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Long Term Evolution (LTE)


LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the preferred development path of The improved speed and low latency provided by LTE will offer a
GSM/W-CDMA/HSPA networks currently deployed, and an much improved end-user experience for all corporate services:
option for evolution of CDMA networks. This essential evolution • For applications where data throughput is important - faster e-
will enable networks to offer the higher data throughput to mobile mail and file uploads, enhanced VPN connection, high-speed
terminals needed in order to deliver new and advanced mobile internet, etc. and;
broadband services.
• For interactive applications where latency is crucial - IMS
The primary objectives of this network evolution are to provide based VoIP, mail and file synchronization with an on-line
these services with a quality at least equivalent to what an end-user server, peer-to-peer applications such as “NetMeeting”, SIP
can enjoy today using their fixed broadband access at home, and to multimedia services including video and voice conference
reduce operational expenses by means of introducing flat IP over IP, application sharing, etc.
In addition to typical corporate applications, we expect an
This brochure presents the drivers for, and the main technical increased interest from the vertical markets where information
characteristics of, LTE. It explains Alcatel-Lucent’s LTE solution, accuracy, reliability and immediacy are key: medical applications
and highlights our strong commitment to, and leadership in, LTE. where latency and high resolution imaging are highly important;
machine-to-machine communication where security and
Why LTE ? immediacy are crucial; live network based navigation; etc.
The mass market will benefit from improvements delivered by LTE
Improved Quality of Experience & New Services for all person-to-person and internet community applications:
Although 3G/3.5G technologies such as HSPA/EV-DO deliver Push-to-See, improved quality for VoIP, photo and video
significantly higher bit rates than 2G technologies, they do not downloading / uploading for personal blogs, online gaming,
fully satisfy the “wireless broadband” requirements of instant-on, mobile social networks (such as YouTube, myspace), and “Second
always-on and multi-megabit throughput. With LTE delivering life” type applications etc.
even higher peak throughput and much lower latency, mobile On top of those improvements, LTE will enable the introduction
operators (either 3GPP or 3GPP2 based) have a unique of new services, such as High Definition Video (or HD TV) and
opportunity to evolve their existing infrastructure to next- multi-user interactive gaming:
generation wireless networks. As depicted in Figure 1, these
networks will deliver their subscriber’s Quality of Experience • HD TV requires between 10 to 20 Mbits/s bandwidth (18
(QoE) expectations in terms of real-time services such as Voice Mbits/s for example with Blue Ray standard), which is higher
Over IP, Multi-User Gaming Over IP, High Definition Video On than current HSPA capabilities.
Demand and Live TV. This will also continue to improve the • Interactive multi-user gaming is extremely sensitive to latency:
quality of delivery for all legacy applications (e-mail, internet the very low latency offered by LTE (less than 10ms versus
browsing, MMS, etc.). 60ms with HSPA) is key for fighting games, car races, or any
action games involving a large number of simultaneous users.
Figure 1: Mobile Services and Throughput Trends
In addition, the higher throughput offered will enable high-
resolution video games.

Resolution Lastly LTE will play a key role in the development of N-uple
10 Multi-user Multimedia
Mbps Interactive services at home (IP TV, Internet, telephone, mobile…services
bundle). We are observing an increasing need for broadband

1 Collaborative
Music Applications
Office Video
access at home and the same will apply to mobile services for two
main reasons. Firstly, as subscribers become used to higher speeds


at home, they will require the same quality of service when they are
kbps SMS Web/
mobile so as to benefit from a seamless experience. The second
reason is the possibility of offering higher bandwidth in remote
Kbps 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
areas where ADSL throughput is no longer sufficient and fibre
‘Peak rates are the maximum under a perfect RF condition. Actual rates may be much lower depending on RF conditions’
may not be economically viable compared with LTE. In those areas
the same LTE infrastructure will deliver mobile services as well as
broadband access at home, bringing economies of scale.
Capacity Requirements
What Is LTE Technology?
In order to prepare for wireless operator’s future needs and to
With the recent introduction of HSDPA and EV-DO Rev A, we
ensure the competitiveness of their mobile systems over the next
have observed a significant increase in mobile data traffic, with
ten years, a progression of network architecture, as well as an
some operators quadrupling their Packet Switched traffic in one
evolution of the radio interface is required. This is being evaluated
year. At this growth rate, and with the proliferation of new
in the 3GPP System Architecture Evolution (SAE), Long Term
applications on the network, cells in hot spots will be quickly
Evolution (LTE) and HSPA Evolution (HSPA+) Study Items. From
saturated and the network will require densification in these
a network deployment perspective it is likely that HSPA
overloaded areas. This can be delivered by using a higher capacity
enhancements will be introduced first followed by the progression
solution such as LTE.
to a radio interface (LTE).
To illustrate this mobile traffic growth, Figure 2 provides the yearly
LTE will allow operators to achieve even greater peak throughputs
forecast for a typical Mobile Operator in a Western country of 60
in higher spectrum bandwidth, and to benefit from greater
million inhabitants.
capacity at a reduced cost. Initial deployments are targeted for
Figure 2: Mobile Data Traffic Growth 2009.
Mobile Data Traffic in Gigabits per year (Source : CSFB) LTE characteristics include:
Typical Operator in W-E country of 60 M population
• Peak LTE throughputs (high spectral efficiency)
6 000 000

