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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

SC 551: Communication Networks


Ethernet Fundamentals

Kithsiri M. Liyanage
University of Peradeniya

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IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Objectives:
Describe the basics of Ethernet technology
Explain naming rules of Ethernet technology
Explain how Ethernet relates to the OSI model
Describe the Ethernet framing process and frame
structure
List Ethernet frame field names and purposes
Identify the characteristics of CSMA/CD
Describe Ethernet timing, interframe spacing, and backoff
time after a collision
Define Ethernet errors and collisions
Explain the concept of auto-negotiation in relation to
speed and duplex

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

The success of Ethernet is due to:

Simplicity and ease of maintenance


Ability to incorporate new technologies
Reliability
Low cost of installation and upgrade

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

The success of Ethernet is due to:

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Ethernet Standards
Speed: 10 Mbps
Standard: 802.3
Physical Layers:
– Used today:
- 10Base-T 10 Mbps Twisted Pair
- 10Base2 (Thin Ethernet) 10 Mbps thin coax
cable
– Used in the past:
- 10Base5 (Thick Ethernet) 10 Mbps thick
coax cable
– There is even an analog version:
- 10Broad36 10 Mbps on coax cable using
analog signaling
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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

10Base5 and 10Base2 Ethernets have a bus topology

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

10Base5 and 10Base2 Ethernets

Maximum length of a segment is 500m (10Base5)


and 200m (10Base2)

The maximum span can be extended by connecting


segments via repeaters

Repeaters do not isolate collisions

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

10Base-T

With 10Base-T, stations are connected to a hub in a star


configuration

The distance of a node to the hub must be ≤ 100 m

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Fast Ethernet

Fast Ethernet is synonymous with Ethernet at 100 Mbps rates

Standard: IEEE 802.3u


- 100BASE-T4 (100 Mbps over telephone-grade twisted
pair)

- 100Base-TX (100 Mbps over Category 5 twisted pair)

- 100Base-FX (100 Mbps over Fiber Optic)

The 100Base-X schemes have two physical links, one for


receiving and one for transmitting, each at 100 Mbps.
A station can send and transmit at the same time (full-
duplex)

100 Base-T4 operates in half-duplex mode

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Gigabit Ethernet

Data rate is 1 Gbps = 1000 Mbps

Standard: IEEE 802.3z

Physical Layers:
- 1000Base-SX short-wave laser over multimode fiber

- 1000Base-LX long-wave laser over single mode fiber


and multimode fiber

- 1000Base-T Twisted pair

Used for backbone of a campus area network or at


desktop

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Ethernet Operation wrt ISO/OSI - RM

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

MAC Technologies

http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Ethernet Technologies

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Addressing

An address system is required to uniquely identify computers and


interfaces to allow for local delivery of frames on the Ethernet.

Ethernet uses MAC addresses that are 48 bits in length and expressed as
12 hexadecimal digits.

The first six hexadecimal digits, which are administered by the IEEE,
identify the manufacturer or vendor. This portion of the MAC address is
known as the Organizational Unique Identifier (OUI).

The remaining six hexadecimal digits represent the interface serial


number or another value administered by the manufacturer.

MAC addresses are sometimes referred to as burned-in MAC addresses (BIAs)


because they are burned into ROM and are copied into RAM when the NIC initializes.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Addressing

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Physical Layer

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Frame Structure

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Frame Check Sequence

There are three primary ways to calculate the FCS number:

Cyclic redundancy check (CRC) – performs calculations on


the data.

Two-dimensional parity – places individual bytes in a two-


dimensional array and performs redundancy checks vertically
and horizontally on the array, creating an extra byte resulting
in an even or odd number of binary 1s.

