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LTE technology and LTE test;

a deskside chat
April 2009
Christina Gessner
Technology Manager
Rohde & Schwarz, Germany

Andreas Roessler
Technology Manager North America
Rohde & Schwarz, Germany
l Motivation for LTE l LTE test requirements
l LTE technology basics l eNodeB RF testing
l UE RF testing
l Key parameters
l LTE wireless device testing from R&D
l OFDMA and downlink frame structure
up to conformance
l SC-FDMA and uplink frame structure l LTE field trial testing and coverage
l Network and protocol architecture measurements
l LTE UE categories
l Radio procedures
l Cell search
l System information broadcast
l Random access
l EPS bearer setup
l Downlink and uplink data transmission
MIMO = Multiple Input Multiple Output
l Mobility EPS = Evolved Packet System
UE = User Equipment
l MIMO RRM = Radio Resource Management
OFDMA = Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
SC-FDMA = Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access

CG & AR | April 2009 | 2

Motivation for LTE

CG & AR | April 2009 | 3

LTE market situation
based on HSPA success story
l HSPA growth is based on the uptake
of mobile data services worldwide.
More than 250 networks worldwide
have already commercially launched
l Mobile data traffic is growing
exponentially, caused by mobile
internet offerings and improved user
experience with new device types.
l LTE is accepted worldwide as the
long term evolution perspective for
today’s 2G and 3G networks based
TD-SCDMA, and CDMA2000 Sources: www.gsacom.com, R&S

CG & AR | April 2009 | 4

LTE background story
the early days
l Work on LTE was initiated as a 3GPP release 7 study item
“Evolved UTRA and UTRAN” in December 2004:
l “With enhancements such as HSDPA and Enhanced Uplink, the
3GPP radio-access technology will be highly competitive for
several years. However, to ensure competitiveness in an even
longer time frame, i.e. for the next 10 years and beyond, a long-
term evolution of the 3GPP radio-access technology needs to be
l Basic drivers for LTE have been:
l Reduced latency
l Higher user data rates
l Improved system capacity and coverage
l Cost-reduction.

CG & AR | April 2009 | 5

Major requirements for LTE
identified during study item phase in 3GPP
l Higher peak data rates: 100 Mbps (downlink) and 50 Mbps (uplink)
l Improved spectrum efficiency: 2-4 times better compared to 3GPP release 6
l Improved latency:
l Radio access network latency (user plane UE – RNC - UE) below 10 ms
l Significantly reduced control plane latency
l Support of scalable bandwidth: 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 MHz
l Support of paired and unpaired spectrum (FDD and TDD mode)
l Support for interworking with legacy networks
l Cost-efficiency:
l Reduced CApital and OPerational EXpenditures (CAPEX, OPEX) including backhaul
l Cost-effective migration from legacy networks
l A detailed summary of requirements has been captured in 3GPP TR 25.913
„Requirements for Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA) and Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)”.

CG & AR | April 2009 | 6

Evolution of UMTS FDD and TDD
driven by data rate and latency requirements
evolution HSUPA HSPA+
TD-LTE and advanced
evolution TD-HSPA+

3GPP 3GPP Study

release 3GPP Release 99/4 3GPP Release 5/6 3GPP Release 7 3GPP Release 8
Item initiated
App. year of 2005/6 (HSDPA)
network rollout 2003/4 2008/2009 2010
2007/8 (HSUPA)

Downlink LTE: 150 Mbps* (peak) 100 Mbps high mobility

384 kbps(typ.)
384 kbps (typ.) 14 Mbps (peak) 28 Mbps
28 Mbps (peak) HSPA+: 42 Mbps (peak)
data rate 1 Gbps low mobility

Uplink LTE: 75 Mbps (peak)

128 kbps (typ.)
kbps (typ.) 5.7 Mbps (peak) 11 Mbps
11 Mbps (peak) HSPA+: 11 Mbps (peak)
data rate

Trip Time ~ 150 ms < 100 ms < 50 ms LTE: ~10 ms

*based on 2x2 MIMO and 20 MHz operation

CG & AR | April 2009 | 7

LTE technology basics

CG & AR | April 2009 | 8

LTE key parameters
UMTS FDD bands and UMTS TDD bands

1.4 MHz 3 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 15 MHz 20 MHz

1 Resource 6 15 25 50 75 100
Block=180 kHz Resource Resource Resource Resource Resource Resource
Blocks Blocks Blocks Blocks Blocks Blocks

Modulation Downlink: QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

Schemes Uplink: QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM (optional for handset)

Downlink: OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)

Multiple Access
Uplink: SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access)

Downlink: Wide choice of MIMO configuration options for transmit diversity, spatial
multiplexing, and cyclic delay diversity (max. 4 antennas at base station and handset)
Uplink: Multi user collaborative MIMO

Downlink: 150 Mbps (UE category 4, 2x2 MIMO, 20 MHz)

Peak Data Rate 300 Mbps (UE category 5, 4x4 MIMO, 20 MHz)
Uplink: 75 Mbps (20 MHz)

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LTE frequency bands Work on

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Introduction to OFDMA and
downlink frame structure

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What is OFDM?

Single Carrier
(e.g. WCDMA)
5 MHz

Typically several 100 sub-carriers with spacing of x kHz

Orthogonal Frequency
Division Multiplexing
e.g. 5 MHz

CG & AR | April 2009 | 12

OFDM signal generation chain
l OFDM signal generation is based on Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
(IFFT) operation on transmitter side:

Data QAM N Useful

1:N OFDM Cyclic prefix
source Modulator symbol IFFT N:1 OFDM
symbols insertion
streams symbols

Frequency Domain Time Domain

l On receiver side, an FFT operation will be used.

