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Cae iG TE ery ‘ >, a ta DEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVE Barbara E. Travers Da oe VICE PRESIDENT & PUBLISHER Jay O'Callaghan ACQUISITIONS EDITOR Robert Johnston PRODUCTION EDITOR Nicole Repasky PHOTO EDITOR Elle Wagner MARKETING MANAGER Jeff Rucker COVER AND TEXT DESIGNER — Madelyn Lesure PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT SERVICES _Ingrao Associates SENIOR MEDIA EDITOR | Lynn Pearlman EDITORIAL ASSISTANT Carrie Tupa COVER PHOTO (left to right) Digital Vision/SUPERSTOCK, Corbis! " SUPERSTOCK, Photodise/Getty Images, Ingram Publishing/SUPERSTOCK Gre, Digital Vision SUPERSTOCK WILEY 200th ANNIVERSARY LOGO DESIGN Richard J. Pacifico A was set in Electra by Prepare Inc. and printed and bound by Court The cover was printed by Courier/Kendallvlle. This book is printed on acid free paper. © reproduced. mechanecal, photocopying, cee Ce 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States: : the Publaher or authorization through payment of te appropes ERS Chessunce Center Ine, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danves, MA 0192 neha TE Reque to the Publisher for peminion ould be added ‘Wik & Son, Inc, 111 River Street, Hoboken, N] 070305774 EY" GOB, website hit Awww wiley comigolperissons. Chiles erate: E. Travers. pm. {SBN 778047111088 088) mages ad ahi Travers, Barbara E. THe PN1008.173 2006 372.69044-de22 13. 978-0470-111048 ASBN-10 0-470-111046 ‘Printed in the United Stats of Ameria as amiga dh One To Our Readers We are writing Children’s Literature: A Developmental Perspective for pre-service and inservice teachers, students of English, library science majors, and young men 4 women who have chosen children’s literature as an elective course. Such stu- dents share a growing responsibility in the education of today’s children asthe fed- cral government has made a major commitment to improve the reading skills of our children. To achieve the goals outlined by the federal government, those who work with children need a wide and deep knowledge of children’s literature. Chil- dren's Literature, through its developmental approach, provides a focus on what children need and are interested in at different developmental stages A Developmental Approach to Children’s Literature ‘Our book takes a developmental approach to children's literature, thus providing 4 more meaningful and practical introduction to the subject. With an unde standing of the developmental theory that explains a childs abilities, needs, and interests, future teachers are better prepared to meet the needs of individual chil dren and to help them develop their literary skills. In this way, teachers can foster a lifelong love of reading. We believe that our book, combining children’s litera- ture with developmental psychology, offers professors and students a more sophi- sticated and in-depth approach to a subject sometimes referred to as “kiddie lit” In this book, the underlying structure for children’s book selection is based on a de- velopmental framework. To sclect the appropriate book for a child, the teacher, li brarian, parent, or other adult needs not only to know children’s literature, but also to understand the developmental level of the children they are serving. ‘What is the child like? Is she in the middle years, is she active, curious, and competitive? Or is he just learning to walk and talk, and is fascinated by sounds and colors? Perhaps the child is a dreamer and likes to create her own stories or spend hours building with a lego set. The secret to leading a child to the right book is not only to know the books, but to know the child. Only then is the concept of goodness-of fit (the match between a child's developmental level and appropriate literature) complete. In this way, the traditional genres of children’s literature be- ‘come more meaningful when viewed through a developmental lens. ‘Although most readers ofthis text may be studying children’s literature for- rally forthe first time, they have been readers for many years. They may still quote Dr. Seuss or remember tearfully reading Charlotte's Web. These classics are still being read and reread, but thousands of other new, innovative books are also cap- ‘turing the imagination of today’s children. Harry Potter, for example, has taken the world by storm, just as The Wizard of Oz did at the beginning of the last century. By reading Children's Literature: A Developmental Perspective, students will learn what makes the most recently published books attractive to children while still recognizing the value of books that have held children’s interest in the past. Organizational Themes ‘The first of our organizational themes is the use of a biopsychosocial modal — biological, psychological, and social forces that drive development ~ to achi ‘our goal of matching children with appropriate literature. The key to slefi appropriate book for a child not only is the knowledge the teacher, librarian, ent, or other adult has about children’s literature, but also what they know the developmental level of the children they are serving. ‘The second of our organizational themes is the use of genres. These at categories that help readers understand the various characteristics ofthe wile | range of children's literature. In Children’s Literature: A Developmental Pepe tive, we have selected eight genres — picture books, traditional literature, modem fantasy, poetry and drama, contemporary realistic fiction, historical feton, bag raphy and autobiography, and informational books — to help children undentad the nature of children’s literature. The third of our organizational themes relates to the introduction: of top cal ideas that teachers and librarians will find valuable in comprehending the