilloscope to analyze wide- signals are transferred via GPIB, USB, or
bandwidth signals. The 90000A oscilloscope LAN to the PC running the 89600 VSA
provides up to 13 GHz of analysis bandwidth software where the frequency, time,
and is well suited to digitizing down- and modulation analysis tools of the
converted satellite, LMDS, and MMDS 89600 VSA can be used to evaluate and
signals, as well as WiMedia-based troubleshoot the signal.
UWB or other extremely
broadband Agilent Infiniium 90000A series high
performance real-time oscilloscopes
deliver superior signal integrity, deep
application analysis, and excellent insight.
They offer the industry’s lowest noise
floor, deepest memory (1 Gpts), only three-
level sequence triggering, and widest
selection of applications.

Troubleshoot digital glitches


with the Agilent DSO90000A
high performance, real-time
oscilloscope.

DigRF Digital Interface digital or RF domain for digital protocol


test as well as RF (digital IQ) physical layer
If you are using the DigRF (v3 or v4) base- stimulus and analysis. The integration
band IC to RFIC interface, the Agilent RDX of the RDX platform with the Agilent RF
platform provides a comprehensive test portfolio provides cross-domain solutions
solution that brings insight into both the that will help you rapidly deploy your DigRF
digital and RF domains. The RDX platform designs, aiding both baseband and RF IC
allows engineers to work in either the development, debug and characterization.

Access DigRF v3 and v4


interfaces, as well as Digital
IQ data, with the RDX test
platform.

www.agilent.com/find/lte
Concept of TD-LTE

TDD-LTE۩೯ຏಛ‫ݾ‬๬១տ
TD-LTE MIMO test (PHY)

TD-LTE wireless library


& connected solution TD-LTE signaling test

By Dr. Michael Leung


TD-LTE RF conformance test

Page 1

Agenda

•Understanding TD-LTE technology

•TD-LTE market opportunity

•Technical challenges of TD-LTE

• RF measurement

• Agilent TD-LTE solution


೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ
TDD-LTE
՗ଢ଼

Agilent, PicoChip & ASTRI Hong Kong


TD-LTE UE & Femtocell Demo (MWC 2009)
Agenda

•Understanding TD-LTE technology

•TD-LTE market opportunity

•Technical challenges of TD-LTE

• RF measurement

• Agilent TD-LTE solution

What is TD-LTE?

• LTE TDD (Long Term Evolution Time Division Duplex) or also known as TD-LTE
is part of the 3GPP specifications for the next generation cellular technology.
• In China, TD-LTE will be an evolution from TD-SCDMA and will provide for
asymmetric needs of mobile data usage and allow use of unpaired spectrum.
• China Mobile will use the TDD version of LTE that will be compatible with TD-
SCDMA and the rest of the world's LTE. LTE, or Long Term Evolution, is a fourth
generation (4G) mobile broadband standard and is aimed to be the successor
to the 3G technologies GSM.

Page 4
Multimode LTE network:
TD-LTE & LTE-FDD
China Mobile, Verizon Wireless and Vodafone Trials
Confirm LTE as a Next Generation Candidate
Wednesday, 18 February 2009
http://www.umts-forum.org/content/view/2708/109/

China Mobile, Verizon Wireless and Vodafone have conducted joint


laboratory trials of the Time Division Duplex (TDD) version of LTE (TD-LTE),
showing that the technology is capable of operating effectively in
unpaired as well as paired spectrum. The LTE testing alliance, which has
also conducted field tests of LTE Frequency Division Duplex (LTE FDD),
aims to develop a converged LTE FDD and TD-LTE system to enable an
effective solution for both FDD (paired) and TDD (unpaired) spectrum.

Page 5

HSS - Home subscriber server


IMS - IP multimedia subsystem
High level Architecture Inter AS anchor - Inter access system anchor
MME - Mobility management entity
Op. IP Serv. - Operator IP service
PCRF - Policy and charging rule control function
UPE - User plane entity

೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ
TDD-LTE
՗ଢ଼
Operating bands – FDD / TDD

TD-LTE & TD-SCDMA


Integration frame structures (TD-SCDMA& TD-LTE)

TDD FS1 TDD FS2


10ms Frame 5ms half Frame

#0 #1 #18 #19

0.5 ms 0.675 ms

The single TDD FS


5ms half Frame

0.5 ms

Integration of TD-LTE frame structure

Agenda

•Understanding TD-LTE technology

•TD-LTE market opportunity

•Technical challenges of TD-LTE

• RF measurement

• Agilent TD-LTE solution


೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ
TDD-LTE
՗ଢ଼
Who participate in TD-LTE?

China Spectrum Allocation

TDD FDD (uplink) Satellite TDD Void FDD (downlink)

30 15
40 MHz 60 MHz 85 MHz 60 MHz
MHz MHz

1880 1920 1980 2010 2025 2110 2170


Duplex Spacing 190 MHz
TDD

100 MHz

2300 2400

Air interface Mode Frequency Band RF Bandwidth Availability

TD-SCDMA TDD 40 + 15 + 100 MHz 1.6 MHz 155MHz


W-CDMA FDD 60 MHz 5 MHz 60MHz

Page 12
Page 12
China Telecom Operators

3G Network (China)
Over 40 Billion USD investment in developing the 3G network
infrastructure, mobile devices, and services

• China Mobile
– RMB 58.8 billion yuan ($8.6 billion) investment to build 60,000 base stations
infrastructure in 238 cities during 2009
– To build TD-LTE trial network in 2010
• China Unicom
– RMB 30 billion yuan ($4.4 billion) for construction of the WCDMA network
in 1H 2009, and the overall expenditure on network building would exceed
60 billion yuan in 282 cities during 2009
– WCDMA trial networks: Shanghai, Shenzhen, Foshan, Liuzhou, Zhenzhou,
೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ

Baoding, Wuxi, Wuhan


TDD-LTE

– Estimated that start network construction in February and formally open


the network on May 2009
• China Telecom
՗ଢ଼

– RMB 50 billion yuan ($7.4 billion) investment into CDMA2000


– Complete 340 cities CDMA upgrade program in 1H 09

Page 14
China TD-SCDMA (TD-LTE) Food Chain
Service
Providers

Agenda

•Understanding TD-LTE technology

•TD-LTE market opportunity

•Technical challenges of TD-LTE

• RF measurement

• Agilent TD-LTE solution


LTE (FDD/TDD) Standard update

2007 2008 2009


Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun
Phy ch,
Modulation F
RAN1 Coding F
Procedure F
Measurement F

UE Idle mode A F
UE capability A F A: Approved
MAC A F
RAN2 RLC A F
PDCP A/F F: Frozen
RRC A F F
Protocol &Tabular ASN.1

Layer 1 A F
Sig. transport A F
RAN3 Data transport A F
Protocol A F F
Protocol &Tabular ASN.1