CG & AR | April 2009 | 13

Difference between OFDM and OFDMA

l OFDM allocates users in time l OFDMA allocates users in time

domain only and frequency domain

Frequency domain
Frequency domain

User 1
User 1
User 2
User 3 User 2 User 3

Time domain Time domain

CG & AR | April 2009 | 14

LTE downlink
conventional OFDMA
5 MHz Bandwidth

Guard Intervals




l LTE provides QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM as downlink modulation schemes

l Cyclic prefix is used as guard interval, different configurations possible:
l Normal cyclic prefix with 5.2 Os (first symbol) / 4.7 Os (other symbols)
l Extended cyclic prefix with 16.7 Os
l 15 kHz subcarrier spacing
l Scalable bandwidth

CG & AR | April 2009 | 15

OFDMA time-frequency multiplexing

1 resource block =
180 kHz = 12 subcarriers Subcarrier spacing = 15 kHz


1 slot = 0.5 ms = UE1 UE2 UE3

7 OFDM symbols**
1 subframe =
1 ms= 1 TTI*=
1 resource block pair

*TTI = transmission time interval

** For normal cyclic prefix duration

time QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM modulation

CG & AR | April 2009 | 16

LTE – spectrum flexibility

l LTE physical layer supports any bandwidth from 1.4 MHz

to 20 MHz in steps of 180 kHz (resource block)
l Current LTE specification supports a subset of 6 different
system bandwidths
l All UEs must support the maximum bandwidth of 20 MHz

Channel Bandwidth [MHz]

Transmission Bandwidth Configuration [RB]

Channel Transmission
Bandwidth [RB]

Channel edge

Channel edge
1.4 3 5 10 15 20

Resource block
Number of
resource 6 15 25 50 75 100

Active Resource Blocks DC carrier (downlink only)

CG & AR | April 2009 | 17

1 radio frame = 10 ms

#0 #1 #19

1 slot = 0.5 ms LTE frame structure type 1 (FDD),

1 subframe = 1 ms
Userl data

L1/2 downlink
control channels

Screenshot of R&S
SMU200A signal generator

CG & AR | April 2009 | 18

1 radio frame = 10 ms

One radio frame Tf =10 ms

#0 #1 #19

1 slot = 0.5 ms LTE frame structure type 2 (TDD)

Special subframes containing:
1 subframe = 1 ms
DwPTS: downlink pilot time slot
UpPTS: uplink pilot time slot
GP: guard period for TDD operation
Possible uplink-downlink
configurations (D=Downlink,
U=Uplink, S=Special Subframe):


Screenshot of R&S
SMU200A signal generator

CG & AR | April 2009 | 19

Introduction to SC-FDMA and
uplink frame structure

CG & AR | April 2009 | 20

How to generate SC-FDMA?
l DFT “pre-coding” is performed on modulated data symbols to transform them
into frequency domain,
l Sub-carrier mapping allows flexible allocation of signal to available sub-carriers,
l IFFT and cyclic prefix (CP) insertion as in OFDM,

Time Domain Frequency Domain Time Domain



coded symbol rate R N-point Subcarrier M-point CP
NTX symbols DFT … Mapping IDFT Insertion

l Each subcarrier carries a portion of superposed DFT spread data symbols,

therefore SC-FDMA is also referred to as DFT-spread-OFDM (DFT-s-OFDM).

CG & AR | April 2009 | 21

How does a SC-FDMA signal look like?

l Similar to OFDM signal, but…

– …in OFDMA, each sub-carrier only carries information related to one specific symbol,
– …in SC-FDMA, each sub-carrier contains information of ALL transmitted symbols.

CG & AR | April 2009 | 22

SC-FDMA signal generation
Localized vs. distributed FDMA
s0 S0 X1 x0
s1 S1 x1

sM SM 1
xN 1
XN 1

l We have seen that DFT will distribute the time signal over the frequency domain
Next question that arises is how is that distribution done: localized or distributed?

multi-user scheduling
gain in frequency domain

robust transmission for control

localized mode is used in LTE
channels and high mobility UE

CG & AR | April 2009 | 23

SC-FDMA – Peak-to-average Power Ratio (PAPR)


localized mode (LFDMA)

is used in LTE

H.G. Myung, J.Lim, D.J. Goodman “SC-FDMA for Uplink Wireless Transmission”, IFDMA = “Interleaved FDMA” = Distributed SC-FDMA

CG & AR | April 2009 | 24

SC-FDMA parameterization (FDD and TDD)

l Same as in downlink,
Number SC-FDMA Number of Cyclic Prefix Length Cyclic Prefix
Symbols Subcarrier in Samples Length in Es
Normal CP 160 for 1st symbol 5.2 for 1st symbol
∆f = 15 kHz 144 for other symbols 4.7 for other symbols
Extended CP
6 512 16.7
∆f = 15 kHz

l Usage of UL depends on the selected UL-DL configuration (1 to 8), each
configuration offers a different number of subframes (1ms) for uplink
l Parameterization for those subframes, means number of SC-FDMA symbols
same as for FDD and depending on CP,

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Network and protocol architecture

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LTE/SAE network architecture

SAE = System Architecture Evolution EPS = Evolved Packet System

eNB = evolved Node B EPC = Evolved Packet Core
MME = Mobility Management Entity P-GW = Packet Data Network Gateway
E-UTRAN = Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network NAS = Non Access Stratum
S-GW = Serving Gateway RB = Radio Bearer

