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Fisheries Department, Government of Tamil Nadu

Preparation of TEFR for Renovation


of Existing Fishing Harbour at Mudhu
Nagar in Cuddalore District
Final EIA Report
Environmental Impact Assessment and
Environmental Management Plan
December 2016

May 2016
This report has been prepared under the DHI Business Management System
certified by BVC to comply with ISO 9001 (Quality Management), ISO 14001 (Environmental
Management), OHSAS 18001 (Health and Safety Management)

Approved by

Dr. Flemming Jakobsen


Managing Director

©DHI-fishing harbour-cuddalore/ruk / 2015


Fisheries Department, Government of Tamil Nadu

Preparation of TEFR for Renovation of


Existing Fishing Harbour at Mudhu
Nagar in Cuddalore District
Final EIA Report
December 2016

Prepared for Fisheries Department, Government of Tamil Nadu


Represented by Chief Engineer

Project number 63800693


Approval date 9th December 2016
Revision A
Classification Confidential

© DHI. All rights reserved. No parts of this document may be reproduced, transmitted
or otherwise disseminated in any form or by any means outside the recipient’s
organisation without the prior written permission of DHI.

DHI (India) Water & Environment Pvt Ltd•NSIC Bhawan, IIIrd Floor, NSIC-STP Complex•Okhla Industrial
Estate•IN-11 00 20New Delhi• India
Telephone: +91 11 4703 4500 • Telefax: +91 11 4703 4501 • • www.dhigroup.com
CONTENTS

1 Introduction ...............................................................................................5
1.1 Background ............................................................................................................... 5
1.2 Project plan ............................................................................................................... 7
1.3 Layout ....................................................................................................................... 7
1.4 Description of marine and shore facilities ................................................................. 8

2 TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT ..............................................................15


2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 15
2.2 Site and Surroundings ............................................................................................ 15
2.3 Land Environment ................................................................................................... 15
2.3.1 Prominent features in 10 km radius ........................................................................ 16
2.3.2 Topography ............................................................................................................. 17
2.3.3 Geology and Geomorphology ................................................................................. 17
2.3.4 Soil .......................................................................................................................... 17
2.3.5 Seismicity ................................................................................................................ 19
2.4 Air Environment....................................................................................................... 19
2.4.1 Meteorological Data ................................................................................................ 19
2.4.2 Ambient Air Quality ................................................................................................. 22
2.5 Noise Environment .................................................................................................. 24
2.6 Water Environment ................................................................................................. 25
2.6.1 Ground Water sampling stations ............................................................................. 25
2.6.2 Surface Water sampling stations ............................................................................ 27
2.7 Biological Environment ........................................................................................... 29
2.7.1 Ecology and Biodiversity ......................................................................................... 29
2.8 Socioeconomic Environment .................................................................................. 30
2.8.1 Occupation pattern .................................................................................................. 42

3 PREDICTION OF IMPACTS FOR TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT ........43


3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 43
3.2 Construction Phase Activities ................................................................................. 43
3.2.1 Air environment ....................................................................................................... 44
3.2.2 Noise environment .................................................................................................. 44
3.2.3 Water environment: ................................................................................................. 45
3.3 Operational Phase Activities ................................................................................... 45
3.3.1 Air environment ....................................................................................................... 45
3.3.2 Noise environment .................................................................................................. 46
3.3.3 Water environment .................................................................................................. 46
3.3.4 Solid Waste Management ....................................................................................... 46
3.3.5 Socio Economic Environment ................................................................................. 47

4 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR TERRESTRIAL


ENVIRONMENT........................................................................................48
4.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 48
4.2 Air environment ....................................................................................................... 48
4.3 Noise Environment .................................................................................................. 48
4.4 Water environment .................................................................................................. 49
4.5 Solid Waste Management ....................................................................................... 49
4.6 Green belt development .......................................................................................... 50
4.7 Hazardous waste management .............................................................................. 50
4.8 Health and safety precautions during construction phase ...................................... 50

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5 TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMME .........51

6 MARINE ENVIRONMENT .........................................................................53


6.1 Baseline data .......................................................................................................... 56
6.1.1 Physical ................................................................................................................... 56
6.1.2 Water Quality .......................................................................................................... 62
6.1.3 Sediment quality...................................................................................................... 70
6.1.4 Biological parameters ............................................................................................. 72

7 DESCRIPTION OF MARINE ENVIRONMENT ........................................ 100

8 IMPACT ASSESSMENT & MITIGATION FOR MARINE ENVIRONMENT


................................................................................................................ 101
8.1 Identification of impacts ........................................................................................ 101
8.2 Construction of Breakwaters ................................................................................. 101
8.2.1 Mitigation ............................................................................................................... 101
8.3 Construction of Diaphragm wall ............................................................................ 102
8.3.1 Impacts.................................................................................................................. 102
8.3.2 Mitigation ............................................................................................................... 102
8.4 Dredging ................................................................................................................ 102
8.4.1 Impacts.................................................................................................................. 102
8.4.2 Mitigation: .............................................................................................................. 103
8.5 Shoreline changes ................................................................................................ 103
8.5.1 Impacts.................................................................................................................. 103
8.5.2 Mitigation: .............................................................................................................. 103
8.6 Storms surge & tsunami ........................................................................................ 103
8.6.1 Impacts.................................................................................................................. 103
8.6.2 Mitigation ............................................................................................................... 104
8.7 Mangroves ............................................................................................................ 104
8.7.1 Impacts.................................................................................................................. 104
8.7.2 Mitigation ............................................................................................................... 104

9 MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR MARINE ENVIRONMENT ......................... 106


9.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 106

10 MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMME ................. 107


10.1 Marine water and sediment quality monitoring ..................................................... 107
10.2 Habitat and ecosystem integrity ............................................................................ 107
10.3 Coastal processes ................................................................................................ 107
10.4 Monitoring of Marine Benthic fauna ...................................................................... 107

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 Location Map............................................................................................................. 6


Figure 1.2 Satellite Imagery ....................................................................................................... 6
Figure 1.3 Detailed layout of proposed marine facilities ............................................................ 9
Figure 1.4 Plan for the proposed harbour facilities .................................................................. 10
Figure 2.1 Land use and Land cover in the buffer area of 10 km around the project area ...... 16
Figure 2.2 Measurement location of soil .................................................................................. 19
Figure 2.3 Monthly wind rose diagram of the project area ....................................................... 21
Figure 2.4 Locations of Air quality monitoring stations ............................................................ 23

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Figure 2.5 Locations of Noise quality monitoring stations ........................................................ 24
Figure 2.6 Locations of ground water quality monitoring stations ............................................ 27
Figure 2.7 Locations of Surface water sampling stations ........................................................ 28
Figure 5.1 Proposed terrestrial Monitoring locations ............................................................... 52
Figure 6.1 Water and Sediment sampling locations map ........................................................ 53
Figure 6.2 Variation in Tide measurements ............................................................................. 58
Figure 6.3 Variation of current speed and direction of stn C2 (river) ....................................... 59
Figure 6.4 Current Measurement locations .............................................................................. 60
Figure 6.5 Bathymetry map ...................................................................................................... 61
Figure 6.6 Mangroves in Gadilam river .................................................................................... 89
Figure 6.7 Floral species found in the coastal sand dune ........................................................ 90
Figure 6.8 Marine fish production in Cuddalore district during 2010-11 .................................. 92
Figure 6.9 Annual Marine fish production in Cuddalore district from 2001-02 to 2010-11 ...... 92
Figure 6.10 Comparison of fishing craft types used in Cuddalore district 2006-07 to 2010-11 . 93
Figure 6.11 Fishing gear types used in Cuddalore district ......................................................... 94
Figure 6.12 Species composition based on the experimental trawl survey ............................... 96
Figure 6.13 Trawling operations and groups of fishes ............................................................... 98
Figure 10.1 Project monitoring locations .................................................................................. 109

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 Soil sampling locations ........................................................................................... 17


Table 2.2 Results of soil analysis ............................................................................................ 18
Table 2.3 Air quality monitoring locations ............................................................................... 22
Table 2.4 Results of Air quality analysis (above 1.5 m above ground level) .................................... 22
Table 2.5 Sampling stations for Noise level study .................................................................. 24
Table 2.6 Results of Noise levels at selected stations .................................................................. 25
Table 2.7 Sampling stations for Ground water study .............................................................. 25
Table 2.8 Results of Ground water quality analysis ................................................................ 26
Table 2.9 Sampling stations for Surface water study ............................................................. 27
Table 2.10 Results of Surface water quality analysis ............................................................... 28
Table 2.11 List of Marine Fishing Villages in Mudhu Nagar, Cuddalore District ....................... 30
Table 2.12 Fishermen Population in Cuddalore Harbour ......................................................... 31
Table 2.13 Details of Fisherfolk Population in Mudhu Nagar at Cuddalore District .................. 33
Table 2.14 Region and Communitgy – Family Wise in Mudhu Nagar at Cuddalore District .... 34
Table 2.15 Housing Facilities in Mudhu Nagar at Cuddalore District ....................................... 35
Table 2.16 Educational Status in Mudhu Nagar at Cuddalore District ..................................... 36
Table 2.17 Employment status of fisher folk ............................................................................. 37
Table 2.18 Identity Card and Income Status of Fisherfolk Families in Mudhu Nagar at
Cuddalore Distric..................................................................................................... 38
Table 2.19 Fishing Days & Mode of Fish Marketing in Mudhu Nagar at Cuddalore District .... 39
Table 2.20 Fishing Days & Mode of Fish Marketing in Mudhu Nagar at Cuddalore ................. 41
Table 3.1 Construction Phase Raw Water Requirement ........................................................ 44
Table 3.2 Emission Factors for Diesel Trucks ........................................................................ 44
Table 3.3 Details of fresh water and raw water requirements ................................................ 46
Table 5.1 Details of fresh water and raw water requirements ................................................ 51
Table 6.1 Marine sampling locations details ........................................................................... 54
Table 6.2 Monthly wave characteristics off Cuddalore ........................................................... 56
Table 6.3 Tracks of cyclones passed Cuddalore region - 1877 to 1990 ................................ 57
Table 6.4 Details of measurement location, water depth and duration of stations T1 ............ 57
Table 6.5 Details of measurement location, water depth and duration of stations C1 and C2
................................................................................................................................ 60
Table 6.6 Water quality parameters ........................................................................................ 63
Table 6.7 Comparisons of pH, salinity, DO and nutrient levels with COMAPS data .............. 64

