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10th Diesel Emission Reduction Conference

Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System


for Future Emission Legislation

Roger Busch

Common Rail System Engineering for PC


Diesel Systems
Robert Bosch GmbH

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Outlook

• Drivers and Challenges for PC and LDT - Diesel

• Overall System Requirements for Advanced Common Rail

• BOSCH 4th Gen Common Rail Injection Systems

• Potential Evaluation of 4th Gen Common Rail Systems

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Diesel System Innovations

Diesel Progress - PC

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Diesel System Innovations

1936 2003
spec. Torque [Nm/l]

9,5 l/100km
149 Nm/l

Consumption
[l/100 km]
33 kW
6,5 l/100km
51 Nm/l 48,4 kW/l

130 kW
13,0 kW/l

spec. Power [kW/l] eff. Power [kW]

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Approval Data for PC - Diesel at least Euro 3

source: KBA Germany


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copying and passing on to third parties.
Diesel System Innovations

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copying and passing on to third parties.
DEER 2004
4th Gen Diesel Common Rail Injection System

Outlook

• Drivers and Challenges for PC and Truck - Diesel

• Overall System Requirements for Advanced Common Rail

• BOSCH 4th Gen Common Rail Injection Systems

• Potential Evaluation of 4th Gen Common Rail Systems

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copying and passing on to third parties.
PC Common Rail System 4th Generation

FIE Requirements Evaluation


Pressure at the needle 3 max. injection pressure
Sensitivity analysis Needle lift
of important 2b
injection parameters 4
for the engine 1 2a 5
performance

6a 6b
Time
Feature:
1 Pilot injection (number, time gap, quantity, tolerance)
2 Opening pressure, influence of pressure ramp, gradient
3 Max. injection pressure, influence of small nozzle holes
4 Pressure gradient during closing
5 Post injection (near, late, influence of pressure level)
6 Opening and closing speed of the needle
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FIE Requirement Evaluation - Summary

Potential Analysis for PC an LD- n = 2000/min,


Combustion Process and FIE BMEP = 6,5 bar

7 Euro3
Particles / NOx = 1/10

6
Euro4
5
NOX [g/kg]

4
3
2
Euro4/ 3
1
1400 kg
0 A B C D E F G H I K L M inertia weight
series applications cept cept cept cept cept cept ept cept cept cept cept ept
c n on c
C on
C on C on on
C on Con onC on CoC on C on C C C

z fast needle opening velocity


΄vario“ nozzle
but: injection rate during ignition delay
Î rate shaping
z injection rate after start of combustion

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4th Gen5"Diesel
"Euro Common Rail Injection System
- Einspritzsystem

“Optimal” Shape for PC Engines

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DEER 2004
4th Gen Diesel Common Rail Injection System

CRS System Requirements for PC - Summary

Ö full flexible timing of multiple injection events

Ö full flexible choise of injection pressure in the engine map

stillquantities
Ö small precise and stable injection valid and well - known
from series Common Rail
technology, gaining goals on
noise, power, Euro4 - emission and
maintaining EGT

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DEER 2004
4th Gen Diesel Common Rail Injection System

CRS System Requirements for PC - Summary

good spray
formation Ö very fast needle opening @ start of injection
low Noise andÖ limited quantity during ignition delay, but
NOx - formation
Ö max. allowed injection rate to increase local air ratio
high spray
momentum Ö Ö strong increase of injection rate after start of combustion
increase EGR -
acceptance Ö high maximum of main injection rate
seperate
Ö
injection and
strong rate decrease and fast needle @ end of injection
burning phase

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copying and passing on to third parties.
DEER 2004
4th Gen Diesel Common Rail Injection System

Outlook

• Drivers and Challenges for PC and Truck - Diesel

• Overall System Requirements for Advanced Common Rail

• BOSCH 4th Gen Common Rail Injection Systems

• Potential Evaluation of 4th Gen Common Rail Systems

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copying and passing on to third parties.
PC Common Rail System 4th Generation

Piezo-Injector with Coaxial-Vario-Nozzle CRI4-PV


Injector -Charakteristics
z Basis: CRI3

z Systempressure 1600/1800 bar


z Space requirement as CRI3
z One row for part load
z Both rows for full load

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4th Generation Common Rail System for PC

Vario Nozzle Strategies


12
10 with PI Avoidance of PI
NOx [g/kg]*

8 w/o PI (except for cold engine and idle)


6
4
2 n=2000rpm,
Emission reduction
0 BMEP=6,5bar
Combustion Noise [dB(A)]

101 w/o PI
Reduction of QHYD
98
95 Noise reduction
92
89 Indepentantly switchable 2nd row
86 with PI
83 of spray holes
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
hydraulic flow / cyl. displacement
[cm³/30s@100bar/dm³] appropriate power output
Current Configuration Potential Vario Nozzle