CG & AR | April 2009 | 27

Protocol stack Header compression (ROHC)
In-sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs

user plane
Duplicate elimination of lower layer SDUs
Ciphering for user/control plane
Integrity protection for control plane
Timer based discard…

In-sequence delivery
Duplicate detection
SDU discard

Mapping between logical and PDCP = Packet Data Convergence Protocol

transport channels RLC = Radio Link Control
(De)-Multiplexing MAC = Medium Access Control
Scheduling information reporting PHY = Physical Layer
HARQ SDU = Service Data Unit
Priority handling (H)ARQ = (Hybrid) Automatic Repeat Request
Transport format selection…

CG & AR | April 2009 | 28

Protocol stack Broadcast

control plane
RRC connection setup
Radio Bearer Control
Mobility functions
UE measurement control…

EPS bearer management

ECM_IDLE mobility handling
Paging origination in ECM_IDLE
Security control…

EPS = Evolved packet system

RRC = Radio Resource Control
NAS = Non Access Stratum
ECM = EPS Connection Management

CG & AR | April 2009 | 29

Mapping between logical and transport channels
simplified architecture…
Dedicated Traffic Channel
Dedicated Control Channel
Mapping takes place in MAC layer l CCCH:
Common Control Channel
Downlink Shared Channel
Uplink Shared Channel
Uplink l B(C)CH:
Logical channels Broadcast (Control) Channel
l P(C)CH:
Paging (Control) Channel
Mapping takes place in MAC layer
l RACH: Random Access Channel

Transport channels

CG & AR | April 2009 | 30

...compared to WCDMA/HSPA
(TDD only) MAC SAPs

(TDD only) (TDD only)


(TDD only)

(TDD only) (TDD only)

CG & AR | April 2009 | 31

LTE UE categories (downlink and uplink)
Maximum number of Maximum number of bits Total number Maximum number of
UE category DL-SCH transport block of a DL-SCH transport of soft supported layers for
bits received within TTI block received a TTI channel bits spatial multiplexing in DL
1 10296 10296 250368 1

2 51024 51024 1237248 2

3 102048 75376 1237248 2

4 150752 75376 1827072 2

5 302752 151376 3667200 4

Maximum number of
~150 Mbps Support 64QAM
UE category UL-SCH transport block
~300 Mbps peak DL data rate in UL
bits received within TTI
peak DL data rate for 2x2 MIMO
for 4x4 MIMO 1 5160 No
2 25456 No
3 51024 No
MIMO = Multiple Input Multiple Output
4 51024 No
UL-SCH = Uplink Shared Channel
DL-SCH = Downlink Shared Channel 5 75376 Yes
UE = User Equipment
TTI = Transmission Time Interval ~75 Mbps peak
UL data rate

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Radio procedures

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LTE Initial Access

Initial Access

Cell Search Derive System Random User Data

and Selection Information Access RX/TX


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Downlink physical channels and signals

LTE Downlink Physical Signals

Primary and Secondary Synchronization Signal Provide acquisition of cell timing and identity during cell search

Downlink Reference Signal Cell search, initial acquisition, coherent demod., channel estimation

LTE Downlink Physical Channels

Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) Provides essential system information e.g. system bandwidth

Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH) Indicates format of PDCCH (CFI)

Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) Carries control information (DCI = Downlink Control Information)
not requiredCarries
Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH)
for datacell search
(user data, system information,…)
and cellCarries
Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)
ACK/NACK (HI = HARQ indicator) for uplink data packets

Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH) Carries MBMS user data

CG & AR | April 2009 | 35

Cell search in LTE
“Smith” “Johnson” “Rose”
Physical layer cell
Physical layer identity group 0 1 167
cell identity Identified by…
Physical layer
(1 out of 504) identity 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2
“James” “Robert” “James” “Robert” “James” “Robert”
“John” “John” “John”

1. Primary synchronization signal (PSS)

– 3 possible sequences to identify the cell’s
physical layer identity (0, 1, 2),
2. Secondary synchronization signal (SSS)
– 168 different sequences to identity physical layer cell identity group,

l Hierarchical cell search as in 3G; providing PSS and SSS for assistance,
( 2)
– PSS is carrying physical layer identity N ID ,
– SSS is carrying physical layer cell identity group N ID ,
– Cell Identity is computed as N ID = 3 N ID(1) + N ID( 2 ), where N ID(1) = 0,1, ...,167 and N ID( 2 ) = 0, 1, 2

CG & AR | April 2009 | 36

Primary Synchronization Signal
N (2)

Primary Synchronization Signal

(CAZAC sequence, Zadoff-Chu)

Screenshot taken from R&S® FSQ signal analyzer

CG & AR | April 2009 | 37

Secondary Synchronization Signal

Secondary Synchronization Signal

in 6th OFDM symbol
(= symbol #5, RBPSK modulation)

Screenshot taken from R&S® FSQ signal analyzer

CG & AR | April 2009 | 38

Cell search in LTE, reference signals
Radio Frame = 10 ms

Physical layer
cell identity DL Frame Structure
(1 out of 504) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ( use of Normal Cyclic Prefix)

Time Slot = 0.5 ms

Subframe = 1 ms

1. Primary synchronization signal (PSS)

– 3 possible sequences to identify the cell’s
physical layer identity (0, 1, 2),
2. Secondary synchronization signal (SSS)
– 168 different sequences to identity physical layer cell identity group,
Downlink reference signals,

l Cell-specific reference signals are used for…

– … cell search and initial acquisition,
– … downlink channel estimation for coherent demodulation/detection at the UE,
– … downlink channel quality measurements.