Internet checksum – adds the values of all of the data bits to


arrive at a sum.
Internet check sum is the 16 bit one's complement of the one's
complement sum of all 16 bit words in the header
Eg e3 4f 23 96 44 27 99 f3  1aff
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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Cyclic Redundancy Checks

Powerful error detection method, easily implemented

Message (M) to be transmitted is appended with extra frame


checksum bits (F), so that bit pattern transmitted (T) is perfectly
divisible by a special “generator” pattern (P) - (divisor)

At destination, divide received message by the same P. If


remainder is nonzero  error

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Can Detect

1. All single-bit errors

2. All double-bit errors, as long as P(X) has a factor with at


least three terms (as long as p has at least three 1s)

3. Any odd number of errors, as long as P(X) contains a


factor (X+1)

4. Any burst error for which the length of the burst is less
than the length of the FCS

5. Most larger burst errors

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Internet checksum
1’s complements of the sum of 1’s complements of data taken
16 bits at a time

Used in IP, ICMP, TCP, UDP

Example

Message : 0100 F203 F4F5 F6F7

1’s complements of message: FEFF 0DFC 0B0A 0908

1’S COMPLEMENT SUM: 210E  Check sum

Calculate the addition 0100 + F203 + F4F5 + F6F7 + 210E

What should be the answer ?

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Internet checksum
Good because we don’t need to touch all data if one area of the
data is changed.

Applications where small changes takes place

1. Network address translation

2. Time to live

In theory, time to live is measured in seconds, although every host that passes
the datagram must reduce the TTL by at least one unit. In practice, the TTL field
is reduced by one on every hop. To reflect this practice, the field is renamed
hop limit in IPv6.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Frame Format

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Ethernet II Frame Format

Ethernet II is the Ethernet frame format that is used in TCP/IP networks.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

IEEE 802.3 and Ethernet II Frame Formats < 0600 hex


otherwise

Preamble

10101011

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MAC

Deterministic MAC Non-Deterministic


protocols MAC protocols

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Collision less
MAC protocols use a
of Peradeniya

first-come, first-served
approach. Carrier Sense
Multiple Access with
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Collision Detection
(CSMA/CD)
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Collision detection and avoidance in a CSMA/CD network

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Collision detection and avoidance in a CSMA/CD network

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Collision detection and avoidance in a CSMA/CD network

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Slot time

After a collision occurs and


all stations allow the cable
to become idle (each waits
the full interframe spacing),
then the stations that
collided must wait an
additional and potentially
progressively longer period
of time before attempting to
retransmit the collided
frame.

The waiting period is


measured in increments of
the parameter slot time.

Slot time is only applicable to half-duplex transmissions. Since slot time is the time required to
wait for the medium to be free from transmissions, there is no time required to wait for full-duplex
transmissions. 10 Gbit/s is a full duplex technology, so slot time is not applicable here.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Interframe Spacing

The minimum spacing between two non-colliding frames is also


called the interframe spacing. This is measured from the last bit of the
FCS field of the first frame to the first bit of the preamble of the
second frame.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

sources of Ethernet error

Simultaneous transmission occurring before slot time has elapsed


(Collision or runt )
Simultaneous transmission occurring after slot time has elapsed (Late
collision )
Excessively or illegally long transmission (Jabber, long frame and range
errors )
Illegally short transmission (Short frame, collision fragment or runt)
Corrupted transmission (FCS error )
Insufficient or excessive number of bits transmitted to make total number
of bits not to be an integer multiple of 8 (Alignment error)
Actual and reported number of octets in frame do not match (Range error)
Unusually long Preamble or Jam event (Ghost or jabber)

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Backoff Timing

After a collision occurs and all devices allow the cable to become idle
(each waits the full interframe spacing),

The devices whose transmissions collided must wait an additional and


potentially progressively longer - period

The waiting period is intentionally designed to be random so that two


stations do not delay for the same amount of time before retransmitting

The waiting period is measured in increments of the parameter slot time.

If media congestion results in the MAC layer unable to send the frame
after 16 attempts, it gives up and generates an error to the Network layer.

The CSMA/CD allowed Ethernet to provide greater service in a shared


media topology based on the use of hubs.

With the use of switches, the need for CSMA/CD starts to diminish or, in
some cases, is removed altogether.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Data Encoding

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

MLT (Multi-Level Transition ) - 3 Encoding

MLT-3 encoding is a line code (a signaling method used in a


telecommunication system for transmission purposes) that uses three
voltage levels.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

4B/5B Encoding

The encoding method used for encoding 4-bit data bytes to 5-bit
Transmission Characters.