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Table 6.8 Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand in seawater .......... 64
Table 6.9 Concentration of Heavy Metals, Phenol, Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Oil
and grease in sea water .......................................................................................... 66
Table 6.10 Sediment size distribution ....................................................................................... 71
Table 6.11 Seabed sediment quality parameters ..................................................................... 71
Table 6.12 Concentration of heavy metals, phenol and total petroleum hydrocarbons in
seabed sediments ................................................................................................... 71
Table 6.13 Primary productivity in coastal waters .................................................................... 73
Table 6.14 Comparative Statement of Primary Production along the East Coast of India ....... 74
Table 6.15 Station wise composition of Phytoplankton ............................................................ 74
Table 6.16 Station wise numerical abundance of Phytoplankton (nos/l) .................................. 76
Table 6.17 Phytoplankton population and biomass in different sampling station ..................... 77
Table 6.18 Station wise numerical abundance of Zooplankton (nos./100m3) .......................... 79
Table 6.19 Zooplankton biomass and Population at different sampling stations...................... 81
Table 6.20 Sub tidal and Inter tidal benthic population ............................................................. 83
Table 6.21 Phytoplankton diversity indices calculated for stations S1 - S10 ............................ 85
Table 6.22 Zooplankton diversity indices calculated for stations S1 - S10 ............................... 85
Table 6.23 Benthic community diversity indices calculated for stations S1 to S10 & IB1 – IB3
................................................................................................................................ 86
Table 6.24 Bray – Curtis similarity for Phytoplankton collection from different stations ........... 87
Table 6.25 Bray – Curtis similarity for Zooplankton collection from different stations .............. 87
Table 6.26 Bray – Curtis similarity for Benthos collection from different stations ..................... 87
Table 6.27 Bacterial population in coastal waters (nosx103/ml) ............................................... 88
Table 6.28 Bacterial population in seabed sediments (nosx104 /g) ......................................... 88
Table 6.29 Estimation of marine fish production for Cuddalore District (2010 – 2011) ............ 90
Table 6.30 Year wise marine fish Production of Cuddalore District ......................................... 93
Table 6.31 Fishing crafts operated in Cuddalore District (2006 – 2011) .................................. 93
Table 6.32 Fishing Gears operated in Cuddalore district ......................................................... 94
Table 6.33 Hauls location - Bottom trawl survey detailed ......................................................... 95
Table 6.34 Classification of experimental bottom trawl fishes .................................................. 99
Table 8.1 Impacts and the possible mitigations are summarized below .............................. 104
Table 10.1 Summary of Monitoring, Review and Reporting ................................................... 107

ANNEXURE

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1 Introduction

1.1 Background
Government of Tamil Nadu has taken steps to expand and modernize existing fishing ports
and fish landing centers along its coast to give a new dimension to the livelihood of the
fishing community. The development project initiated by the Government of Tamil Nadu is
aimed at fulfilling the long term aspirations of the people at Cuddalore and its neighbouring
villages. Department of fisheries, Government of Tamil Nadu has awarded the assignment
to DHI (India) Water & Environment Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi to prepare techno economic
feasibility report for expansion of fishing harbour at Cuddalore., to prepare the Techno
Economic Feasibility Report.

This report presents the details of EIA and EMP studies. The location map of the proposed
Fishing harbour at Cuddalore is shown in Figure 1.1. The satellite imagery is shown in
Figure 1.2.

DHI engaged Indomer Coastal Hydraulics (P) Ltd., Chennai to undertake relevant EIA
studies. Indomer is an ISO 9001:2008 and QCI (NABET) accredited organization
(Sl.No.81) for Sector 27: Oil & gas transportation pipeline (crude and refinery/
petrochemical products), passing through national parks/ sanctuaries/coral
reefs/ecologically sensitive areas including LNG terminal and Sector 33: Ports, harbours,
jetties, marine terminals, break waters and dredging.

The demarcation of High Tide Line (HTL), Low Tide Line (LTL) and Coastal Regulation
Zone (CRZ) for the proposed project region was carried out by institute of Remote Sensing
(IRS), Anna University, Chennai which is an approved agency/institution by MoEF-CC and
the report is enclosed as Annexure I.

The baseline data on Terrestrial environmental parameters were collected and analyzed
by Creative Engineers & Consultants, Chennai, which is accredited by National
Accreditation Board for Education and Training (NABET) and National Accreditation Board
for Laboratory (NABL).

All calendar dates are referred in Indian style as dd.mm.yy. (Eg.05.03.16 for 5th March
2016) and the time is referred to Indian Standard Time in 24 hour clock, eg. 3 P.M. is written
as 1500 hrs. The WGS84 spheroid in Zone 44 is used for the presentation in this report. SI
units are followed for fundamental and derived units. The depths and elevations are
referred with respect to Chart Datum unless otherwise specified.

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Figure 1.1 Location Map

Figure 1.2 Satellite Imagery

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1.2 Project plan
Department of fisheries, Government of Tamil Nadu has planned to renovate the existing
fishing harbour at Cuddalore. It is aimed to fulfil the long term aspirations of the people at
Cuddalore and its neighbouring twenty five coastal villages. The further development on
the existing fishing harbour at Cuddalore with sufficient protection from waves, storm
surges and tsunami has become very important for the surviving group of the fishermen.
Therefore it has been a long felt need of the fishery folk of this region to enhance their
livelihood by deriving maximum benefits of their tireless fishing activities almost throughout
the year. The proposed facilities will provide the extension in the sheltered area with
additional fishing boats berthing benefits.

The fishing harbour proposed by Department of fisheries can serve the needs of 1500
fishing vessels comprising the Motorized Non Mechanized boats, FRPs and Vallams. The
harbour is planned to provide safe berthing facilities and improved fish landing/ handling
facilities. The additional fish handling capacity from the proposed extended fishing harbour
will be 9730 Tons per Annum.

1.3 Layout
At present there are about 245 mechanized fishing boats and 1155 motorized non
mechanized boats operate in the locality of Mudhu Nagar situated in Cuddalore fishing
harbour. In addition 55 nos. of mechanized fishing boats are expected to arrive in near
future. Out of 1155 motorized non mechanized boats, 600 are operating from Mudhu Nagar
fishing harbour and the balances are FRPs/Vallams which are operating from their
respective fishing villages nearby. The fishermen find it difficult to navigate and berth the
fishing crafts safely, unload their fish catches and transit through vehicles. The excessive
accumulation of sand on the northern end of the Uppanar River and across the mouth of
Gadilam River reduces the available draught and the free movement of fishing vessels.
The berthing areas and landing areas have become inaccessible due to inadequate depth
especially during the low tide.

In order to remove the congestion in the present fishing harbour and to increase the
handling facilities, the expansion of fishing harbour has been proposed with:

i) extension of north and south breakwaters at mouth to restrict the deposition of littoral drift
into mouth, ii) dredging the existing fishing harbour channel at Gadilam river to the required
draught and Dredging of creek on North and South side of Fisheries office complex, iii)
construction of retaining walls on the eastern side of the Gadilam river, and iv) improving
the creek for the construction of diaphragm wall to create additional berthing/handling
facilities. The layout of the proposed harbour facilities is shown in Figure 1.3.

Proposed waterside facilities:

i) North and South breakwaters extension at mouth

ii) Shore Protection on the northern side of the port

iii) Diaphragm wall along the proposed creeks

iv) Retaining wall along the eastern bank of Gadilam River

v) Dredging at Gadilam River, creeks near Fisheries Complex and dredging of bar mouth
and channel

Proposed land side facilities:

The land side facilities proposed in the project will have the following facilities.

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➢ Auction hall

➢ Net mending shed

➢ Gear room

➢ Power room/Electrical/ Utility Room

➢ Sloping yard

➢ Admin. & Bank Building

➢ Fueling station

➢ Fresh water Sump

➢ Bore water Sump

➢ Pump house

➢ Over Head Tank (OHT)

➢ Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)

➢ Solid waste collection area

➢ Parking area

➢ Security Room

➢ Gents Toilet

➢ Ladies Toilet

➢ Cold storage rooms

➢ Dormitory Block

➢ Ice Plant

➢ Work Shop

➢ Radio / Telephone communication

➢ Compound wall & Gate

➢ Internal Roads for 1.5 km length, 7.0 m width.

➢ Electrification – (internal & External) including Transformers, Gen Set & High mast

➢ Tower

➢ Site Development works such as water supply green belt, shore protection & land

➢ Scraping.

1.4 Description of marine and shore facilities


Water facilities: The various marine and harbour facilities are shown in Figures 1.3 and
1.4 respectively.

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Figure 1.3 Detailed layout of proposed marine facilities

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Figure 1.4 Plan for the proposed harbour facilities

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Extension of North and South breakwaters at sea mouth: The north breakwater at
present is 200 m and it will be further increased to a distance of 150. Similarly the south
breakwater at present is 250 m and it will be further increased to a distance of 250 m.

Dredging: Dredging is proposed to deepen the main channel of the Gadilam River for a
length of 2000 m and a width of 50 m to a depth of (-) 3.0 m CD. It is proposed to deepen
the Bar mouth for a length of 200 m and a width of 100 m to a depth of (-) 4.0 m CD. It is
proposed to deepen the northern creek for a length of 200 m and a width of 40 m to a depth
of (-) 3 m CD for 55 MFB vessels and further extended upto 300 m to a depth of (-) 1.0 m
for FRP vessels. It is proposed to deepen the South Creek for a length of 400 m and a
width of 50 m to a depth of (-) 3.0 m CD.

Coastal Protection along the northern side of Port entrance: The dredged material will
be used for beach nourishment to protect the shore on the northern side of the breakwater.

Diaphragm wall: It is proposed to construct the Diaphragm walls for a total length of 1500
m as detailed below.

Location Length (m)


Near the fisheries Office 50
Complex slip way side area
South Bank of Fisheries 850
office complex island creek
North Bank of Fisheries 400
office complex island creek
River side 200

Slipway: A concrete sloping yard of 20 m width and 50 m length is proposed for hauling
the fishing vessel from (-) 3 m CD level from the sea side to the shore with 1 in 10 slope.

Retaining wall with Pre cast concrete Block: From the Survey investigation and
modelling studies, it can be seen that the area situated just north of the harbour entrance
comprising fishing village of Akkaraikori is experiencing erosion. Retaining wall of 2235 m
long is proposed along the eastern bank of the Gadilam River from bar mouth entrance to
Fisheries complex to protect the erosion of Akkaraikori village and also to avoid the siltation
of river bed from high level area during flood and rain.

Navigational Aids: Navigational aids in the form of marker buoys will be deployed along
the approach channel and also at entrance of the harbour which will help the safe
movement of boats during day and night hours.

Shore based facilities

Auction hall: This is a very important facility where the fresh fish landed from the trawlers
are cleaned, sorted by species, size-wise, weighed, auctioned, iced, packed and distributed
to the markets. The auction halls are preferably located close to the landing quay to avoid
long haulage of fish and the fish getting exposed to hot sun in the process. The sequences
of activities that will take place at the auction will generally conform to the established
procedures.

Net mending sheds: After every fishing trip, the nets will be wet and damaged to some
extent. The net mending sheds provide area not only for repairing the nets but also for
drying the nets. Providing these sheds close to the berthing quay will facilitate easy
transportation of nets from the vessels to the sheds.

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Gear sheds: A gear shed becomes an essentiality for every fish owner as he requires a
shed for sorting his fishing gear such as fish nets. Baskets, sinkers, buoys, anchors , ropes
etc. the fishing gear shed may be located as close to the berthing quay as possible so that
the fisherman need not have to carry them a long distance.

Power Room: The required power for the proposed components shall be tapped from one
control room and from this control room through suitable Duct, HT/LT cables and DG sets,
etc., the power can be tapped to various proposed units.

Sloping Yard: The sloping yard having a slope of 1V:10H is provided to match the vessels.
Suitable area shall be earmarked separately for FRPs and trawlers in the land area. For
attending to repairs and maintenance of fishing vessels, a workshop will also be provided
as part of this facility.