CG & AR | April 2009 | 39

Downlink reference signals
l Each antenna has a specific reference signal pattern, e.g. for 2 antennas,
– Frequency domain spacing is 6 subcarrier,
– Time domain spacing is 4 OFDM symbols 4 reference signals per resource block,

Resource Block

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Cell search in LTE, essential system information
Radio Frame = 10 ms

Physical layer
cell identity DL Frame Structure
(1 out of 504) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ( use of Normal Cyclic Prefix)

Time Slot = 0.5 ms

Subframe = 1 ms

1. Primary synchronization signal (PSS)

– 3 possible sequences to identify the cell’s
physical layer identity (0, 1, 2),
2. Secondary synchronization signal (SSS)
– 168 different sequences to identity physical layer cell identity group,
Downlink reference signals,
3. Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH)
– Carrying broadcast channel (BCH) with Master Information Block
(MIB) System bandwidth [4 bit], PHICH configuration [Duration: 1 bit,
Resource: 2 bit], System Frame Number [SFN, 8 bit] and indirect
about the used Tx antennas,
– QPSK modulated, cell-specific scrambling
– Transmitted on 72 subcarriers around the carrier frequency,

CG & AR | April 2009 | 41

System information broadcast in LTE

Master Information Block (on BCH),

UE E-UTRAN periodicity 40 ms:
System bandwidth, PHICH
configuration, SFN number
of transmit antennas,

SystemInformationBlockType1 System Information Block Type 1

(on DL-SCH), periodicity 80 ms:
PLMN IDs, Tracking Area Code,
Cell identity, Access restrictions,
SystemInformation scheduling information,…

SI-RNTI is used on PDCCH to address System information blocks with

System Information Block Type 1 and SI same scheduling requirements
messages can be mapped to same SI
message (DL-SCH)

CG & AR | April 2009 | 42

Random Access Procedure
Sent on PRACH resources
associated with RA-RNTI

Generated by MAC sent on DL-SCH

with RA-RNTI; assignment of Temporary
1 Random Access Preamble C-RNTI, timing advance, initial uplink grant
(sent on PRACH with RA-RNTI)

Sent on UL-SCH; includes

NAS UE identifier and RRC Random Access Response 2
addressed by PDCCH using RA-RNTI)
Early contention resolution
Scheduled Transmission
(mirroring of uplink message)
(Data send on PUSCH) generated by MAC sent on DL-SCH

Contention Resolution 4
using TC/C-RNTI)

PRACH Physical Random Access Channel C-RNTI Cellular RNTI

RA-RNTI Random Access Radio Network Temporary Identity UL-SCH Uplink Shared Channel
MAC Medium Access Control (Layer) CR Contention Resolution
DL-SCH Downlink Shared Channel TC-RNTI Temporary Cellular RNTI

CG & AR | April 2009 | 43

How to derive information in LTE?
Check the PDCCH for an unique
IDENTITY1). As soon as you have
found it, you will get all the
information you need there.

Physical Downlink Control Physical Downlink Shared

Channel (PDCCH) Channel (PDSCH)

I would like to read the PDSCH

but I don‘t know which resources
are allocated for the transport
of system or paging information

?! or data and how they look like?

1) Several identities are used in LTE to identify UE’s (e.g. C-RNTI),

System Information (SI-RNTI), Paging Information (P-RNTI) or during

Random Access Procedure (RA-RNTI), for details see 3GPP TS36.321 V8.5.0 MAC Protocol Specification

CG & AR | April 2009 | 44

Indicating PDCCH format
Check PCFICH! It will
tell you how many
symbols (1, 2, 3 (or 4))
in the beginning of each
subframe are allocated
for PDCCH!

Physical Downlink
Physical Control Format Control Channel (PDCCH)
Indicator Channel (PCFICH)
I would like to
read the PDCCH
but where is it?


CG & AR | April 2009 | 45

Hybrid ARQ in the downlink
l ACK/NACK for data packets transmitted in the downlink is the same as for
HSDPA, where the UE is able to request retransmission of incorrectly received
data packets,
– ACK/NACK is transmitted in UL, either on PUCCH1) or multiplexed within PUSCH2)
(see description of those UL channels for details),
– ACK/NACK transmission refers to the data packet received four sub-frames (= 4 ms)
– 8 HARQ processes can be used in parallel in downlink,

1) PUCCH – Physical Uplink Control Channel

2) PUSCH – Physical Uplink Shared Channel

CG & AR | April 2009 | 46

Default EPS (Evolved Packet System) bearer setup
UE EUTRAN / core network

Initial access and RRC connection establishment

attach request and PDN connectivity request


NAS security

UE capability procedure

AS security

RRC connection reconfiguration

Attach accept and default EPS bearer context request

Default EPS bearer context accept

PDN = Packet Data Network
RRC = Radio Resource Control
NAS = Non-Access Stratum
AS = Access Stratum

CG & AR | April 2009 | 47

Uplink physical channels and signals

LTE Uplink Physical Channels

Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) Carries user data

Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) Carries control information (UCI = Uplink Control Information)

Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Preamble transmission for initial access

LTE Uplink Physical Signals

Demodulation Reference Signal (DRS) Enables channel estimation and data demodulation

Sounding Reference Signal (SRS) Enables uplink channel quality evaluation

CG & AR | April 2009 | 48

Scheduling of uplink data

Check PDCCH for your UE ID.

As soon as you are addressed,
you will find your uplink
scheduling grants there.