UE Tx/Rx A/F
RAN4 eNB Tx/Rx A/F
RRM A F
eNB Test A/F

Common env. A
RAN5 Signaling A
RF A

LTE (FDD/TDD) standard update

೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ
TDD-LTE
՗ଢ଼
TD-LTE in 4G roadmap…

Page 19

3GPP Reference Standard

Some incorrect information are included in Dec-08 spec, so it will be updated in Mar-09 spec (as BUG FIX)
3GPP Release 8 Standard Transition

Customer interest is changing from L1 PHY spec to RF conformance test spec now
UL MU-MIMO isn’t defined yet in release 8 standard

Physical Layer definitions – TS36.211


Ts = 1 / (15000x2048)=32.552nsec
Frame Structure Ts: Time clock unit for definitions
Frame Structure type 1 (FDD) FDD: Uplink and downlink are transmitted separately

One radio frame, Tf = 307200 x Ts = 10 ms


One slot, Tslot = 15360 x Ts = 0.5 ms

#0 #1 #2 #3 ………. #18 #19


One subframe

Subframe 0 Subframe 1 Subframe 9

Frame Structure type 2 (TDD) Subframe 0 and DwPTS for downlink, Subframe 1 and UpPTS for Uplink
One radio frame, Tf = 307200 x Ts = 10 ms
One half-frame, 153600 x Ts = 5 ms
೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ

One subframe, 20736 x Tx = 0.675 ms


TDD-LTE

Guard interval

#0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6
՗ଢ଼

DwPTS, UpPTS
Guard period,
TDD Downlink and Uplink Allocation

•5ms switch-point periodicity: Subframe 0, 5 and DwPTS for downlink,


Subframe 2, 7 and UpPTS for uplink
•10ms switch-point periodicity: Subframe 0, 5,7-9 and DwPTS for downlink,
Subframe 2 and UpPTS for Uplink

Configuration Switch- Subframe number


point
periodicity
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

0 5 ms D S U U U D S U U U
1 5 ms D S U U D D S U U D
2 5 ms D S U D D D S U D D
3 10 ms D S U U U D D D D D
4 10 ms D S U U D D D D D D
5 10 ms D S U D D D D D D D
6 5 ms D S U U U D S U U D

Page 23

Downlink FDD Resource Mapping

NsymbDL OFDM symbols (=7 OFDM symbols @ Normal CP) 1slot = 15360 Ts

160 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 (x Ts)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Cyclic Prefix

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 16 0 2 3 4 5 6 P-SCH
S-SCH
PBCH

PCFICH/PHICH/PDCCH
Reference Signal – (Pilot)
Subframe 0 Subframe 1 No Transmission

1 frame

Agilent Confidential

Agilent
Page 24 T&M 13 Aug 2007
Forum
Downlink TDD Resource Mapping

NsymbDL OFDM symbols (=7 OFDM symbols @ Normal CP) 1slot = 15360
160 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 (x Ts)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Ts = 1 / (15000x2048)=32.552nsec
Cyclic Prefix 1 slot
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3 4 5 16 0 2 3 4 5 6

Subframe 0 Subframe 1 Subframe 2 Subframe 3


(Special Field) Downlink Uplink
P-SCH Reference Signal
S-SCH (Demodulation)
#0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9
PBCH PUSCH
PDCCH UpPTS
PDSCH
Reference Signal

Agilent T&M
Forum

LTE TDD Configuration

Configuration of special subframe


Special subframe configuration Normal cyclic prefix Extended cyclic prefix
DwPTS GP UpPTS DwPTS GP UpPTS
0 6592 ˜ Ts 21936 ˜ Ts 7680 ˜ Ts 20480 ˜ Ts
1 19760 ˜ Ts 8768 ˜ Ts 20480 ˜ Ts 7680 ˜ Ts
2560 ˜ Ts
2 21952 ˜ Ts 6576 ˜ Ts 2192 ˜ Ts 23040 ˜ Ts 5120 ˜ Ts
3 24144 ˜ Ts 4384 ˜ Ts 25600 ˜ Ts 2560 ˜ Ts
4 26336 ˜ Ts 2192 ˜ Ts 7680 ˜ Ts 17920 ˜ Ts
5 6592 ˜ Ts 19744 ˜ Ts 20480 ˜ Ts 5120 ˜ Ts 5120 ˜ Ts
6 19760 ˜ Ts 6576 ˜ Ts 23040 ˜ Ts 2560 ˜ Ts
4384 ˜ Ts
7 21952 ˜ Ts 4384 ˜ Ts - - -
8 24144 ˜ Ts 2192 ˜ Ts - - -

Uplink-downlink configuration
೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ

Uplink-downlink Downlink-to-Uplink Subframe number


TDD-LTE

configuration Switch-point periodicity 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


0 5 ms D S U U U D S U U U
1 5 ms D S U U D D S U U D
2 5 ms D S U D D D S U D D
3 10 ms D S U U U D D D D D
՗ଢ଼

4 10 ms D S U U D D D D D D
5 10 ms D S U D D D D D D D
6 5 ms D S U U U D S U U D
Agenda

•Understanding TD-LTE technology

•TD-LTE market opportunity

•Technical challenges of TD-LTE

• RF measurement (eNB / UE)

• Agilent TD-LTE solution

eNB (DL) Transmitter Characteristics (FDD /TDD)


TS36.141 V8.1.0 (2008-12)
6. Transmitter Characteristics Test Requirement
6.2 Base station output power E-TM1.1
6.3.1 Power Control Dynamic Range E-TM2,3.1,3.2,3.3
6.3.2 Total Power Dynamic Range E-TM2,3.1
6.4 Transmit ON/OFF Power Special for TDD
6.5 Transmitted Signal Quality apply to the transmitter ON period
6.5.1 Frequency Error E-TM2,3.1,3.2,3.3
6.5.2 Error Vector Magnitude E-TM2,3.1,3.2,3.3
6.5.3 Time Alignment Between Transmitter Branches E-TM2,3.1,3.2,3.3 (for MIMO case, specified the delay between
the signals from two antennas, less than 65ns)
6.5.4 DL RS power E-TM1.1 (deviation between indicated power on BCH and
measured power)
6.6.1 Occupied Bandwidth E-TM1.1
6.6.2 Adjacent Channel Leakage Power Ratio E-TM1.1,1.2
6.6.3.5.1 Operating Band Unwanted Emissions E-TM1.1,1.2
Category A
6.6.3.5.2 Operating Band Unwanted Emissions E-TM1.1,1.2
Category B
6.6.4.5.1 Spurious Emissions Category A E-TM1.1
6.6.4.5.2 Spurious Emissions Category B E-TM1.1
6.6.4.5.3 Protection of the BS receiver of own or E-TM1.1
different BS
6.6.4.5.4 Co-existence with other systems in the same E-TM1.1
geographical area
6.6.4.5.5 Co-existence with co-located base stations E-TM1.1
6.7 Transmitter Intermodulation E-TM1.1 with 5MHz

eNB Transmitter
EUTRA Test Model is used for…

E-TM1.x: E-TM2:
– E-TM1.1 (all PRBs QPSK, no PRB boosting/deboosting) • Total power dynamic range (lower OFDM
– E-TM1.2 (all PRBs QPSK, with PRB boosting/deboosting) symbol power limit at min power),
• BS output power
– EVM of single 64QAM PRB allocation (at
• Unwanted emissions min power)
– Occupied bandwidth – Frequency error (at min power)
– ACLR (additionally E-TM 1.2)
– Operating band unwanted emissions (SEM), (additionally E-TM 1.2)
– Transmitter spurious emissions
• Transmitter intermodulation
• RS absolute accuracy

