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АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Для т е х , к т о в п у т и
Разговорный курс. Средний уровень
Английский язык Для тех, к т о 6 п у т и . Разговорный
курс. Средний уровень. - М: ООО «ТД «Издательство
Мир книги», 2007. - 68 с. У Вас уже е с т ь основные знания по английскому языку, и 8ы х о т и т е б о л ь ш е в ы у ч и т ь
и больше з н а т ь ?
Разговорный курс PONS вклкючает 12 диалогов и интервью с англичанами и
Шоу Теса, Споутон Инге
а м е р и к а н ц а м и . После к а ж д о г о диалога и и н т е р в ь ю е с т ь у п р а ж н е н и я , к о т о р ы е Вам
помогут:
ISBN 978-5-486-02459-7
• легче п о н и м а т ь р а з г о в о р н ы й английский
Данное пособие Всемирно известной фирмы PONS, разработанное • п о в т о р и т ь грамматику
на основе оригинального немецкого издания, п о м о ж е т в овладении • р а с ш и р и т ь свой словарный запас

разговорным английским языком. Комплект включает 2 ayguoCD с • улучшить произношение

записью интервью/диалогов на самые популярные разговорные т е м ы , а


т а к ж е брошюру с т е к с т а м и , упражнениями и к р а т к и м англо-русским Как у ч и т ь язык с PONS?
словариком. Пособие позволяет наиболее эффективно использовать • П р о с л у ш а й т е несколько раз и н т е р в ь ю / д и а л о г и на к о м п а к т - д и с к а х - д о м а , в
время в п у т и для закрепления разговорных навыков, повторения поезде, в м а ш и н е . . . Важно, ч т о б ы в ы н е ч и т а л и т е к с т ы в к н и г е . Так В ы

английской г р а м м а т и к и и пополнения словарного запаса. наиболее о п т и м а л ь н о б у д е т е т р е н и р о в а т ь с я в у м е н и и с л у ш а т ь и п о н и м а т ь .


Если в ы н е п о й м е т е несколько слов п р и п е р в о м п р о с л у ш и в а н и и т е к с т а , э т о
естественно. Запаситесь терпением. Если после продолжительного
прослушивания вы столкнётесь с трудностями, прочитайте тексты.
(Трудные слова и выражения п е р е в е д е н ы в п р и л о ж е н и и , д а н н о м в к о н ц е к н и г и ) .
Подписано в печать 08.10.2007 г. ф о р м а т 70 х 100/32. Печать офсетная.
Бумага офсетная. Усл. печ. л. 2,90. Тираж 7000 экз. • Принимайте активное участие: говорите, когда вам это предлагают
с д е л а т ь в заданиях к у п р а ж н е н и я м .

• У ч и т е небольшими порциями, но ч а с т о и с о с р е д о т о ч и в ш и с ь .

С помощью и н ф о р м а ц и и в серых к в а д р а т и к а х в ы б ы с т р о н а й д ё т е п р а в и л ь н ы й
к о м п а к т - д и с к и нужную ф о н о г р а м м у .

Желаем успеха в изучении языка!



Указания для р а б о т ы с у п р а ж н е н и я м и
и грамматические термины
A n s w e r t h e questions. Ответьте на вопросы. 1/1 C a t h y is an A m e r i c a n w h o has h a d a l o t of e x p e r i e n c e w o r k i n g in E n g l a n d a n d

Ask questions. З а д а й т е Вопросы. t h e U n i t e d States, s o she i s w e l l q u a l i f i e d t o m a k e c o m p a r i s o n s .

D o e s t h i s m e a n ...? О з н а ч а е т л и э т о ...? Tessa asks h e r a b o u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o u n t r i e s .

Example: Пример:
Let's l i s t e n to ... Д а в а й т е п о с л у ш а е м ...
1 AN AMERICAN WORKING IN LONDON
Let's l o o k a t . . . Д а в а й т е п о с м о т р и м ...
Let's p r a c t i s e ... Д а в а й т е п о у п р а ж н я е м с я ... INTERVIEW
M a k e similar sentences. Составьте подобные предложения.
Cathy: I w o r k as a p r o d u c t i o n assistant in m a g a z i n e p r o g r a m m e s , BBC r a d i o . I w o r k
N o w it's y o u r t u r n . Теперь Ваша о ч е р е д ь .
very closely w i t h producers and editors, helping t h e m to organize pro-
N o w y o u try. Теперь Вы п о п р о б у й т е . .
grammes.
Repeat the following Повторите следующие
Tessa: H o w d o e s i t c o m p a r e w o r k i n g a t t h e BBC i n L o n d o n w i t h w o r k i n g i n A m e r -
questions. Вопросы.
ica?
Say t h e w h o l e sentence. С к а ж и т е предложение целиком.
Cathy: M y w o r k e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e States t e n d e d t o b e i n very f o r m a l e n v i r o n m e n t s .
Use t h e w o r d s w e g i v e y o u . И с п о л ь з у й т е данные н а м и слова.
A n d I r e m e m b e r c o m i n g b a c k here t o w o r k a n d f e e l i n g t h a t i t w a s m u c h
m o r e liberal. People w e r e n o t s o c o n c e r n e d a b o u t w h a t y o u w o r e . B u t h e r e ,
adjective Прилагательное
I t h i n k casual c l o t h e s , j e a n s , t h i n g s like t h a t , t r a c k suits, r u n n i n g s h o e s , t h a t
comparison Сравнение
s o r t o f t h i n g , are m u c h m o r e a c c e p t a b l e i n British c o m p a n i e s aside f r o m t h e
continuous П р о д о л ж е н н о е (время)
t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s like law.
conversation Разговор
Tessa: Are there any o t h e r differences t h a t y o u noticed between America and
exercise Упражнение
Britain?
expression Выражение
Cathy: Um, yes, I t h i n k t h e w a y t h e y a n s w e r t h e t e l e p h o n e o v e r t h e r e s o u n d s like it's
grammar Грамматика
r e a d f r o m a s c r i p t o n t h e w h o l e . T h e y ' r e usually t o l d t o a n s w e r t h e p h o n e
intonation Интонация
w i t h the name of the company, f o l l o w e d by their name, f o l l o w e d by " H o w
irregular Неправильный (глагол)
can I h e l p y o u ? " . For e x a m p l e , t h e y m i g h t b e t o l d t o say " G o o d m o r n i n g ,
negative sentence Отрицательное предложение
S o u t h W e s t Travel A g e n c y , M e l i n d a s p e a k i n g , h o w c a n I h e l p y o u ? " - w h e r e ­
preposition Предлог
a s i n t h e U K y o u t e n d t o j u s t g e t s o m e o n e saying " S o u t h W e s t Travel
present Н а с т о я щ е е (Время)
Agency".
pronunciation Произношение
Tessa: D o y o u t h i n k it's easier w o r k i n g i n t h e UK?
simple past П р о с т о е п р о ш е д ш е е (Время)
Cathy: O n t h e w h o l e I've a l w a y s f e l t m o r e relaxed i n British c o m p a n i e s . I've w o r k e d
stress p a t t e r n (модель) у д а р е н и я
i n t h e m u s i c business, a n d I've w o r k e d i n f i l m s a n d I've w o r k e d i n b r o a d ­
syllable Слог
casting. A n d I f i n d t h a t on t h e w h o l e , c o m p a n i e s such as those t e n d to be
verb Глагол
m o r e relaxed a b o u t dress, a b o u t even t i m e - k e e p i n g , t h e h o u r s are m o r e flex­
ible. You w o r k l a t e , b u t e q u a l l y y o u c a n c o m e i n l a t e , w h i c h suits m y w a y o f
l i v i n g . I'm n o t a n i n e - t o - f i v e p e r s o n , w h i c h i s t h e t y p e o f t h i n g y o u g e t m o r e
o f t e n i n t h e States. For e x a m p l e , a lot o f A m e r i c a n c o m p a n i e s s t a r t w o r k a t
eight-thirty a n d they expect y o u to w o r k until five, and an hour lunch break
is q u i t e rare.
EXERCISES • clothes y o u w e a r in your free time?
• elegant, f o r m a l clothes?
1/2 Let's l i s t e n t o C a t h y a g a i n a n d c o m p a r e h e r A m e r i c a n p r o n u n c i a t i o n w i t h clothes y o u w e a r in y o u r free t i m e
British p r o n u n c i a t i o n . casual: informal

" I w o r k v e r y closely w i t h producers a n d editors." Example:


I w o r k very closely w i t h p r o d u c e r s a n d e d i t o r s . A l o t o f p e o p l e like t o w e a r casual c l o t h e s a t t h e w e e k e n d .

"... a s i d e f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f i e l d s l i k e l a w . " "I'm not a nine-to-five person, which is the type of thing y o u get more often
A s i d e f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l fields like l a w . in the States."
Repeat: a n i n e - t o - f i v e p e r s o n
"Good morning!"
Is t h i s :
Good morning!
• an a v e r a g e , o r d i n a r y p e r s o n ?
" I ' v e a l w a y s f e l t m o r e r e l a x e d i n British c o m p a n i e s . " • a person w i t h regular w o r k i n g hours?
I've a l w a y s f e l t m o r e relaxed i n British c o m p a n i e s . a person w i t h regular w o r k i n g hours
a nine-to-five person: a person w i t h regular w o r k i n g hours
"A lot of A m e r i c a n companies start w o r k at eight-thirty."
A l o t o f A m e r i c a n c o m p a n i e s start w o r k a t e i g h t - t h i r t y . Example:
She loves s t a r t i n g w o r k a t v a r i o u s t i m e s ; she's n o t a n i n e - t o - f i v e p e r s o n .
N o w see i f y o u u n d e r s t o o d s o m e o f t h e w o r d s she uses:
" Y o u w o r k l a t e , b u t e q u a l l y y o u c a n c o m e i n l a t e , w h i c h s u i t s m y w a y o f liv-
"People w e r e not so concerned a b o u t w h a t y o u w o r e . "
ing."
Repeat: c o n c e r n e d
Repeat: t o s u i t
Does this m e a n :
Does t h i s m e a n :
• i n t e r e s t e d or w o r r i e d ?
• to be the right t h i n g for someone?
• shocked?
• to be bad for someone?
interested or w o r r i e d
to be the right thing for someone
concerned: interested or worried
i t suits m e : it's t h e r i g h t t h i n g f o r m e
Example:
Example:
She's very c o n c e r n e d a b o u t her h e a l t h . R e p e a t . g e t t i n g u p late
G e t t i n g u p l a t e suits m e .
N o w m a k e similar sentences w i t h " c o n c e r n e d a b o u t " :
N o w m a k e similar s e n t e n c e s :
her f a t h e r
She's v e r y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t h e r f a t h e r . g o i n g on long holidays
her f u t u r e G o i n g o n l o n g h o l i d a y s suits m e .
She's v e r y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t h e r f u t u r e .
w e a r i n g casual c l o t h e s
W e a r i n g casual clothes suits m e .
" B u t h e r e , I t h i n k casual clothes ... a r e m u c h m o r e a c c e p t a b l e in British c o m -
H o w d o e s English g r a m m a r s u i t y o u ?
panies ..."
Ooh!
Repeat: c a s u a l c l o t h e s
Let's t r y s o m e , H e l e n a !
Are these:
1/4 Do you enjoy visiting f o r e i g n countries?
I n t h e n e x t r e c o r d i n g w e g o t o t h e F l a m i n g o Travel A g e n c y , w h e r e a c u s t o m e r i s ask-
ing a b o u t flights to India.
I f y o u listen carefully, y o u w i l l n o t i c e t h a t t h e t r a v e l a g e n t speaks w i t h a n I n d i a n a c c e n t .