Data bytes are converted to Transmission Characters to improve


the physical signal such that the following benefits are achieved:
bit synchronization is more easily achieved,
design of receivers and transmitters is simplified,
error detection is improved, and control characters (i.e., the Special
Character) can be distinguished from data characters..

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

4B/5B Encoding
Data Sequence
Data Sequence Encoded Scheme Encoded Scheme
0000 11110 Q(Quite) 00000
0001 01001 I(Idle) 11111
0010 10100 H(Halt) 00100

0011 10101 J(Start delimiter) 11000

0100 01010 K(Start delimiter) 10001

0101 01011 T(End delimiter) 01101


0110 01110 S(Set) 11001
0111 01111 R(Reset) 00111
1000 10010
1001 10011
1010 10110
1011 10111
1100 11010
1101 11011
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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Data Encoding – 10 Mbps Ethernet

From MAC Manchester To Transceiver


Encoder/
Decoder From Transceiver
To MAC

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Data Encoding – 100Base-TX

25 Mbps
125
25 Mbps 4B/5B MLT-3
Mbps
Block Line
25 Mbps
Encoder Encoder
25 Mbps

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Data Encoding – 100Base-FX

25 Mbps
125
25 Mbps 4B/5B NRZ-I
Mbps
Block Line
25 Mbps
Encoder Encoder
25 Mbps

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Data Encoding – 1000Base-SX/LX

125 Mbps
125 Mbps
125 Mbps
1.25
8B/10B NRZ
125 Mbps Gbps
Block Line
125 Mbps
Encoder Encoder
125 Mbps
125 Mbps
125 Mbps

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Data Encoding – 1000Base-T

4-pair of
125 Mbps CAT 5 UTP

125 Mbps 250 Mbps

125 Mbps
250 Mbps
4D-PAM5
125 Mbps
Block
125 Mbps 250 Mbps
Encoder
125 Mbps
250 Mbps
125 Mbps
125 Mbps

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Ethernet auto-negotiation

Auto-Negotiation - This process defines how two link partners


may automatically negotiate a configuration offering the best
common performance level.
If anything interrupts communications and the link is lost, the two
link partners first attempt to link again at the last negotiated
speed.
If that fails, or if it has been too long since the link was lost, the
Auto-Negotiation process starts over.
Example :
10BASE-T required each station to transmit a link pulse about every
16 milliseconds, whenever the station was not engaged in
transmitting a message.
Auto-Negotiation adopted this signal and renamed it a Normal Link
Pulse (NLP).
When a series of NLPs are sent in a group for the purpose of Auto-
Negotiation, the group is called a Fast Link Pulse (FLP) burst.
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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Ethernet auto-negotiation

Duplex mismatch
one end is forced to full duplex
the other is forced to half duplex
result in collisions and errors
10-Gigabit Ethernet does not support half
duplex
The list is priority ranked, with the most
desirable link configuration at the top.
Fiber-optic Ethernet implementations are not
included in this priority resolution list
because the interface configuration is fixed.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Operation of a switch

1. A switch is simply a bridge with many ports.


2. the collision domain on the shared media contains only
two nodes: switch port and the host connected to it.
3. These small physical segments are called microsegments.
4. In full duplex mode, there is no contention for the media. A
collision domain no longer exists.
5. In theory, the bandwidth is doubled when full duplex is
used. 9.6.1.1 
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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Operation of a switch

CAM and ASIC technologies greatly reduced the delays


caused by software processes and enabled a switch to
keep up with the data demands of many microsegments
and high bit rates

CAM (content-addressable memory ) is memory that works


backward compared to conventional memory. When data is
entered into the memory it will return the associated
address. CAM allows a switch to find the port that is
associated with a MAC address without search algorithms.

An ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit ) comprises


an integrated circuit (IC) with functionality customized for a
particular use which allows some software operations to be
done in hardware.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Operation of a switch
How a frame is switched to the destination port is a trade off between
latency and reliability.