E-TM3.x:
– E-TM3.1 (all PRBs 64QAM, no PRB boosting/deboosting)
– E-TM3.2 (de-boosted 16QAM PRBs, boosted QPSK PRBs to compensate TX power)
– E-TM3.3 (de-boosted QPSK PRBs, boosted 16QAM PRBs to compensate TX power)
• Output power dynamics
– E-TM3.1, Total power dynamic range (upper OFDM symbol power limit at max power with all 64QAM PRBs allocated)
• Transmitted signal quality
– Frequency error (at max power)
– EVM for all modulation schemes (at max power)

eNB Transmitter

E-UTRA Test Models--TDD

For E-UTRA TDD, test models are derived based on the


uplink/downlink configuration 3 and special subframe configuration 8.
Number of frames for the test models is 2.

Downlink- Number of UL/DL sub-


to-Uplink frames per half frame
Switch- (10 ms) DwPTS GP UpPTS
point
periodicity
೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ

DL UL
TDD-LTE

10ms 6 3 24144 ˜ Ts 2192 ˜ Ts 4384˜ Ts


՗ଢ଼

eNB Transmitter
Transmit ON/OFF power

Transmitter
Output Power
ON power
level
(Informative)
Transmitter ON
period
(DL Subframe and
DwPTS)
OFF power
level
-85dBm/MHz
Transmitter
Time
transient
Transmitter OFF period 70us period 17us Transmitter OFF period 70us

•Transmitter OFF power is defined as the mean power measured over 70 us filtered with a square filter of
bandwidth equal to the transmission bandwidth configuration of the BS (BW Config) centred on the assigned
channel frequency during the transmitter OFF period.
•The transmitter transient period is the time period during which the transmitter is changing from the OFF
period to the ON period or vice versa.

eNB Transmitter

Error Vector Magnitude Measurement


eNB – Downlink (OFDM)
Pre-/post FFT The basic unit of
time / frequency
synchronization EVM measurement is
defined over one
subframe (1ms) in
Per-subcarrier Symbol the time domain and
BS TX Remove FFT Amplitude/phase detection
CP correction /decoding 12 subcarriers
(180kHz) in the
frequency domain
=2 RBs
Reference point
for EVM
measurement
= 168 resource
elements
Current working assumptions for downlink EVM limits are:
Parameter Unit Level Measurement Block: EVM
QPSK % [17.5] is measured after the FFT
16QAM % [12.5] and a zero-forcing (ZF)
64QAM % [8] equalizer in the receiver

eNB Transmitter
Downlink EVM Equalizer Definition

The subsequent 7 From the 10th


subcarriers are averaged subcarrier onwards the • For the downlink, the
over 5, 7 .. 17 subcarriers window size is 19 until
the upper edge of the
EVM equalizer has been
channel is reached and constrained
the window size
reduces back to 1 • Rather than use all the
RS data to correct the
The second
reference received signal a moving
subcarrier is the average is performed in
average of the
first three the frequency domain
subcarriers across the channel which
The first limits the rate of change
reference of correction
subcarrier
is not
averaged
• For uplink, it has not yet
been fully defined. The
current proposal is to use
a similar approach to
WiMAX, which is to use
Reference subcarriers an unconstrained
TR 36.804 v1.0.0 Figure 6.8.1.1-1: Reference subcarrier equalizer
smoothing in the frequency domain

eNB Transmitter

Averaged EVM (TDD)

• For TDD the averaging in the time domain can be


calculated from subframes of different frames and should
have a minimum of 10 subframes averaging length.
• TDD special fields (DwPTS and GP) are not included in
the averaging.
೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ
TDD-LTE
՗ଢ଼

eNB Transmitter
eNB Receiver Characteristics (FDD /TDD)
7. Receiver Characteristics Test Requirement (No retransmission)
7.2 Reference Sensitivity Level FRC A1-1,1-2,1-3 (QPSK not over 25RB, 5MHz)
7.3 Dynamic Range FRC A2-1,2-2,2-3 (16QAM not over 25RB, 5MHz)
7.4 In-channel Selectivity FRC A1-2,1-3,1-4,1-5 (QPSK not over 25RB, 5MHz)
7.5 Adjacent Channel Selectivity and Narrow-band Blocking FRC A1-1,1-2,1-3 (QPSK not over 25RB, 5MHz)
7.6 Blocking FRC A1-1,1-2,1-3 (QPSK not over 25RB, 5MHz)
7.8 Receiver Intermodulation FRC A1-1,1-2,1-3 (QPSK not over 25RB, 5MHz)
Test channel Throughput Wanted Signal Interference Interference AWGN,CW
Power (dBm) Signal Power Signal ACLR
(dBm) (dBc)
SensitivityFRC More than 95% of -107.3 ~ -101.6 -
A1-1,1-2,1-3 max throughput
Dynamic Range FRC same as the above -76.8 ~ -70.8 - AWGN: -
A2-1,2-2,2-3 88.7 ~ -76.4
ICS FRC same as the above -106.7 ~ -98.6 -87 ~ -77
A1-2,1-3,1-4,1-5
ACS FRC same as the above Narrow: - Narrow: -49 Narrow: -71
A1-1,1-2,1-3 101.3 ~ -95.6
Wide: -52 Wide: -63
Wide: -
96.3 ~ -95.6
Blocking FRC same as the above -101.3 ~ -95.6 -43 or -15 CW or
A1-1,1-2,1-3 interference
signal is
necessary
IM FRC same as the above -101.3 ~ -95.6 -52 same as the
A1-1,1-2,1-3 above

eNB Receiver

eNB Receiver Characteristics


Center
ICS DC ACS: wide Frequency

Frequency
offset

interference interference
Wanted Wanted
Subcarrier Carrier
# of RB # of RB Frequency BW (MHz) BW (MHz) Frequency
(3,6,10,25) (6,15,25) 1.4, 3, 5 1.4,3,5,10
15,20
Center
ACS: narrow Frequency

