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Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology

ISSN No:-2456-2165

The Different Solving Methods of Linear Systems


1.
Ghulam Omer, Assistant Prof. "Abdullah" mathematics’ lecturer at Helmand university.
2.
Abdul Manan, Assistant Prof. "Sulatani" the Chancellor of Arakozia institution of Higher Education and the mathematics’
lecturer at this institute.

Abstract:- The two variable equations of 𝒂𝟏 𝒙 + 𝒂𝟐 𝒚 = 𝒃 𝑎11 𝑎12 ⋯ 𝑎1𝑛 𝑏1 𝑥1


whose degree of variables is 𝑛 = 1 are called linear 𝑎21 𝑎22 ⋯ 𝑎2𝑛 𝑏 𝑥2
𝐴=[ ] , 𝐵 = [ 2 ] , 𝑥 = [ ⋮ ] or
equations. If the number of variables exceeds two (𝑛), ⋮ ⋱ ⋮ ⋮
such a linear equation is called a 𝒏𝒕𝒉 variable linear 𝑎𝑚1 𝑎𝑚2 ⋯ 𝑎𝑚𝑛 𝑏𝑚 𝑥𝑚𝑛
equation. If the number of equations reaches more than
one (𝑚), then existed a system of 𝒎𝒕𝒉 equations, which is 𝑎11 𝑎12 ⋯ 𝑎1𝑛 : 𝑏1
called a system of linear equations (𝒎 × 𝒏). Shows the 𝑎21 𝑎22 ⋯ 𝑎2𝑛 : 𝑏2
[ ]
number of system equations and the number of variables ⋮ ⋱ ⋮
in the system. 𝑎𝑚1 𝑎𝑚2 ⋯ 𝑎𝑚𝑛 : 𝑏𝑛

The system of linear equations forms the basis of II. THE DIFFERENT SOLVING METHODS OF
linear algebra, which helps in solving and analyzing LINEAR SYSTEMS
important issues in the natural sciences, especially
mathematics. It is also used in solving mathematical An important issue to consider in the solving of linear
problems with the help of computer mathematical systems are the consistent and inconsistent situation of
programs. linear systems. Its mean if a system has a solution, it is
called a consistent system, and if it hasn’t no solution, it is
For example, it is used in the study and analysis of called an inconsistent system. Of course, generally in the
linear transformation as well as in solving optimization beginning we can't say the system is consistent or
problems. inconsistent. But in the particular case, we can define the
consistent and inconsistent case of Homogeneous system
I. INTRODUCTION through the matrix rank by The Rouché –Capelli theorem.

The concept of a system of linear equations was The following four methods are used for the solution
introduced first in Europe in 1637 by the famous French of linear systems;
mathematician René Descartes, in the words of Descartes. 1. Gauss Elimination method
Descartes 'appropriation was later incorporated into 2. Gauss Jordan Method
mathematics as Descartes' geometry. Today, with the help of 3. Cramer’s Roll
this system, the routes of air transit lines at airports are 4. LU Decomposition.
determined and shown, and their intersections are calculated
by solving a system of linear equations. Note:
Before describing these methods, it is necessary to
Suppose we have 𝑚 equations and 𝑛 unknowns then consider the following primary changes in the systems:
they form a system of the following: - Changing the location of two equations in a system
- Multiply the nonzero real number on both sides of an
𝑎11 𝑥1 + 𝑎12 𝑥2 +, … … … , +𝑎1𝑛 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏1 equation
𝑎21 𝑥1 + 𝑎22 𝑥2 +, … … … , +𝑎2𝑛 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏2 - Adding one equation to another equation
( … … … (1) - And remove the equations from the system which that
⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮
𝑎𝑚1 𝑥1 + 𝑎𝑚2 𝑥2 +, … … … , +𝑎𝑚𝑛 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏𝑚 take the form of compatibility.