Physical Downlink Physical Uplink

Control Channel (PDCCH) Shared Channel (PUSCH)
(QPSK, 16QAM modulated,
64QAM is optional for the UE)

?! I would like to send data on PUSCH

but I don‘t know which resource blocks
and transport formats I can use?

CG & AR | April 2009 | 49

UL frequency hopping
l Intra- and inter-subframe hopping,
l Intra-subframe hopping. UE hops to
another frequency allocation from one
slot to another within one subframe,
l Inter-subframe hopping. Frequency
allocation changes from one subframe to
another one,
Example: Intra-subframe hopping, Type I with different offsets
l Two types of hopping,
– Type I. Explicit frequency offset is used in the
2nd slot, can be configured and is indicated to
the UE by resource block assignment /
hopping resource allocation field in DCI
format 0,
– Type II. Use of pre-defined hopping pattern,
allocated BW is divided into sub-bands,
hopping is done from one sub-band to
another from one slot or subframe depending
on configured frequency hopping scheme.

Screenshots of R&S® SMU200A Vector Signal Generator

CG & AR | April 2009 | 50

Demodulation Reference Signal (DRS) in the UL

l DRS are used for channel estimation in the eNodeB receiver in

order to demodulate data (PUSCH) and control (PUCCH) channels,
– PUSCH. Located in the 4th SC-FDMA symbol in each slot (symbol #3, #10 for normal
CP), spanning the same BW as allocated for user data,
– PUCCH. Different symbols, depending on format (see one of the following slides),

Demodulation Reference Signal (DRS)

Screenshot of R&S® SMU200A Vector Signal Generator

CG & AR | April 2009 | 51

Sounding Reference Signal (SRS) in the UL
l SRS are used to estimate uplink channel quality in other frequency areas as a
basis for scheduling decisions,
– Transmitted in areas, where no user data is transmitted, first or last symbol of
subframe is used for transmission,
– Configuration (e.g. BW, power offset,
cyclic shift, duration, periodicity,
hopping pattern) is signaled by
higher layers,

Screenshot of R&S® SMU200A Vector Signal Generator

CG & AR | April 2009 | 52

PUSCH power control & timing relation
l Power level in dBm to be used for PUSCH transmission is derived using the
following formula:
PUSCH transport
Maximum allowed Combination of cell-1) and UE-specific2)
UE power component configured by RRC

PPUSCH (i ) = min{PMAX ,10 log 10 ( M PUSCH (i )) + PO_PUSCH ( j ) + PL + TF (TF (i )) + f (i )}

Number of PUSCH Downlink Power control adjustment
UE PUSCH transmit Cell-specific Parameter
resource blocks path loss derived from TPC command
power in subframe i configured by RRC estimate received via DCI format
subframe (i-4)

CG & AR | April 2009 | 53

Acknowledging UL data packets on PHICH

Read the PHICH. It carries

ACK or NACK for each single packet.

Physical Uplink
Physical Hybrid ARQ
Shared Channel (PUSCH)
Indicator Channel (PHICH)

I have sent data packets on PUSCH
but I don‘t know whether they
have been received correctly.

CG & AR | April 2009 | 54

Physical Uplink Control Channel
– PUCCH carries Uplink Control Information (UCI), when no PUSCH is available,
– If PUSCH is available, means resources have been allocated to the UE for data transmission, UCI
are multiplexed with user data,
– UCI are Scheduling Requests (SR), ACK/NACK information related to DL data packets,
CQI, Pre-coding Matrix Information (PMI) and Rank Indication (RI) for MIMO,
– PUCCH is transmitted on reserved frequency regions, configured by higher layers, which
are located at the edge of the available bandwidth
– Minimizing effects of a possible frequency-selective fading affecting the radio channel,
– Inter-slot hopping is used on PUCCH,
– A RB can be configured to support a mix of PUCCH formats (2/2a/2b and 1/1a/1b) or exclusively
2/2a/2b, PUCCH format Bits per subframe Modulation Contents

1 On/Off N/A Scheduling Request (SR)



CQI/PMI or RI (any CP),

2 20 QPSK
(CQI/PMI or RI)+ACK/NACK (ext. CP only)

2a 21 QPSK+BPSK (CQI/PMI or RI)+ACK/NACK (normal CP only)

CQI/PMI/RI are only signaled via
PUCCH when periodic reporting is 2b 22 QPSK+BPSK (CQI/PMI or RI)+ACK/NACK (normal CP only)
requested, scheduled and aperiodic
reporting is only done via PUSCH

CG & AR | April 2009 | 55


CG & AR | April 2009 | 57

Introduction to MIMO
gains to exploit from multiple antenna usage
l Transmit diversity (TxD)
l Combat fading
T1 T2 TNt
… l Replicas of the same signal sent
on several Tx antennas
ss11 s12 ssMt1
l Get a higher SNR at the Rx

R1 … RNr l Spatial multiplexing (SM)

l Different data streams sent
simultaneously on different
l Higher data rate
l No diversity gain

Antenna array l Limitation due to path correlation

l Beamforming

CG & AR | April 2009 | 58

downlink modes
l Transmit diversity:
Space Frequency Block Coding (SFBC)
Increasing robustness of transmission
l Spatial multiplexing:
Transmission of different data streams simultaneously over multiple
spatial layers
Codebook based precoding
Open loop mode for high mobile speeds possible
l Cyclic delay diversity (CDD):
Addition of antenna specific cyclic shifts
Results in additional multipath / increased frequency diversity