Harbour office: The efficient and effective management of the harbour activities of the
fishing harbour needs an administrative office to administer the harbour activities relating
to fish industry, market, fish rates, movement of vehicles in and out of the harbour for
transporting the catch and also the vessels to and from the harbour. The building is located
in the center of the land side facilities, preferably in close proximity to the auction hall so
that fish landings and activities can be monitored effectively all the time.

Fuelling station: The mechanized fishing vessels consume large quantities of diesel and
lubricant oil for a fishing trip. The boats running on inboard/outboard engines will need
petrol and kerosene. Fuelling stations will be provided at the outfitting quays were the
fishing vessels are expected to be serviced.

Fresh Water Sump: A fresh water sump is very much essential in a Fishing harbour for
providing fresh water for drinking to all the proposed components and as well for the
fishermen to carry fresh water while going for fishing in Sea. The total water requirement
for all the proposed land side facilities and fishing craft is 50,000 Litres. The calculation
detail of fresh water requirement is furnished. Hence, a rectangular shape fresh water sump
is proposed.

Water supply: The water requirements have been calculated as 50000 litres. The
Cuddalore Municipal Authority has to be approached for getting freshwater supply.
Additional arrangements have also been made for fresh water as given below.

Pump House: Raw water is required for washing fishes and fish boxes, cleaning auction
hall, etc. For this purpose, a separate bore well pumping station outside CRZ shall provide
raw water up to an underground sump located at the harbour. Similarly, the fresh water
supply reaching an underground sump from the local municipality/panchayat will be
provided. This will meet the drinking water requirements of overall population including
other uses in restaurant, rest shed, administration Building etc. A pumping station with
sump/OHT system will be provided.

Over Head Tank (OHT): The total fresh water requirement for all the proposed components
in harbour is furnished. It is proposed to construct a rectangular shape 50,000 litres
Overhead tank at the elevated ground profile, so that all the proposed components in
harbour shall receive the sufficient head of water by gravity from the OHT.

Sewage Treatment Plant: Sewerage, drainage and solid waste from the auction hall and
other building infrastructures of the fishing Harbour before letting into the open sea water
has to be properly disinfected and treated for contaminants. Provision has to be made for
roadside dust bins, septic tanks, soak pits and sewage treatment plant. The surface
drainage and the storm water from the drains provided on either side of road sections can
be directly let into the sea without treatment. Separate septic tanks, soak pits and manholes
wherever necessary should be built in the appropriate locations in the fishing Harbour to
collect the sewage and disposed of after sewage treatment. The water drains on either side

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of the roads are to be kept covered by pre-cast cover slabs for maintenance and safety of
pedestrian’s traffic. Hence provision has been made for the drainage and sewerage system
including roadside dustbins, septic tanks, soak pits, manholes, sewage treatment plant,
storm water drains etc. within the Fishing Harbour. The total requirement of waste water /
sewage water generated from this Fishing Harbour is 50,000 litres and the same is
enclosed.

Solid waste collection area: The solid waste that shall be generated in a Fishing Harbour
consists mainly of Fish offal, which is Bio-degradable and is converted into organic fertilizer
using the Organic Waste Converter (OWC) plant or through Compost Pits. The solid waste
generated in the Harbour area shall be collected in water tight plastic drums and suitable
solid waste management techniques such as OWC or Compost pits shall be proposed.
Hence a solid waste collection area has been provided in Mudhu Nagar Fishing Harbour.

Parking space: There will be umpteen number of vehicles for collecting and transporting
the fish to the nearby markets and consuming centers. In addition to this there will be
vehicles used by the administrative personnel serving the harbour. Hence adequate
parking space need to be provided near the auction hall, administrative building and other
ancillary industries. Taking into account the parking needs expected to arise from the
harbour, three parking slots are proposed in the harbour. An exclusive parking area for the
employees of the bank is also proposed.

Security Room: For protection of Mudhu Nagar Fishing Harbour against pilferage and
thefts, encroachments by unauthorized persons, Trespassers and anti-social elements,
etc., inside the Fishing Harbour, it has been proposed to provide a security room at the
entrance of the Fishing Harbour.

Bath & Toilet: Provision of bath & toilet facilities for Gents and Ladies has been provided
separately within the harbour premises for the fishermen and the outsiders visiting fishing
harbour.

Ice plants: Ice forms an essential item in a fishing harbour as it is the only preservative
used in fishing vessels. Fishing vessels carry ice in their insulated or refrigerated holds to
preserve the freshness of fish caught in the sea. The ice plants in the fishing harbour should
have enough capacity to cater the needs arising from the auction hall and also the fishing
boats. Hence the ideal location for an ice plant should be equidistant from the auction hall
and the outfitting quay. The quantity of ice required by the fishing vessels depends upon
the quantity and quality of fish catch, their duration of trip and transportation methods
whether in open condition or in insulated holds.

Boat building yard and workshop: The number of fishing boats are always on increase
and it will be more as a new fishing harbour is constructed, adding vigour and impetus to
the fishery activities in the surrounding area. Hence it will be only appropriate to provide a
boat building yard and a workshop near it in fishing harbour or at least reserve adequate
space for the purpose. The facility may be located close to the sloping hard or slipway so
that new vessels can be built in the boat building yard and launched from the sloping hard
or slipway.

Radio / Telephone Communication: This is yet another important facility to be provided


to ensure uninterrupted ship-to-shore communication link between fishing vessels and the
shore and to watch and regulate vessel movements and to provide information concerning
fishing grounds, movement of fishes, navigation aids etc. and other marine safety aspects
following MARPOL conventions and other safety regulations as applicable for small craft
harbours. In addition to this facility, a telephone system is also essential for connecting to
all the proposed components within the Fishing Harbour.

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 13
Compound wall and Gate: The entire land area of harbour will be provided with a tall
compound wall so as to ensure safety and security at all times and the proposed security
system will form part of the overall arrangements.

Road Connectivity to Main Road: For the main road connectivity, there is an existing
road connecting the Fishing Harbour from the main road. The same can be developed for
the width of 6 m for movement of vehicle to avoid congestion of traffic by evicting the
encroachment of huts and thatched roof along the existing road side.

Generator and Transformer Yard: Provision is made for these essential services to
install generator and transformer.

Green and landscaping: Green and clean harbour concept is catching up the port sector
more so in the context of Clean India concept promoted by the Government of India. This
is all the more necessary to control pollution levels in terms of air, water and soil well within
the permissible norms of the authorities. Furthermore, this adds to the aesthetics of the
surroundings.

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2 TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT

2.1 Introduction
The terrestrial environment of the project region has been studied for the evaluation of
baseline information as per the norms stipulated by the Ministry of Environment, Forests
and Climate change, Govt. of India within 10 km radius. The baseline data on terrestrial
environment were collected in March 2016. The data on air quality, soil quality, surface
water quality, ground water quality, noise levels, major species of flora and fauna and socio-
economic within the study area have been collected. The air, water and soil samples and
noise measurements were made at 4 locations covering 10 km radius around the proposed
harbour facility. The baseline data on Terrestrial environmental parameters were collected
and analyzed by Creative Engineers & Consultants, Chennai, which is accredited by
National Accreditation Board for Education and Training (NABET) and National
Accreditation Board for Laboratory (NABL).

2.2 Site and Surroundings


The proposed fishing harbour is located in Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu. Cuddalore is located
at about 40 km north of Chidambaram and 18 km south of Puducherry. Cuddalore is
surrounded on the north by Viluppuram District, on the east by the Bay of Bengal, on the
south by Nagapattinam District, and on the west by Perambalur District.

The Cuddalore district has a coastal Length of around 60 km from Nallavadu in the North
and Thandavaraya Sholagan pettai in the South comprising 46 fishing villages with total
fishermen population of 46634. Among them 23674 are active fishermen and nearly 22960
fisherwomen are engaged in fishing related activities as per Tamil Nadu marine fisher folk
census 2010. It is well connected by both State and National highways and the nearest
railway station is at Cuddalore.

2.3 Land Environment


The baseline information on land environment was assessed with the help of available
geographical maps, road maps and toposheets. Soil characteristics at and near the project
site were identified for various land uses and land forms. Also official Maps and Plans such
as Regional Plan of Cuddalore District and Tamil Nadu State were used. Land use and
land cover studies were undertaken using satellite images and field survey for ground
truthing. The 1:25000 scale mapping of Land use and Land cover with crop pattern
delineation in the buffer area of 10 km around the project area is shown in Figure 2.1

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 15
Figure 2.1 Land use and Land cover in the buffer area of 10 km around the project area

2.3.1 Prominent features in 10 km radius


Among the hydrological aspects of the project region there are three rivers viz, Ponnayar
River in the north, Gadilam River in the middle and Uppanar River in the south. These three
rivers join into a shore parallel creek between Cuddalore port mouth and silver beach at a
distance of 8 km. The port facilities are developed along this creek between Uppanar River
and Gadilam River. During rainy season in northeast monsoon all these rivers drain the
fresh water runoff into the sea. The Ponnayar River flows along the northern side of the
proposed fishing harbour. Silver sand beach is located at the southern side of the project
region. The Gadilam rises in the eastern part of the Tirukkoyilur Taluk and drains into Bay
of Bengal. The river suddenly turns to the south, runs to the east of Cuddalore old town
which stands on the edge of the backwater formed at the junction of the mouths of the
Gadilam and Uppanar. Generally its dependent on local rain and it carries very fertile silt
and has four Anicut across it which help in irrigation. The Uppanar or the Paravanar, takes
its source in the Virudhachalam Taluk, flows eastwards along the boundary between the
Cuddalore and the Chidambaram Taluks and joins the Bay through the mouth of the
Gadilam just to the south of Cuddalore old town. River Uppanar (Paravanar) originating
from Perumal Eri flows along the eastern boundary of SIPCOT industrial area and joins
with the Bay of Bengal at Cuddalore port. The river Uppanar is active with tidal prism and
its water remains brackish for a considerable reach along the upstream of the river.

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 16
The coastal stretch is occupied by various industries promoted under State Industries
Promotion Corporation of Tamil Nadu (SIPCOT). The major industries located are, SIPCOT
Industrial Complex with Industries of Chemplast Sanmar Limited, Nagarjuna Oil
Corporation Limited and IL & FS Tamil Nadu Power Company Limited.

2.3.2 Topography
The land area in this region is a flat plain, sloping gently from north to south and from west
to east, towards the sea. The major part of the inland upto 500 m inside is a low plain with
elevation upto (+) 2.0 m to (+) 2.5 m CD. There is a small patch of land on the northeastern
side rising upto (+) 5.0 m CD.

2.3.3 Geology and Geomorphology


The soils of the district can be divided into three main classes namely, the black of regular,
the red ferruginous and the Arenaceous. The black soil prevails largely in the
Chidambaram, Virudhachalam and Cuddalore Taluks. The Arenaceous occurs chiefly near
the coast in the Taluks of Chidambaram and Cuddalore. Black clay is the most fertile kind
of soil, the loam is the next best and the red sand & Arenaceous soils are the poorest.

The entire district can be broadly divided into following 3 zones. Western pediplains of the
entire area is covered by Mangalur and Nallur blocks. This area is occupied by
denudational landforms like shallow buried pediment, deep buried pediment and
pediments. Central part of the district is characterized by sedimentary high grounds,
elevation >80 m of Cuddalore sandstone of Tertiary age. This zone occupies part of
Virudhachalam, Kammapuram, Kurinjipadi, Cuddalore and Kattumannarkoil taluks. Rest of
the area in the district is covered by eastern coastal plain, which is predominantly occupied
by the flood plain of fluvial origin formed under the influence of Penniyar, Vellar and
Coleroon river systems. Marine sedimentary plain is noted all along the eastern coastal
region. In between the marine sedimentary plain and fluvial flood plains, fluvio marine
deposits are noted, which consists of sand dunes and back swamp areas.