5 000 000
− DL: 100 Mb/s SISO (Single Input Single Output);
4 000 000 − 173 Mb/s 2x2 MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output);
3 000 000 − 326 Mb/s 4x4 MIMO; for 20 MHz
2 000 000 − UL: 58 Mb/s 16 QAM
1 000 000
− 86 Mb/s 64 QAM (based on 1 Tx UE)
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
• Increased Spectrum efficiency over Release 6 HSPA
− DL: 3-4 times HSDPA for MIMO (2,2)
LTE and Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service − UL: 2-3 times E-DCH for MIMO(1,2)
The Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) enables • Ultra low Latency
multiple users to receive data over the same radio resource. This − less than 10 msec for round-trip delay (RTD) from UE to
creates a more efficient approach for delivering content, such as server
video programming, to which multiple users have subscriptions. − Reduced call setup times (50-100ms)
However, with HSPA, MBMS does not match the capabilities of
− =>wired user experience
broadcasting and/or broadband wireless technologies (such as
DVB-H or WiMAX). With an OFDM/SC-FDMA (Orthogonal • Capacity per cell
Frequency Division Multiplex /Single-Carrier Frequency Division − 200 users for 5 MHz, 400 users in larger spectrum
Multiple Access) system, LTE provides the possibility of operating allocations
MBMS in a single frequency network mode where significant
• Flexible spectrum use maximizes flexibility
performance gains (up to five times existing capacity) can be
achieved without additional receiver complexity. LTE will − 1.4, 3/3.2, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz
consequently dramatically enhance MBMS, and match DVB-H − All frequencies of IMT-2000: 450 MHz to 2.6 GHz
and WiMAX, capabilities.
LTE is being developed by the 3GPP (3rd generation Partnership
Project) standards body that is also responsible for GSM and W-
Reducing the Total Cost of Ownership CDMA. LTE standards are currently being developed and are
Another key driver behind LTE is the reduction of the cost per expected to be finalized in early 2008.
byte, which is expected to decrease by a factor of six compared with In order to reach this performance, LTE will make the best use of
HSPA today (see Figure 3). This cost reduction is derived from the latest technologies on the market. For radio, a new modulation
network simplification, with flat IP architecture and the enhanced scheme is being used based on OFDM, and the latest antenna
capacity delivered by the new radio technologies implemented by technologies, such as MIMO will be deployed. For the core
LTE. network, an IP based network topology will also be introduced to
Figure 3: Reduced TCO with LTE considerably reduce network complexity.

Cost per bit Evolution (*)

LTE uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
(OFDMA) on the downlink, which is better suited than W-CDMA
*Source: for achieving high peak data rates in high spectrum bandwidth.
Analysis Research, 2006 On the uplink LTE uses SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency
Division Multiple Access), a technology that provides advantages
in power efficiency and resulting terminal battery life versus a pure
OFDM approach.