2 THE FLAMINGO TRAVEL AGENCY


CONVERSATION
Customer: Good morning.
Agent: Morning.
Customer: I believe y o u specialize in f l i g h t s to D e l h i a n d K a s h m i r ?
Agent: Yes, w e d o f l i g h t s t o India a n d Kashmir.
Customer: G o o d , e r ... w e l l , I w a n t t o b o o k a f l i g h t f o r D e l h i i n t h e m i d d l e o f Sep-
tember. Can you arrange that?
Agent: Sure w e c a n . W e have g o t a n A i r France f l i g h t w h i c h w e r e c o m m e n d t o
travel t o D e l h i .
Customer: C a n y o u t e l l m e ( t h e cost) h o w m u c h t h e f l i g h t w i l l cost r e t u r n ?
Agent: It will w o r k o u t a r o u n d £ 4 0 0 return to Delhi a n d a f u r t h e r c o n n e c t i o n to
K a s h m i r w i l l b e a t e x t r a cost.
Customer: I see, a n d h o w l o n g d o e s t h e f l i g h t t a k e ?
Agent: T h e f l y i n g h o u r s [is] a r o u n d 9 h o u r s a n d t h e n y o u t a k e a b r e a k a n d t h e n
c o n n e c t a o n e - h o u r f l i g h t t o Kashmir.
Customer: I see, er ... c a n y o u a r r a n g e a c c o m m o d a t i o n in Delhi?
Agent: Yes w e c a n , w e c a n g i v e y o u a c c o m m o d a t i o n i n D e l h i a s w e l l a s i n Srina-
gar on the houseboats.
Customer: O h g o o d , e r ... w e l l c o u l d y o u m a k e a r e s e r v a t i o n f o r t h e f l i g h t ?
Agent: Yes, we can confirm the flight, hotel and everything - whatever you
require.
Customer: T h a n k y o u very m u c h .
Agent: You're welcome.

EXERCISES
1/5 So, w h y n o t f l y t o K a s h m i r a n d s p e n d a h o l i d a y o n a h o u s e b o a t ?
B u t f i r s t , let's practise s o m e English.

"I w a n t to book a flight for Delhi in the middle of September."


Repeat: b o o k a f l i g h t
To b o o k . Does this m e a n :
• to go on a flight?
• to reserve s o m e t h i n g ? Example:
to reserve s o m e t h i n g The a c c o m m o d a t i o n at t h e hotel w a s excellent.
If y o u b o o k a f l i g h t , y o u reserve a seat on a p a r t i c u l a r f l i g h t . Y o u c a n also b o o k a seat
" W e can c o n f i r m t h e flight, hotel a n d e v e r y t h i n g -
in a t r a i n or a t a b l e in a r e s t a u r a n t .
w h a t e v e r you require."
Practise b o o k i n g i n d i f f e r e n t places. Repeat: c o n f i r m
T o c o n f i r m . Does t h i s m e a n :
Example: • to sell s o m e t h i n g ?
a table for f o u r people • to say t h a t s o m e t h i n g is all r i g h t ?
I'd l i k e t o b o o k a t a b l e f o r f o u r p e o p l e . to say t h a t s o m e t h i n g is all r i g h t

N o w you try: t o c o n f i r m : t o say t h a t s o m e t h i n g i s all r i g h t

a hotel r o o m Example:

I'd l i k e t o b o o k a h o t e l r o o m . The travel a g e n t c o n f i r m e d m y hotel r o o m f o r next w e e k .

a h o u s e b o a t in K a s h m i r
I'd l i k e t o b o o k a h o u s e b o a t i n K a s h m i r . 1/6 Let's r e t u r n t o t h e F l a m i n g o Travel A g e n c y .
H o w l o n g i s t h e f l y i n g t i m e f r o m Delhi t o K a s h m i r ?
" W e h a v e g o t a n A i r France f l i g h t w h i c h w e r e c o m m e n d . "
"... a o n e - h o u r f l i g h t t o K a s h m i r . "
Repeat: r e c o m m e n d
It's o n e h o u r .
To r e c o m m e n d . Does this m e a n :
A f l i g h t w h i c h lasts o n e h o u r is a o n e - h o u r f l i g h t .
• to say t h a t s o m e t h i n g is g o o d ?
• to say t h a t s o m e t h i n g is b a d ? So, i n s t e a d o f s a y i n g : " a j o u r n e y o f six h o u r s " y o u c a n say
to say t h a t s o m e t h i n g is g o o d "a six-hour j o u r n e y " .

Example: Here " s i x - h o u r " i s u s e d t o describe " j o u r n e y " .


I can r e c o m m e n d t h e n e w restaurant. W h e n w e use i t like t h i s , i t loses t h e " s " a t t h e e n d o f t h e w o r d " h o u r " .
Repeat. So, a h o l i d a y of f o u r w e e k s is ...?
a four-week holiday
N o w you try:
n e w travel agency If it takes t w o minutes to w a l k f r o m t h e hotel to t h e beach,
I can r e c o m m e n d t h e n e w t r a v e l agency. it's ...?
a two-minute walk
n e w airline
I can r e c o m m e n d t h e n e w airline. A n d a girl w h o is f o u r t e e n years o l d is ...?
a f o u r t e e n - y e a r - o l d girl
"Can y o u arrange accommodation in Delhi?"
Repeat: a c c o m m o d a t i o n Did you notice h o w t h e customer used different ways of asking questions?
A c c o m m o d a t i o n . Does this m e a n :
She asked d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s , f o r e x a m p l e :
• a place to stay?
• transport? "... and h o w long does t h e flight take?"
a place to stay Repeat: H o w l o n g d o e s t h e f l i g h t t a k e ?
a c c o m m o d a t i o n : a p l a c e t o stay
B u t p e o p l e o f t e n f i n d d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s i m p o l i t e , s o t h e y use q u e s t i o n s w i t h " c a n " o r 1/7 Travelling by p l a n e n o w a d a y s c a n s o m e t i m e s be q u i t e a p r o b l e m . Tessa speaks
" c o u l d y o u tell m e " . t o A n n a b o u t her e x p e r i e n c e s a t H e a t h r o w a i r p o r t w h e n she w e n t o n h o l i d a y t o S p a i n .
Example:
" C a n y o u tell m e h o w m u c h t h e f l i g h t w i l l cost r e t u r n ? "
R e p e a t : C a n y o u t e l l m e h o w m u c h t h e f l i g h t w i l l cost? 3 FLYING FROM HEATHROW
N o w it's y o u r t u r n : INTERVIEW
Y o u ' r e in a t r a v e l a g e n c y . Ann: I w e n t to Spain a couple of w e e k s a g o ; I w a n t e d s o m e w i n t e r sunshine. I w a s
First practise a s k i n g d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s : g o i n g d o w n t h e H i g h Street a n d I n o t i c e d i n t h e w i n d o w o f a t r a v e l a g e n t a
g o o d p a c k a g e deal t o B a r c e l o n a , i n S p a i n . I w e n t inside a n d I w a s a b l e t o p u t
Ask h o w long the flight takes.
d o w n a £ 5 0 deposit on a £ 2 0 0 package, w h i c h included a return flight to
H o w long does the flight take?
Barcelona a n d a h o t e l .

A n d h o w m u c h t h e f l i g h t w i l l cost. Tessa: D i d y o u h a v e a n y delays t o t h e f l i g h t ?


H o w m u c h w i l l t h e f l i g h t cost? Ann: Yes, in f a c t , I d i d , a l t h o u g h n o t as m u c h as t h e delays p e o p l e h a v e b e e n hav-
i n g d u r i n g t h e s u m m e r m o n t h s every year. I w a s p r o b a b l y d e l a y e d b y a b o u t
N o w practise p o l i t e q u e s t i o n s w i t h " C a n y o u tell m e . . . " : t h r e e h o u r s all i n all. I c h e c k e d i n o n t i m e a t t h e c h e c k - i n d e s k , b u t I w a s h e l d
u p g o i n g t h r o u g h p a s s p o r t c o n t r o l , j u s t b y sheer v o l u m e o f t h e q u e u e s . A n d
Ask h o w long the flight takes.
t h e n t h e r e w e r e e x t r a security checks o n e v e r y b o d y , o n o u r b a g s , t h e y f r i s k e d
Can y o u tell m e h o w long t h e flight takes?
us, a n d a g a i n t h a t c r e a t e d l o n g q u e u e s .
A n d h o w m u c h i t will cost. Then I finally g o t t h r o u g h into t h e departure lounge, and I t h o u g h t w e l l ,
C a n y o u tell m e h o w m u c h i t w i l l cost? I should be t a k i n g off in a b o u t an hour, a n d t h e n on t h e m o n i t o r I s a w a notice
flash u p f o r t h e f l i g h t t h a t , i n fact, w e w e r e g o i n g t o b e delayed a n o t h e r t w o
D i d y o u n o t i c e t h e w a y t h e v o i c e rises a n d falls i n q u e s t i o n s ?
h o u r s , s o I h a d t o k i n d o f pass t h e t i m e a n d I w e n t a n d I b o u g h t s o m e d r i n k
"Can you arrange that?" a n d I b o u g h t some cigarettes a n d t h e n I b r o w s e d t h r o u g h t h e p e r f u m e
The voice goes u p . c o u n t e r a n d a t least t h a t passed t h e t i m e a l i t t l e , b u t i t i s p r e t t y t e d i o u s hav-
Repeat t h e f o l l o w i n g questions w i t h t h e same i n t o n a t i o n : ing to w a i t so long.
Can w e m e e t t o m o r r o w ? I t h o u g h t t h e flight, in fact, w o u l d be f r o m G a t w i c k , because that's normally
Can w e have lunch t o g e t h e r ? w h e r e charter flights go f r o m . But, in fact, this particular o n e w a s f r o m
H e a t h r o w a n d it is a c t u a l l y a very, very busy a i r p o r t ; it's o n e of t h e busiest air-
Listen t o t h e i n t o n a t i o n o f a q u e s t i o n w i t h " h o w " :
ports in t h e w o r l d . So I w a s n ' t surprised that, in fact, we w e r e delayed. It
"... and h o w long does the flight take?" seems t o b e s t a n d a r d n o w t h a t y o u ' r e d e l a y e d i n air t r a v e l .
T h e v o i c e g o e s d o w n . I t o f t e n falls a t t h e e n d o f a q u e s t i o n w i t h " h o w " . Tessa: But you had a g o o d holiday?
Ann: O h , I h a d a w o n d e r f u l t i m e - I'd do it a g a i n !
Repeat t h e f o l l o w i n g questions w i t h t h e same i n t o n a t i o n :
H o w m u c h d o e s t h e f l i g h t cost?
H o w far is India?
Listen t o Tessa's q u e s t i o n :
"Did y o u have any delays to t h e flight?"
1/8 A n n had a w o n d e r f u l holiday even t h o u g h she h a d to w a i t at t h e airport for a
Repeat: d e l a y
l o n g t i m e . Let's l o o k a t s o m e o f t h e t h i n g s she s a i d .
A delay. D o e s t h i s m e a n :
"... a n d I noticed in t h e w i n d o w of a travel a g e n t a g o o d package deal to
• h a v i n g t o o m a n y passengers?
Barcelona, in Spain." • a r r i v i n g or leaving late?
Repeat: p a c k a g e d e a l arriving or leaving late
A package deal. Does this m e a n : a d e l a y : a r r i v i n g or l e a v i n g late
• a holiday offer w i t h transport and a c c o m m o d a t i o n ?
• a cheap flight offer? So, i f y o u r p l a n e leaves l a t e , y o u h a v e ...
a holiday offer w i t h transport and accommodation a delay
a package deal: a holiday offer w i t h transport a n d a c c o m m o d a t i o n
I f y o u are late a r r i v i n g s o m e w h e r e y o u c a n say:
Example: "I was delayed.".
Greece
"So I w a s n ' t surprised t h a t , in fact, we w e r e d e l a y e d . "
T h e y have a g o o d package deal to Greece.
Repeat: I w a s d e l a y e d .
N o w y o u m a k e a similar sentence w i t h " S t o c k h o l m " :
Example:
They have a good package deal to Stockholm. T h e r e w a s a s t r i k e at t h e a i r p o r t , so I w a s d e l a y e d .

" . . . a £200 package w h i c h included a return flight." N o w m a k e similar s e n t e n c e s :


Repeat, a r e t u r n f l i g h t
A r e t u r n f l i g h t . Does t h i s m e a n : There w a s an accident.
There w a s an accident, so I w a s delayed.
• a non-stop flight?
• a f l i g h t to s o m e w h e r e a n d back again? There w a s t o o m u c h traffic.
a flight to s o m e w h e r e a n d back again There w a s t o o much traffic, so I w a s delayed.
return flight: a flight to s o m e w h e r e and back again
"Then I finally got through into the departure lounge."
Y o u c o u l d also b u y a o n e - w a y f l i g h t , o f c o u r s e .
Repeat: d e p a r t u r e l o u n g e
Be careful to p r o n o u n c e t h e " t " at the end of " f l i g h t " . D e p a r t u r e l o u n g e . Is t h i s :
Listen t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o s e n t e n c e s : • a p l a c e to w a i t b e f o r e t a k e - o f f ?
I'd like a f l i g h t to C h i c a g o . • a p l a c e w h e r e y o u c a n leave y o u r suitcases?
I'd like t o f l y t o C h i c a g o . a place to w a i t b e f o r e t a k e - o f f
Repeat: departure lounge: a w a i t i n g r o o m at an airport
I'd l i k e a f l i g h t t o C h i c a g o .
Example:
I'd l i k e t o f l y t o C h i c a g o .
B e f o r e t h e p l a n e leaves, y o u c a n w a i t i n t h e d e p a r t u r e l o u n g e .
But flying is n o t always w i t h o u t problems.
W h i l e y o u ' r e w a i t i n g , y o u c a n listen t o s o m e g r a m m a r .