CW is also used in addition to interference Frequency


offset
signal at Blocking and IM test
interference
Wanted
AWGN is added as impairment BW (kHz) BW (MHz)
Carrier
Frequency
at Dynamic Range test 180 1.4,3,5,10
15,20

eNB Receiver
Receiver Test Configuration

Wanted (with Fading)


/Unwanted (Mod) signal 1234 56789
1111 111112
AWGN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 FBI port
DATA CONN#(FBI port) Throughput
ACK/NACK
Pattern Trigger In eNB
10MHz OUT
Frame
10MHz IN sync pulse

OR 10MHz
10MHz IN

RF

CW interferer for receiver characteristics


Test channel Operation BW/MCS Test requirement Configuration
7. Receiver FRC A1-x, A2-x Less than equal to 5MHz, No retransmission Wanted,
Characteristics Up to16QAM BLER test Unwanted (Mod),
CW, AWGN

eNB Receiver

eNB Receiver Test Requirement


- HARQ BLER/Throughput Test -

eNB UE
T=1sec
No Error
100bits P1
BLER count=0
Throughput=100bit/s
ACK
೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ
TDD-LTE

Error 100bits P2
BLER count=1
(0bit/s) NACK
100bits P2”
՗ଢ଼

No Error
BLER count=1 ACK
Throughput=50bit/s

eNB Receiver
eNB Receiver Test Requirement
- HARQ BLER/Throughput Test -
• Why is Real Time LTE necessary?
• Quickly changing channel coding is necessary according to HARQ ACK/NACK
response
• REAL-TIME signal generation is necessary to do that
• Standard requires the physical HARQ Feedback signal to verify Radio characteristic
(signal spec is undefined: matter of vender)

eNB Receiver

eNB Receiver Test Requirement


- HARQ BLER/Throughput Test -
TS36.141-7 TS36.141-8
Receiver Characteristics Performance Requirement
Metrics BLER Throughput
Num of HARQ transmission=1 Num of HARQ transmission=4
Measurement E4438C or N5182A with N7624B LTE N5106A+E4438C or N5182A with
Instrument Advanced N7624B-SW4

Measurement Item •Reference sensitivity •Performance Requirement for PUSCH


•Dynamic range (+AWGN) ¾PUSCH in multipath fading
•In-channel selectivity ¾UL timing adjustment
•Adjacent channel selectivity ¾HARQ-ACK multiplexed on PUSCH
(+interferer: modulated) ¾High Speed Train conditions
•Blocking ¾Multi user PUCCH
(+interferer: modulated + CW) - BLER test is required?
•Intermodulation
(+interferer: modulated)
•Performance requirement for PUCCH,
PRACH

Another SG is necessary to configure CW as interferer from DAC dynamic range point of view
PXB will be available when we configure the interferer signal in TS36.141-7

eNB Receiver
eNB Receiver Test Requirement
- HARQ BLER/Throughput Test Configuration -

Throughput under multipath fading conditions(RT) Wanted and Interferer signal configuration(Arb)

4x2 Configuration for Multi UE PUCCH(Arb) 2x2 Configuration for Timing Adjustment(RT)

eNB Receiver

eNB Receiver Test Requirement


- Test Configuration (TS36.141-7) -

w/o PXB
Reference Sensitivity
LTE Wanted

ACS, ICS, Blocking, IM


LTE Interferer

Blocking, IM
CW

with PXB LTE Wanted

LTE Interferer
೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ

Digital/analog IQ
TDD-LTE

Reference Sensitivity
ACS, ICS, Blocking, IM

Blocking, IM
CW
՗ଢ଼

eNB Receiver
eNB Receiver Test Requirement
- Test Configuration (TS36.141-8) -
HARQ Feedback, TA Feedback

•8.2.1 Multipath Fading conditions


•8.2.2 Timing Adjustment(Moving, Stationary UE signal)
•8.2.3 HARQ-ACK Multiplexed
•8.2.4 High Speed Train conditions
•Annex A.9 Multiple UE PUCCH
HARQ Feedback, TA Feedback

External
Fader

•8.2.1 Multipath Fading conditions


•8.2.2 Timing Adjustment(Moving UE signal) •8.2.2 Stationary UE signal
•8.2.3 HARQ-ACK Multiplexed
•8.2.4 High Speed Train condition
4RF input /2RF output fader is necessary in Annex A.9 Multiple UE PUCCH test

eNB Receiver

Uplink Feature -FRC-


FRC parameters for performance requirements (QPSK 1/3) FRC parameters for dynamic range
Reference channel A3-1 A3-2 A3-3 A3-4 A3-5 A3-6 A3-7 Reference channel A1-1 A1-2 A1-3 A1-4 A1-5
Allocated resource blocks 1 6 15 25 50 75 100 Allocated resource blocks 6 15 25 3 9
DFT-OFDM Symbols per subframe 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 DFT-OFDM Symbols per subframe 12 12 12 12 12
Modulation QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK Modulation QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK
Code rate 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 Code rate 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
Payload size (bits) 96 568 1416 2344 4776 7096 9528 Payload size (bits) 568 1416 2344 288 856
Transport block CRC (bits) 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 Transport block CRC (bits) 24 24 24 24 24
Code block CRC size (bits) 0 0 0 0 0 24 24 Code block CRC size (bits) 0 0 0 0 0
Number of code blocks - C 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 Number of code blocks - C 1 1 1 1 1
Coded block size including 12bits trellis 372 1788 4332 7116 14412 10764 14412 Coded block size including 12bits trellis 1788 4332 7116 948 2652
termination (bits) termination (bits)
Total number of bits per sub-frame 288 1728 4320 7200 14400 21600 28800 Total number of bits per sub-frame 1728 4320 7200 864 2592
Total symbols per sub-frame 144 864 2160 3600 7200 10800 14400 Total symbols per sub-frame 864 2160 3600 432 1296

FRC parameters for performance requirements (16QAM 3/4)