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DEER 2004
4th Gen Diesel Common Rail Injection System

Advanced Common Rail Systems for PC

CRS 4 - Hydraulically Amplified Diesel Injection System


• Functions
Ö Rail Pressure up to 1350 bar
Ö HAD - Injector with hydraulic pressure amplification
Ö sophisticated closed loop fuel metering control
Ö innovative, delivery controlled high pressure pump platform
• Advantages
Ö small Qhyd and passive rate shaping to pull down
raw emissions and noise @ part load
Ö max pressure > 2200 bar @ spray hole to reach high power
and reduce raw emissions @ full load (US 06, e.g. LD in EU)

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PC Common Rail System 4th Generation

Hydraulically Amplified Diesel Injector (HADI)


Injector-Characteristics
z System pressure up to 1.350bar

z Pressure amplification ≈1:2

z Pressure at the nozzle up to 2.200bar

z Pressure/lift controlled needle

z Ramp rate shape

z Space requirements as CRI2

z Conventional nozzle

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CRS - Roadmap Pkw und Light Duty < 6t

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Advanced Control Functions

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Advanced Control Functions

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copying and passing on to third parties.
DEER 2004
4th Gen Diesel Common Rail Injection System

Outlook

• Drivers and Challenges for PC and Truck - Diesel

• Overall System Requirements for Advanced Common Rail

• BOSCH 4th Gen Common Rail Injection Systems

• Potential Evaluation of 4th Gen Common Rail Systems

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copying and passing on to third parties.
Common Rail System 4th Generation

Diesel System Optimization

Vehicle
kW/l
mass €

EGT
FIE

EGT=exhaust gas treatment FIE= fuel injection equipment

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Diesel System Innovations

Diesel Challenges - Emission Legislation PC

Europe
• next step in legislation: Euro 5
• NEFZ - cycle *

Scenario 1: Scenario 2:

• PM = 0,01 g/km • PM = 0,0025 g/km**


• NOx = 0,2 g/km • NOx = 0,08 g/km**
• CO/HC = 1,0/0,05 g/km • CO/HC = 1,0/0,05 g/km

* no high load test under discussion ** UBA - Requirement 06.2003


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Euro 5 - Estimation for PC

Euro 5 Estimation, Vehicle Inertia Mass: 1400 kg,


out of best single cylinder results with series and prototype FIE

„Euro 4 - engines“ „Euro 5 - engines“ &


low ε , TC2, pHCCI ...
0,20
NOx
Scenario 1:
g/km
0,15 25 %
0,14 Eng. Goal Euro 5
55 % 0,12

0,10 47 % 0,10 Scenario 2:


36 %
0,08
Eng. Goal with
0,05 35 %
DPF
CRS 3.0 CRS 3.2 CRS 4 CRS 4
1600 bar 1800 bar NSC
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copying and passing on to third parties.
Euro 5 - Estimation for PC

Euro 5 Estimation, Vehicle Inertia Mass: 1800 kg,


out of best single cylinder results with series and prototype FIE

„Euro 4 - engines“ „Euro 5 - engines“ &


0,22
low ε, TC2,pHCCI ...
0,20
NOx 0,19
Scenario 1:
g/km 71 %
0,15 25 % 0,15
66 % Eng. Goal Euro 5
58 %
0,10 Scenario 2:
36 %
0,08
Eng. Goal with
0,05 35 %
DPF
CRS 3.0 CRS 3.2 CRS 4 CRS 4
1600 bar 1800 bar NSC
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DEER 2004
Common Rail Potential Evaluation for PC

Summary PC

• Additonal EGT - effort scales with CRS - performance, vehicle weight


and desired power output

• Facing a weak Euro 5 - scenario (NOx = 0,2 g/km) it‘s most likely to
fulfill the limits w/o DeNOx - measures, also with „Euro 4 - engines“

• Facing a severe Euro 5 - scenario (NOx = 0,08 g/km) and „Euro 4 -


engines“ a DeNOx - measure seems to be mandatory. The DeNOx -
effort can significantly be reduced using high tech CR - systems

• First results out of advanced „Euro 5 - engine“ - technology combined


with engine measures (e.g. pHCCI, TC2 ) and CRS4 - FIE shows
tremendeous improvement in NOx - reduction

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copying and passing on to third parties.
DEER 2004
4th Gen Diesel Common Rail Injection System

Conclusion

• The biggest challenge for future Diesel technology are the


continiously strengthenend emission targets

• Key factors like power output, vehicle weight and the engine
itself scaling the effort on exhaust gas treatment side

• 4th Gen Common Rail Injection Systems combinded with


modern Diesel engines provide lowest raw emissions and
fuel consumption values.

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10th Diesel Emission Reduction Conference

Thank you for your attention.

BOSCH

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