1/9 Let's l o o k a t s o m e s i m p l e p a s t f o r m s . T h e r e g u l a r w a y o f f o r m i n g t h e s i m -
ple past i s t o a d d " - d " o r " - e d " t o t h e present f o r m . Listen:

"I w a n t e d some winter sunshine."


S o t h e p a s t f o r m o f w a n t i s ... M a n y English verbs have t w o parts, t h e m a i n v e r b a n d a s h o r t w o r d like " i n " ,
wanted " u p " , " d o w n " , o r " o f f " . Listen t o s o m e o f t h e m f r o m t h e i n t e r v i e w :

"And I noticed in t h e w i n d o w of a travel agent a good package deal to "I checked in on t i m e at t h e check-in desk."
Barcelona, in Spain." Repeat: c h e c k e d i n
T h e past f o r m o f n o t i c e i s ... T o c h e c k i n m e a n s t o s h o w y o u r t i c k e t a t t h e airline desk.
noticed
"... but I w a s held up going t h r o u g h passport control."
B e c a r e f u l w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n t p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e s e past f o r m s . Repeat: I w a s h e l d u p .
Repeat: This m e a n s I h a d t o w a i t , I w a s d e l a y e d .
wanted
"... and I t h o u g h t , w e l l , I should be t a k i n g off in a b o u t
checked
an hour."
browsed
Repeat: t a k e o f f
Did y o u hear t h e three different sounds of t h e endings? to take off: a p l a n e t a k e s o f f w h e n i t leaves t h e a i r p o r t
Wanted, " - i d " , checked, " - t " and browsed, " - d " .
Here are s o m e e x a m p l e s w h e r e t h e " s h o r t w o r d s " f o l l o w i n g t h e v e r b s h a v e b e e n left
A lot of c o m m o n verbs have irregular past f o r m s . o u t . Say t h e w h o l e s e n t e n c e .
For e x a m p l e , t h e p a s t f o r m o f " g o " : Example:
I w e n t to Spain in August. W e c h e c k e d ... o n t i m e .
We checked in on time.
W h a t are t h e p a s t f o r m s o f t h e s e v e r b s ?
Listen t o t h e e x a m p l e : N o w you try:
think
T h e f l i g h t w a s h e l d ... b e c a u s e o f f o g .
thought
T h e flight w a s held up because of f o g .
N o w you try:
T h e p l a n e t o o k ... a n h o u r late.
see The plane t o o k off an hour late.
saw
Can y o u answer t h e f o l l o w i n g questions a b o u t airports?
buy
D o y o u g o t h r o u g h passport control before y o u g o t o t h e check-in desk?
bought
No, you don't.
get Y o u g o t o t h e c h e c k - i n desk b e f o r e y o u g o t h r o u g h p a s s p o r t c o n t r o l .
got
A r e t h e r e a n y s e c u r i t y checks b e f o r e t h e d e p a r t u r e l o u n g e ?
Yes, t h e r e are.
N o w let's l i s t e n t o w h a t A n n d i d a t t h e a i r p o r t : 1/11 Let's b o o k a h o t e l r o o m n o w . W e ' v e c h o s e n o n e f o r y o u i n t h e c e n t r e o f L o n -
d o n . W h i l e w e ' r e w a i t i n g a t t h e r e c e p t i o n desk w e c a n listen t o t h e g u e s t i n f r o n t o f
"I checked in on time at the check-in desk, but I was held up going through
us.
passport control, just by sheer volume of the queues. And then there were
extra security checks on everybody, on our bags. Then I finally got through
into the departure lounge ..."

1/10 i N o w f o r s o m e p r o n u n c i a t i o n p r a c t i c e . L i s t e n : Guest: G o o d m o r n i n g . I'd like t o b o o k a r o o m i n t h e h o t e l , please, f o r n e x t


"... not as much as the delays people have been having during the summer month.
months every year." Receptionist: For n e x t m o n t h ? U m , f o r w h a t d a t e i s it?
Months. C a n y o u say it? Guest: I t h i n k M a r c h 15 a n d 1 6 .

I n English t h e r e are t w o d i f f e r e n t w a y s o f p r o n o u n c i n g " t h " ; Receptionist: O n e m o m e n t , please. I'll j u s t c h e c k t h e availability.


Guest: T h a n k y o u . It's f o r o n e p e r s o n .
Let's h a v e a q u i c k l o o k a t b o t h . Put y o u r t o n g u e b e t w e e n y o u r t e e t h a n d r e p e a t :
thought Receptionist: For o n e p e r s o n ... O K , t h a t ' s n o p r o b l e m . W e have p l e n t y o f r o o m s o n

Heathrow t h a t evening. U m , w h a t type o f r o o m are y o u looking for?

through Guest: Er, w e l l , (a) s i n g l e r o o m , b u t w i t h a d o u b l e b e d , r a t h e r t h a n t w o t w i n

months beds.
Receptionist: O h , t h a t ' s f i n e . W e h a v e a s i n g l e d e luxe r o o m w h i c h has a b i g d o u b l e
That was " t h " . b e d i n . O u r t a r i f f f o r a s i n g l e d e luxe r o o m w o u l d b e £ 1 4 5 , t h a t ' s f o r
o n e evening. That includes just, u m , t h e r o o m f o r one evening, t h a t
N o w try the other way:
i n c l u d e s service c h a r g e a n d VAT.
this
Guest: A n d t h e n b r e a k f a s t is on t o p , is it?
that
Receptionist: Yes, b r e a k f a s t is on t o p of t h a t c h a r g e . English b r e a k f a s t is s e r v e d at
although
£9.25 and continental breakfast is £ 6 . 2 5 .
another
Guest: Fine. W h a t t i m e c a n I c h e c k i n o n t h e e v e n i n g o f t h e 1 5 t h ?
That was " t h " . Receptionist: E v e n i n g o f t h e 1 5 t h , c h e c k - i n t i m e i s a f t e r 1 2 o ' c l o c k obviously, m i d -
day, yes.
A n d n o w b o t h together in one sentence:
Guest: A n d c h e c k o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y - w e l l , t w o days later - w h a t t i m e i s
I think that another three months listening to this would be super! check out?
Receptionist: Check o u t t i m e is before 12 o'clock, ensuring t h a t we can have t h e
rooms in the a f t e r n o o n f o r t h e guests arriving.
Guest: A n d y o u c a n a c c e p t all c r e d i t cards?
Receptionist: Yes, w e a c c e p t all k i n d s o f c r e d i t cards. H o w w o u l d y o u b e p a y i n g ?
Guest: I t w i l l b e o n Visa.
Receptionist: It w i l l be on Visa. C a n I g u a r a n t e e this b o o k i n g by Visa?
Guest: Yes, I'll g i v e y o u m y c a r d n o w i f y o u l i k e .
Receptionist: O K . T h a n k y o u very m u c h . C a n I h a v e t h e n u m b e r ?
Guest: Here y o u g o .
Receptionist: O K , t h a n k y o u . I'll j u s t t a k e a n i m p r i n t o f t h i s . O n e m o m e n t please ...
T h a n k y o u very m u c h . Y o u r r e s e r v a t i o n n u m b e r i s 1 5 0 6 9 , i f y o u ' d like W h a t t i m e c a n I c h e c k in?
to take t h a t as a reference n u m b e r f o r your reservation.
a n d w h a t t i m e y o u c a n leave ...
Guest: T h a t is d e f i n i t e l y g u a r a n t e e d n o w ?
W h a t t i m e can I check o u t ?
Receptionist: T h a t is g u a r a n t e e d by y o u r Visa c a r d , yes.
Guest: T h a n k y o u v e r y m u c h . See y o u o n t h e 1 5 t h . " . . . t h a t includes service c h a r g e a n d VAT."
Receptionist: OK, t h a n k y o u very m u c h . Repeat: V A T
VAT. Is t h i s :
• very a d v a n c e d t e c h n o l o g y ?

EXERCISES • value-added tax?


value-added tax
1/12 Could you follow the conversation?
VAT m e a n s v a l u e - a d d e d t a x . A t a x o n g o o d s a n d services.
W h a t type of room is the guest looking for?
Example:
"Er, w e l l ( a ) s i n g l e r o o m w i t h a d o u b l e b e d r a t h e r t h a n t w o t w i n b e d s . "
D o e s t h e price i n c l u d e VAT?
Repeat: a d o u b l e b e d
Repeat.
A d o u b l e b e d . Is t h i s :
" W e have plenty of rooms on that evening."
• a bed for t w o people?
Repeat: p l e n t y o f r o o m s
• a b e d f o r tall people?
Plenty o f . Does t h i s m e a n :
a bed for t w o people
• not enough?
a double bed: a bed for t w o people
• a lot of?
W e l l , w h a t are t w i n b e d s t h e n ? A r e t h e y :
a lot of
• t w o s i n g l e beds? p l e n t y of: a l o t of
• beds f o r children?
t w o single beds M a k e sentences w i t h " p l e n t y o f " using the w o r d s w e give y o u :

t w i n b e d s : t w o single b e d s Example:
time
N o w listen t o t h e guest's n e x t q u e s t i o n :
I h a v e plenty of t i m e .
" W h a t t i m e can I check in on t h e e v e n i n g of t h e 1 5 t h ? "
Repeat: W h a t t i m e can I c h e c k in? N o w y o u try:
D o y o u r e m e m b e r " c h e c k i n " ? W e ' r e a t t h e h o t e l n o w , b u t w h e r e else d i d s o m e o n e
check in before? energy
I h a v e plenty of energy.
A t t h e a i r p o r t , right.
money
W h a t d i d t h e w o m a n ask a b o u t l e a v i n g t h e h o t e l ?
I h a v e plenty of money.
" W h a t t i m e is check o u t ? "
So, w h e n y o u leave a h o t e l y o u ... W e l l , w i t h all t h a t t i m e , e n e r g y a n d m o n e y y o u s h o u l d b e v e r y h a p p y !
check o u t

a n d w h e n y o u arrive, y o u ...
check in

N o w y o u ask w h a t t i m e y o u c a n arrive ...


1/13 Let's l i s t e n t o s o m e m o r e u s e f u l p h r a s e s f o r h o t e l s : 1/14 Finally, let's d o s o m e p r o n u n c i a t i o n p r a c t i c e .

"I'd like to b o o k a r o o m in t h e hotel, please, for n e x t m o n t h . " Repeat:


R e p e a t : I'd l i k e t o b o o k a r o o m , p l e a s e . single r o o m
hotel
N o w b o o k a r o o m w i t h t w i n beds:
VAT
I'd l i k e t o b o o k a r o o m w i t h t w i n b e d s , p l e a s e .
availability

W h a t else c a n y o u ask f o r ? A r o o m w i t h a b a t h , p e r h a p s ? continental breakfast

I'd l i k e t o b o o k a r o o m w i t h a b a t h , p l e a s e .

N o w ask f o r a r o o m w i t h a c o l o u r TV:
I'd l i k e t o b o o k a r o o m w i t h a c o l o u r TV, p l e a s e .

"English breakfast is served at £9.25 a n d continental breakfast is £6.25."

W h a t ' s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a n English a n d a c o n t i n e n t a l b r e a k f a s t ? A p a r t f r o m t h e
p r i c e , t h a t is!

D o e s a n English b r e a k f a s t h a v e :
• bread, butter and j a m only?
• c o o k e d f o o d , such as eggs a n d bacon?
A n English b r e a k f a s t has m o r e c o o k e d f o o d , such a s e g g s a n d b a c o n .

N o w listen a g a i n f o r s o m e d a t e s a n d expressions o f t i m e . Y o u w i l l n e e d t h e m w h e n
you b o o k hotel rooms or flights:

"... f o r n e x t m o n t h . "
Repeat: f o r n e x t m o n t h

"... o n t h e e v e n i n g o f t h e 1 5 t h . "
Repeat: o n t h e e v e n i n g o f t h e 1 5 t h

"... a n d check o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g day."


Repeat: a n d check o u t t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y

"... w e l l - t w o days later."