Reference channel A4-1 A4-2 A4-3 A4-4 A4-5 A4-6 A4-7 A4-8
Allocated resource blocks 1 1 6 15 25 50 75 100
DFT-OFDM Symbols per subframe 12 10 12 12 12 12 12 12
Modulation 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM
Code rate 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4
Payload size (bits) 432 360 2536 6456 10680 21384 32088 42816
Transport block CRC (bits) 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24
Code block CRC size (bits) 0 0 0 24 24 24 24 24
Number of code blocks - C 1 1 1 2 2 4 6 7
Coded block size including 12bits 1380 1164 7692 9804 16140 16140 16140 18444
trellis termination (bits)
Total number of bits per sub-frame 576 480 3456 8640 14400 28800 43200 57600
Total symbols per sub-frame 144 120 864 2160 3600 7200 10800 14400
FRC parameters for reference sensitivity
FRC parameters for performance requirements (64QAM 5/6) and in-channel selectivity
Reference channel A5-1 A5-2 A5-3 A5-4 A5-5 A5-6 A5-7 Reference channel A2-1 A2-2 A2-3
Allocated resource blocks 1 6 15 25 50 75 100 Allocated resource blocks 6 15 25
DFT-OFDM Symbols per subframe 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 DFT-OFDM Symbols per subframe 12 12 12
Modulation 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM 64QAM Modulation 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM
Code rate 5/6 5/6 5/6 5/6 5/6 5/6 5/6 Code rate 2/3 2/3 2/3
Payload size (bits) 712 4264 10680 17952 35928 53904 71880
Payload size (bits) 2280 5736 9528
Transport block CRC (bits) 24 24 24 24 24 24 24
Transport block CRC (bits) 24 24 24
Code block CRC size (bits) 0 0 24 24 24 24 24
Number of code blocks - C 1 1 2 3 6 9 12 Code block CRC size (bits) 0 0 24
Coded block size including 12bits trellis 2220 12876 16140 18060 18060 18060 18060 Number of code blocks - C 1 1 2
termination (bits) Coded block size including 12bits trellis 6924 17292 14412
Total number of bits per sub-frame 864 5184 12960 21600 43200 64800 86400 termination (bits)
Total symbols per sub-frame 144 864 2160 3600 7200 10800 14400 Total number of bits per sub-frame 3456 8640 14400
Total symbols per sub-frame 864 2160 3600

UE Test
Uplink Feature
-FRC for UL timing adjustment -
FRC parameters for UL timing adjustment (Scenario 1)
Reference channel A7-1 A7-2 A7-3 A7-4 A7-5 A7-6
Allocated resource blocks 3 6 12 25 25 25
DFT-OFDM Symbols per subframe 12 12 12 12 12 12
Modulation 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM
Code rate 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4
Payload size (bits) 1288 2600 5160 10680 10680 10680
Transport block CRC (bits) 24 24 24 24 24 24
Code block CRC size (bits) 0 0 0 24 24 24
Number of code blocks - C 1 1 1 2 2 2
Coded block size including 12bits trellis termination (bits) 3948 7884 15564 16140 16140 16140
Total number of bits per sub-frame 1728 3456 6912 14400 14400 14400
Total symbols per sub-frame 432 864 1728 3600 3600 3600
SRS bandwidth configuration (See TS 36.211, 5.5.3) (Note 1) 7 5 3 2 5 2
SRS-Bandwidth b (See TS 36.211, 5.5.3) (Note 1, 2) 0 0 0 0 0 1
Note 1. The configuration of SRS is optional
Note 2. PUSCH resource blocks shall be included in SRS resource blocks

FRC parameters for UL timing adjustment (Scenario 2)


Reference channel A8-1 A8-2 A8-3 A8-4 A8-5 A8-6
Allocated resource blocks 3 6 12 25 25 25
DFT-OFDM Symbols per subframe 12 12 12 12 12 12
Modulation QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK
Code rate 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3
Payload size (bits) 288 600 1224 2216 2216 2216
Transport block CRC (bits) 24 24 24 24 24 24
Code block CRC size (bits) 0 0 0 0 0 0
Number of code blocks - C 1 1 1 1 1 1
Coded block size including 12bits trellis termination (bits) 948 1884 3756 6732 6732 6732
Total number of bits per sub-frame 864 1728 3456 7200 7200 7200
Total symbols per sub-frame 432 864 1728 3600 3600 3600
SRS bandwidth configuration (See TS 36.211, 5.5.3) (Note 1) 7 5 3 2 5 2
SRS-Bandwidth b (See TS 36.211, 5.5.3) (Note 1, 2) 0 0 0 0 0 1
Note 1. The configuration of SRS is optional
Note 2. PUSCH resource blocks shall be included in SRS resource blocks

UE Test

UE Transmission Test Requirement

• UE Maximum Output Power (TS36.521-1 Dec-08)


• FDD aspects missing or not yet determined:
– The fixed power allocation for the RB(s) is undefined
– Reference Measurement Channel is undefined
– The UE call setup details are undefined (parameter, procedure, message contents)
– Test case is not complete for FDD
• TDD aspects missing or not yet determined:
– Test case is not complete for TDD
– The maximum output power test case description has been verified to apply for both FDD and TDD exactly as it is.

• Adjacent Channel Leakage power Ratio (TS36.521-1 Dec-08)


• FDD aspects missing or not yet determined:
– The Core requirements for ACLR are undefined for channel bandwidth 1.4MHz, 3.0MHz
೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ

– It is not yet clear how the "Rectangular Filter" is to be implemented in detail.


TDD-LTE

– The absolute ACLR power limit is not confirmed yet.


– Test points to apply MPR for ACLR case needed to be investigated
– Test case is not complete for FDD
• TDD aspects missing or not yet determined:
՗ଢ଼

– Test case is not complete for TDD


– Test description section needs to be verified or modified (if necessary) for TDD applicability

UE Test
UE Transmission Test Requirement

• PAPR is one of customer interest


• Test channel like the following in W-CDMA/HSPA is undefined yet
• Customer is looking for the alternative test setup (severest setup)
• Agilent can offer,
• Full filled QPSK/16QAM/64QAM
• Modify DMRS parameter (it is more flexible than the competitor)
Sub- Ec Ed Ed Ec/Ed EHS Eec Eed Eed Eed CM MPR AG E-TFCI
test (SF) (Note1) (Note 5) (SF) (Codes) (dB) (dB) Index
(Note 6) (Note 2) (Note 2) (Note 6)

1 11/15 15/15 64 11/15 22/15 209/225 1309/225 4 1 1.0 0.0 20 75


(Note 3) (Note 3) (Note 3)

2 6/15 15/15 64 6/15 12/15 12/15 94/75 4 1 3.0 2.0 12 67


3 15/15 9/15 64 15/9 30/15 30/15 Eed1: 47/15 4 2 2.0 1.0 15 92
Eed2: 47/15 4
4 2/15 15/15 64 2/15 4/15 2/15 56/75 4 1 3.0 2.0 17 71
5 15/15 15/15 64 15/15 30/15 24/15 134/15 4 1 1.0 0.0 21 81
(Note 4) (Note 4) (Note 4)

Note 1: ЧACK, ЧNACK and ЧCQI = 30/15 with E= hs30/15 * . Ec


Note 2: CM = 1 for Ec/Ed =12/15, Ehs/Ec=24/15. For all other combinations of DPDCH, DPCCH, HS- DPCCH, E-DPDCH and E-DPCCH the
MPR is based on the relative CM difference.
Note 3: For subtest 1 the Ec/Ed ratio of 11/15 for the TFC during the measurement period (TF1, TF0) is achieved by setting the signalled
gain factors for the reference TFC (TF1, TF1) to Ec = 10/15 and Ed = 15/15.
Note 4: For subtest 5 the Ec/Ed ratio of 15/15 for the TFC during the measurement period (TF1, TF0) is achieved by setting the signalled
gain factors for the reference TFC (TF1, TF1) to Ec = 14/15 and Ed = 15/15.
Note 5: In case of testing by UE using E-DPDCH Physical Layer category 1, Sub-test 3 is omitted according to TS25.306 Table 5.1g.
Note 6: Eed can not be set directly, it is set by Absolute Grant Value.