2.3.4 Soil
Reconnaissance: The soil of the district is mostly consisting of black soil and Arenaceous.

Soil sampling location: The characteristics of the soil were analyzed at four locations in
the study area during March 2016. The description of soil sampling location is presented in
Table 2.1 below and the locations are shown in Figure 2.2. The results are shown in Table
2.2. From the data observed it is seen that the soil is a mixture of Clay, Loamy sand, Silty
clay loam and sand

Table 2.1 Soil sampling locations

Code Region

Soil 1 Patchayankuppam – 3.15 km south of the project site

Soil 2 Pullayaemedu - 3 km west of project site

Soil 3 Singarathoppu village – 1.4 km north of project site

Soil 4 Sonangkuppam village - 2 km north of project site

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 17
Table 2.2 Results of soil analysis
Sampling stations
Sr.No. Parameter
Soil 1 Soil 2 Soil 3 Soil 4
1. pH @ 25°C 5.14 5.68 6.41 6.71
2. Electrical
Conductivity 22.87 23.91 78.4 50.7
(µmhos/cm)
3. Moisture content (%) 10.77 4.04 0.43 4.21
4. Soil Texture Silty clay
Clay Loamy sand Sand
loam
Grain size distribution
Sand (%) 22.01 85.46 19.63 89.62
5.
Silt (%) 23.85 9.41 43.03 6.38
Clay (%) 54.14 5.13 37.34 3.99
6. Sodium as
407 476 518 482
Na(mg/kg)
7. Potassium as K
1027 1120 1330 879
(mg/kg)
8. Permeability
1.72 1.76 1.82 1.72
(Cm/hour)
9. Porosity (%) 37.5 39.2 41.1 39.5
10. Calcium as Ca
345 373 520 445
(mg/kg)
11. Magnesium as Mg
272 316 375 304
(mg/kg)
12. Sodium absorption
3.98 4.38 4.23 4.32
ratio (SAR)
13. Water holding
3.9 4.0 4.12 4.0
capacity(inches/foot)
14. Cation Exchange
capacity (meq/100 1.3 1.25 1.27 1.3
g)
Note: Samples analyzed by M/s Creative Engineers, NABL approved Laboratory

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 18
Figure 2.2 Measurement location of soil

2.3.5 Seismicity

The proposed project area and surrounding region falls under Zone III (low damage risk
zone) as per the seismic map of India as seen on IMD website [prepared from IS: 1893
(Part 1) – 2002].

2.4 Air Environment


2.4.1 Meteorological Data

The Project area has hot and tropical climate. The morphology of this region is influenced
more by the northeast monsoon (October to January) than those during southwest
monsoon (June – September) and fair weather period (February to May). The
environmental condition of this region gets reversed with the seasonal changes, i.e. the
southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon.

The district receives total rainfall of 1400 mm. It includes both the southwest and northeast
monsoons, most of which is contributed by the northeast monsoon. The onset of summer
is from March, with the mercury reaching its peak by the end of May and June. The average
temperatures range from 22.5 °C (72.5 °F) in January to 37 °C (99 °F) in May and June.
Northeast monsoon is the wettest period of the year when cyclonic activities in the Bay of
Bengal bring in the rainfall.

Wind: In order to get the wind climate for the project region, the wind data were collected
from the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). The wind rose diagram (Figure 2.3)

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 19
gives the information regarding the speed and the direction of the wind at project location
during the sampling season. During January, April, May, and July the maximum wind speed
was observed to be 4 m/s. During February the maximum wind speed was observed to be
2 m/s. During March, June, August and September the maximum wind speed was
observed to be 3 m/s. During October, November and December the maximum wind speed
will be 2.8 m/s. It can be observed from the wind rose diagram that the direction of the wind
in fair weather season is scattered in all directions, in southwest direction of the wind is
between June to September and the northeast direction dominate from October to January.

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 20
Figure 2.3 Monthly wind rose diagram of the project area

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 21
2.4.2 Ambient Air Quality
Ambient air quality monitoring was conducted at four locations in the project region in March
2016. The frequency of monitoring was twice in a week for both upwind and downwind.
The parameters such as Total suspended particulate matter, PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and NO2,
CO, NH3, H2S, HC, F and Pb were monitored on hourly basis as per NAAQ standards.
The details of the sampling location are presented in Table 2.3 and the locations are shown
in Figure 2.4. The results of the ambient air quality monitoring are given in Table 2.4.

Table 2.3 Air quality monitoring locations

Station Code Location/ Village


AQ 1 Patchayankuppam – 3.15 km south of the project site

AQ 2 Pullayaemedu - 3 km west of project site

AQ 3 Singarathoppu village – 1.4 km north of project site

AQ 4 Sonangkuppam village – 2 km north of project site

Table 2.4 Results of Air quality analysis (above 1.5 m above ground level)

Parameters

Total
Sampling Suspende
PM10 PM2.5 SO2 NO2 CO NH3 H2S HC Lead
station d Fluoride
(µg/m3 (µg/m3 (µg/m3 (µg/ (µg (µg (µg (µg (µg
Particulate µg /m3)
) ) ) m3) /m3) /m3) /m3) /m3) /m3)
Matter
(µg/m3)
BDL(D.
AQ1 (1st BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L-
76.4 51.1 23.3 5.2 9.5 L-
day) -1144) -10) -1.5) -0.5) 1.25)
0.001)
BDL(D.
AQ1(2nd BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L-
70.6 47.2 21.4 4.9 8.6 L-
day) -1144) -10) -1.5) -0.5) 1.25)
0.001)
BDL(D.
AQ2(1st BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L-
71.4 48.3 21.1 4.2 8.3 L-
day) -1144) -10) -1.5) -0.5) 1.25)
0.001)
BDL(D.
AQ2(2nd BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L-
68.7 46.3 20.4 3.9 7.1 L-
day) -1144) -10) -1.5) -0.5) 1.25)
0.001)
BDL(D.
AQ3(1st BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L-
66.4 44.5 19.9 3.8 7.9 L-
day) -1144) -10 -1.5 -0.5) 1.25)
0.001)
BDL(D.
AQ3(2nd BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L-
63.1 41.6 19.5 3.4 7.3 L-
day) -1144) -10 -1.5 -0.5) 1.25)
0.001)
BDL(D.
AQ4(1st BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L-
70.4 47.2 20.8 4.4 8.6 L-
day) -1144) -10 -1.5 -0.5) 1.25)
0.001)
BDL(D.
AQ4(2nd BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L BDL(D.L-
73.1 49.3 21.8 4.8 9.2 L-
day) -1144) -10 -1.5 -0.5) 1.25)
0.001)
*NAAQS 500 100 60 80 80 4000 400 - - - 1.0

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BDL- Below Detectable Limit, DL- Detectable Limit, Std- Standard limit
Note: Environmental sampling/analysis carried by M/s Creative Engineers, a NABL
approved Laboratory (Annexure-I)
*As prescribed by CPCB under National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

Figure 2.4 Locations of Air quality monitoring stations


The ambient air concentrations for PM10 ranged from a minimum of 41.6 μg/m3 to a
maximum of 51.1 μg/m 3. The concentration of PM2.5 ranged from a minimum of 19.5 μg/m 3
to a maximum of 23.3 μg/m 3. The concentration of SO2 ranged from a minimum of 3.4
μg/m3 to a maximum of 5.2 μg/m 3. The concentration of NO2 ranged from a minimum of 7.1
μg/m3 to a maximum of 9.5 μg/m 3). The concentration of CO was found to be below
detectable limit (BDL) (D.L - 1144) μg/m3. The concentration of NH3 was found to be below
detectable limit BDL (D.L - 10) μg/m3. The concentration of H2S was found to be below
detectable limit BDL (D.L – 1.5) μg/m3. The concentration of Fluride was found to be below
detectable limit BDL (D.L – 1.25) μg/m3.The concentration of Lead was found to be below
detectable limit BDL (D.L - 0.001) μg/m3. Comparison of Ambient Air monitoring results with
NAAQ standards indicates that the parameters such as PM10, PM2.5, SO 2, NO2, CO, NH3,
H2S, Fluoride and Lead have concentration levels below the specified norms laid down by
CPCB for ambient air.

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2.5 Noise Environment
Noise level measurements during day and night time were carried out at the project site
and in the neighbouring areas (at the AAQM sites), to identify the prevailing baseline status
of noise environment as per standards.

Noise levels can cause disturbance to the surrounding environment, if it is not in the limits.
Hence the Noise levels were monitored in the study area in such a way that the present

Figure 2.5 Locations of Noise quality monitoring stations

Noise levels in the possibly affected area can be noted with respect to the quiet residential
and rural zones.

The Noise levels were studied at four stations within study area as given in Table 2.5 and
indicated in Figure 2.5. The noise levels in the study area are given in Table 2.6.

Table 2.5 Sampling stations for Noise level study

Station Code Location/ Village


VN 1 Patchayankuppam – 3.15 km south of the project site
VN 2 Pullayaemedu - 3 km west of project site
VN 3 Singarathoppu village – 1.4 km north of project site
VN 4 Sonangkuppam village - 2 km north of project site

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 24
Table 2.6 Results of Noise levels at selected stations

Level in dB (A) Leq

VN 1 VN 2 VN 3 VN 4
Day 48.8 44.7 46.0 44.6
Night 41.5 39.3 40.0 39.8
Day and Night Equivalent 47.4 43.5 44.8 43.5
*Ambient Noise Standards as prescribed under Environmental Protection Act, 1986

Note: Environmental sampling/analysis carried out by M/s Creative Engineers, a NABL


approved Laboratory.

The day time equivalent noise level ranged from a minimum of 44.6 dB(A) to a maximum
of 44.8 dB(A) which is less than the ambient value of 55 dB(A) for residential zone as per
Environmental Protection Act 1986. The night time equivalent noise level ranged from a
minimum of 39.3 dB(A) to a maximum of 41.5 dB(A) which is less than the ambient value
of 45 dB(A) for residential zone as per Environmental Protection Act 1986.

2.6 Water Environment


The available water samples (surface and ground water) were collected at four locations in
the study area in the month of March 2016. These water samples were analyzed to assess
the water quality.

2.6.1 Ground Water sampling stations

The Ground water quality was assessed at four stations as described in Table 2.7 and
shown in Figure 2.6. The results of the ground water quality are given in Table 2.8.