Repeat: t w o d a y s l a t e r
1/15 W e ' r e still i n L o n d o n . Tessa s p e a k s t o Steve, w h o i s a m u s i c i a n , a b o u t w h e r e h e EXERCISES
i s l i v i n g n o w a n d w h e r e h e lived b e f o r e .
1/16 Steve's h o u s e really s o u n d s like a " n i c e " place t o live i n !
W h a t d o e s h e like a b o u t it?
5 A HOUSE IN LONDON W h a t d o e s h e really m e a n w h e n h e describes t h i n g s a s " n i c e " ?
Listen a g a i n :
INTERVIEW
"... w i t h a nice f i r e p l a c e "
Steve: I lived in a s m a l l v i l l a g e a b o u t t e n miles o u t s i d e of O x f o r d . It w a s very q u i e t ,
A lovely f i r e p l a c e . Repeat.
v e r y p l e a s a n t , lots of w i d e o p e n spaces. It w a s q u i t e a small h o u s e - f i v e or six
r o o m s , w i t h a large g a r d e n , a n d i t w a s very close t o t h e River T h a m e s . I h a d "... a n d a nice w o o d e n f l o o r "
my o w n b e d r o o m and my brothers had their o w n bedrooms, and there was a A b e a u t i f u l w o o d e n floor. Repeat.
k i t c h e n w h i c h w e a t e i n a s w e l l a s c o o k e d i n , a n d a largish r o o m - k i n d o f
" . . . a nice collection o f b o o k s "
family room.
Tessa: W h e n y o u left, w h e r e d i d y o u g o ? A g o o d c o l l e c t i o n o f b o o k s . Repeat.

Steve: W e l l , I l e f t a n d I m o v e d u p t o L o n d o n a n d I've lived i n v a r i o u s places, b u t n o w Listen a g a i n t o w h a t Steve says a b o u t d i f f e r e n t places:


I live in a l a r g e , o l d , G e o r g i a n h o u s e in t h e c e n t r e of L o n d o n , w h i c h I share
w i t h t w o o t h e r p e o p l e , a n d w e h a v e o u r o w n r o o m s a n d also r o o m s w h i c h "I lived in a small village a b o u t t e n miles outside of O x f o r d . "
w e s h a r e t o o , like t h e k i t c h e n , t h e b a t h r o o m a n d t h e d i n i n g r o o m . " W e l l , I l e f t a n d I m o v e d u p t o L o n d o n a n d I've l i v e d i n v a r i o u s p l a c e s , b u t n o w
T h e h o u s e t h a t I live in is v e r y n e a r C o v e n t G a r d e n a n d S o h o , w h i c h is very I live in a large, o l d , G e o r g i a n h o u s e in t h e centre of L o n d o n . "
nice t o f e e l t h a t y o u are i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e city.
W h e r e d i d h e live first?
Tessa: W h a t kind of things do y o u do in the house?
• in O x f o r d ?
Steve: I n t h e h o u s e ? W e l l , I'm a m u s i c i a n a n d I'm f o r t u n a t e e n o u g h t o have a r o o m
• or in a s m a l l village?
i n t h e b a s e m e n t w h i c h I c a n w o r k i n a n d t h e r e ' s n o p r o b l e m w i t h noise. I n t h e
in a s m a l l v i l l a g e
b a s e m e n t is w h e r e I have my musical instruments, my d r u m s a n d other instru-
H e lived i n a s m a l l v i l l a g e a b o u t t e n miles o u t s i d e o f O x f o r d .
m e n t s . A n d I spend a lot of t i m e there practising a n d inviting musicians d o w n
t o play. Where did he move then?
Tessa: C a n y o u just describe y o u r r o o m to me? • to O x f o r d ?
Steve: W e l l , m y r o o m i s o n t h e f i r s t f l o o r . I t has very n i c e l a r g e French w i n d o w s , • or to L o n d o n ?
w h i c h i n t h e s u m m e r i s v e r y n i c e f o r t h e sun t o s h i n e t h r o u g h . A n d it's a l a r g e to London
r o o m w i t h a nice f i r e p l a c e , very h i g h c e i l i n g a n d a n i c e w o o d e n floor. He moved to London.
Tessa: W h a t kind of things do y o u have in your r o o m ?
W h e r e d o e s h e live n o w ?
Steve: W e l l , I h a v e a t a b l e , p l e n t y of chairs, a very nice h i - f i s y s t e m , a nice c o l l e c t i o n
• near London?
of b o o k s a n d records, a n d as m a n y friends as possible.
• or in t h e centre of London?
in the centre of London
H e lives i n a l a r g e , o l d , G e o r g i a n h o u s e i n t h e c e n t r e o f L o n d o n .
N o w let's t a l k a b o u t t h e d i f f e r e n t r o o m s i n h o u s e s . T h e h o u s e has several r o o m s . W e share t h e m .
T h e h o u s e has several r o o m s w h i c h w e share.
"I'm fortunate enough to have a room in the basement."
Repeat: T h e h o u s e h a s s e v e r a l r o o m s w h i c h w e s h a r e .
Repeat: b a s e m e n t
B a s e m e n t . Is t h i s : N o w y o u j o i n t w o sentences:
• a r o o m at t h e t o p of a h o u s e ?
Example:
• a r o o m at t h e b o t t o m of a h o u s e ?
T h e r e w a s a k i t c h e n . W e a t e i n it.
a r o o m at t h e b o t t o m of a house
There w a s a kitchen, which we ate in.
basement: a r o o m at the b o t t o m of a house
N o w y o u try:
Example:
W e h a v e a w o r k r o o m i n t h e b a s e m e n t . Repeat. I live in a h o u s e . I share it w i t h t w o f r i e n d s .
I live in a h o u s e w h i c h I share w i t h t w o friends.
"... a n d a largish r o o m - k i n d of a f a m i l y r o o m . "
I have a r o o m in t h e b a s e m e n t . I c a n w o r k in it.
A f a m i l y r o o m . A r o o m w h e r e t h e f a m i l y c a n relax, w a t c h t e l e v i s i o n , e t c e t e r a .
I h a v e a r o o m in t h e b a s e m e n t w h i c h I can w o r k in.
W e u s u a l l y say " l i v i n g r o o m " , " s i t t i n g r o o m " o r " l o u n g e " .
"... a n d I spend a lot of t i m e t h e r e practising a n d inviting musicians d o w n to
W h a t i s t h e n a m e o f t h e r o o m y o u sleep in?
play."
A bedroom.
Repeat: I s p e n d a l o t o f t i m e t h e r e p r a c t i s i n g .
Y o u sleep in a b e d r o o m .
to spend a lot of t i m e d o i n g s o m e t h i n g : to do s o m e t h i n g o f t e n
W h a t i s t h e n a m e o f t h e r o o m y o u c o o k in?
A kitchen. Example:
Y o u c o o k in a k i t c h e n . I travel a l o t .
I s p e n d a lot of t i m e t r a v e l l i n g .
W h a t is the name of the room w i t h a bath or shower?
A bathroom. N o w y o u try:
You w a s h yourself in a b a t h r o o m . I play t e n n i s a l o t .
I s p e n d a lot of t i m e playing t e n n i s .
A n d w h a t i s t h e n a m e o f t h e r o o m w h e r e y o u e a t meals?
A dining room. I o f t e n w a i t at airports.
You eat meals in a dining r o o m . I spend a lot of t i m e w a i t i n g at airports.

I a l w a y s d o m y English h o m e w o r k .
I s p e n d a lot of t i m e d o i n g my English h o m e w o r k .
1/17 Time for some grammar again.
Do y o u really, H e l e n a ? I h o p e so.
Let's l o o k a t h o w t o j o i n s e n t e n c e s u s i n g " w h i c h " :

"... r o o m s w h i c h w e share, like t h e kitchen ..."


1/18 W h a t i s y o u r p r o n u n c i a t i o n like, t h e n ? Repeat t h e s e w o r d s : 1/19 W e visit t h e k i t c h e n o f a w e l l - k n o w n v e g e t a r i a n r e s t a u r a n t a n d listen t o t h e
quiet c h e f d e s c r i b i n g t h e k i n d o f f o o d t h e y have t h e r e .
quite
Georgian
musician 6 VEGETARIAN FOOD
largish
INTERVIEW
A n d n o w f o r a little g a m e . Repeat t h e s e w o r d s :
V e g e t a r i a n i s m i s e x p a n d i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e civilized w o r l d . O n e t h i r d . o f t h e w o r l d ' s
shine
p o p u l a t i o n is a c t u a l l y v e g e t a r i a n a n y w a y , m o s t of S o u t h - E a s t Asia is v e g e t a r i a n . People
musician
are f i n d i n g t h a t t h e y ' d like t o use less a d d i t i v e s a n d preservatives i n t h e i r f o o d a n d p e o -
chair
ple are a lot m o r e a w a r e o f E - n u m b e r s .
share
W e are v e g e t a r i a n c h e f s , w e w o r k i n t h e Gray's I n n R o a d , i n L o n d o n ' s W e s t E n d . A v e g -
W h i c h o n e has a d i f f e r e n t s o u n d ?
e t a r i a n r e s t a u r a n t m e a n s t h a t w e d o n ' t use a n y m e a t o r any f i s h i n o u r c o o k i n g . Y o u
s h i n e , m u s i c i a n , chair, s h a r e
c o u l d say w e are a g r e e n r e s t a u r a n t . W e also use v e g e t a r i a n cheese w h i c h m e a n s t h a t
chair
n o a n i m a l p r o d u c t s are u s e d i n t h e m a k i n g o f t h e c h e e s e . W e also use f r e e - r a n g e e g g s .

R i g h t . " C h a i r " is d i f f e r e n t b e c a u s e it has a " c h " s o u n d , t h e o t h e r s all h a v e a


W e d o use a l o t o f o r g a n i c v e g e t a b l e s , m o s t l y f r o m t h e W e s t C o u n t r y . People really c a n
t a s t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e . T o d a y w e h a d a very n i c e t o m a t o a n d lentil s o u p w h i c h h a d a v e g -
e t a b l e base, w h e r e w e f r i e d t h e o n i o n s a n d g a r l i c t o g e t h e r , t h e n w e a d d e d g r a t e d car-
r o t , t u r n i p , s w e d e a n d p a r s n i p . W e a d d e d v e g e t a b l e s t o c k , salt a n d p e p p e r a n d a t t h e
e n d w e a d d e d s o m e c r e a m . W e also h a d e i g h t d i f f e r e n t salads, t h e m o s t p o p u l a r o f
t h o s e b e i n g c o l e s l a w s a l a d , w h i c h consists o f w h i t e c a b b a g e , red c a b b a g e , g r a t e d car-
rots, s u l t a n a s a n d r o a s t e d p e a n u t s i n a t h i c k m a y o n n a i s e d r e s s i n g .

W e a l w a y s h a v e a n u m b e r o f cakes, especially b a k e d o n t h e premises every day. Today


w e h a d b a n a n a c a k e , d a t e a n d w a l n u t c a k e , m e r i n g u e s , c h o c o l a t e g a t e a u x , cheese-
c a k e , a n e x c e p t i o n a l l y d e l i c i o u s w a l n u t c a k e , all s e r v e d w i t h f r e s h y o g h u r t o r c r e a m .