UE Test

Agenda

•Understanding TD-LTE technology

•TD-LTE market opportunity

•Technical challenges of TD-LTE

• RF measurement

• Agilent TD-LTE solution


Agilent TD-LTE solution (Available Today!)

• Agilent 3GPP LTE TDD Wireless Library


• Agilent N7625B Signal Studio for LTE TDD
• Agilent 89600 VSA software

Page 49

Agilent 3GPP LTE TDD Wireless Library


(W1910/E8895)

‹Works directly with Agilent's MXA Signal Analyzer to help wireless-systems designers
and verification engineers speed development of the evolving LTE TDD designs.

‹It is the world's first fully coded bit error ratio (BER) solution for the time division duplex
(TDD) version of 3GPP's long-term evolution (LTE) standard using 2x2 and 4x4 multiple
input/multiple output (MIMO) technology.

‹The solution allows fully coded BER measurements of a device under test, including
simulation of channel impairments for multipath fading. It complements Agilent's same
capability for the frequency division duplexing (FDD) version of LTE and is expected to
accelerate the development of mobile devices and base stations for the China market.
೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ
TDD-LTE

‹Also recently announced is an LTE Baseband Exploration Library (W1912) for Agilent
SystemVue that offers baseband algorithmic source code models, in industry
standard .m-file format, for deeper algorithm verification of LTE-TDD systems. Agilent
3GPP LTE TDD Wireless Library (W1910/E8895) is available now.
՗ଢ଼

Page 50
Agilent N7625B Signal Studio for TD-LTE

‹The Agilent N7625B Signal Studio for LTE TDD is a powerful, PC-based
software application for creating standards-based TD-LTE signals using Agilent's
N5182A/62A MXG and E4438C ESG vector signal generators, and N5106A
PXB MIMO receiver tester.

‹The Signal Studio solution supports the 3GPP LTE TDD September 08
standard, offers multichannel capability for PDSCH, PHICH, PCFICH, PBCH,
PDCCH, PUSCH, PUCCH, and has the ability to transmit DL and UL signals.

‹The software provides basic capabilities well suited for testing components
used in base stations and mobile handsets, such as power amplifiers and filters,
and advanced receiver test capabilities that support transport layer coding, 4x4
MIMO pre-coding and static fading.

‹This extensive feature set makes Signal Studio for LTE TDD the best choice
for eNB and UE test from the component to the system level. The Agilent Signal
Studio (N7625B) is available to order today.

Page 51

Agilent 89600 VSA software

‹Agilent 89600 VSA software provides RF and baseband engineers


with a comprehensive set of LTE TDD signal analysis tools,
physical layer testing and troubleshooting of LTE transceivers
and components.

‹LTE TDD downlink (OFDMA), uplink (SC-FDMA) and MIMO analysis is a single option.
The VSA software offers industry-leading performance with EVM of < -50 dB (hardware
dependent) and bandwidths of 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz. Modulation formats included are
BPSK, QPSK, 16 QAM 64 QAM, CAZAC, OSxPRBS, TDD DL/UL allocation (0-6) and
special subframe length (0-8), and 2x2 MIMO.

‹This VSA software can be used with more than 30 Agilent products, including spectrum
and signal analyzers, oscilloscopes and logic analyzers to make LTE measurements
anywhere in the block diagram -- from baseband to antenna, on digitized or analog signals.

‹It supports 2x2 MIMO analysis in conjunction with Agilent's EXA and MXA Signal
Analyzers, VXI based VSA analyzer and several scopes. It also has connectivity with
Agilent's Advance Design System (ADS) TD-LTE wireless library. Agilent's 89600 VSA
software for LTE-TDD pre-release will be available in the second quarter of 2009, with
commercial release in the fourth quarter of 2009.

Page 52
Agilent T&M Forum
Agilent Restricted

೽ଉ‫׬‬೚ᙏϭ
TDD-LTE
՗ଢ଼
LTE Uplink and Downlink Signal Analysis

The ever-increasing complexity of emerg- Reach Deeper into LTE Signals with
ing broadband communication systems the 89600 VSA Software
demands flexible signal analysis with
in-depth modulation analysis, as well as RF Gain greater insight into the performance
power measurements. The Agilent signal of your LTE devices using the 89600 VSA
and spectrum analyzers ease measure- software with LTE analysis capability.
ments of complex signals by providing This high-performance VSA software
world-class accuracy, flexibility and stan- provides RF and baseband engineers with
dards-compliant measurement applica- the industry’s most comprehensive LTE
tions. In addition, the Agilent 89600 VSA physical layer signal analysis. Highlights of
software, in combination with Agilent’s the 89600 VSA software include:
signal and spectrum analyzers, offer the
industry’s most sophisticated general- • Downlink (OFDMA) and uplink
purpose and standards-compliant signal (SC-FDMA) in a single option
evaluation and troubleshooting tools for
• FDD mode, frame structure type 1
R&D engineers.
• All LTE bandwidths: 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz
• 2X2 DL MIMO single input analysis
• All modulation formats: BPSK, QPSK,
16QAM, 64QAM
Agilent MXA • All modulation sequences: CAZAC and
Signal Analyzer OSxPRS
with LTE software
running internally.
• Auto detection and demodulation of
downlink user bursts
• Industry-leading EVM of < -50 dB
(<0.35%) (dependent on choice of
measurement platform)
• A rich selection of in-channel measure-
ments and traces — overall/data/RS
EVM, EVM per channel, carrier, symbol,
resource block and slot.

Agilent PSA High-Performance


Signal Analyzer with LTE software
running on a PC.