Table 2.7 Sampling stations for Ground water study

Code Region

GW 1 Patchayankuppam – 3.15 km south of the project site

GW 2 Pullayaemedu - 3 km west of project site


GW 3 Singarathoppu village – 1.4 km north of project site

GW 4 Sonangkuppam village - 2 km north of project site

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 25
Table 2.8 Results of Ground water quality analysis
Permissible
Parameter GW1 GW2 GW3 GW4 limits
Physical parameters
Colour (Hazen) <2.0 <2.0 <2.0 <2.0 15
Turbidity(NTU) <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 <1.0 5.0
pH at 25°C 6.55 6.58 7.68 7.26 6.50-8.50
Chemical parameters
Total Dissolved 332 485 617 203 2000
Solids(TDS)(mg/L)
Total hardness as 161 176 325 59 600
CaCO3(mg/L)
Calcium as 129 149 188 35.3 -
CaCO3(mg/L)
Total Alkalinity 102 35 153 133 600
as CaCO3 (mg/L)
Chloride as CI 65 174 160 25 1000
(mg/L)
Free residual BDL(D.L- BDL(D.L- BDL(D.L- BDL(D.L- 1
Chlorine (mg/L) 0.2) 0.2) 0.2) 0.2)
Sulphates as 39 106 124 BDL(D.L- 400
SO42- 5.0)
(mg/L)
Fluoride as F 0.38 0.77 0.69 0.42 1.5
(mg/L)
Oil and Grease BDL(D.L- BDL(D.L- BDL(D.L- BDL(D.L- -
2.0) 2.0) 2.0) 2.0)
Sulphide as H2S BDL(D.L- BDL(D.L- BDL(D.L- BDL(D.L- 0.05
(mg/L) 0.1) 2.0) 0.1) 0.1)

* Permissible limits as per IS 10,500 Drinking water quality standards


BDL-Below detectable limit (DL- Detectable limit)
Note: Environmental sampling/analysis carried by M/s Creative Engineers, a NABL
approved Laboratory

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Figure 2.6 Locations of ground water quality monitoring stations

From the results, it is observed that, the pH values were ranging from 6.55 to 7.68, TDS
values were found between 203 and 617 mg/l, Chloride values were varied from 25 to 174
mg/l, sulphate values were varied from 5 to 124 mg/l and Fluride values were varied from
0.38 to 0.77 mg/l respectively. Ground water station GW1, GW2, GW3 and GW4 shows
that the all parameters are within permissible limits. The sampling locations of the project
region are characterized by potable ground water, which is fit for both domestic and
irrigation.

2.6.2 Surface Water sampling stations

The surface water quality was assessed at two stations as described in Table 2.9 and
shown in Figure 2.7. The results of the analysis of surface water quality are given in Table
2.10.

Table 2.9 Sampling stations for Surface water study

Sampling
Region
station
Singarathoppu village (Pond) – 1.4 km north of
SW 1
project site
Kannarapetta village (Lake) – 4.2 km south of
SW 2
project site

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Figure 2.7 Locations of Surface water sampling stations

Table 2.10 Results of Surface water quality analysis

Sampling stations
Parameter CPCB
SW1 SW2
Norms*
Physical parameters
Colour (Hazen) <2 <2 -
Turbidity(NTU) 6 4
pH at 25°C 6.78 7.94 6.50-8.50
Chemical Parameters
Total Dissolved
163 26540 -
Solids(TDS)(mg/L)
Total Hardness
as CaCO3 (mg/L) 63 5096 -
Calcium as CaCo3
35 1117 -
(mg/L)
Total Alkalinity
51 127 -
as CaCO3 (mg/L)
Chloride as CI 57 22014 -

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 28
Sampling stations
Parameter CPCB
SW1 SW2
Norms*
(mg/L)

FreeResidual
BDL(D.L-0.2) BDL(D.L-0.2) -
chlorine as Cl-

Sulphates as
BDL(D.L-5.0) 2285 -
SO42-

Fluoride as F BDL(D.L-0.1) BDL(D.L-0.1) -

Oil and Grease BDL(D.L-2.0) BDL(D.L-2.0) -

Sulphide BDL(D.L-0.1) BDL(D.L-0.1) -

CPCB Norms- Central Pollution Control Boards for surface waters. BDL-Below
detectable limit (DL- Detectable limit)
Note: Environmental sampling/analysis carried by M/s Creative Engineers, a
NABL approved Laboratory

From the results, it is observed that, the pH values were ranging from 6.78 to 7.94, TDS
values were found between 163 and 26540 mg/l, amount of Chloride varied from 57 to
22014 mg/l, sulphate was found to be less than 5 to 2285 mg/l and Fluride values were
found to be less than 0.1 mg/l. Analysis of the surface water samples collected from the
stations SW1, SW2, SW3 and SW4 show that all parameters are within normal limits.

2.7 Biological Environment

The available maps, Google Earth image and the LULC maps prepared were studied to
identify various habitats in and around the study area. Field studies were carried out in the
study area to list species in different identified habitats during the survey period (March
2016).

2.7.1 Ecology and Biodiversity

Terrestrial ecology & biodiversity study pertaining to Environmental Impact Assessment


report for proposed fishing harbour was carried out in March 2016. The study area has flat
terrain, referred as ‘Coastal Plains’ as commonly seen in east coastal region. Based on the
topography, climatic conditions, soil types, availability of habitable area; the study area
possesses different habitats like scrub land, water bodies, agricultural fields, human
settlements etc. These habitats possess different characteristics which support typical
composition of flora and fauna within them. Study was carried out by visiting locations,
taking care that all such habitats were covered. Listing of flora and fauna was done based
on actual sighting, indirect evidences such as calls, droppings, burrows, pugmarks and
other signs etc., interviewing locals, literature survey, data collected from forest officials
and internet references.

Settlements: Human habitation in study area is rural in nature except, some part of
Cuddalore. Villages in study area are found in hamlets situated intermittently within
agricultural fields. Plantation along road side (Samania saman, Borasus flabelifer,
Peltophorum pterocarpum, Eucalyptus etc.) around the houses (cocos nucifera, Anona
squamosa, Moringa olifera etc.) in public gardens, along the seashore (Casuarina

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 29
equisetifolia). For the purpose of listing the species; open/waste area adjacent to human
settlement are also considered in this habitat.

Livestock animals in this region are Cattle, Buffalo, Sheep and Poultry. Faunal species like
squirrel, cattle egrets, green bee eater, kingfisher etc. were observed commonly in the
study area. During study period practice of sheep grazing in field, ploughing, sowing,
applying of fertilizers etc. were observed.

Along with Prosopis juliflora common shrubs that are found are Calotropis gigentia,
Ziziphus jujube, Acacia nilotic, Tephrosia pururia, Borasus flabelifer etc. Scrubs in study
area seem to be in anthropogenic pressure because of fire wood and disposal of waste
material and grazing. Such activities are not only thinning the vegetation cover but also
cause threat to faunal life. Commom floral speies observed in water bodies are Ipomoea
aquatica, Typha, Nymphia sp., Eichhornia crassipes Lemna etc.

2.8 Socioeconomic Environment


The fishing harbour at Mudhu Nagar in Cuddalore is currently meeting the berthing
requirement and also fish trade related activities of the following 25 fishing villages as
given in Table below.

Table 2.11 List of Marine Fishing Villages in Mudhu Nagar, Cuddalore District

S. No Fishing villages
1 Nallavadu
2 Suba – Uppalavadi
3 Thazhanguda
4 Devanampattinam North
5 Devanampattinam South
6 Devanampattinam West
7 Sonankuppam
8 Singarathoppu
9 Akkaraikori
10 Cuddalore OT
11 Kinjampettai
12 Maluniyarpettai
13 Sangolikuppam
14 Thaikkalthonithurai
15 Sothikuppam
16 Rajapettai
17 Chithiraipettai
18 Thammanampettai
19 Nanjalingampettai
20 Naickerpettai
21 Periyakuppam
22 Pettodai
23 Ayyampettai
24 Maniyarpettai
25 Reddiyarpettai

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 30
Fishermen Population

There are about 29810 fisher folk living in the settlements that are dependent on the
proposed harbour and carry out the activities in the harbour area. Out of the 25 villages
using this harbour, Devanampattinam, Singarathopu and Akkaraikorai have more number
of fishermen populations.

Table 2.12 Fishermen Population in Cuddalore Harbour


Sl.No Fishing Village Population Male Female

1 Nallavadu 506 271 235

2 Suba - Uppalavadi 151 72 79

3 Thazhanguda 1785 915 870

4 Devanampattinam North 2167 1030 1137

5 Devanampattinam South 2176 1081 1095

6 Devanampattinam West 172 77 95

7 Sonankuppam 2934 1466 1468

8 Singarathoppu 3559 1764 1795

9 Akkaraikori 3129 1546 1583

10 Cuddalore OT 680 337 343

11 Kinjampettai 1125 547 578

12 Maluniyarpettai 230 115 115

13 Sangolikuppam 521 275 246

14 Thaikkalthonithurai 881 442 439

15 Sothikuppam 1556 824 732

16 Rajapettai 1589 847 742

17 Chithiraipettai 1040 548 492

18 Thammanampettai 742 393 349

19 Nanjalingampettai 409 214 195

20 Naickerpettai 239 130 109

21 Periyakuppam 1786 882 904

22 Pettodai 774 398 376

23 Ayyampettai 814 412 402

24 Maniyarpettai 141 74 67

25 Reddiyarpettai 704 366 338


Source: Tamil Nadu Fisher folk census 2010, Department of Fisheries

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 31
Marine fisher folk by Age Group:

During 2010, out of the total population of 29900 more than 50% of the population is
within the age group of 18 and above years. The details of marine fisher folk by age
group is given in table below

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 32
Table 2.13 Details of Fisherfolk Population in Mudhu Nagar at Cuddalore District
Adults (18 Years & Family
Children (0-17 Years) Total Population
Above) Size /
Sl Total
Name of Village Persons
no. Families
Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total per
House
1 Nallavadu 79 62 141 192 173 365 271 235 506 140 3
2 Suba - Uppalavadi 21 23 44 51 56 107 72 79 151 43 3
3 Thazhanguda 324 311 635 591 559 1150 915 870 1785 495 3
4 Devanampattinam North 325 358 683 705 779 1484 1030 1137 2167 579 3
Devanampattinam
5 339 371 710 742 724 1466 1081 1095 2176 549 3
South
6 Devanampattinam West 15 27 42 62 68 130 77 95 172 43 4
7 Sonankuppam 446 412 858 1020 1056 2076 1466 1468 2934 722 4
8 Singarathoppu 479 486 965 1285 1309 2594 1764 1795 3559 991 3
9 Akkaraikori 422 415 837 1124 1168 2292 1546 1583 3219 750 4
10 Cuddalore OT 109 89 198 228 254 482 337 343 680 152 4
11 Kinjampettai 144 148 292 403 430 833 547 578 1125 270 4
12 Maluniyarpettai 32 30 62 83 85 168 115 115 230 57 4
13 Sangolikuppam 83 74 157 192 172 364 275 246 521 127 4
14 Thaikkalthonithurai 116 122 238 326 317 643 442 439 881 225 3
15 Sothikuppam 251 229 480 573 503 1076 824 732 1556 357 4
16 Rajapettai 278 229 507 569 513 1082 847 742 1589 400 3
17 Chithiraipettai 173 150 323 375 342 717 548 492 1040 279 3
18 Thammanampettai 132 110 242 261 239 500 393 349 742 210 3
19 Nanjalingampettai 69 60 129 145 135 280 214 195 409 99 4
20 Naickerpettai 41 29 70 89 80 169 130 109 239 64 3
21 Periyakuppam 240 229 469 642 675 1317 882 904 1786 448 3
22 Pettodai 125 103 228 273 273 546 398 376 774 188 4
23 Ayyampettai 117 112 229 295 290 585 412 402 814 200 4
24 Maniyarpettai 21 19 40 53 48 101 74 67 141 33 4
25 Reddiyarpettai 85 84 169 281 254 535 366 338 704 179 3
Total 4466 4282 8748 10560 10502 21062 15026 14784 29900 7600
Source: Tamil Nadu Marine Fisher folk Census 2010, Department of Fisheries