I'd j u s t like t o m e n t i o n t h a t w e have a large v a r i e t y o f freshly s q u e e z e d j u i c e s every d a y


o n o f f e r a n d n a t u r a l y o g h u r t d r i n k s like b a n a n a m i l k s h a k e . W e also d o f r e s h g r a p e -
f r u i t j u i c e , o r a n g e j u i c e a n d a very nice g r e e n j u i c e w h i c h consists o f c u c u m b e r s , a p p l e s ,
celery a n d c r u s h e d ice.
A s k similar q u e s t i o n s :
cheesecake
1/20 Ooh! Does t h a t m a k e you feel hungry? W h a t a w i d e range of different H a v e y o u tried this delicious cheesecake?
f o o d s ! Let's l o o k i n m o r e d e t a i l a t w h a t t h e c h e f s a i d .
c o l e s l a w salad
" V e g e t a r i a n i s m is e x p a n d i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e civilized w o r l d . " H a v e y o u tried this delicious coleslaw salad?
Repeat: is e x p a n d i n g
"I'd just like t o m e n t i o n t h a t w e h a v e a large variety of freshly squeezed
i n t h i s case, d o e s t h i s m e a n :
juices."
• is b e c o m i n g less p o p u l a r ?
• is b e c o m i n g m o r e p o p u l a r ? Repeat: t o m e n t i o n

is becoming m o r e popular Does t h i s m e a n :

is e x p a n d i n g : is b e c o m i n g m o r e p o p u l a r , is g r o w i n g • to a d v e r t i z e ?
• to say?
Example: t o say
T h e c o m p u t e r business is e x p a n d i n g fast. t o m e n t i o n : t o say a m o n g s t o t h e r t h i n g s
Example:
"People are a lot m o r e a w a r e of E-numbers."
H e t a l k e d a b o u t t h e f o o d , b u t h e d i d n ' t m e n t i o n prices.
Repeat: E - n u m b e r s
E-numbers. Are these: M a k e similar s e n t e n c e s :
• names of different vitamins in f o o d ? Example:
• names of different chemicals in f o o d ? wine
n a m e s of different chemicals in f o o d
He didn't mention wine.
Each c h e m i c a l has a d i f f e r e n t n u m b e r , an E - n u m b e r .
N o w y o u try:
Example:
Y o u c a n f i n d E - n u m b e r s o n t h e labels o f f o o d p r o d u c t s . soup
He didn't mention soup.
N o w we'll look at s o m e t h i n g more appetising:
dessert
"Today w e h a d a n exceptionally delicious w a l n u t cake." He didn't m e n t i o n dessert.
Repeat: e x c e p t i o n a l l y delicious
T h e c h e f m e n t i o n s v a r i o u s activities i n t h e k i t c h e n .
D e l i c i o u s . Does t h i s m e a n :
Every d a y h e b a k e s , fries, s q u e e z e s a n d g r a t e s f o o d .
• it tastes g o o d ?
• it has a l o t of calories? W h a t does he do to the onions?
it tastes g o o d He fries t h e onions.
d e l i c i o u s : i t tastes g o o d
W h a t d o e s h e d o t o t h e carrots?
Example: He grates t h e carrots.
Have y o u tried this delicious date and w a l n u t cake?
W h a t does h e d o t o t h e cheesecake?
He bakes the cheesecake.

A n d w h a t does h e d o t o t h e grapefruit?
He squeezes t h e grapefruit, to m a k e juice.
T h e w o r d " j u i c e " i s q u i t e d i f f i c u l t t o say: Try s a y i n g it. 2/1 M a r g a r e t tells u s h o w she c a m e t o b e £ 1 2 0 b e t t e r o f f w i t h o u t w i n n i n g a n y t h i n g
or f i n d i n g any b a n k n o t e s in t h e street.
N o w try saying this:
grapefruit juice

T h a t w a s q u i t e a m o u t h f u l , w a s n ' t it?
7 A LUCKY EXPERIENCE
B u t t o t o p it all: INTERVIEW
fresh g r a p e f r u i t juice
I w a s o n h o l i d a y i n T u r k e y a b o u t t w o years a g o a n d i n s t e a d o f t a k i n g traveller's c h e q u e s
" W e also d o f r e s h g r a p e f r u i t juice, o r a n g e juice a n d a v e r y nice g r e e n juice, w i t h m e , I t o o k E u r o c h e q u e s , a n d t h e idea i s t h a t t h e y g o t h r o u g h y o u r b a n k a c c o u n t
w h i c h consists o f c u c u m b e r s , a p p l e s , celery a n d crushed ice." like n o r m a l English c h e q u e s . B u t I w e n t t o a b a n k , t h e s a m e b a n k , o v e r a p e r i o d o f t w o
w e e k s , a n d c a s h e d £ 2 0 o n e day, £ 3 0 t h e n e x t day, a n d a t t h e e n d o f t h e t w o w e e k s I
Green juice? w e n t h o m e . Six m o n t h s later I w e n t t o m y b a n k a n d s a i d , "Has the money gone
Yes, c h e e r s ! t h r o u g h my account f r o m my holiday in Turkey?" a n d they said, " N o . " A n d I w e n t back
Cheers! a year later a n d s a i d , " H a s t h e m o n e y g o n e t h r o u g h y e t ? " a n d t h e y said " N o . " A n d b y
t h a t t i m e m y b a n k said t o m e , " I t h i n k t h e y ' v e a c t u a l l y e i t h e r g o t y o u r c h e q u e s lost o r
A f t e r all t h i s h e a l t h y f o o d , y o u s h o u l d b e f i t f o r s o m e g r a m m a r .
s o m e t h i n g , b e c a u s e w e have n o r e c o r d o f t h i s m o n e y g o i n g t h r o u g h y o u r a c c o u n t , s o
d o n ' t w o r r y about it." So I was £ 1 2 0 better off!

1/21 W h e n w e t a l k a b o u t t r e n d s a n d t h i n g s t h a t are h a p p e n i n g i n t h e w o r l d n o w ,
w e use t h e p r e s e n t c o n t i n u o u s f o r m . E x a m p l e :
EXERCISES
" V e g e t a r i a n i s m is e x p a n d i n g t h r o u g h o u t t h e civilized w o r l d . "
2/2 T h a t w a s a v e r y l u c k y e x p e r i e n c e , w a s n ' t it?
Vegetarianism is b e c o m i n g m o r e popular.
D i d y o u n o t i c e t h e s e expressions t o d o w i t h b a n k i n g ?
M a k e similar sentences. Example:
traveller's c h e q u e , b a n k a c c o u n t , t o cash a c h e q u e
more vegetarian f o o d
N o w d e c i d e w h i c h e x p r e s s i o n w e are t a l k i n g a b o u t :
People are eating more vegetarian f o o d .
W h e n y o u do this w i t h a cheque, y o u g e t m o n e y at a bank,
N o w y o u try:
t o cash
m o r e salads People are e a t i n g m o r e salads, Y o u cash a c h e q u e .
A piece o f p a p e r w h i c h y o u sign t o g e t m o n e y i n a n o t h e r c o u n t r y ,
less a l c o h o l P e o p l e a r e d r i n k i n g less a l c o h o l , a traveller's cheque

more television People are w a t c h i n g more television. W h e n y o u pay in s o m e m o n e y at a bank, it goes into y o u r . . .
bank account

Here are s o m e w o r d s w i t h a " c h " s o u n d .


Repeat:
traveller's cheques
Eurocheques
actually

N o w try t h e m in w h o l e sentences. Repeat:


Traveller's cheques are safer t h a n b a n k n o t e s . She s p o k e t o t h e b a n k m a n a g e r t h r e e w e e k s a g o .
In E u r o p e y o u can use E u r o c h e q u e s . The phone rang ten minutes ago.
Actually, I haven't got a n y money.
Here are s o m e m o r e useful expressions:
"I w e n t to a bank, the same bank, over a period of t w o w e e k s . "
Repeat: o v e r a p e r i o d o f t w o w e e k s
2/3 Let's l o o k a t s o m e g r a m m a r :
This m e a n s t h a t she w e n t t o t h e b a n k several t i m e s d u r i n g t h e t w o w e e k s
"... a n d instead of taking traveller's cheques w i t h m e , I t o o k Eurocheques."
Repeat t h e s e e x a m p l e s :
I n s t e a d o f t a k i n g . This m e a n s : She d i d n ' t t a k e traveller's c h e q u e s w i t h her, she t o o k over a period of three months
Eurocheques. over a period of t e n years
Practise s a y i n g " i n s t e a d o f " t o j o i n t w o s e n t e n c e s :
"... a n d at t h e end of t h e t w o w e e k s I w e n t h o m e . "
E x a m p l e : I d i d n ' t drive t o A m s t e r d a m , I d r o v e t o D e l f t . Repeat: A t t h e e n d o f t h e t w o w e e k s I w e n t h o m e .
Instead of driving to A m s t e r d a m , I drove to Delft.
N o w m a k e similar s e n t e n c e s :
N o w you try: Example:
I d i d n ' t eat steak, I ate a salad. the day
Instead of e a t i n g steak, I a t e a salad.
At the end of the day I w e n t home.
I d i d n ' t go to a concert, I w e n t to a f i l m .
N o w you try:
Instead of g o i n g to a concert, I w e n t to a f i l m .
the week
"... a n d said, 'Has the m o n e y g o n e t h r o u g h yet?' " At the end of the w e e k I w e n t home.
Repeat: H a s t h e m o n e y g o n e t h r o u g h y e t ?
the m o n t h
M a k e q u e s t i o n s like t h i s u s i n g " y e t " : At the end of the month I w e n t home.
Example:
b o o k e d y o u r holidays
Have you booked your holidays yet?

N o w y o u try:
told him a b o u t the accident
H a v e y o u told him a b o u t t h e accident yet?

been to t h e dentist

Have you been to the dentist yet?

T i m e f o r s o m e t i m e expressions:

"I w a s on holiday in Turkey a b o u t t w o years ago."


W e o f t e n use " a g o " t o t a l k a b o u t a p o i n t o f t i m e i n t h e past.
Repeat:
She w e n t t o Turkey t w o years ago.
2/4 S o m e p e o p l e really e n j o y s h o p p i n g a n d c a n t a l k f o r h o u r s a b o u t t h e i r f a v o u r i t e EXERCISES
s h o p s . J o n e s ' B r o t h e r s is o b v i o u s l y a v e r y p o p u l a r p l a c e . Listen to o u r n e x t s p e a k e r as
2/5 Jones' B r o t h e r s i s a large d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e w i t h lots o f d i f f e r e n t d e p a r t m e n t s .
he takes us t h r o u g h t h e building on a tour.
Repeat t h e n a m e s o f s o m e o f t h e m :
t h e cafeteria
8 JONES' BROTHERS DEPARTMENT STORE haberdashery
men's outfitting
INTERVIEW t h e electrical d e p a r t m e n t

T h e t h i n g a b o u t J o n e s ' B r o t h e r s i s t h a t it's n o t o n l y a s h o p , it's m o r e o f a n i n s t i t u t i o n . N o w t r y t o guess w h i c h d e p a r t m e n t w e ' r e t a l k i n g a b o u t :


It's a k i n d o f a social e v e n t o n S a t u r d a y s . O n e c a n see several p e o p l e t h a t y o u k n o w i n
t h e b u t t e r y , f o r e x a m p l e , w h i c h i s t h i s s o r t o f small c a f e t e r i a , w h e r e y o u c a n h a v e This d e p a r t m e n t deals w i t h s e w i n g o n b u t t o n s , k n i t t i n g , t h a t t y p e o f t h i n g ,

d o u g h n u t s , t e a , c o f f e e , cheese s a n d w i c h e s , t o a s t e d s a n d w i c h e s s o m e t i m e s . B u t very haberdashery

o f t e n t h e m o s t i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t a b o u t J o n e s ' B r o t h e r s i s g e t t i n g p a r k e d , because t h e r e ' s That's a s t r a n g e w o r d , i s n ' t it? Say it a g a i n .

a car p a r k t h e r e , b u t it's a l w a y s f u l l . A n d s o w h a t y o u h a v e t o d o i s w a i t i n t h i s never- I n t h i s d e p a r t m e n t y o u can b u y t h i n g s like irons, c o o k e r s a n d f r i d g e s ,


e n d i n g q u e u e o r g o s o m e w h e r e else i n H o l l o w a y a n d t r y t o p a r k y o u r car, w h i c h i s t h e electrical d e p a r t m e n t
totally impossible. So there m i g h t be an hour or t w o w h e r e y o u ' d be w a i t i n g in a
q u e u e , b u t it's w o r t h i t w h e n y o u g e t t h e r e b e c a u s e t h e d e p a r t m e n t t h a t y o u g e t t o N e x t w e are l o o k i n g f o r t h e n a m e o f a place w h e r e y o u can h a v e d o u g h n u t s , t e a , c o f -
s t r a i g h t a w a y i s h a b e r d a s h e r y , w h i c h i s a special d e p a r t m e n t t h a t deals w i t h s e w i n g o n f e e , cheese s a n d w i c h e s a n d t o a s t e d s a n d w i c h e s .
buttons, knitting, that type of thing. T h e c a f e t e r i a . I n J o n e s ' B r o t h e r s it's c a l l e d t h e b u t t e r y .