Explanation: In the above system 𝑎𝑖𝑗 (𝑖 = 1 - Gauss Elimination method


1,2,3, … … … , 𝑚 , 𝑗 = 1,2,3, … … … 𝑛) are the coefficients Suppose the following a linear system is given;
of the equation which are 𝑖 equation number and 𝑗 unknown
𝑎11 𝑥1 + 𝑎12 𝑥2 +, … … … , +𝑎1𝑛 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏1
number 𝑏𝑖 represents constant numbers of equations and 𝑥𝑖
𝑎 𝑥 + 𝑎22 𝑥2 +, … … … , +𝑎2𝑛 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏2
represents unknown numbers in the system. If 𝑏𝑖 = 0 in (1) ( 21 1 … … … (2)
system, such a system is called a homogeneous system. And ⋮ ⋮ ⋮ ⋮
we can show the linear system as matrix’s; 𝑎𝑚1 𝑥1 + 𝑎𝑚2 𝑥2 +, … … … , +𝑎𝑚𝑛 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏𝑚

Should be try to find the coefficient (𝑎11 ≠ 0) of 𝑥1. If


the coefficient is equal to zero, then use other coefficients.
And remove 𝑥1 from the system, to do this the should be

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Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
𝑎21
Multiply by the both sides of first equation And we Using the Cramer’s method to solve a 𝑛 unknowns
𝑎11 ≠0
and 𝑚 equations linear system.
subtract it from the second equation.

Then we multiply the both sides of first equation by


𝑎31
𝑎11 ≠0
and subtract from the third equation, continuing this
operation until 𝑥1 becomes zero throughout the system.

We study the above method in the following 𝑚


equations and 𝑛 unknown system, which in the following The condition for solving a linear system with this
system all of 𝑥1 are zero. method is that; the determinant of the coefficients of linear
system shouldn’t be zero or (it’s matrix must be
𝑎11 𝑥1 + 𝑎12 𝑥2 +, … … … , 𝑎1𝑛 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏1 nonsingular).
+𝑎22 𝑥2 +, … … … 𝑎12𝑛 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏2
{ … … … (2)
⋮ ⋮ ⋮ This method is used for the solving of those linear
+𝑎𝑚2 𝑥2 +, … … … , 𝑎𝑚𝑛 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏𝑚 systems where the number of unknowns equal with the
number of equations of the system or 𝑚 = 𝑛 and det 𝐴 ≠ 0.
Note: Follow the same procedure for all other unknown.
Suppose the following linear system is given:
2 - Gauss Jordan Method
To perform this method, should be arrange the linear
system to (𝐴, 𝐵) matrix and then we perform on this matrix
Row Reduction operation to take the in the (𝐼𝑛 𝑥) form.

For example:
Assuming that the matrix 𝐴 is the matrix of the
𝑥1 + 3𝑥2 + 𝑥3 = 10 coefficient unknowns and the matrix 𝐵 is the matrix of the
{ 𝑥1 − 2𝑥2 − 𝑥3 = −6 constants numbers so:
2𝑥1 + 𝑥2 + 2𝑥3 = 10