1. cut-through packet switching : A switch can start to transfer the


frame as soon as the destination MAC address is received.
This results in the lowest latency through the switch. However,
no error checking is available.

2. store-and-forward packet switching: The switch can also


receive the entire frame before it is sent to the destination port.
verify the Frame Check Sequence (FCS). If the frame is
invalid, it is discarded at the switch.

3. Fragment-free packet switching: A compromise between cut-


through and store-and-forward packet switching is the
fragment-free mode. reads the first 64 bytes, which includes
the frame header, and starts to send out the packet before the
entire data field and checksum are read.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Operation of a switch

1. When cut-through packet switching is used, the source and


destination ports must have the same bit rate to keep the frame
intact.

2. This is called symmetric switching.

3. If the bit rates are not the same, the frame must be stored at one bit
rate before it is sent out at the other bit rate.

4. This is known as asymmetric switching. Store-and-forward mode


must be used for asymmetric switching.

5. Asymmetric switching is optimized for client/server traffic flows in


which multiple clients communicate with a server at once. More
bandwidth must be dedicated to the server port to prevent a
bottleneck.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Symmetric switching

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Asymmetric switching

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Memory Buffering

An Ethernet switch may use a buffering technique to store and forward


frames.
Buffering may also be used when the destination port is busy.
The area of memory where the switch stores the data is called the
memory buffer.

Port-based memory buffering

Shared memory buffering

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Port-based memory buffering

In port-based memory buffering frames are stored in queues that are


linked to specific incoming ports.

A frame is transmitted to the outgoing port only when all the frames
ahead of it in the queue have been successfully transmitted.

It is possible for a single frame to delay the transmission of all the


frames in memory because of a busy destination port.
This delay occurs even if the other frames could be transmitted to
open destination ports.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Shared memory buffering

Shared memory buffering deposits all frames into a common memory


buffer which all the ports on the switch share.

The amount of buffer memory required by a port is dynamically


allocated.

The frames in the buffer are linked dynamically to the destination port.

This allows the packet to be received on one port and then transmitted
on another port, without moving it to a different queue.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Shared memory buffering

The switch keeps a map of frame to port links showing where a packet
needs to be transmitted.

The map link is cleared after the frame has been successfully
transmitted. The memory buffer is shared.

The number of frames stored in the buffer is restricted by the size of the
entire memory buffer, and not limited to a single port buffer.
This permits larger frames to be transmitted with fewer dropped
frames.
This is important to asymmetric switching, where frames are being
exchanged between different rate ports.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Network Latency

Latency is the delay between the time a frame begins to leave the
source device and when the first part of the frame reaches its
destination. A variety of conditions can cause delays:

1. Media delays may be caused by the finite speed that


signals can travel through the physical media.
2. Circuit delays may be caused by the electronics that
process the signal along the path.
3. Software delays may be caused by the decisions that
software must make to implement switching and
protocols.
4. Delays may be caused by the content of the frame and
the location of the frame switching decisions. For
example, a device cannot route a frame to a destination
until the destination MAC address has been read.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Layer 1 media and topologies

1. Shared media environment

2. Extended shared media environment

Picture

3. Point-to-point network environment

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Collision domains

1. Collision domains are the connected physical network


segments where collision always occur due to
simultaneous transmissions by two devices in the same
network segment.
2. Collisions cause the network to be inefficient
3. The types of devices that interconnect the media
segments define collision domains

• OSI Layer 2 and Layer 3 devices


break up collision domains. This
process is also known as
segmentation

• Layer 1 devices can cause the


length of a LAN to be overextended
and result in collisions

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Round Trip Delay and Four Repeater Rule

1. Repeater latency, propagation delay, and NIC latency all


contribute to round-trip-delay
2. The four repeater rule in Ethernet states that no more
than four repeaters or repeating hubs can be between any
two computers on the network
3. This ensures that all the workstations will be able to hear
all the collisions on the network.
4. If the maximum delay limit is exceeded
• A late collision is possible
• The chipsets in NICs are not required to retransmit
automatically when a late collision occurs.
• These late collision frames add delay that is referred
to as consumption delay.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Round Trip Delay and Four Repeater Rule