Trace A shows a spectrogram of a downlink An uplink LTE analysis made on the demodulation
allocation. Putting a spectrogram marker on the reference signal (DM-RS) and payload data. The
reference signal (RS) shows the RS occupying DM-RS uses a CAZAC sequence as shown by the
every 6th subcarrier as shown on trace B. constant amplitude on trace A.
৿ઽ੫Ⴋଉ
Test solution for LTE protocol stack

Richard Chen
7 April 2009

Perfecting Wireless Communications

Topics
• Anite Product Overview
• Roadmap alignment
• Anite/Agilent Partnership

China Mobile 1 April 2009


Perfecting Wireless Communications
Confidential – Provided under NDA

1
Anite Applications and Platforms
Applications

Development
Applications
C/C++ Test
L1/L2 GUIs

C/C++ Test

Application

Acceptance/
Test Cases
TTCN Test

Diagnostic
L1/L2/L3

Scenarios
Interface

Network

Custom
Tools

Mobile
Cases

Scripts
Cases

Model
APIs
SAS
Development Conformance
Toolset Toolset Network
Simulator

Platform Options
Protocol Host – SAT(H)

E6620 – SAT(E)

8960 – SAT(A)

China Mobile 1 April 2009


Perfecting Wireless Communications
Confidential – Provided under NDA

What is DT?
• DT comprises a complete set of protocol development tools from
protocol stack and pre-ASIC design testing, to system integration,
verification and performance testing
• DT enables the simulation of a GERAN / UTRAN / E-UTRAN Mobile
Network and its constituent protocol layers so that chipset and UE
manufacturers can easily create new functional tests and regression
test existing ones of desired complexity and focus
• DT includes the capability to test a wide range of radio technologies
from GSM and EDGE to UMTS and LTE, and the latest features
such as PS Handover, HSPA+, and LTE MIMO
• DT facilitates an integrated, consistent test process from pre-silicon
early R&D, to development, systems integration and IOT

GSM GPRS EDGE W-CDMA HSPA HSPA+ LTE

China Mobile 1 April 2009


Perfecting Wireless Communications
Confidential – Provided under NDA

2
৿ઽ੫Ⴋଉ
What is DT?
For ‘out of the For more
API’s complex and
box’ testing Developer’s APIs
refined
• E-UTRAN testing
• UTRAN
GUI’s
• GERAN
Tools
Campaign Manager Log Viewer
Network Configuration PDU Manager
Interface
PDU Constraint Builder
L1 Simulator
Sample Applications
L1 Decode Tools
For UE Above IP
application Services E2E “IP Pipe”…
testing VoIP, FTP, HTTP,
IMS, MBMS etc. To help make
test and
debug simpler

China Mobile 1 April 2009


Perfecting Wireless Communications
Confidential – Provided under NDA

How is DT used?
PHY Protocol
Protocolstack
stackteams
teams
PHYBaseband
Baseband&& Developer’s
RF Developer’sAPIAPIfor
forL2
L2only
onlyor
or
RF teams
teams L2/L3 complex scenarios
L2/L3 complex scenarios / /
L1
L1SIM
SIMtotodynamically
dynamically regression
interact regressiontest
testprior
priorto
tohardware
hardware
interact with/ /debug
with debugPHY
PHY integration to validate protocol
integration to validate protocol
channels,
channels, parametersand
parameters and stack
Developer’s stackimplementation.
implementation. DT DTIDE
IDE
Developer’sAPIAPItotofor
for to
to dynamically interact with/ /
dynamically interact with
complex
complexL1 L1scenarios
scenarios/ / debug
regression test. debugprotocol
protocolimplementations.
implementations.
regression test.

Integration
Integration teams
teams
Extensive
Extensiveregression
regressiontest
testcapabilities,
capabilities,reuse
reuseof
oftests
testsfrom
fromearlier
earlier
phases, consistency maintained, supportive of a range of skillsets
phases, consistency maintained, supportive of a range of skillsets

China Mobile 1 April 2009


Perfecting Wireless Communications
Confidential – Provided under NDA

3
Development Toolset LTE
• A single software development
environment from which UE tests for L1,
L2, L3 can be developed, executed and
results-analysed

• Development of UE tests
in C++ (e.g. Developer’s Developer’s
API E-UTRAN + Microsoft API
Visual Studio)
• Multi-RAT UE testing (via NAS
Developer’s APIs UTRAN • Interactive test
and GERAN) RRC scenario execution
• UE test
PDCP parameterisation
• Analysis of UE test
RLC execution
• Automation and test
MAC sequencing for UE
L1 Simulator regression tests
L1/PHY • L3 PDU manipulation
E-UTRAN
• L1 interactive interface

China Mobile 1 April 2009


Perfecting Wireless Communications
Confidential – Provided under NDA

How Does DT Benefit Users?


Chipset
Chipset UE
UE // Device
Device
Manufacturers
Manufacturers Manufacturers
Manufacturers
••Flexibility
Flexibilitytotocreate
createtests
testsfor
for ••Extensive
Extensivefunctional
functionaltesting
testing
individual
individuallayer,
layer,and
andcomplete and
complete andintricate
intricatetest
testscenario
scenario
protocol
protocolstack
stacktesting
testing creation and reuse
creation and reuse
••More
Moreefficient
efficientinformation ••MultiRAT
information MultiRATsupport
support
exchange
exchangebetween
betweenL1 L1
developers, L2/L3 protocol
developers, L2/L3 protocol ••Accommodates
stack Accommodatesvarying
varying
stackdevelopers
developersand and degrees
degreesof ofAPI
API//IDEIDE
integration
integrationtest
testengineers
engineers interaction, offering
interaction, offering
developers
developersthethefacility
facilityto
to
••Identifies
Identifiesdefects
defectsearly
earlyinin interact
development interact with theGUIs
with the GUIsor orAPIs
APIs
developmentprocess
processtoto to the desired level or skillset
to the desired level or skillset
derisk
derisk issues occurringlater
issues occurring later

China Mobile 1 April 2009


Perfecting Wireless Communications
Confidential – Provided under NDA

4
৿ઽ੫Ⴋଉ
DT Key Features
• Flexibility for user to interact as much or as little with the API / IDE depending on
user’s skillset
– Ability to tweak any of L1/L2/L3 parameter without needing to provide a complete
configuration
– Modular code framework and Test creation wizard allows user to quickly pull together a
standard test framework which can be customised / extended
– DT allows users to test negative scenarios and create alternate paths of execution based on
some event or UE response
• Provides the user with full control over L1/L2/L3 tests that the user wishes to write
– User has complete control over L1/L2/L3 channels, protocols
– User is able to create L1 tests for PHY testing without upper layers
– User is able to create L2 tests for MAC or RLC testing without upper layers
– User is able to create tests for RRC without NAS
– User has the flexibility to alter only the procedure he is interested in and leave the rest of the
action before and after the point of interest to the DT L3 state machine
• Automation, and regression testing support for L1/L2/L3 tests
– Campaign Manager additionally allows easy copying, saving, creation of test plans and test
campaigns
– XML parameter framework allows many variants of a single test to be rapidly created via the
Campaign Manager

China Mobile 1 April 2009


Perfecting Wireless Communications
Confidential – Provided under NDA

What is SAS?
• SAS enables the simulation of a GERAN / UTRAN / E-
UTRAN Mobile Network so that operators and
manufacturers can run repeatable and reproducible tests
for any global network; but in their lab!
• SAS provides a simulated network for testing UE
operations and functionality via the ‘air’ interface and can
be configured GSM, GPRS, EGPRS, W-CDMA, HSPA
and in 2009 HSPA+ and LTE
• SAS tests a terminal’s capabilities and performance that
conformance tests don’t reach

GSM GPRS EDGE W-CDMA HSPA HSPA+ LTE

China Mobile 1 April 2009


Perfecting Wireless Communications
Confidential – Provided under NDA

5
How is SAS used?
Interactive
Interactive Playback
Playback
Use
UseofofGUI
GUItotoset
setup
network
up
configurations
scripts
scripts
network configurations Execute
and
andcontrol
controlterminal
terminal Record Executepre-written
pre-written
testing scripts
scripts ortest
or testscenarios
scenarios
testing in realtime
in real time created through
created through
Interactive
Interactiveuse
use

DMI
DMI
Import
Importof
ofnetwork
networkparameters
parametersfrom
fromNemo
NemoOutdoor™
Outdoor™or
orIntermediate
Intermediate
File Format compatible UE
File Format compatible UE

DMI = Diagnostic Mobile Interface

China Mobile 1 April 2009


Perfecting Wireless Communications
Confidential – Provided under NDA

How Does SAS Benefit Users?