1 3 1 𝑥1 10
𝐴 = [1−2−1] , 𝑥 = [𝑥2 ] , 𝐵 = [−6]
2 1 2 𝑥3 10

−𝑅1 + 𝑅2 → 𝑅2 𝑎𝑛𝑑 − 2𝑅1 + 𝑅3 → 𝑅3

1 3 1 10 If det 𝐴 ≠ 0 and the matrix 𝐴 is reversible which its


𝐴 = [0−5−2] , 𝐵 = [−16] revers matrix is called (𝐴)−1,then this (𝐴)−1 matrix
0 5 0 −10 multiplied on the both sides of the equation 𝐴𝑋 = 𝐵, so it
can be written as:
1 3 1 10
𝑖𝑓: 𝑅2 ↔ 𝑅3 ⇒ 𝐴 = [0−5 0 ] , 𝐵 = [−10] 𝑋 = 𝐴−1 𝐵
0 5 −2 −16
Now with the using of adjoin matrix we can find the value
1 3 1 10 of 𝐴−1 as:
−𝑅2 + 𝑅3 → 𝑅3 ⇒ 𝐴 = [0−5 0 ] , 𝐵 = [ 10 ]
0 0 −2 −6 𝑎11 𝑎12 𝑎13
𝐴 = [𝑎21 𝑎22 𝑎23 ] , 𝐶 =
1 3 1 10 𝑎31 𝑎32 𝑎33
𝑅 𝑅
𝑖𝑓: −52 𝑎𝑛𝑑 −23 ⇒ 𝐴 = [0 1 0] , 𝐵 = [ 2 ] 𝑎22 𝑎23 𝑎21 𝑎23 𝑎21 𝑎22
0 0 1 3 + [𝑎 𝑎 ] − [𝑎 𝑎 ] + [𝑎 𝑎 ]
32 33 31 33 31 32 𝑐11 𝑐12 𝑐13
𝑎12 𝑎13 𝑎11 𝑎13 𝑎11 𝑎12
1 0 1 4 + [𝑎 𝑎 ] − [𝑎 𝑎 ] + [𝑎 𝑎 ] = [𝑐21 𝑐22 𝑐23 ] 𝑖𝑓𝐶 𝑇 ⇒
32 33 31 33 31 32
𝑖𝑓: −3𝑅2 + 𝑅1 → 𝑅1 ⇒ 𝐴 = [0 1 0] , 𝐵 = [2] 𝑎12 𝑎13 𝑎11 𝑎13 𝑎11 𝑎12 𝑐31 𝑐32 𝑐33
0 0 1 3 + [
[ 𝑎22 𝑎23 ] − [𝑎21 𝑎23 ] + [𝑎21 𝑎22 ]]
𝑐11 𝑐21 𝑐31
1 0 0 1 𝑎𝑑𝑗𝐴 = [𝑐12 𝑐22 𝑐32 ]
𝑖𝑓: −1𝑅3 + 𝑅1 → 𝑅1 ⇒ 𝐴 = [0 1 0] , 𝐵 = [2] ⇒ 𝑥1 = 𝑐13 𝑐23 𝑐33
0 0 1 3
1, 𝑥2 = 2, 𝑥3 = 3 Therefore, the results of the multiplication of 𝐴 and 𝐶
matrixes show that they 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , … , 𝑥𝑛 are as follows:
3 - Cramer’s Roll

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Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
The last formulas are called Cramer’s formulas, for 𝐴𝑋 = 𝐵
example we have for (3 × 3) square linear system:
𝑎11 𝑎12 𝑎13
𝑏1 𝑎12 𝑎13 𝑎11 𝑏1 𝑎13 𝑎11 𝑎12 𝑏1 𝐴 = [𝑎21 𝑎22 𝑎23 ] = 𝐿𝑈
| 𝑏2 𝑎22 𝑎23 | | 𝑎21 𝑏2 𝑎23 | | 𝑎21 𝑎22 𝑏2 |
𝑏3 𝑎32 𝑎33 𝑎31 𝑏3 𝑎33 𝑎31 𝑎32 𝑏3 𝑎31 𝑎32 𝑎33
𝑥1 = ∆
, 𝑥2 = ∆
, 𝑥3 = ∆
1 0 0 𝑢11 𝑢12 𝑢13
Comment 𝐿 = [ 𝑙21 1 0 ] , 𝑈 = [ 0 𝑢12 𝑢13 ]
- If ∆ = 0 and ∆1 = ∆2 = ∆3 … ∆𝑛 = 0, then the linear 𝑙31 𝑙32 1 0 0 𝑢13
system has just one solution and that solution isn’t
unique but its infinite. 1 0 0 𝑢11 𝑢12 𝑢13
- If ∆ = 0 and at least one of ∆1 , ∆2 , … , ∆3 … ∆𝑛 = 0 is 𝐴 = 𝐿𝑈 ⇒ [ 𝑙21 1 0 ] ∙ [ 0 𝑢22 𝑢23 ] =
nonzero then the system has no solution. 𝑙31 𝑙32 1 0 0 𝑢33
- If ∆ ≠ 0 and the system was homogeneous i.e. (𝑏𝑖 = 0) 𝑢11 𝑢12 𝑢13
then the system has only zero solution, i.e. 𝑙
[ 21 11𝑢 𝑙 𝑢
21 12 + 𝑢22 𝑙 𝑢
21 13 + 𝑢23 ]
𝑥1 = 𝑥2 = ⋯ 𝑥𝑛 = 0 𝑙31 𝑢11 𝑙31 𝑢12 + 𝑙32 𝑢22 𝑙31 𝑢13 + 𝑙32 𝑢23 + 𝑢33