The 5-4-3-2-1 rule requires that the following guidelines should


not be exceeded:
• Five segments of network media
• Four repeaters or hubs
• Three host segments of the network
• Two link sections with no hosts
• One large collision domain

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Collision Domains Extended by Layer 1 Devices

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Limiting Collision Domains

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Limiting Collision Domains

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Broadcast in Bridge Environment

When a node needs to communicate with


all hosts on the network, it sends a
broadcast frame with a destination MAC
address 0xFFFFFFFFFFFF. This is an
address to which the NIC of every host
must respond.

The accumulation of
broadcast and multicast
traffic from each device in
the network is referred to as
broadcast radiation.

Eg. The effect of broadcast radiation on the CPU performance


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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Broadcast domain segmentation Broadcasts are forwarded


by Layer 2 devices.
Excessive broadcasts can
reduce the efficiency of the
entire LAN.
Broadcasts have to be
controlled at Layer 3 since
Layers 1 and 2 devices
cannot control them.
Like all Layer 1 devices, routers
have a physical connection and
transmit data onto the media.
Routers also have a Layer 2
encapsulation on all interfaces
and perform the same functions
as other Layer 2 devices.
Layer 3 allows routers to
segment broadcast domains.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Data flow through network

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Filtering frames

Filters can be helpful in dealing with unnecessary broadcast and


multicast packets.
Ignoring a frame is called filtering.

Copying the frame is called forwarding

Bridges and switches that can filter frames based on MAC addresses
can also be used to filter Ethernet frames by multicast and broadcast
addresses.
This filtering is achieved through the implementation of virtual local-area
networks or VLANs

Today, switches are also able to filter according to the network-layer


protocol. This blurs the demarcation between switches and routers.

A switch that implements advanced filtering techniques is usually called a


brouter. Brouters filter by looking at network layer information but they do not
use a routing protocol.

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Communication methods

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Switch and broadcast domain

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Switch and broadcast domain

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Communication Through a Single Switch

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Communication Through Multiple Switches

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Virtual LAN (VLAN) Concepts

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SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Virtual LANs
Networks grow
Admin section
Before

Finance section

Expansion

Now

Admin sections

Finance sections

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Virtual LANs

IT department wants to ensure that all Admin Computers share


the same security features and bandwidth controls.

How can the network accommodate the shared needs of


the geographically separated departments?

Do you create a large LAN and wire each department


together?

How easy would it be to make changes to that network?

It would be great to group the people with the resources they


use regardless of their geographic location, and it would make it
easier to manage their specific security and bandwidth needs.

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Virtual LAN (VLAN) Concepts

A VLAN is a logical group of network stations, services, and


devices that is not restricted to a physical LAN segment.

VLANs facilitate easy administration of logical groups of stations and


servers that can communicate as if they were on the same physical
LAN segment.

They also facilitate easier administration of moves, adds, and


changes in members of these groups.

VLANs logically segment switched networks based on job


functions, departments, or project teams, regardless of the physical
location of users or physical connections to the network.

All workstations and servers used by a particular workgroup share the


same VLAN, regardless of the physical connection or location.

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Virtual LAN (VLAN) Concepts

Configuration or reconfiguration of VLANs is done through software.


Therefore, VLAN configuration does not require network
equipment to be physically moved or connected.

A workstation in a VLAN group is restricted to communicating with file


servers in the same VLAN group.

VLANs logically segment the network into different broadcast


domains so that packets are only switched between ports that are
assigned to the same VLAN.

VLANs consist of hosts or network equipment connected by a single


bridging domain. The bridging domain is supported on different network
equipment. LAN switches operate bridging protocols with a
separate bridge group for each VLAN.

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Virtual LAN (VLAN) Concepts

VLANs are created to provide segmentation services traditionally


provided by physical routers in LAN configurations.

VLANs address scalability, security, and network management.

Routers in VLAN topologies provide broadcast filtering, security,


and traffic flow management.