CG & AR | April 2009 | 59

LTE downlink transmitter chain

Mapping to time /
64QAM modulation
frequency resources

Code words output MIMO

mapping OFDMA multiple
from coding chain access
and precoding
scheme access scheme

CG & AR | April 2009 | 60

Downlink transmit diversity
Space-Frequency Block Coding (2 Tx antenna case)

element mapper
1 code word Layer
Mapper Precoding
element mapper

d(1) Tx 1
d(0) d(1) d(0)
Symbols d(0)
t t t
d(1) d(0)
t d(1) d(0)* -d(1)*
d(0)* Tx 2
t t

CG & AR | April 2009 | 61

Downlink spatial multiplexing
codebook based precoding
l The signal is “pre-coded” (i.e. multiplied with a precoding
matrix) at eNodeB side before transmission
Codebook of precoding
matrices for 2x2 MIMO:
MIMO channel

Regular UE feedback:
PMI = Precoding Matrix Indicator
RI = Rank Indication
CQI = Channel Quality Indication
l Optimum precoding matrix is selected from predefined
“codebook” known at eNode B and UE side
l Selection is based on UE feedback

CG & AR | April 2009 | 62

uplink schemes
l Uplink transmit antenna selection:
l 1 RF chain, 2 TX antennas at UE side
l Closed loop selection of transmit antenna
l eNodeB signals antenna selection to UE
l Optional for UE to support

l Multi-user MIMO / collaborative MIMO:

l Simultaneous transmission from 2 UEs
on same time/frequency resource
l Each UE with single transmit antenna
l eNodeB selects UEs with close-to
orthogonal radio channels

CG & AR | April 2009 | 63

LTE mobility

CG & AR | April 2009 | 64

Handover (Intra-MME/Serving Gateway)
UE Source eNB Target eNB MME

Measurement reporting
Handover decision
Handover request
Admission Control
Handover request Ack
RRC connection reconfiguration
Detach from old, Deliver packets
sync to new cell to target eNB
SN Status Transfer
Data forwarding
Buffer packets
from source eNB
RRC connection reconfiguration complete
Path switch Req / Ack
UE context release
Flush buffer
Release resources
CG & AR | April 2009 | 65
LTE Interworking with 2G/3G

CELL_DCH Handover E-UTRA Handover
GPRS Packet
transfer mode

CCO with CCO,

CELL_PCH NACC Reselection
URA_PCH Reselection
Connection Connection
Connection establishment/release establishment/release

Reselection E-UTRA Reselection GSM_Idle/GPRS

RRC IDLE Packet_Idle
CCO, Reselection

CG & AR | April 2009 | 66

LTE Interworking with CDMA2000 1xRTT and
HRPD (High Rate Packet Data)

1xRTT CS Active Handover E-UTRA Handover HRPD



Reselection E-UTRA Reselection HRPD Idle

1xRTT Dormant

CG & AR | April 2009 | 67

LTE test requirements

CG & AR | April 2009 | 68

eNodeB RF testing

CG & AR | April 2009 | 69

LTE RF Testing Aspects
Base station (eNodeB) according to 3GPP
l Measurements are performed using l Rx characteristics (= Uplink)
Fixed Reference Channels (FRC) – Reference sensitivity level, Dynamic range,
and EUTRA Test Models (E-TM), In-channel selectivity, Adjacent channel
selectivity (ACS) and narrow-band blocking,
l Tx characteristic (= Downlink) Blocking, Receiver spurious emissions,
– Base station output power Receiver intermodulation
– Output power dynamics, l Performance requirements,
– RE Power Control dynamic range, total power
dynamic range, l …for PUSCH,
– Fading conditions, UL timing adjustment, high-
– Transmit ON/OFF power,
speed train, HARQ-ACK multiplexed in PUSCH,
– Transmitter OFF power, transmitter transient
period, l …for PUCCH,
– Transmitted signal quality – DTX to ACK performance, ACK missed detection
PUCCH format 1a (single user), CQI missed
– Frequency Error, Error Vector Magnitude (EVM),
detection for PUCCH format 2, ACK missed
Time alignment between transmitter antennas, DL
detection PUCCH format 1a (multiple user)
RS power, etc. …
– Unwanted emissions, l PRACH performance,
– Occupied Bandwidth, Adjacent Channel Leakage – FALSE detection probability, detection
Power Ratio (ACLR), Operating band unwanted requirements,
emissions, etc. …
– Transmitter spurious emissions and Captured in TS 36.104: Base Station (BS) radio transmission and reception

CG & AR | April 2009 | 70

eNB modulation quality measurements
l Frequency error,
– If frequency error is larger than a few subcarrier, demodulation at the UE might not
work properly and cause network interference,
– Quick test: OBW, Limit for frequency error after demodulation 0.05 ppm + 12 Hz (1ms),

l Error Vector Magnitude (EVM),

– Amount of distortion effecting the receiver to demodulate the signal properly,
– Limit changes for modulation schemes QPSK (17.5%), 16QAM (12.5%), 64QAM (8%),

l Time alignment,
– Only TX test defined for multiple antennas, measurement is to measure the time delay
between the signals for the two transmitting antennas, delay shall not exceed 65 ns,

l DL RS power
– “Comparable” to WCDMA measurement CPICH RSCP; absolute DL RS power is
indicated on SIB Type 2, measured DL RS power shall be in the range of ±2.1 dB,

CG & AR | April 2009 | 71

No filter definition
in LTE!