A n d t h e n if y o u go straight t h r o u g h there, t h e n y o u get to t h e men's shoe d e p a r t m e n t


W e l l d o n e . Y o u s h o u l d b e a b l e t o f i n d y o u r w a y a r o u n d t h e d e p a r t m e n t s t o r e n o w . Tell
and t h e men's o u t f i t t i n g . Then past t h e m , y o u g o straight into t h e children a n d baby
us where you w o u l d go to buy the following things:
department.
Example:
G o i n g d o w n s t a i r s leads y o u i n t o t h e electrical d e p a r t m e n t w h e r e y o u c a n b u y t h i n g s s h o e polish
like i r o n s , c o o k e r s , f r i d g e s , w h o l e k i t c h e n o u t f i t s i f y o u w a n t . A n d t h e n past t h e r e ,
I w o u l d go to the shoe department.
there's t h e p l a c e t h a t I s p e n d q u i t e a l o t o f t i m e i n , w h i c h i s t h e k i n d o f s t e r e o , t e l e v i -
s i o n , y o u k n o w , a r e a , w h e r e y o u c a n b u y t e l e p h o n e s , w h e r e I've b o u g h t t w o s y n t h e - Right. N o w y o u try:
sizers f r o m J o n e s ' B r o t h e r s , w h i c h i s j u s t r i d i c u l o u s , b e c a u s e it's n o t e v e n a m u s i c s h o p . a fridge
B u t it's j u s t t h a t t y p e o f place w h e r e e v e r y b o d y g e t s t o k n o w e a c h o t h e r . W e k n o w I w o u l d g o t o t h e electrical d e p a r t m e n t .
everybody in t h e children's d e p a r t m e n t because w e ' v e spent such a l o n g t i m e there. a m a n ' s shirt
A n d I've t a k e n t h i n g s b a c k . T h e y ' r e v e r y nice w h e n y o u t a k e t h i n g s b a c k t h a t d o n ' t i w o u l d go to men's outfitting.
w o r k . I've t a k e n b a c k m y a n s w e r p h o n e a n d t h e y r e p l a c e d i t e v e n t h o u g h t h e y c o u l d -
A n d last b u t n o t least - a dress?
n't f i n d a n y t h i n g w r o n g w i t h it. T h e y w e r e really very n i c e .
I w o u l d go to ladies' outfitting.
B u t t h e t r a g e d y a b o u t ail t h i s n o w i s t h a t J o n e s ' B r o t h e r s i s g o i n g t o close.
" I ' v e b o u g h t t w o synthesizers f r o m Jones' Brothers, w h i c h is just ridiculous,
b e c a u s e it's n o t e v e n a m u s i c s h o p . "
Repeat: r i d i c u l o u s
R i d i c u l o u s . Does t h i s m e a n : • a funny thing?
• wonderful? • or a sad t h i n g ?
• absurd? a sad thing
absurd A t r a g e d y is a sad t h i n g .

ridiculous: absurd Not d o i n g our next bit of g r a m m a r w o u l d be a tragedy,

Example: w o u l d n ' t it?


He b o u g h t a ridiculous hat.

" . . . a n d s o w h a t y o u h a v e t o d o i s w a i t i n t h i s n e v e r - e n d i n g q u e u e , b u t it's
2/6 " J o n e s ' B r o t h e r s i s g o i n g t o c l o s e . " Repeat.
w o r t h it w h e n you get there ..."
J o n e s ' B r o t h e r s i s g o i n g t o c l o s e . This m e a n s t h e y ' v e d e c i d e d t o close.
Repeat: a q u e u e
I n t h i s case, d o e s t h i s m e a n : going to
• a l i n e of cars?
W e say t h i s w h e n s o m e t h i n g has b e e n d e c i d e d o n o r p l a n n e d f o r t h e future
• a long road?
a l i n e of cars Examples:
a q u e u e : a line o f cars o r p e o p l e w a i t i n g o n e b e h i n d t h e o t h e r
I'm g o i n g t o sell m y bicycle.
If it's v e r y l o n g y o u c a n say t h a t it's n e v e r - e n d i n g . I'm g o i n g t o l e a r n Spanish.
N o w m a k e sentences a b o u t yourself w i t h " g o i n g t o " :
W h e r e do you find queues? Outside a cinema, for example.
There's a long q u e u e outside t h e cinema. fly t o Florida t h i s s u m m e r
N o w m a k e similar s e n t e n c e s u s i n g t h e w o r d s w e g i v e y o u : I'm g o i n g t o f l y t o F l o r i d a t h i s s u m m e r .

In f r o n t of the theatre. play s q u a s h t o m o r r o w


There's a long q u e u e in f r o n t of t h e theatre. I'm g o i n g t o p l a y s q u a s h t o m o r r o w .

Outside t h e d e p a r t m e n t store. invite s o m e f r i e n d s t o d i n n e r


There's a long q u e u e outside t h e d e p a r t m e n t store. I'm g o i n g t o i n v i t e s o m e f r i e n d s t o dinner.

" . . . b u t it's w o r t h i t w h e n y o u g e t t h e r e . . . " N o w w e are g o i n g t o l o o k a t s o m e p r o n u n c i a t i o n p o i n t s .


R e p e a t : it's w o r t h i t Oh dear!
It's w o r t h it. Does t h i s m e a n :
• it's b o r i n g ? Let's s t a r t w i t h a n easy p h r a s e : It's w o r t h i t .
• it's a g o o d t h i n g to d o ? Repeat.
it's a g o o d t h i n g t o d o M a k e sure y o u say " w o r t h " a n d n o t " w o r s e " .
it's w o r t h it: it's a g o o d t h i n g t o d o T h e r e is a d i f f e r e n c e .
So: It's w o r t h it.
Example:
Y o u s h o u l d visit t h e J a p a n e s e g a r d e n - it's w o r t h it.

"But t h e t r a g e d y a b o u t all this n o w is t h a t Jones' Brothers is g o i n g to close."


Repeat: t r a g e d y
W h a t is a t r a g e d y ?
• an i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g ?
N o w t r y t h i s : It's a s y n t h e s i z e r . 2/7 I m a g i n e y o u are a t t h e s w i m m i n g p o o l a t a h o t e l i n S w e d e n . T h e s w i m m i n g
Tricky, isn't it? p o o l has a very h i g h d i v i n g b o a r d . That's a k i n d o f t o w e r y o u c l i m b u p w i t h a b o a r d a t
t h e t o p t o let y o u dive f r o m a g r e a t h e i g h t i n t o t h e w a t e r . W h e n Peter c l i m b s u p t o
H o w a b o u t this? a s p e c i a l s y n t h e s i z e r
t h e d i v i n g b o a r d , t h e place b e c o m e s h u s h e d , t h a t is, e v e r y o n e b e c o m e s q u i e t a n d w a i t s
A real t o n g u e t w i s t e r ! t o w a t c h h i m dive f r o m such a h i g h d i v i n g b o a r d .
W h a t h a p p e n s n e x t ? W e l l , listen t o t h e story.
N o w try: k n i t t i n g

N o w t h a t w a s n ' t d i f f i c u l t , w a s it? B u t c a n y o u spell it?


9 THE DIVING BOARD
К N I double T I N G
INTERVIEW
I was on holiday in Sweden, a n d I was in t h e s w i m m i n g pool at t h e hotel, and it had
a very, very h i g h d i v i n g b o a r d a n d i t w a s o n e o f t h o s e p o o l s t h a t w a s s u r r o u n d e d b y
very g o r g e o u s , b r o n z e d p e o p l e , v e r y a t h l e t i c - l o o k i n g . I c l i m b e d t o t h e t o p o f t h e div­
i n g b o a r d j u s t t o see h o w h i g h i t w a s a n d I c r a w l e d a l o n g t h e e d g e a n d I bravely s t o o d
u p . A l l o f a s u d d e n , t h e place w a s h u s h e d , e v e r y o n e l o o k i n g u p w a r d s i n e x p e c t a t i o n ,
a n d I w a s f o r c e d i n t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f h a v i n g t o d o s o m e very c o m p l i c a t e d dive i n t o t h e
w a t e r - a very, very l o n g w a y d o w n . A n d o f c o u r s e I w a s a b s o l u t e l y p e t r i f i e d , a n d w h i l e
t h i n k i n g a b o u t i t a n d h o w t o g e t o u t o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n , I fell o f f . A n d i t w a s a r m s a n d
legs all o v e r t h e place a n d t h e m o s t u n d i g n i f i e d dive - w e l l , belly f l o p - t h a t a n y o n e
has ever s e e n !

EXERCISES
2/8 O o h ! A belly f l o p c a n be v e r y p a i n f u l .
W e l l , I h o p e t h e s e exercises are m o r e e n j o y a b l e !

"... a n d i t w a s o n e o f t h o s e p o o l s t h a t w a s s u r r o u n d e d b y v e r y g o r g e o u s ,
bronzed people."
Repeat: g o r g e o u s
Does t h i s m e a n :
• very beautiful?
• very b o r i n g ?
very beautiful
g o r g e o u s : very beautiful

Example:
He m e t a g o r g e o u s S w e d i s h g i r l on h o l i d a y last year.

The people at t h e pool were gorgeous, bronzed people.


B r o n z e d . Does t h i s m e a n :
• people w h o have been drinking? Is t h i s :
• people w h o have been sunbathing? • fantastic?
people w h o have been sunbathing • n o t very elegant?
b r o n z e d : g o l d e n ; w i t h a b r o w n skin not very elegant

"I climbed to the t o p of the diving board." u n d i g n i f i e d : n o t very e l e g a n t , n o t very d i g n i f i e d


Repeat: I c l i m b e d
Let's h a v e a l o o k at a f e w m o r e o p p o s i t e s :
T o c l i m b . Does t h i s m e a n :
If t h e opposite of dignified is undignified, w h a t is t h e opposite of complicated?
• to look at s o m e t h i n g ?
uncomplicated
• to go up something?
happy?
to go up something
unhappy
to climb: to go up something
Example: H e h a d t o d o a very c o m p l i c a t e d d i v e i n t o t h e w a t e r , a n d y o u h a d t o listen t o s o m e
I climbed to the t o p of the mountain. very c o m p l i c a t e d v o c a b u l a r y . Let's t r y s o m e t h i n g n o w t h a t i s n o t c o m p l i c a t e d , s o m e -
thing uncomplicated.
"... and I crawled along the edge and I bravely stood up."
Repeat: c r a w l e d "... it w a s o n e of those pools t h a t w a s surrounded by very gorgeous, bronzed
To c r a w l . In t h i s case, d o e s t h i s m e a n : people, very athletic-looking."
• t o m o v e o n h a n d s a n d knees? Repeat: v e r y a t h l e t i c - l o o k i n g p e o p l e
• to hold o n t o something?
People w h o l o o k very a t h l e t i c are very a t h l e t i c - l o o k i n g p e o p l e .
to move on hands and knees
t o crawl: t o m o v e o n hands a n d knees, o r m o v e f o r w a r d slowly N o w y o u try:
Example: People w h o l o o k very i n t e r e s t i n g are ...
I n w i n t e r t h e r o a d s are o f t e n icy a n d t h e cars c a n o n l y c r a w l a l o n g . very interesting-looking people

" A n d of course I w a s absolutely petrified." People w h o l o o k very p o o r are ...


Repeat: p e t r i f i e d very poor-looking people
H o w d o y o u f e e l w h e n y o u are p e t r i f i e d ?
• very f r i g h t e n e d ? N o w let's l o o k a t s o m e p r e p o s i t i o n s :

• very sad? "I w a s on holiday in S w e d e n , and I w a s in the s w i m m i n g pool at the hotel."

very frightened
o n holiday, i n t h e s w i m m i n g p o o l , a t t h e h o t e l
p e t r i f i e d : very f r i g h t e n e d
Example: Here are s o m e s e n t e n c e s w i t h o u t p r e p o s i t i o n s . Listen t o t h e m a n d t h e n say t h e w h o l e
W h e n I saw the d o g r u n n i n g towards m e , I w a s absolutely petrified. s e n t e n c e w i t h t h e p r e p o s i t i o n s t h a t are m i s s i n g :

" A n d i t w a s a r m s a n d legs all o v e r t h e p l a c e , a n d t h e m o s t u n d i g n i f i e d d i v e Example:


well f belly f l o p - t h a t a n y o n e has e v e r s e e n . " She left her h a n d b a g ... t h e h o t e l .
Repeat: u n d i g n i f i e d She left her h a n d b a g a t t h e h o t e l .