Switches do not bridge traffic between VLANs, as this violates the


integrity of the VLAN broadcast domain. Traffic should only be routed
between VLANs.

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

VLAN and physical boundaries

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

VLAN and physical boundaries

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

VLAN and physical boundaries

VLAN implementation on a switch causes certain actions to


occur:

The switch maintains a separate bridging table for each


VLAN.

If the frame comes in on a port in VLAN 1, the switch


searches the bridging table for VLAN 1.

When the frame is received, the switch adds the source


address to the bridging table if it is currently unknown.

The destination is checked so a forwarding decision can be


made.

For learning and forwarding, the search is made against the


address table for that VLAN only.

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Static VLANs

Static membership VLANs are called port-based and port-centric


membership VLANs.

As a device enters the network, it automatically assumes the VLAN


membership of the port to which it is attached.

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Dynamic VLANs

Dynamic membership VLANs are created through network management software.

Dynamic VLANs allow for membership based on the MAC address of the device
connected to the switch port.

As a device enters the network, the switch that it is connected to queries a


database on the VLAN Configuration Server for VLAN membership.

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Example

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Network administrators are responsible for configuring VLANs


both statically and dynamically

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Virtual LANs

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Virtual LANs
Example

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Benefits of VLANS

VLANs allow network administrators to organize LANs logically instead of


physically. This allows network administrators to perform several tasks:
•Easily move workstations on the LAN
•Easily add workstations to the LAN
•Easily change the LAN configuration
•Easily control network traffic
•Improve security

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Benefits of a VLAN Virtual LANs


Security

Cost reduction
Cost savings result from less need for expensive network upgrades and more
efficient use of existing bandwidth and uplinks.

Higher performance
Dividing flat Layer 2 networks into multiple logical workgroups (broadcast domains)
reduces unnecessary traffic on the network and boosts performance.

Broadcast storm mitigation


Dividing a network into VLANs reduces the number of devices that may participate
in a broadcast storm.

Improved IT staff efficiency


VLANs make it easier to manage the network because users with similar network
requirements share the same VLAN.

Simpler project or application management


e.g. an e-learning development platform for faculty. It is also easier to determine the
scope of the effects of upgrading network services.

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

When a packet is sent to the Data Link layer to be encapsulated into


a frame,
the node refers to a table in its memory to find the Data Link layer
address that is mapped to the destination IPv4 address.

The ARP protocol provides two basic functions:

Resolving IPv4 addresses to MAC addresses

Maintaining a cache of mappings

Each entry, or row, of the ARP table (cache) has a pair of


values:
an IP Address and a MAC address.
9.7.1.1

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)


The ARP table is maintained dynamically.

There are 2-ways of generating cache

Monitor the traffic that occurs on the local network segment.

Broadcasting an ARP request. ARP sends a Layer 2


broadcast to all devices on the Ethernet LAN.

For each device, an ARP cache timer removes ARP entries that
have not been used for a specified period of time.

The times differ depending on the device and its operating


system.

For example, some Windows operating systems store ARP


cache entries for 2 minutes. If the entry is used again during that
time, the ARP timer for that entry is extended to 10 minutes.
PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

Security Issues Related to ARP

ARP spoofing / ARP poisoning

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

The attacker: 10.0.0.1  MAC address: 00-AA-BB-CC-DD-00

The victims:
10.0.0.2  MAC address: 00-AA-BB-CC-DD-E1
10.0.0.3  MAC address: 00-AA-BB-CC-DD-E2

Attacker sends a crafted packet to 10.0.0.2 with spoofed ip of 10.0.0.3


and his own MAC address
It also sends a crafted package to 10.0.0.3 with spoofed ip of 10.0.0.2
with his own ip.

The ARP tables of both victims will look like this:


At 10.0.0.2
IP Address MAC Address
10.0.0.3 00-AA-BB-CC-DD-00

At 10.0.0.3
IP Address MAC Address
10.0.0.2 00-AA-BB-CC-DD-00

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya
SC 551: Communication Networks: Ethernet Fundamentals

PGIS
DEEE and – University
IT Center of Peradeniya
– University of Peradeniya