mol em world of books. For example, we have not only included guidelines and mote for children’s literature to be used in the curriculum, but we have also : such sensitive issues as privacy, censorship, and technol ‘The text has a total of 14 chapters. Within each cl characteristics of children of a particular age level are tions for each genre are made based on these characteristics. fied specific topics that are representative of the various developmental gender issues, reluctant readers, bullying, death, peer relationships, a = iety, obesity, etc. These stories encompass classical as well as the best of he rent literature and stress the goodness of fit that we as professionals are seek ee ple. We believe this technique curriculum, and a chapter on issues related teachers and librarians need to be avare Chapter 2. Children and Their Titerat ne: PART TWO - UNDERSTANDING CHILDRE Chapter 3. Genres in Children’s Literature Gueks 4. Analyzing, Selecting, and Responding to Child Chapter 5. The Craft of Writing and Mlustrating Chapter 6. Diversity in Children’s Literature *ART THREE - THE CONTENT OF CH Chait ater for he Ea Ye NB Pre Chapter 8. Literature for the Preschool Years (Ages 2-4) Chapter 9. Literature for the Early Elementary School Years (Ages 5-7) Chapter 10. Literature for the Intermediate School Years (Ages 8-10) Chapter 11. Literature for the Middle School Years (Ages 1-14) Chapter 12. Literature for the High School Years (Ages 14-18) PART FOUR - TOPICS FOR TEACHERS AND LIBRARIANS Chapter 13. Science Literature through the Grades: A Curricular Model Chapter 14. Issues for Teachers and Librarians Contents of the Chapters Chapter 1: Children, Literature, and Development: Interactions and Insights In Chapter One, we present a developmental perspective that describes the biopsy- chosocial characteristics of children, both typical and exceptional. This perspec- zze the interactions of children with literature, whi should help teachers, librarians and parents to select appropriate stories. De opmental theories are briefly discussed and illustrated by appropriate children’s stories. Following each discussion of a developmental theory is a section entitled Strategies for Integrating (Name of Theory) Into Children’s Literature Chapter 2: Children and Their Literature: Changes through the Years ‘The theme guiding our work in this chapter is that stories about and for children re- flect the prevailing view of children at any particular time. Our journey begins with the colorful tales passed on by oral tradition and continues with the literature of the Greeks. The appearance of the Gutenberg press dramatically increased the number ‘of books available, which was accompanied by a steadily changing picture of children and the influence of such individuals as Randolph Caldecott and John Newbery Such themes as the recognition of gender differences and the increasing popularity of fantasy testify to the status of children and children’s books. As children’s literature parallels the rapid societal changes ofthe twentieth and the twenty-first centuries, its themes reflect the conflicts and problems that modem children experience. Chapter 3: Genres in Children’s Literature Chapter 3 is devoted to the scope of children’s literature, ranging from the realis- tic to the fantastic. Genres, those characteristics that distinguish one form of liter- ature from another, are at the heart of our discussion, We explain the following ight categories, offering extensive examples of each. Picture Books (including Easy Readers) “Traditional Literature (Folktales and Fairy Tales, Myths, Legends, Fables, and Parables) Modern Fantasy (including Science Fiction) Poetry and Drama Contemporary Realistic Fiction Historical Fiction Biography and Autobiography Informational Books Pre Chapter 4: Analyzing, Selecting, and Responding to Children’s Literature Chapter 4 focuses on how the selection and evaluation of many genres of chil dren's literature should be made using our developmental model and several lit erary elements. Discussion of the criteria used to select books for various awards, including the Newbery and Caldecott Medals (and other awards), is also inchuded. To assist our readers with selective and evaluative criteria, we have analyzed Be- cause of Winn Dixie and Belle Prater’s Boy by applying the literary elements pre sented in the chapter. In our discussion we have also incorporated the mannerin which children respond to their literature by discussing the Reader Response the ory of Louise Rosenblatt. Chapter 5: The Craft of Writing and Mlustrating Our discussion in this chapter focuses on the personal backgrounds of outstanding authors and illustrators who have contributed and continue to contribute to chil dren’s literature. These authors and illustrators retain their magnetism for children because of style, subject matter, and their understanding of the developmental needs and interests of children. ‘The various media and techniques artists use to make their illustrations appropriate and often award-winning are described in light ofan author's choice of language to insure an appropriate goodnessoffit, Chapter 6: Diversity in Children’s Literature ; ‘The importance and the need for an tunderstanding of multiculturalism in childre’s literature are highlighted in Chapter 6. Although multiculturalism is the main theme of the chapter, examples of diversity appear in all chapters of the book. We have adopted Rudine Bishop's interpretation of diversity as our guide inthis chapter: Male ticultural refers to all those who have been marginalized by society. In this way, We hope to show how children’s literature helps to eliminate prejudice, stereotypes and value conflicts directed at those who differ in culture, social class, age, religion, pe