Screenshot taken
from R&S® FSQ Signal Analyzer

E-UTRA transmitted BS adjacent channel Assumed adjacent Filter on the adjacent ACLR limit
signal channel bandwidth centre frequency offset channel carrier channel frequency and
BWChannel [MHz] below the first or above (informative) corresponding filter
the last carrier centre bandwidth
frequency transmitted
1.4, 3.0, 5, 10, 15, 20 BW Channel E-UTRA of same BW Square (BW Config) 44.2 dB
2 x BW Channel E-UTRA of same BW Square (BW Config) 44.2 dB
BW Channel /2 + 2.5 MHz 3.84 Mcps UTRA RRC (3.84 Mcps) 44.2 dB
BW Channel /2 + 7.5 MHz 3.84 Mcps UTRA RRC (3.84 Mcps) 44.2 dB

NOTE 1: BW Channel and BW Config are the channel bandwidth and transmission bandwidth configuration of the E-UTRA transmitted signal
on the assigned channel frequency.
NOTE 2: CG & AR |toApril
The RRC filter shall be equivalent the 2009 | 72
transmit pulse shape filter defined in [15], with a chip rate as defined in this table.
eNB performance requirements
PRACH and preamble testing I
l PRACH testing is one of the performance requirements defined in
3GPP TS 36.141 E-UTRA BS conformance testing,
l Total probability of FALSE detection of preamble (Pfa 0.1% or less),
l Probability of detection of preamble (Pd = 99% at defined SNR),
l Two modes of testing: normal and high-speed mode,
– Different SNR and fading profiles are used (table shows settings for normal mode),
SNR [dB]
Number of Propagation Frequency
RX antennas conditions (Annex B) offset Burst Burst Burst Burst Burst
format 0 format 1 format 2 format 3 format 4
AWGN 0 -14.2 -14.2 -16.4 -16.5 -7.2
ETU 70 270 Hz -8.0 -7.8 -10.0 -10.1 -0.1
AWGN 0 -16.9 -16.7 -19.0 -18.8 -9.8
ETU 70 270 Hz -12.1 -11.7 -14.1 -13.9 -5.1

Burst format Ncs Logical sequence index v

l Depending on the mode different preambles
0 13 22 32
are used to check detection probability (table 1 167 22 2
shows preamble to be used for normal mode), 2 167 22 0
3 0 22 0
4 10 0 0
CG & AR | April 2009 | 73
eNB performance requirements
PRACH and preamble testing II
NCS NCS value
l According to 3GPP TS 36.211 the NCS Configuration Unrestricted set Restricted set
value is not set directly instead it is 0 0 15
translated to a NCS configuration value, 1 13 18
l This value is set in the signal generator R&S® 2 15 22
SMx or R&S® AMU, 3 18 26
4 22 32
5 26 38
6 32 46
7 38 55
8 46 68
9 59 82
10 76 100
11 93 128
12 119 158
13 167 202
Screenshot taken 14 279 237
from R&S® SMU200A
Vector Signal Generator 15 419 -

CG & AR | April 2009 | 74

R&S®SMx signal generators and
R&S® FSx signal analyzers
R&S®TS8980 LTE RF test system

UE RF testing

R&S®CMW500 wideband radio R&S®SMU200A signal generator and

communication tester fading simulator including MIMO

CG & AR | April 2009 | 75

LTE RF Testing Aspects
User Equipment (UE) according to 3GPP
l Tx characteristic l Rx characteristics
l Transmit power, l Reference sensitivity level,
l Output power dynamics, l UE maximum input level,
l Transmit Signal Quality, l Adjacent channel selectivity,
– Frequency error, EVM vs. subcarrier, EVM l Blocking characteristics,
vs. symbol, LO leakage, IQ imbalance, In-
l Intermodulation characteristics,
band emission, spectrum flatness,
l Spurious emissions,
l Output RF spectrum emissions,
– Occupied bandwidth, Spectrum Emission
Mask (SEM), Adjacent Channel Leakage l Performance requirements
Power Ratio (ACLR),
l Demodulation FDD PDSCH (FRC),
l Spurious Emission,
l Demodulation FDD PCFICH/PDCCH (FRC)
l Transmit Intermodulation,

Captured in TS 36.101: User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception

CG & AR | April 2009 | 76

Transmit modulation

Frequency error ±0.1ppm IQ component

RF carrier

signal I/Q imbalance


RB0 RB1 RB2 RB3 RB4 RB5 frequency

EVM + spectrum flatness

According to 3GPP specification LO leakage (or IQ origin offset) is removed from evaluated signal before
calculating EVM and in-band emission.

CG & AR | April 2009 | 77

In-band emission
l Estimate the interference to non-allocated resource blocks, as the UE shares
transmission bandwidth with other UE’s,
– In-band emission are measured in frequency domain are measured right after FFT,
before equalization filter,
– Measurement is defined as average across 12 subcarriers and as a function of RB
offset from the edge of the allocated bandwidth,
– Minimum requirement max[ 25, (20 log10 EVM ) 3 10 ( RB 1) / N RB )]

DUT Test equipment

symbols Tx-Rx chain EVM

equalizer meas.