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Table 2.14 Region and Communitgy – Family Wise in Mudhu Nagar at Cuddalore District
Religion and Community – Family wise
Religion Community
Bac Total
Sl.No Name of Village Total For Most
Hindu Christian Muslim Others kwa S.C S.T Fami
Families ward Backward
rd lies
1 Nallavadu 140 0 0 0 140 0 0 140 0 0 140
2 Suba – Uppalavadi 43 0 0 0 43 0 0 43 0 0 43
3 Thazhanguda 489 5 1 0 495 0 0 495 0 0 495
4 Devanampattinam 577 2 0 0 579 0 1 578 0 0 579
North
5 Devanampattinam 543 2 0 4 549 0 0 549 0 0 549
South
6 Devanampattinam 43 0 0 0 43 0 0 43 0 0 43
West
7 Sonankuppam 720 1 1 0 722 0 0 722 0 0 722
8 Singarathoppu 979 12 0 0 991 0 0 991 0 0 991
9 Akkaraikori 748 2 0 0 750 0 0 750 0 0 750
10 Cuddalore OT 161 0 0 1 162 0 0 162 0 0 162
11 Kinjampettai 267 2 0 1 270 0 0 270 0 0 270
12 Maluniyarpettai 42 1 0 14 57 0 1 56 0 0 57
13 Sangolikuppam 127 0 0 0 127 0 1 126 0 0 127
14 Thaikkalthonithurai 224 0 1 0 225 0 0 225 0 0 225
15 Sothikuppam 356 1 0 0 357 0 0 348 9 0 357
16 Rajapettai 396 1 3 0 400 0 0 400 0 0 400
17 Chithiraipettai 279 0 0 0 279 0 0 279 0 0 279
18 Thammanampettai 210 0 0 0 210 0 0 210 0 0 210
19 Nanjalingampettai 95 1 3 0 99 0 0 99 0 0 99
20 Naickerpettai 64 0 0 0 64 0 0 64 0 0 64
21 Periyakuppam 447 0 1 0 448 0 1 447 0 0 448
22 Pettodai 187 1 0 0 188 0 1 187 0 0 188
23 Ayyampettai 199 0 0 0 200 0 1 199 0 0 200
24 Maniyarpettai 33 0 0 0 33 0 0 33 0 0 33
25 Reddiyarpettai 179 0 0 0 179 0 0 179 0 0 179
Total 7548 31 10 20 7610 0 6 7595 9 0 7610
Source: Tamil Nadu Fisher folk Census 2010, Department of Fisheries

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Housing Facilities:
Table 2.15 Housing Facilities in Mudhu Nagar at Cuddalore District
Source: Tamil Nadu Fisher folk Census 2010, Department of Fisheries

Residential Status
Sl.No Name of Villages Own Rental Free House Type of Houses
House House Govt. Tsunami Thatched Literoofed Tiled Concrete Others
1 Nallavadu 101 36 6 40 8 16 3 110 0
2 Suba – Uppalavadi 41 1 11 18 0 1 3 38 0
3 Thazhanguda 431 40 40 301 8 9 31 423 0
4 Devanampattinam 511 44 32 296 100 69 68 318 0
North
5 Devanampattinam 486 45 31 252 132 39 90 270 0
South
6 Devanampattinam 36 4 0 3 8 5 7 20 0
West
7 Sonankuppam 680 30 18 642 52 10 65 579 4
8 Singarathoppu 791 151 6 324 175 4 297 465 1
9 Akkaraikori 395 344 21 147 208 4 299 228 0
10 Cuddalore OT 132 25 1 1 53 73 2 25 4
11 Kinjampettai 143 123 0 1 80 8 78 100 0
12 Maluniyarpettai 21 36 1 0 27 4 8 18 0
13 Sangolikuppam 90 36 28 2 70 1 12 43 0
14 Thaikkalthonithurai 182 37 82 14 22 2 37 158 0
15 Sothikuppam 351 1 0 0 82 19 95 156 0
16 Rajapettai 204 188 26 138 55 2 59 275 1
17 Chithiraipettai 242 35 37 116 30 3 26 218 0
18 Thammanampettai 183 19 84 45 29 7 31 135 0
19 Nanjalingampettai 53 45 12 29 14 1 22 61 0
20 Naickerpettai 57 4 3 48 4 0 8 49 0
21 Periyakuppam 378 70 173 52 24 2 55 367 0
22 Pettodai 141 40 31 63 21 0 32 128 0
23 Ayyampettai 179 15 104 41 7 1 8 178 0
24 Maniyarpettai 28 5 16 4 3 0 2 28 0
25 Reddiyarpettai 150 29 37 89 10 0 41 128 0
Total 6036 1403 800 2666 1222 280 1379 4518 10

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 35
During 2010, the number of fishermen families who lived in their own houses were 6036 and 1403 families were living in rented houses. The
details of housing facilities in Mudhu Nagar are given in Table

Educational status:

During 2010, the number of literates was 22666 in the population of 29900 and the literacy rate was 75.8%. Hence, the literacy rate has
increased considerably in the last decade. The details of Educational Status of Fisher folk of Mudhunagar is given in Table 2.16

Table 2.16 Educational Status in Mudhu Nagar at Cuddalore District


Primary Middle High Hr.Sec Total
Sl.No Name of Village Degree Others Illiterate
School School School School Literate
1 Nallavadu 122 78 110 29 24 7 370 84
2 Suba - Uppalavadi 48 27 33 11 8 1 128 15
3 Thazhanguda 499 302 296 129 70 37 1333 279
Devanampattinam
4 327 541 355 124 106 2 1455 563
North
Devanampattinam
5 324 466 357 144 126 4 1421 552
South
Devanampattinam
6 23 30 38 17 28 2 138 22
West
7 Sonankuppam 580 530 618 258 126 53 2165 551
8 Singarathoppu 796 797 551 276 308 9 2737 528
9 Akkaraikori 752 642 714 249 161 75 2593 325
10 Cuddalore OT 70 231 118 64 84 2 569 81
11 Kinjampettai 249 222 234 95 74 15 889 140
12 Maluniyarpettai 50 51 59 20 22 8 210 13
13 Sangolikuppam 114 91 92 47 40 13 397 77
14 Thaikkalthonithurai 189 175 173 96 50 16 699 112
15 Sothikuppam 384 294 248 104 44 37 1111 291
16 Rajapettai 463 273 211 100 47 2 1096 380
17 Chithiraipettai 339 206 194 55 20 13 827 120
18 Thammanampettai 212 137 163 53 26 14 605 79
19 Nanjalingampettai 77 77 89 33 10 21 307 60

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20 Naickerpettai 55 50 43 17 2 7 174 45
21 Periyakuppam 401 287 386 129 176 96 1475 198
22 Pettodai 234 155 112 28 28 22 579 127
23 Ayyampettai 176 181 122 90 58 34 661 92
24 Maniyarpettai 33 27 27 11 8 1 107 24
25 Reddiyarpettai 250 132 106 68 43 21 620 56
Total 6767 6002 5449 2247 1689 512 22666
Source: Tamil Nadu Fisher folk census 2010, Department of Fisheries

Employment Status of Fisher folk:

In 2010, the number of men who were engaged in sea fishing was 7959 and in addition to this 404 men and 40 women were engaged in brackish
water fishing. Totally 8423 are employed in fishing activities. A reduction in the number of sea fishing fishermen is observed, since many
fishermen have migrated anchoring their boats. The details of Employment status of Fisher folk is given in Table

Table 2.17 Employment status of fisher folk

Fishing
Fresh Fish Dried Fish
Processed
Brackish Hand Trade Trade
Year
Water Picking
Sea
M F M F M F M F M F

2010 7959 404 40 8 12 351 1309 188 691 7 2


Source: Tamil Nadu Fisher folk Census 2010, Department of Fisheries

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 37
Income status of fisher Folk

Table 2.18 Identity Card and Income Status of Fisherfolk Families in Mudhu Nagar at Cuddalore Distric
Rs.50,000
Rs.24,000 Rs.35,000 Above
Upto to
Identity Card Holder to to Rs.1,00,00 Total
Rs.24,000 Rs.1,00,00
Sl.N Name of Rs.35,000 Rs.50,000 0
0
o Village
Fisher TNFW KKT EPIC
men B Card Card All Individual Individual Individual Individual Individual Individual
Cards Cards s s
1 Nallavadu 12 19 118 46 120 157 2 0 0 0 159
Suba –
2 5 6 15 15 34 39 0 0 1 0 40
Uppalavadi
3 Thazhanguda 100 71 466 94 322 596 12 2 1 1 612
Devanampattin
4 239 31 38 164 74 400 356 45 5 1 807
am North
Devanampattin
5 254 36 46 168 54 337 379 45 5 1 767
am South
Devanampattin
6 15 14 2 25 17 39 6 3 1 1 50
am West
7 Sonankuppam 384 256 100 336 459 1402 9 0 1 1 1413
8 Singarathoppu 568 645 136 739 129 1319 38 28 25 20 1430
9 Akkaraikori 413 475 124 696 139 1744 46 4 2 1 1797
10 Cuddalore OT 51 0 0 82 0 222 113 9 7 0 351
11 Kinjampettai 10 238 1 84 0 483 217 1 0 1 702
12 Maluniyarpettai 0 32 1 2 1 106 24 0 0 1 131
Sangolikuppa
13 10 98 57 133 0 134 83 32 7 2 258
m
Thaikkalthonith
14 145 102 44 235 0 97 179 35 7 4 322
urai

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15 Sothikuppam 381 165 5 379 16 496 34 3 12 2 547
16 Rajapettai 215 164 44 241 225 570 11 2 6 0 589
17 Chithiraipettai 112 263 104 249 0 96 171 94 9 7 377
Thammanamp
18 137 168 81 170 0 141 59 98 13 9 320
ettai
Nanjalingampe
19 92 63 15 110 6 73 17 31 25 20 166
ttai
20 Naickerpettai 64 60 9 62 1 92 20 2 1 0 115
21 Periyakuppam 129 138 40 242 321 491 58 1 3 1 554
22 Pettodai 66 61 19 80 138 332 7 0 0 0 339
23 Ayyampettai 100 91 32 135 95 293 10 5 3 0 311
24 Maniyarpettai 14 12 2 15 24 60 1 1 0 0 62
25 Reddiyarpettai 112 138 37 179 24 162 56 119 12 7 356
Total 3628 3346 1536 4681 2199 9881 1908 560 146 80 12575
Source: Tamil Nadu Fisher folk Census 2010, Department of Fisheries

Fishing Days & Mode of Fish Marketing

Marketing of fish is done as whole sale, retail sale and by auction. The detail of fishing days in a month and mode of marketing in Mudhunagar
village is given in table below

Table 2.19 Fishing Days & Mode of Fish Marketing in Mudhu Nagar at Cuddalore District
Fishing Days in a Month Mode of Marketing
Name of Village
Single 2–5 6 -8 Above Society Middle Retail Whole Street Auction
Sl.No Day Days Days 8 Man Sale Sale Vendor
Days
1 Nallavadu 120 2 0 0 0 5 48 0 2 0