N o w you try:

T h e y w e r e ... holiday.
They w e r e on holiday.
T h e y w e r e o n h o l i d a y ... France. 2/9 T h e r e are m a n y stories a b o u t f a m o u s p o l i t i c i a n s , a n d G e n e r a l d e G a u l l e i s n o
T h e y w e r e o n h o l i d a y i n France. exception.
O u r n e x t s p e a k e r tells us a b o u t a d i n n e r at t h e British Embassy in Paris s h o r t l y b e f o r e
I c l i m b e d ... t h e t o p .
d e G a u l l e left politics. President d e G a u l l e a n d his w i f e are g u e s t s o f h o n o u r , a n d t h e r e
I climbed to the t o p .
are o t h e r f a m o u s British p o l i t i c i a n s s u c h a s M a c m i l l a n a n d A t t l e e t h e r e a s w e l l .
I c l i m b e d t o t h e t o p ... t h e ladder.
I climbed to t h e t o p of t h e ladder.
10 GENERAL DE GAULLE
A n d t h a t ' s t h e e n d ... t h e exercises. INTERVIEW
I w e n t o n e e v e n i n g f o r a r a t h e r nice m e a l a t a f r i e n d ' s h o u s e , a n d o n e o f t h e o t h e r
g u e s t s w a s a r a t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d elderly g e n t l e m a n , w h o a t o n e p o i n t i n t i m e h a d
b e e n i n t h e d i p l o m a t i c service. A n d h e w a s t h e k i n d o f o l d - f a s h i o n e d g e n t , b e c a u s e
t h e r e w e r e ladies p r e s e n t , h e w a s n ' t sure h o w far h e c o u l d g o , a n d h e k e p t s a y i n g a s
t h e e v e n i n g w e n t o n , "Is i t a l r i g h t f o r m e t o tell m y d e G a u l l e s t o r y n o w ? " Y o u k n o w ,
a s i f w e ' d all g o t t o a s u f f i c i e n t s t a t e w h e r e w e w o u l d n ' t b e s h o c k e d a n y m o r e . A n y -
w a y , t h e m o m e n t c a m e i n t h e e v e n i n g w h e r e i t w a s d e c i d e d , yes, i t w o u l d b e a l r i g h t
f o r h i m t o tell his d e G a u l l e s t o r y n o w , a n d I p r e s u m e it's t r u e . I m e a n , it's s o g o o d , i t
a l m o s t s o u n d s a s i f i t m i g h t b e a m y t h , b u t i f i t isn't t r u e i t o u g h t t o b e . It's o n e o f t h o s e
stories.

A n d t h i s w a s a t t h e t i m e w h e n d e Gaulle's p r e s i d e n c y w a s c o m i n g t o a n e n d . I t w a s a
very g r a n d d i n n e r a t t h e British Embassy i n Paris, a n d d e G a u l l e a n d M a d a m e d e G a u l l e
w e r e obviously t h e guests of h o n o u r , a n d M a c m i l l a n w a s t h e r e a n d various o t h e r s . . . I
t h i n k A t l e e . I t w a s q u i t e a w o n d e r f u l l i n e - u p o f n a m e s a n y w a y a t t h i s place. A n d s o m e -
b o d y d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e d i n n e r said t o M a d a m e d e G a u l l e , " N o w t h e g e n e r a l i s
r e t i r i n g , w h a t d o y o u l o o k f o r w a r d t o m o s t a b o u t y o u r n e w life t o g e t h e r ? " , a n d she
said " A p p i n e s s . " A n d t h e r e w a s a n e x t r e m e l y s t u n n e d silence, a s y o u c a n i m a g i n e .
A n d e v e n t u a l l y t h e G e n e r a l d e c i d e d t h a t h e ' d b e t t e r s w i m i n t o t h i s silence, a n d h e s a i d ,
" T h a t i s n o t t h e w a y y o u p r o n o u n c e i t i n English, m y dear. I t i s p r o n o u n c e d h a p p i n e s s . "

EXERCISES
2/10 Do y o u r e m e m b e r t h e question s o m e b o d y asked M a d a m e de Gaulle?

" N o w t h e General is retiring, w h a t do y o u look f o r w a r d to most?"


Repeat: is r e t i r i n g
To r e t i r e . D o e s t h i s m e a n :
• to be w i t h o u t energy?
• to stop w o r k i n g ?
to stop w o r k i n g
r e t i r e : t o s t o p w o r k i n g (usually a t sixty o r sixty-five) • to worry a b o u t something in the future?
• to be happy a b o u t something in t h e future?
Example:
to be happy about something in the future
W h e n I r e t i r e , I'll h a v e t i m e f o r m y h o b b i e s .
Example:
M a k e similar sentences:
m e e t i n g y o u r sister
travel a lot
I l o o k f o r w a r d t o m e e t i n g y o u r sister.
W h e n I r e t i r e , I'll t r a v e l a l o t .
M a k e similar s e n t e n c e s w i t h t h e w o r d s w e g i v e y o u :
m o v e t o Spain
doing some skiing
W h e n I r e t i r e , I'll m o v e t o S p a i n .
I look f o r w a r d to doing some skiing.
"It's s o g o o d , i t a l m o s t s o u n d s a s i f i t m i g h t b e a m y t h . "
reading t h e Sunday paper
Repeat: m y t h
I look f o r w a r d to reading t h e Sunday paper.
M y t h . Does t h i s m e a n :
• an u n t r u e s t o r y ? "... and eventually the General decided that he'd better swim into this
• a secret? s i l e n c e ..."
an untrue story Repeat: e v e n t u a l l y
Eventually. D o e s t h i s m e a n :
m y t h : a n u n t r u e story, s o m e t h i n g t h a t i s n o t t r u e
• finally?
Example: • possibly?
It's a m y t h t h a t m e n are b e t t e r d r i v e r s t h a n w o m e n . finally
"... b e c a u s e t h e r e w e r e l a d i e s p r e s e n t . . . "
eventually: finally
Repeat: p r e s e n t
T h e r e w e r e ladies p r e s e n t . Does t h i s m e a n : Example:
• t h e ladies w e r e i n t h e r o o m ? We eventually f o u n d a shop w h i c h sold phonecards.
• t h e ladies g o t a p r e s e n t ? 2/11 Let's l o o k a t s o m e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t stress p a t t e r n s i n E n g l i s h w o r d s . W e
t h e ladies w e r e i n t h e r o o m h e a r d h o w u s i n g t h e w r o n g stress c a n c a u s e p r o b l e m s .
I f w e say t h a t s o m e o n e i s p r e s e n t , w e s i m p l y m e a n t h a t t h e y are t h e r e .
S o m e w o r d s are stressed o n t h e first syllable.
Example: \
M a n y p o l i t i c i a n s w e r e p r e s e n t a t t h e party. Repeat:
EMbassy VArious GENtleman HAppiness
M a k e similar sentences:
m a n y guests
M a n y guests w e r e present at t h e party.

hundreds of people
Hundreds of people w e r e present at t h e party.

" N o w the General is retiring, w h a t do you look f o r w a r d to most a b o u t your


n e w life t o g e t h e r ? "
Repeat: l o o k f o r w a r d t o
T o l o o k f o r w a r d t o . Does t h i s m e a n :
A n d a bit m o r e difficult: 2/12 S h a n e a n d D e b c o m e f r o m P o r t l a n d , O r e g o n , a n d t a l k n o w t o Elizabeth a b o u t
OBviously their state.

O t h e r w o r d s are stressed o n t h e s e c o n d syllable.


11 LIFE IN OREGON, USA
Repeat:

preSUME iMAgine diSTINGuished INTERVIEW


Was t h a t sufficient practice for y o u ? Elizabeth: S h a n e , y o u ' r e f r o m P o r t l a n d , O r e g o n . C o u l d y o u tell u s e x a c t l y w h e r e O r e -
g o n is?
Shane: O r e g o n ' s l o c a t e d o n t h e Pacific O c e a n . Its n e i g h b o u r i n g states are W a s h -
i n g t o n t o t h e n o r t h , I d a h o t o t h e east, a n d C a l i f o r n i a t o t h e s o u t h . O r e -
g o n ' s q u i t e a b i g s t a t e . I w o u l d i m a g i n e i t c o m p a r e s t o t h e size o f G e r -
m a n y , or a little bigger. It has its c o a s t , its coast r a n g e , its valleys, its m o u n -
t a i n s , a n d it has a d e s e r t , t o w a r d t h e east.
Elizabeth: W h a t d o p e o p l e d o t h e r e ? W h a t ' s t h e i n d u s t r y i n O r e g o n like?
Shane: W e l l , t h e t h r e e m a j o r i n d u s t r i e s i n O r e g o n r i g h t n o w are s h i p p i n g , t o u r i s m ,
a n d l o g g i n g . S h i p p i n g has b e e n very, very g o o d - o f c o u r s e , t h e y ' r e s h i p -
p i n g o u t all o f t h e l o g s , m a n y o f t h e m t o Japan a n d o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t h a t
are i n n e e d o f t h e m .
T o u r i s m has b o o m e d i n r e c e n t years w i t h t h e a m o u n t o f o u t d o o r recre-
a t i o n , a n d t h e t i m b e r i n d u s t r y has b e e n d e c l i n i n g i n r e c e n t years d u e t o
t h e lack o f available t i m b e r t h a t i s t h e r e a n d a v a i l a b l e t o b e c u t d o w n .
Elizabeth: T h e i m p r e s s i o n of t h e A m e r i c a n lifestyle is o f t e n t h a t it's very, very h e c t i c
a n d f a s t - m o v i n g . Is t h a t t h e w a y it is in O r e g o n , or on t h e W e s t Coast?
Deb: N o t as m u c h as on t h e East C o a s t . T h e East C o a s t is k n o w n to be a r a t -
race, a n d t h e W e s t C o a s t i s very l o w - k e y , very q u i e t a n d p e a c e f u l , a n d p e o -
ple are n o t i n a h u r r y t o g e t w h e r e t h e y ' r e g o i n g .
Elizabeth: Shane, have y o u had any funny experiences while travelling through
Europe?
Shane: W e l l , I t h i n k every d a y has b e e n h i l a r i o u s , f o r t h e m o s t p a r t . It's n o t o f t e n
w e g e t a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o m e o v e r h e r e , a n d t h a n k G o d t h a t w e have
t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o m e over, a n d m a y b e a little m o r e s o t h a n o t h e r p e o -
ple d o i n m y line o f w o r k . B u t , I w o u l d t h i n k r a t h e r t h a n f u n n y , I t h i n k t h e
e x p e r i e n c e has b e e n m o r e h e a r t f e l t , a n d w e f i n d o u t t h a t p e o p l e t h r o u g h -
o u t t h e w o r l d are g e n e r a l l y t h e s a m e i n b e i n g h e l p f u l , a n d very h o s p i t a b l e ,
trying to a c c o m m o d a t e y o u in any w a y they can.
Elizabeth: G e t t i n g back to O r e g o n , if o n e goes there on holiday, or on vacation,
w h e r e c a n o n e stay? D o e s o n e stay i n a h o t e l , o r i s t h e r e s o m e t h i n g like
t h e English " b e d a n d b r e a k f a s t s " t h e r e ?
Deb: T h e r e are very f e w " b e d a n d b r e a k f a s t s " . M o s t l y t h e m o t e l - w h i c h i s a
s m a l l e r v e r s i o n o f t h e h o t e l . That's a b o u t it.
Elizabeth: H o w a b o u t c a m p i n g ? A r e t h e r e possibilities f o r c a m p e r s ? B e t w e e n t h e m o u n t a i n s t h e r e are ...?
Deb: There's a l o t o f c a m p i n g d o n e i n O r e g o n . A l o t o f d i f f e r e n t sites, a n d t h a t valleys
is vast - I m e a n , a l o t of it.
" T h e East C o a s t i s k n o w n t o b e a r a t - r a c e . "
Elizabeth: I s i t possible t o j u s t set y o u r t e n t u p s o m e p l a c e i n t h e m o u n t a i n s , o r i n t h e
Repeat: a r a t - r a c e
w o o d s , or do y o u have to go to a c a m p g r o u n d ?
Does this m e a n :
Deb: No, you d o n ' t have to go to a c a m p g r o u n d , b u t I think t h e majority of the
• a very h e c t i c life-style?
facilities t h a t are o u t t h e r e are w o n d e r f u l . I t h i n k , y o u k n o w , t h a t t h e y are
• rats r u n n i n g very fast?
n o t s o c o n f i n i n g , a n d y o u d o n ' t f e e l like y o u ' r e i n a p a r k i n g l o t w i t h y o u r
a v e r y hectic life-style
little t e n t .
a r a t - r a c e : a very hectic life-style
Elizabeth: S o t h e r e ' s lots o f s p a c e , s o y o u d o n ' t really n e e d t o g o o u t i n t o t h e w i l d s
to c a m p , even if you're at a c a m p g r o u n d ? Example:
Deb: I d o n ' t t h i n k so. Life on t h e East C o a s t is a r a t - r a c e . Repeat.
Elizabeth: I t feels like y o u ' r e o u t i n t h e w o o d s , a n d y o u are.
Deb: Yes. "The W e s t Coast is very l o w - k e y . "
Repeat: l o w - k e y
Elizabeth: G o o d . D o y o u c a m p , Shane?
L o w - k e y . Does t h i s m e a n :
Shane: W e l l , o n l y w h e n m y w i f e locks t h e d o o r a n d w o n ' t let m e i n a t n i g h t ! A n d
• flat and boring?
t h a t ' s a b o u t t h e o n l y t i m e t h a t I'm really l e f t o u t d o o r s . I w a s g o i n g t o a d d ,
t o o , t h a t i f t h e c a m p i n g spaces are f u l l , w e ' v e g o t a little extra r o o m a t o u r • slow a n d peaceful?

h o u s e t o o , i f a n y b o d y ' d like t o stay t h e r e ! slow and peaceful


low-key: slow a n d peaceful

Example:
EXERCISES Life in O r e g o n is very l o w - k e y . R e p e a t .