Network
Network Terminal
Terminal
Operators
Operators Manufacturers
Manufacturers
••Improved
Improvedterminal
terminal ••Testing
Testingbeyond
beyond
acceptance
acceptancetesting
testing conformance
conformancetesting
testing
(benchmarking,
(benchmarking,less less (complete end-to-end)
(complete end-to-end)
network
networktesting)
testing)
••Testing
Testingfor
forroaming
roaming •More
•Moreefficient
efficient
agreements
agreements Interoperability
Interoperabilitytesting
testing
••Support
Supportfield
fieldtesting
testing
activities
activities ••Faster
Fasterterminal
terminal
••New
Newfeature
featuretesting
testing approval
before implementing approvalby
byNetwork
Network
before implementing Operators
Operators usingSAS
using SAS
on
onaalive
livenetwork
network

China Mobile 1 April 2009


Perfecting Wireless Communications
Confidential – Provided under NDA

6
৿ઽ੫Ⴋଉ
Anite and Agilent
Industry Leaders Partnering to Deliver
World Class LTE Development Solutions

• Providing scalable test solutions to address the complete R&D life cycle for LTE
mobile development.
– Anite and Agilent have entered a new strategic partnership
– This partnership is founded on the principle that together we can better service
customer requirements
– The industry leading solution set will be based on a common platform and
protocol stack, providing a truly scalable solution to address all phases of UE
development – enabling customers to bring LTE UEs to market faster and more
efficiently
– The solutions will be implemented by integrated marketing and development
teams – to accelerate customer deliverables
– Anite will provide industry leading development, conformance and interoperability
protocol test solutions
– Agilent will provide industry leading RF platform, OBT based solutions and RF
conformance solutions

China Mobile 1 April 2009


Perfecting Wireless Communications
Confidential – Provided under NDA

Partnership benefits
• The Anite/Agilent partnership developed over several years, is
enhanced by the new generation E6620A HW platform.
• The E6620A is co-developed by Agilent and Anite and supports a
variety of interfaces and applications designed to cover the breadth
of testing needs from early development through to manufacturing.
• The key to the Anite/Agilent approach is the re-use of common HW
(including Baseband) and SW (including protocol stack) throughout
the product range.
• As an example, this means the same protocol stack is used in
Simulation, Development, OBT, L1 functional, Scenario Testing,
Signalling & RF Conformance, Performance Testing and IOT.
• The consistency of implementation throughout our toolsets will
reduce test delays at critical phases of our customers’ development
programmes.

China Mobile 1 April 2009


Perfecting Wireless Communications
Confidential – Provided under NDA

7
Solutions in the LTE UE Design Lifecycle
Signal LTE
Studio VSA SW

DC Power
DigRF v4 Analyzer
Signal Spectrum Logic Analyzers Battery Drain
Generators Analyzers & Scopes Characterization

EDA RFIC Digital


RF Proto RF Chip Dev Interface Design
Design Validation
Simulation FPGA ASIC Development System Level Testing
BB
BB L1/PHY BB L1/PHY RF & Protocol
ASIC

Protocol Development Design


L2/L3 Integration Pre-
Conformance

Conformance

E6620A UE Test Set Interoperability


Anite Protocol Network Emulator Systems for RF and
Development System
Protocol Conformance

China Mobile 1 April 2009


Perfecting Wireless Communications
Page 15 Confidential – Provided under NDA October 2008

Anite & Agilent LTE Portfolio Solution Roadmap


2008 2009 2010
Anite Solutions
LTE Development
Toolset
LTE Protocol
SAS LTE IOT Test
Conformance Test
System
System
Host RF & Digital I/Q

Available today!

E6620A in Anite systems only

RF Pre- E6620A & E6620


conformance Integrated LTE Follow-on
Test System Application Applications

Agilent Solutions
E6620A in Agilent and Anite Solutions

Most comprehensive and integrated portfolio on the market.


China Mobile 1 April 2009
Perfecting Wireless Communications
Confidential – Provided under NDA

8
LTE UE Development

E6620A Wireless Communications conformance test and interoperability


Test Set test. Built on Agilent’s next generation
4G-ready platform, the E6620A Wireless
The Agilent E6620A Wireless Communi- Communications Test Set uses the same
cations Test Set is designed to provide 3GPP-compliant LTE protocol stack across
leading-edge solutions for the LTE UE all solutions to shorten design cycles and
development lifecycle from early protocol ensure consistent testing leading to the
development through RF and protocol highest quality UE designs. Highlights of
the Agilent E6620A include:

• Scripting interface for protocol


development and conformance testing
• Real-time, bench top network emula-
tion for easy-to-use, real-world design
integration and validation testing
• Integrated LTE fading channel models
• LTE TX and RX measurements Suite
• L1/L2/L3 uplink and downlink via RF or
digital baseband
The E6620A Wireless Communications • MIMO 2x2, (4x2 future)
Test Set — from early protocol development • 2.7 GHz frequency range and internal PC
through RF and protocol conformance test. controller with Windows XP ®

GS-8800 Series: RF Design and RF design verification and RF conformance


Conformance Test Systems test. The systems are compliant to 3GPP
TS 36.521-1 requirements, with support
The Agilent GS-8860, GS-8870 and to section 6 TX test, section 7 RX test,
GS-8890 are a series of scalable test and section 8 performance test. The
systems built around the E6620A wireless systems leverage the measurements,
communications test Set, covering LTE speed, accuracy and repeatability
device, of the E6620A and Agilent sources
and analyzers to create reliable high-
performance test systems ideal for
wireless test laboratories,
device manufacturers, reference
designers and chipset vendors.
The use of common software and
hardware across the lifecycle
enhances development efficiency
and time-to-market.

The Agilent GS-8800 is a


series of scalable test systems
covering cellular device design
verification, conformance, and
manufacturing test needs.

www.agilent.com/find/lte
www.agilent.com.tw

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Issued date : 04/2009
5990-3957ZHA
Printed in Taiwan 04/2009