2 Suba - Uppalavadi 39 0 0 0 0 41 1 0 0 0

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3 Thazhanguda 465 2 0 0 0 139 3 0 0 0
Devanampattinam
4 625 2 0 0 0 20 432 8 0 87
North
Devanampattinam
5 644 0 0 0 0 23 497 3 0 83
South
Devanampattinam
6 27 0 0 0 0 0 13 4 0 2
West
7 Sonankuppam 887 7 1 0 0 3 153 429 71 232
8 Singarathoppu 893 2 0 0 0 2 702 0 0 5
9 Akkaraikori 956 4 0 0 1 0 384 2 2 8

10 Cuddalore OT 182 1 0 0 0 4 166 0 0 0


11 Kinjampettai 29 1 3 1 0 0 295 0 1 0
12 Maluniyarpettai 44 0 0 0 0 0 70 0 0 0
13 Sangolikuppam 40 1 0 0 0 0 128 0 0 0
14 Thaikkalthonithurai 158 77 0 0 0 38 39 1 2 0

15 Sothikuppam 482 2 0 0 0 4 139 0 0 0


16 Rajapettai 480 2 1 0 0 4 204 0 2 0
17 Chithiraipettai 271 36 1 0 0 202 40 0 0 0
18 Thammanampettai 181 11 1 1 0 84 56 5 0 0

19 Nanjalingampettai 68 19 1 12 0 29 9 1 0 0
20 Naickerpettai 80 2 0 0 1 53 5 0 0 0
21 Periyakuppam 352 62 3 0 1 0 94 313 0 0
22 Pettodai 203 19 0 0 0 0 214 7 0 0

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23 Ayyampettai 152 71 1 0 0 0 205 15 0 0
24 Maniyarpettai 41 1 0 0 0 0 38 0 0 0

25 Reddiyarpettai 191 0 0 0 1 37 16 0 0 0

Total 7610 324 12 14 4 688 3951 788 80 417


Source: Tamil Nadu Fisher folk Census 2010, Department of Fisheries

Basic Amenities

Table 2.20 Fishing Days & Mode of Fish Marketing in Mudhu Nagar at Cuddalore

Sanitary Facility Drinking Water Dacility


House
Sl.No Name of Village With Common
Electricity Individual Common Govt Bore Open Well Others
Well / Tank

1 Nallavadu 125 24 112 0 0 0 0 133


2 Suba - Uppalavadi 41 27 15 41 0 0 0 0
3 Thazhanguda 468 366 101 465 2 0 1 0
4 Devanampattinam North 552 384 174 416 120 0 1 17
5 Devanampattinam South 524 322 200 393 131 0 1 3
6 Devanampattinam West 39 8 16 16 21 0 0 3
7 Sonankuppam 701 448 250 376 312 12 7 1
8 Singarathoppu 875 536 403 614 318 0 3 0
9 Akkaraikori 698 298 442 697 11 2 7 10
10 Cuddalore OT 155 59 100 22 123 0 6 0
11 Kinjampettai 261 125 108 146 115 2 1 0
12 Maluniyarpettai 54 19 35 50 5 0 0 0
13 Sangolikuppam 124 31 96 2 27 0 95 0

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14 Thaikkalthonithurai 220 99 121 0 72 0 146 0
15 Sothikuppam 352 28 2 52 213 0 0 87
16 Rajapettai 381 191 2 179 139 1 15 53
17 Chithiraipettai 277 213 65 1 200 0 75 0
18 Thammanampettai 200 116 85 3 106 0 94 0
19 Nanjalingampettai 92 63 34 22 56 0 20 0
20 Naickerpettai 66 55 11 2 57 0 6 0
21 Periyakuppam 434 426 22 3 442 2 0 1
22 Pettodai 173 169 11 3 178 0 0 3
23 Ayyampettai 190 172 19 182 9 0 0 1
24 Maniyarpettai 31 27 5 14 17 0 0 2
25 Reddiyarpettai 179 167 13 1 168 0 1 0
Total 7212 4373 2442 3700 2842 19 479 314
Source: Tamil Nadu Fisher Folk census 2010, Department of Fisheries

2.8.1 Occupation pattern


Cuddalore District have high potential for marine as well as inland and brackish water fisheries. Fish are plentiful in the tanks. The marine
fisheries provide a living for a large number of persons. Pomfret, seer fish and mullet are among the better known kinds of fish

The oysters of the Cuddalore backwaters enjoy a more than local fame. The major crops cultivated in Cuddalore district are Paddy, Sugarcane,
Maize, Black gram, Green gram and Groundnut. The district contributes significantly to the Tamil Nadu state production of cashew nut and jack
fruit.

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3 PREDICTION OF IMPACTS FOR TERRESTRIAL
ENVIRONMENT

3.1 Introduction
The various environmental and social impacts which are likely to occur due to the Shipping
Harbour development activities were studied in detail for the construction and operation
phases. The impacts have been assessed taking into consideration the existing baseline
status of the terrestrial and socio-economic components. Pre-construction Activities

Pre-construction activities comprising site visits, site preparation, bush cutting, site office
and storage shed construction etc. generally will not cause significant damage to
environment for this project. Preparatory activities like the use of existing access road,
construction of storage sheds, etc. being spread over a large area, would have no
significant impact. Clearing, stripping and leveling of sites, construction of small bunds, if
necessary, for protection from flooding, earth filling and excavation for foundations, will lead
to some minor disturbance to the habitat. The level of construction activities in the proposed
project is not of such level and nature, to cause any significant adverse impact on this
account. The natural drainage in the area is such that the entire water will drain into marine
water and that shall not be disturbed. However the activities could lead to marginal increase
in turbidity levels in coastal waters temporarily. Based on experience in similar projects,
this impact is not expected to be significant.

Site Clearance and tree cutting: No tree is observed in the proposed project site.
Therefore tree felling is not considered for the site clearance.

3.2 Construction Phase Activities


Layout of the various onshore harbour utilities is presented in the Figure 1.3a.

Heavy Vehicle Movement


The construction activity usually starts with the internal road construction and outside road
improvement for movement of heavy vehicles and material transport. The State Highway
No. 49 is running close to Cuddalore area from where the approach road of approximately
1.5 km would be required to be upgraded and widened for the heavy vehicle movement.
Onshore utility construction over a period will not cause large number of vehicle movement.
About 5 trucks per day are expected for this purpose.

Labour Camp
A labour camp shall be established for the construction phase within the harbour limits. The
average and peak labour strength likely to be deployed at the proposed fishing harbour will
be about 50 and 75 respectively including skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled labour. A part
of the labour population would stay in labour camps close to the project site during
construction phase. It is assumed that about 50% i.e. 50 labourers at most will stay at the
site. About 50 other labourers would stay at the construction site, only during working hours.

Local municipal authority will ensure adequate water supply during the construction phase.
Fuel in the form of LPG/Kerosene shall be provided to the resident houses for cooking by
the contractor as per the law. Adequate toilet, urinal and bathrooms shall be provided which
later may be used by the fishermen during the operational phase.

Construction Water Requirement


Fresh water of 20 m3/day will be needed for road and building constructions. Some water
(5 m3/day) may be required for green belt development. Details of water requirement are
summarized in the Table 3.1.

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Table 3.1 Construction Phase Raw Water Requirement

For Construction period Raw water requirement(Litre)

Labour colony 50 person x 4


18000
x 90 lit

Sewage 200 person x 10 litre 2000

Road construction 7000

Building construction 10000


Green belt 500 m2 x 10
5000
litre/m2
Others 7000
Total 49000
Say 50000

Power Requirement
Primary electricity requirement will be met from the local grid. At the initial stage some 4 to
5 smoke free diesel power generating set may also be used. It is expected that other
construction work will involve at most 3 No. of diesel engines for works like diaphragm wall,
concrete mixing etc. Solar photovoltaic devices can be installed for street lighting towards
conservation of energy.

3.2.1 Air environment


Air quality may be impacted by emissions from trucks and diesel engines to a marginal
extent. The transportation movement generates pollutants such as NOx, CO, particulate
matter and HC. Therefore, the number of vehicles deployed will be kept to the minimum
requirement. The acceptable emission factors are given in Table 3.2. Only vehicles having
Pollution under Control certification will be deployed in the project site to keep the impacts
minimum.

Table 3.2 Emission Factors for Diesel Trucks


Emission Factors
of

g/km mg/km
Category

Vintage

Formal
vehicle

Aldehy
Butadi
Benze

dehyd

Total
PAH
Type

Total
Sub-

CO2
NOx
Fuel

ene
CO

PM

1-3
HC

ne

de
e

HCV >600 Pos BS 6. 0.3 9. 762. 1.2 0.004 0.007 0.06 0.08 3.97
Dies 0cc t -II 0 7 30 39 4 9 4 1 37 07
el 200
Truc 0
k
Summary of Finalized Emission Factors for Indian Diesel Trucks

Ref : Project Rep No.: AFL/2006-07/IOCL/Emission Factor Project/Final Rep dt. August 17,
2007, Project Sponsored by CPCB/ MOEF, Executed out by ARAI, Pune.

3.2.2 Noise environment


The major sources of noise during construction phase are due to pile driving, concrete
mixing module etc. This will be operational for a limited period during the construction
phase. The noise levels generated by various construction equipment’s vary between 70
and 90 dB (A). The nearby village being at a distance of about 500 m, the impact may not

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 44
be considered significant. In addition, the fleet of trucks carrying construction materials will
be chosen from vehicles that do not create high level of noise.

3.2.3 Water environment:


Generation of wastewater during construction phase is primarily from the colony. Labour
Colony for 50 persons each with 4 family members may require 18 m3/day (@90 lpcd).
This will generate 14 m3/day of sewage. Other approximately 200 nonresident workers
require water at the rate of 10 lpcd requiring 2 m3/day of fresh water, which would generate
1.6 m3/day of sewage. Accordingly it is expected to generate sewage of 16 m3 per day
which would require proper treatment.

Solid waste: Municipal solid waste generation for towns with population less than 1 lakh
is roughly estimated around 210 gm/c/d which increases with population (‘Strategy Paper
on SWM in India’, NEERI, 1995.). Solid waste generated during construction phase will be
primarily from the very small labour colony with about 100 adult persons and it will be
around 20 kg/day. In addition to this some waste products like empty bags, scrap materials
etc. may be generated.

3.3 Operational Phase Activities

Parameters, which are important for harbour operations are:

➢ Beach landing space for FRPs

➢ Landing wharf for unloading catch for MFVs

➢ Idle berthing wharf for berthing after unloading

➢ Outfitting wharf with installation to supply fuel, ice etc.

➢ Repair wharf

➢ Boat repair yard

During the operational phase fishermen using FRP boats will be fishing each day while
those with larger boats and trawlers will be in the sea for about 2 to 5 days. 20% of the
FRPs and 10% of trawlers will not go for fishing due to maintenance, minor repairs etc.
During peak season 40% trawlers will be back in a day with 20% increase in catch.
Unloading rate for trawlers is about 4500 kg/hr while the same for FRP may vary depending
on the catch. Unloading from FRPs are expected to be made directly at the beach landing
area and the fish catch may be directly dispatched to individuals in small vehicles like
Tempo and Motor bikes.