2/13 T h a n k s very m u c h f o r t h e i n v i t a t i o n , S h a n e ! W h e r e d o y o u t h i n k life i s m o r e likely t o b e a rat-race?


A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e interview y o u heard s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e g e o g r a p h y o f Ore-
gon. H o w much did you understand? Tahiti, N e w Y o r k , Ireland?
N e w York
" I t h a s its c o a s t , its c o a s t r a n g e , its v a l l e y s , its m o u n t a i n s , a n d i t h a s a d e s e r t ,
t o w a r d t h e east." W h i c h a c t i v i t y i s m o r e likely t o b e l o w - k e y ?
w o r k i n g as a n u r s e , g a r d e n i n g , w r i t i n g English exercises?
W h a t d o y o u call a very d r y area like t h e Sahara? g a r d e n i n g , of course!
a desert
What do people do in Oregon?
I n t h e A l p s y o u f i n d a l o t o f h i g h ...? "Well, t h e t h r e e major industries in O r e g o n right n o w are shipping, t o u r i s m ,
mountains and logging."
W h a t kind of w o r k is the logging industry?
Is it:
• c u t t i n g d o w n trees?
• making metal goods?
cutting d o w n trees isolated places
The w i l d s are i s o l a t e d places w h e r e t h e r e are n o p e o p l e , m a y b e e v e n n o roads.
T h e l o g g i n g i n d u s t r y m e a n s c u t t i n g d o w n trees t o use t h e w o o d .
W h e r e c a n y o u stay o n h o l i d a y i n O r e g o n ? Listen a g a i n t o w h a t D e b s a i d :
Example:
T h e l o g g i n g i n d u s t r y i s also v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n S c a n d i n a v i a . "There are very f e w "bed and breakfasts". Mostly t h e
D o y o u r e m e m b e r w h a t S h a n e said a b o u t s o m e o f t h e i n d u s t r i e s ? m o t e l - w h i c h is a smaller version of t h e h o t e l . "

"Tourism has b o o m e d in recent years." "There's a lot of c a m p i n g d o n e in O r e g o n - a lot of d i f f e r e n t sites."


Repeat: t o b o o m
Which is m o r e popular - " b e d a n d breakfast" or motels?
Does this m e a n :
Motels are m o r e popular.
• business is very g o o d ?
There are very f e w " b e d a n d b r e a k f a s t " places.
• business is very b a d ?
business is v e r y g o o d I s i t easy t o f i n d s o m e w h e r e t o c a m p ?
It's g r o w i n g f a s t , it's e x p a n d i n g , Yes.
t o b o o m : t o g r o w fast I here's a l o t of c a m p i n g d o n e in O r e g o n . O u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n is very p o p u l a r .
H o w do y o u prefer to spend your holidays?
Example:
In a " b e d a n d b r e a k f a s t " p l a c e , in a m o t e l , in a h o t e l - or in a t e n t w h e n y o u go c a m p -
tourist industry
ing?
T h e tourist industry has b o o m e d in recent years.
A n d w h a t a b o u t y o u , Kerry? H o w d o y o u p r e f e r t o s p e n d y o u r h o l i d a y s ?
N o w m a k e similar s e n t e n c e s :
A h ! w e l l actually, H e l e n a , I d o n ' t t a k e h o l i d a y s . I stay a t h o m e a n d practise m y English.
car i n d u s t r y
T h e car i n d u s t r y has b o o m e d i n r e c e n t y e a r s .

chemical industry
T h e chemical industry has b o o m e d in recent years.

"... a n d t h e t i m b e r industry has b e e n declining in recent years."


Repeat: has b e e n d e c l i n i n g
T o d e c l i n e . Does this m e a n :
• getting better?
• g e t t i n g less?
g e t t i n g less
T o d e c l i n e m e a n s t o b e c o m e less o r g e t smaller.

So, w h a t i s t h e o p p o s i t e o f " t o d e c l i n e " ?


To b o o m is the opposite of " t o decline".

"So y o u d o n ' t really n e e d t o g o o u t into t h e w i l d s t o camp."


Repeat: g o i n t o t h e w i l d s
W h a t are t h e w i l d s ?
• n o i s y places?
• i s o l a t e d places?
2/14 C o u n t r y a n d W e s t e r n music is a very popular f o r m of traditional A m e r i c a n EXERCISES
m u s i c - a n d n o t j u s t i n A m e r i c a , a s Tessa f o u n d o u t .
2/15 ; K a t h y m e n t i o n s several d i f f e r e n t types of music. Listen a g a i n :
Listen n o w a s Tessa t a l k s w i t h K a t h y O ' D o n o g h u e , w h o p e r f o r m s C o u n t r y a n d W e s t -
" C o u n t r y a n d W e s t e r n music is A m e r i c a n music essentially, urn, b u t I prefer t h e
ern music in Britain.
t e r m c o u n t r y music because it covers a w i d e r a r e a of w h a t I d o . It can include
f o l k , l o t s o f d a n c e m u s i c , it's a g r e a t f o r m o f m u s i c - t h e r e ' s c o u n t r y s w i n g -
12 A COUNTRY AND WESTERN SINGER it can e v e n relate to j a z z . "

INTERVIEW Repeat:
folk
Kathy: C o u n t r y a n d W e s t e r n m u s i c i s A m e r i c a n m u s i c essentially, u m , b u t I p r e f e r t h e dance music
t e r m c o u n t r y m u s i c b e c a u s e i t covers a w i d e r area o f w h a t I d o . I t c a n i n c l u d e country swing
f o l k , lots of d a n c e m u s i c , it's a g r e a t f o r m of m u s i c - t h e r e ' s c o u n t r y s w i n g - jazz
i t can e v e n r e l a t e t o jazz.
Tessa: Give m e a c o u p l e o f lines o f s o m e t h i n g y o u w o u l d sing o n s t a g e . " W h a t kind of reaction do y o u g e t f r o m audiences?"

Kathy: Well, it w o u l d n ' t be "Stand by your m a n ! " It m i g h t be " D o n ' t c o m e h o m e a Repeat: a u d i e n c e s


drinkin'..." In this case, d o e s t h i s m e a n :

W e l l y o u t h o u g h t I'd b e w a i t i n ' u p • p e o p l e l i s t e n i n g to c o n c e r t s ?
W h e n y o u c a m e h o m e last n i g h t . • people w r i t i n g a b o u t music?
Y o u ' d b e e n o u t w i t h all t h e b o y s , people listening to concerts
Y o u e n d e d u p half t i g h t . an audience: people listening to concerts
W e l l liquor a n d love, t h e y just d o n ' t mix,
Example:
Leave t h e b o t t l e o r m e b e h i n d .
T h e Rolling Stones a l w a y s a t t r a c t large a u d i e n c e s .
Don't come home a-drinkin'
Repeat.
W i t h lovin' on your mind.
Tessa: W h a t kind of reaction do y o u get f r o m audiences? "If y o u ' r e i n a t h e a t r e a n d , u h , it's a n o - s m o k i n g t h e a t r e , t h e s e a t s a r e p l u s h ,

Kathy: Y o u g e t very y o u n g a u d i e n c e s a n d also p u n k s , f r o m p u n k s t o o l d a g e p e n - p e o p l e a r e e x p e c t e d t o b e v e r y p o l i t e , t h e y g o t h e r e f o r a nice n i g h t o u t , t h e n


sioners, literally. I t h i n k it's t h e v e n u e t h a t y o u p u t t h e a u d i e n c e i n t h a t a f f e c t s it's h u s h e d . "
t h e a u d i e n c e r e a c t i o n . S o t h a t , f o r i n s t a n c e , i f y o u ' r e i n a t h e a t r e a n d , u h , it's D o y o u r e m e m b e r t h e w o r d " h u s h e d " ? Very q u i e t .
a n o - s m o k i n g t h e a t r e , t h e seats are p l u s h , p e o p l e are e x p e c t e d t o b e very In w h i c h s t o r y d i d y o u h e a r it?
p o l i t e , t h e y g o t h e r e f o r a nice n i g h t o u t , t h e n it's h u s h e d . I f y o u s i n g a bal- I t w a s i n t h e story a b o u t t h e d i v i n g b o a r d . That's r i g h t . H e r e K a t h y says t h a t s o m e t i m e s
lad, a pin w o u l d d r o p . You get great applause at t h e e n d . A n d again if you go an a u d i e n c e is so h u s h e d t h a t y o u c o u l d hear a p i n d r o p .
t o c o l l e g e s , boy, t h a t ' s t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t - really d r u n k , y o u k n o w , aggressive
"If y o u s i n g a b a l l a d , a p i n w o u l d d r o p . Y o u g e t g r e a t a p p l a u s e a t t h e e n d . "
a u d i e n c e s t h a t are t h e r e t o h a v e a g o o d t i m e a n d g o o d l u c k t o t h e m . But
Repeat: a p p l a u s e
s o m e t i m e s there's a kind of a y o u n g male e l e m e n t t h a t c o m e s o u t a n d they
Does t h i s m e a n :
t h i n k t h e g r e a t e s t c o m p l i m e n t i s t o g e t h o l d o f y o u r m i k e s t a n d a n d r a t t l e it,
• a present?
n o t realising t h a t t h e y c o u l d k n o c k y o u r t e e t h o u t . I've h a d t o m o v e b a c k
• clapping hands?
h a l f w a y o n t o t h e stage a n d sing f r o m h a l f w a y back.
clapping hands
applause: clapping your hands w h e n you've enjoyed a concert, for example 2/16 N o w let's d o s o m e p r o n u n c i a t i o n p r a c t i c e .

A c o l l e g e a u d i e n c e is d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r a u d i e n c e s . Listen: Listen t o t h e " s " a n d "z" s o u n d s i n t h e s e w o r d s :


music
"But sometimes there's a kind of a y o u n g male e l e m e n t t h a t comes o u t and
essentially
t h e y think t h e greatest compliment is to g e t hold of your mike stand and rat-
tle it." Now repeat:
Repeat: g e t h o l d o f lines
T o g e t h o l d o f . Does t h i s m e a n : swing
• to b r e a k i n t o pieces? applause
• to t a k e in your hands? colleges
to t a k e in your hands, or grab something
Y o u n g m e n i n c o l l e g e a u d i e n c e s o f t e n g e t h o l d o f Kathy's m i c r o p h o n e s t a n d . jazz

"I've h a d t o m o v e back h a l f w a y o n t o t h e stage a n d sing f r o m h a l f w a y back." Listen t o t h e last line o f t h e s o n g a g a i n :


Repeat: s t a g e
Is t h i s : "Don't come h o m e a-drinkin' w i t h lovin' on your mind."

• w h e r e t h e a u d i e n c e sits? D o n ' t . Use " d o n ' t " t o tell s o m e o n e n o t t o d o s o m e t h i n g .


• w h e r e t h e a c t o r s o r s i n g e r s are?
w h e r e t h e actors o r singers are Example:
T h e s t a g e i s usually i n f r o n t o f t h e a u d i e n c e i n a t h e a t r e o r c o n c e r t h a l l . Drive fast
Don't drive fast!
"... really drunk, y o u k n o w , aggressive audiences ..."
Repeat: really d r u n k N o w you try:

Y o u c a n say " r e a l l y d r u n k " i n s t e a d o f " v e r y d r u n k " . talk too much


Example: Don't talk t o o much!
v e r y sad
forget y o u r wife's birthday
really sad
Don't forget your wife's birthday!
N o w y o u try:
lose y o u r w a l l e t
very unlucky Don't lose y o u r w a l l e t !
really unlucky
A n d m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f all:
very athletic
really athletic DON'T GIVE UP IMPROVING Y O U R ENGLISH!

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