4 – LU decomposition or factorization method III. METHODOLOGY


Suppose 𝐴 is a square matrix and 𝐿 and 𝑈 are the
multiplication factors of that matrix, i.e. 𝐴 = 𝐿𝑈 then 𝐿 and Since the collection of materials and information in
𝑈 are called the decomposition of 𝐴 matrix, If we consider this article is in the form of a library, therefore has been
the above situation in terms of linear system, then we can used a qualitative method. and have been used in the
write: collection of materials and information reliable, national and
international sources and references. I have also benefited
𝑎11 𝑥1 + 𝑎12 𝑥2 +, … , 𝑎1𝑛 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏1 from the advices and guidance of experienced lecturers in
𝑎21 𝑥1 + 𝑎22 𝑥2 +, … , 𝑎2𝑛 𝑥𝑛 = 𝑏2 compiling these materials.
{ … (1)
⋮ ⋮ ⋮
𝑎𝑚1 𝑥1 + 𝑎𝑚2 𝑥1 +, … , 𝑎𝑚𝑛 𝑥1 = 𝑏𝑚 In this research paper, studied and compared four
deferent methods of solving linear equation system to
choose a suitable method for solving linear equation system.

IV. CONCLUSION

By providing this research paper, we can conclude that


the importance and role of linear systems in mathematical
and natural sciences. Also understand what’s the role of
𝑎11 𝑎12 ⋯ 𝑎1𝑛 𝑏1 𝑥1 linear system in technology and engineering? This study
𝑎21 𝑎22 ⋯ 𝑎2𝑛 𝑏2 𝑥 also identified an effective method of solving equations for
𝐴=[ ] , 𝐵 = [ ] , 𝑥 = [ ⋮2 ] linear systems.
⋮ ⋱ ⋮ ⋮
𝑎𝑚1 𝑎𝑚2 ⋯ 𝑎𝑚𝑛 𝑏𝑚 𝑥𝑚𝑛 REFERENCES

𝐴𝑋 = 𝐵 … (2) [1]. Anton, H., & Rorres, C. (2005). Student solutions


𝐿𝑈𝑋 = 𝐵 … (3) manual to accompany Elementary linear algebra with
𝑖𝑓: 𝑈𝑋 = 𝑌 ⇒ 𝐿𝑌 = 𝐵 … (4) applications. John Wiley & Sons.
[2]. Anton, H., & Rorres, C. (2013). Elementary linear
Computation algebra: applications version. John Wiley & Sons.
Therefor to solve a system by the using decomposition [3]. Howard, A. (2000). Elementary linear algebra with
method, we need to perform the following steps for 𝐿 and 𝑈 applications: applications version. Wiley.
matrixes: [4]. Scheick, J. T. (1997). Linear algebra with
- Finding the first line of the 𝑈 matrix (𝑢11 𝑢12 𝑢13 ). applications (Vol. 81). New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Finding the first column of the 𝐿 matrix (𝑙21 , 𝑙31 ). [5]. V. VEKATESWARA RAO and N. KRTSHNAMURTHY
- Creating the second line of the matrix( 𝑢22 𝑢23 ). , Mathematics for B,S,C volume-3 pages(3-108)
- Finding the second column of matrix (𝑙32 ). [6]. Emal, Abdulhaq, Linear Algebra III Saeed
- Find the third line of the matrix (𝑢33 ). Publications (2011)
[7]. Emal, Abdulhaq, Linear Algebra II Saeed Publications
For example, if we consider the following linear (2014)
[8]. Emal, Abdulhaq, Issues of linear algebra solved Saeed
system, write:
𝑎11 𝑥1 + 𝑎12 𝑥2 + 𝑎13 𝑥3 = 𝑏1 Publications (2017)
{𝑎21 𝑥1 + 𝑎22 𝑥2 + 𝑎23 𝑥3 = 𝑏2 [9]. Porncky, Mohammad Raza, Tabish, Yahya Analytical
Geometry and Linear Algebra, Iran Textbook
𝑎31 𝑥1 + 𝑎32 𝑥2 + 𝑎33 𝑥3 = 𝑏3
Publishing Company (2015)

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Volume 6, Issue 2, February – 2021 International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology
ISSN No:-2456-2165
[10]. Sanaye, Ghulam, Theory of numbers and linear
algebra Saeed Publications (2017)

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