0 IFFT Front-end Channel FFT


CG & AR | April 2009 | 78

IQ component
l Also known is LO leakage, IQ offset, etc.,
l Measure of carrier feedthrough present in the signal,
l Removed from measured waveform, before calculating EVM and in-band
emission (3GPP TS 36.101 V8.3.0, Annex F),
l In difference to DL the DC subcarrier in UL is used for transmission, but
subcarriers are shifted half of subcarrier spacing (= 7.5 kHz) to be symmetric
around DC carrier,
l Due to this frequency shift energy of the LO falls into the two central subcarrier,

Downlink (OFDMA) Uplink (SC-FDMA)

Parameters Relative Limit (dBc)

Output power > 0 dBm -25
LO -30 dBm ≤ output power ≤ 0 dBm -20
-40 dBm ≤ output power < -30 dBm -10

subcarrier ∆f = 7.5 kHz
∆f = 15 kHz frequency shift

CG & AR | April 2009 | 79

ACLR measurement I * RBW 10 kHz
VBW 30 kHz
Ref 0 dBm Att 25 dB SWT 250 ms


1 AP

2 AP

3 AP

-50 EXT
= 33 dB = 36 dB UTRAACLR2bis
= 43 dB



-90 Additional requirement for

E-UTRA frequency band I,
-100 signaled by network to the UE
Center 1.947 GHz 2.5 MHz/ Span 25 MHz

fUTRA, ACLR2 fUTRA, ACLR1 fCarrier

Date: 21.AUG.2008 15:51:00 CG & AR | April 2009 | 80

Receiver characteristics

l Throughput shall be >95% for…

l Reference Sensitivity Level,
l Adjacent Channel Selectivity,
l Blocking Characteristics,
l …using the well-defined DL reference channels according to 3GPP

CG & AR | April 2009 | 81

R&S®SMx signal generators and
R&S® FSx signal analyzers
R&S®TS8980 LTE RF test system

LTE wireless device testing from

R&D up to conformance

R&S®CMW500 wideband radio R&S®AMU200A signal generator

communication tester and fading simulator incl. MIMO

CG & AR | April 2009 | 82

Stages of LTE terminal testing

IOT and Conformance Production Maintenance

R&D testing
field trials testing testing and service

Complementary test approaches for verifying:

Functionality Interoperability Standard Final functional Basic functions
and between compliance test and and parameter
performance features and (basis for alignment test
(RF, layer 1, implemen- terminal
protocol stack, tations certification)

CG & AR | April 2009 | 83

LTE terminal interoperability testing
l Interoperability testing is used to
l Connectivity of the UE with the real network
(by means of base station simulators)
l Service quality, end-to-end performance
l Different LTE features and parametrizations
l Interworking between LTE and legacy
l The complete UE protocol stack is R&S®CMW500 wideband radio
communication tester (base station
tested. simulator)

l IOT test scenarios are based on

requirements from real network
operation and typical use cases.

CG & AR | April 2009 | 84

LTE terminal interoperability testing
example test scenarios
l Registration
l UE initiated detach
l Network initiated detach
l Mobile originated EPS bearer establishment
l Mobile terminated EPS bearer establishment
l Cell (re-)selection
l GUTI reallocation
l Tracking are update
l …
l Plus: end-to-end scenarios (video streaming, VoIP, …)
l Plus: intra-LTE mobility, inter-RAT mobility

CG & AR | April 2009 | 85

Test scenarios for LTE terminal IOT
different sources for maximum test coverage

Rohde & Schwarz LSTI forum

Basic procedures and „Common Test

bearer verification Descriptions“
(registration, bearer agreed in LSTI IO(D)T
setup, VoIP call, …)
IOT activity
test coverage
IOT requirements for
terminal acceptance

Network operators

CG & AR | April 2009 | 86

LTE conformance testing
l Verifying compliance of terminals to 3GPP
LTE standard
l by validated test cases implemented on
registered test platforms
l in order to ensure worldwide interoperability of R&S®CMW500 wideband radio
the terminal within every mobile network communication tester
l 3GPP RAN5 defines conformance test
specifications for
l RF
l Radio Resource Management (RRM)
l Signalling
l Certification organizations (e.g. GCF)
define certification criteria based on RAN5
test specifications.
R&S®TS8980 LTE RF test system

CG & AR | April 2009 | 87

LTE terminal certification
success factors
l Terminal certification as quality gateway

l Ensuring global interoperability of terminals

l Increasing reliability and performance

l Partnership between network operators, device

manufacturers and test industry
l Close liaison between standardization fora and
certification groups
l Harmonized processes for LTE FDD and TDD,
e.g. work item structure
l LTE alignment team founded within CCF

CG & AR | April 2009 | 88

R&S®FSH4/8 handheld R&S®ROMES drive test software
spectrum analyzer

LTE field trial testing and

coverage measurements

R&S®TSMW Universal Radio

Network Analyzer

CG & AR | April 2009 | 89

LTE field trials
requirements from different deployment scenarios

l Bandwidths from 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz

l Different LTE FDD and TDD frequency
bands Applications
l Combination with legacy technologies
l Spectrum clearance and refarming
l Femto cell / Home eNB scenarios

CG & AR | April 2009 | 90

LTE field trials
scope of test tools
l Field trials provide input for:
l Calibration and verification of planning tools for
different deployment scenarios
l Network optimization (capacity and quality)
l Quality of service verification R&S®TSMW Network Scanner and
ROMES Drive Test Software
l Definition of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
and verification, also from subscriber’s point of
l Parallel use of scanners / measurement
receivers for comparison with UE and DL Throughput
base station behaviour
l Support of IOT activities UL Throughput

CG & AR | April 2009 | 91

Example result from the field
scanner measurements for LTE

Up to 64 Frequencies
TopN list of all pilots
with Power and SINR

Number of Pilots not limited

Channel Impulse
for Multi Path Reflections
and check of Cyclic Prefix Multi Path reflections up to 8 x length of cyclic prefix (CP)

CG & AR | April 2009 | 92

Would you like to know more?

LTE application notes from Rohde & Schwarz

CG & AR | April 2009 | 93