About Alcatel-Lucent
Alcatel-Lucent (Euronext Paris and NYSE: ALU) provides solutions that enable service providers, enterprises and governments worldwide, to deliver voice, data and video
communication services to end-users. As a leader in fixed, mobile and converged broadband networking, IP technologies, applications, and services, Alcatel-Lucent offers the
end-to-end solutions that enable compelling communications services for people at home, at work and on the move. For more information, visit Alcatel-Lucent on the Internet:
http://www.alcatel-lucent.com. Copyright © 2008 by Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved. October, 2008
MIMO refers to a technique that employs multiple transmit and • Alcatel-Lucent is committed to LTE with early involvement in
receive antennas, often in combination with multiple radios and 3GPP / LTE specifications, leadership in the LTE/SAE Trial
parallel data streams. This results in numerous data paths Initiative and has LTE trials planned as early as Q4 2007
effectively operating in parallel and, through appropriate decoding, (Lab), Field trials in 2008 and Commercial trials in 2009
a multiplicative gain in throughput. For example, with a 2X2 • Alcatel-Lucent’s technological leadership in LTE is based on
MIMO system, a gain of a factor of 2 is expected on the peak our OFDM know-how with WiMAX, MIMO expertise, and
throughput. leadership in the flat IP architecture with Base Station Router
LTE also requires new network architecture, with the main concept.
functional entities being: the e-node B on the access side, and the • Alcatel-Lucent’s smooth LTE evolution from today’s W-
Serving (S) and Packet Data Network (PDN) gateways and the CDMA/HSPA networks is based upon our UTRAN
Mobile Management Entity (MME) in the core network, as equipment ready to evolve to support LTE and on our strong
depicted in relationships with chipset and terminals suppliers.
Figure 4. • Alcatel-Lucent is strongly committed to CDMA operators
willing to implement LTE, by providing a smooth evolution
Figure 4: LTE Architecture of their networks to LTE, and by delivering LTE / EV-DO
Call Server
roaming/interworking from day one.
servers • The smooth evolution from both CDMA and UMTS is
eNode B MME
enabled by a focus on:
Service IP
− Integrated OAM solutions
IP transport backbone
X2 User Database
eNode B
− Inter-technology roaming leadership
3GLTE S/P GW − Reuse of existing investments i.e. BTS assets
− Multi-standard Base stations
LTE is a pure packet system, with no support for legacy circuit-
switched voice/data. This shift allows a significant simplification of − Integrated transport capabilities
the network, reducing the number of nodes and improving − And more
operational efficiencies. This network simplification also removes • Alcatel-Lucent and LGE have engaged a strategic cooperation
any bottlenecks from the system, ensuring the network on LTE, focused on ensuring networks, devices, and
permanently runs at peak efficiency. associated services are in lock-step and up-to-speed for
Figure 5 shows the impacts of this simplification comparing commercial operation with quality of performance and user
traditional UMTS elements and LTE nodes, and provides a experience assured. Alcatel-Lucent understands a strong
macroscopic mapping of User Plane and Control Plane between ecosystem is critical to secure & accelerate the launch of LTE.
nodes. Jointly with device manufacturers such as LGE, Alcatel-
Lucent has developed ecosystem workgroups and participates
Figure 5: UMTS-LTE Node Mapping in various multimedia forums to identify the best-in-class
applications aimed at supporting the successful launch of
EPC - Network Simplification LTE
C-plane U-plane C-plane U-plane
• Alcatel-Lucent’s end to end solution for LTE includes, but is
GGSN not limited to:
− Access Gateways
SGSN MME − Next Generation Core solutions (IMS)
− Market leading network services
− Application and subscriber data solutions
− IP transport solutions
NodeB eNode B
• Alcatel-Lucent’s value proposition for LTE is comprised of 5
In contrast to UMTS architecture, no Radio Network Controller key components as shown in Figure 6 below.
(RNC) is required: the RNC’s functions are collapsed into the Figure 6: Alcatel-Lucent LTE Value Proposition
eNodeB. On the Core network side, the Mobility Management
Entity (MME) assumes the role of the SGSN for the control plane, 4G Leadership (LTE, Wi MAX) Technical leadership

and the serving and PDN gateways ensure the role of user plane, ƒCommon technology
ƒCommon R&D
ƒOFDM know-how with WiMAX
ƒMIMO (We invented it! Fir st proposal 2000 )
routing user data traffic to the network edge, replacing the GGSN. ƒCommon platforms ƒF lat IP archit ecture with BSR + # 1 i n IP access
ƒLeader in wireless transmission

Ca ll

Strong Ecosystem
Se rv e rs
e No de B

Hig h a va ila b ility Me dia

Ga te w ay s
IP B a c kb o n e

ƒStrategic partnership with Appli & Termina l
players to secure LTE Ecosystem (e.g. LGE)
Involved in the early stages of defining 3GPP/LTE specifications, ƒEcosystem growing beyond traditional devices
ƒEnhanced broadcast solution (#1 in IP TV)
and benefiting from a broad experience acquired over many years
Smart Evolution Commitment to LTE
on wireless and mobile broadband system deployments in similar
ƒ Evolution path from 3GGP/3GPP2 to LTE ƒTria ls planned as soon as Q4 2007
technologies, Alcatel-Lucent is in a unique position to propose an Multiple frequency band availability ƒLeading LTE/ SAE TI for early validation
ƒ SDR t echnology
efficient and easy-to-deploy LTE solution from day one: ƒ Seamless H/O wit h CDMA and Multiple RAT
ƒCollaborating with N GMN since 2005
ƒMany approved items in 3GPP

About Alcatel-Lucent
Alcatel-Lucent (Euronext Paris and NYSE: ALU) provides solutions that enable service providers, enterprises and governments worldwide, to deliver voice, data and video
communication services to end-users. As a leader in fixed, mobile and converged broadband networking, IP technologies, applications, and services, Alcatel-Lucent offers the
end-to-end solutions that enable compelling communications services for people at home, at work and on the move. For more information, visit Alcatel-Lucent on the Internet:
http://www.alcatel-lucent.com. Copyright © 2008 by Alcatel-Lucent. All Rights Reserved. October, 2008