Considering the above, the expected working fishermen, laborers and management staff
are estimated to be approximately 2000 per day which includes the outsiders visiting for
auction purpose.

3.3.1 Air environment


It is estimated that during the peak season around 35 T of fish will be brought by the trawlers
each day and hence at the most 10 trucks/day would be required to dispose the fish
products after auction. In addition it is expected that some 12T of fish will be brought by the
600 FRPs each day. It is assumed that 50% of this will be disposed to small vendors using
2 or 3 wheelers whereas the remaining 6 T will be disposed using 3 trucks. In all it is
therefore expected that 13 heavy duty trucks may be used for fish disposal per day during
the peak season.

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3.3.2 Noise environment
It is anticipated that there will not be significant increase in the noise levels in the operation
phase of the proposed fishing harbour project. Under normal operating condition few
engines in FRP and MFVs will create some noise which however will be away from the
onshore community. The transport vehicles ranging 2 to 4 wheelers will generate significant
noise. These will run through the proposed new road which is away from the residential
areas and accordingly the impact is not expected to be significant.

3.3.3 Water environment


Operational phase freshwater requirement includes requirement for drinking water under
general supply, Restaurant, Water to be carried by the MFV and FRP fishing vessels. The
total peak fresh water requirement per day is estimated at 50000 lpd.

For various washing purpose like auction hall area, fish landing, wharf area, boat washing
and fish washing, salt water may be used which can be obtained from bore wells located
beyond the CRZ limits. The details of fresh water and raw water requirements are
presented in Table 3.3.

Table 3.3 Details of fresh water and raw water requirements

Freshwater
Freshwater for operation period
requirement (Litre)

Restaurant (@ 70 l per seat) 5000

Drinking water supply (@ 30 l per residents) 5000

Fishing vessels supply MFV 0.80 x 300 x 10 x 8


19200
persons
FRP vessels 0.80 x 600 x 10 lit x 2 persons 9600
Add 10% extra 5400
Total 44200
say 50000
Raw water for operation period Raw water requirement
Washing auction hall area 3 x 35.00 m x 18.00 x 10
18900
lit/m3
Washing fishing landing wharf area
5350
3 x 35.00 m x 5.00 x 10 lit/m3
Fish water 40 tons daily x 10 lit/m3 18000
Others 2750
Total 50000

3.3.4 Solid Waste Management


The major sources of solid waste include fish waste, old pieces of rope and net, broken fish
boxes etc. The predicted total Solid Waste (including Fish Waste) is expected to be about
2 tons/day. The fish waste amounting to 10% of the fish catch approximately will be
generated at the wharf area which will be washed and collected primarily at the screens
mounted on the drainage line. Metal items shall be collected and sold to scrap dealers.

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Tyres can be turned into fenders and timber fish boxes can be sold as fuel wood. Styrofoam
boxes should be avoided because they break up easily and cannot be recycled safely.

Fish should be cleaned and gutted on the journey back to the landing centre. Offal should
never be dumped inside the fishing harbour basin or discarded in corners within the fishing
harbour area because, besides giving off offensive smells, it also poses a health hazard by
attracting pests. Plastic 100-litre drums with airtight lids should be bought and used to
collect offal from fish markets or moored boats.

3.3.5 Socio Economic Environment


To evaluate the socio-economic aspects of the local fishing community, informal
consultations were carried out covering all the fishermen hamlets in the area. The survey
results indicate that the majority of local community strongly favours the construction of a
harbour. A few people expressed their apprehension over sharing of the resources of the
fishing harbour. The survey also shows that more than 90% of the local men were involved
in fishing activities and women were involved in fish selling. Many women are involved in
fish drying.

3.3.5.1 Construction phase


In the construction stage the peak labour force, skilled and unskilled labourers, is estimated
to be about 200. About 100 labour populations are likely to come from nearby sites. The
balance, i.e. 100 labour and their family members are likely to stay near construction sites.
Thus, it is necessary to develop adequate infrastructure facilities, so that the requirements
of the immigrant labour population are met. The construction activities will provide some
business opportunities for suppliers of materials and transportation, and for traders to cater
to the employees’ requirements such as food, daily needs, and medical care.

3.3.5.2 Operation phase


About 600 persons are expected to be involved in Harbour operations. The harbour
activities will create other business opportunities contributing to the development of local
economy. Such positive impacts are considered to be significant. Major stakeholders like
fish catchers, fish sellers, boat owners and the like were asked to give their views during
Stakeholders meeting regarding need for a harbour. The views and suggestions expressed
by the community were considered and critically analyzed by the study team. There are
about 29,810 fisher folk living in the settlements who are dependent on the proposed
harbour and carry out the activities in the harbour area. The proposed project will boost
fishing activities in the area.

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4 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR TERRESTRIAL
ENVIRONMENT

4.1 Introduction

Based on the types of impacts identified, an Environment Management Plan (EMP) was
prepared. Adherence to EMP will ensure minimal impact on environment due to the
proposed project.

4.2 Air environment


The major impact on air environment has been described as due to the vehicular emission
particularly from the trucks used in carrying breakwaters construction materials. In order to
avoid the narrow stretch of 1.5 km with congested settlements adjacent to the project site,
it is proposed to widen the road by evicting encroachment. This will ensure both faster and
safe movement of trucks with an acceptable air quality in the habitat area. Proposed
approach road to fishing harbour (Figure 4.1) can be widened and smaller connecting road
may be constructed to access the harbour site. However the cost effectiveness may be
reviewed by state authorities for construction of connecting roads from the highway
(ECR49, Euro II, 2005) for which emission standard in g/kWh for diesel truck engines of
CO, HC, NOx and PM have been stipulated as 4.0, 1.1, 7.0 and 0.15 respectively. The
contractor shall obtain vehicles with PUC certificates.

To avoid spillage and re-suspension of dust, the construction materials shall be transported
in closed trucks.

The plantations and green belts all around the proposed Fishing Harbour area and also in
the open area shall be maintained which can reduce air and noise pollution. Burning of
waste materials should be prohibited.

4.3 Noise Environment


As expected the noise level at the project site may be significant during the construction
period. In order to minimize the noise impacts following measures are recommended.

Only well-maintained construction equipment, which meets the regulatory standards for
source noise levels, is used. Any equipment emitting high noise, wherever possible, is
oriented so that the noise is directed away from sensitive receptors.

Noise attenuation is to be practiced for noisy equipment by employing suitable techniques


such as acoustic controls, insulation and vibration dampers. The attenuation devices must
be properly maintained throughout the construction period. High noise generating activities
such as piling and drilling are to be scheduled to minimize noise impacts.

Personnel exposed to noise levels beyond threshold limits are to be provided with
protective gear like earplugs, muffs, etc., especially the construction personnel involved in
pile driving operations. Rotation of personnel can also be adopted.

Periodic maintenance of the equipment to be used in the developmental works


has to be carried out. Worn out parts will be replaced and rotating parts are lubricated to
minimize noise emissions.

Ambient noise levels are to be monitored to ensure that the noise levels are within the
prescribed limits.

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4.4 Water environment
Waste water will be generated from the toilet blocks, rest room and restaurants as well as
from the floor wash areas. Individual septic tanks shall be provided for each sewage
sources.

Washing waste water will contain mostly fish waste which will be separated at the screen
provided in the drainage system. The effluent containing finer particle matter will be
collected in a pit and will be pumped to a covered settling tank. The settled matters will be
pumped out periodically for drying in covered sludge drying bed which will be disposed
finally as poultry food or manure.

No water stagnation shall be allowed at the construction site.

4.5 Solid Waste Management


The construction debris shall be disposed as per the guide lines provided for the purpose
and shall avoid any impacts on soil, ground water and other environmental resources.

Dried fish waste collected from the screens and dried solids from sludge drying bed shall
be disposed regularly so that no accumulation or purification of organic matter can take
place in the harbour area.

In case the harbour management finds it necessary to process the fish waste within the
premise, composting of fish waste may be considered. Composting fish waste is practical
and an environmentally sound alternative to disposing of fish waste. It is economical, fairly
odourless and a biologically beneficial practice for seafood operations.

A commitment to proper management of the compost bins is the key to successful


composting. Composting resolves the disposal problem and produces a valuable product,
a humus-like material that has several marketable uses from soil conditioner to horticultural
growing medium. Composting has many values:

- Composting is environmentally sound. It decreases the potential for surface and


groundwater contamination.
- Composting destroys disease-causing organisms and fly larvae.
- The materials needed for composting (fish waste, rice hulls, wood chips, straw
and water) are usually readily available.
- Once a composting system has been set up, it will not require much labour.
- Compared to other disposal options, composting is not a costly method of fish
waste disposal.

Composting is a controlled, natural, aerobic process in which heat, bacteria and fungi,
along with carbon (rice hulls, wood chips and straw), nitrogen (fish waste), oxygen (air) and
moisture, decompose the fish waste, changing it into a stable product - compost.

The operator’s tasks are to collect the fish waste and place it in several layers with the rice
hulls, wood chips and straw and to manage the process to ensure that the process of
composting is complete. The operator will turn the composting mixture, usually by moving
it from one bin into another. Turning allows the compost gets enough oxygen (air) to
complete the bio-decomposing process.

Compost should never get soggy, or odours will develop. Also, the pile must be turned
every 10 to 14 days to aerate the mass and keep it from becoming odorous. This can be
accomplished by hand with a pitchfork or shovel, or it can be done mechanically with a
compost turner or front end loader. Before or during turning is usually the time to add water
to the pile. Compost pit may be a metre deep with rice hull and straw separating layers of

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fish waste which may be about 20 cm. Depending on ambient temperature, the composing
may be completed in two to three months period and then can be safely used as manure.

Similar pits may be used for composting organic wastes from the restaurant. Other
inorganic wastes may be collected and disposed to municipal authority.

4.6 Green belt development


Figure 1.3a presents the proposed location for lawns, gardens etc. in the harbour area. Tall
trees like Eucalyptus, in two to three rows may be planted around closed settling tank with
vent located at the Northwest corner of the site to minimize any odour problem. Road side
plantations are proposed to be developed for aesthetics and as noise barrier.

4.7 Hazardous waste management


Boat fuelling area and the boat repairing area are the main source of spillage of hazardous
waste like fuel oil, waste oil and paints. Fuelling point shall be very carefully managed
against spillage and fire. Any spillage of waste oil and paint at the boat repairing may be
effectively collected before they spill into the marine environment and these maybe
disposed to authorized agency. The fishermen should also take adequate care against any
spillage of oil into coastal waters from boats and trawlers. Storage of oil, if any within the
harbour area, shall follow the Explosive Act Guidelines of GoI.

4.8 Health and safety precautions during construction phase


- All precautions shall be taken to prevent / minimize disturbance to adjacent
properties / habitations. If unavoidable, same are restored with consent from
affected persons.
- Adequately sized construction yard are to be provided at the site for storage of
construction materials, equipment tools, earthmoving equipment, etc. In addition,
temporary field offices and worker amenities are provided at site. Appropriate spill
control measures and labelling / handling procedures are maintained.
- Welding personnel are properly trained and will wear necessary Personal
Protection Equipment.
- Safety procedures prominently displayed at various construction sites.
- Medical facilities including first-aid provided at construction yard.
- Periodic health check-ups undertaken for early detection and control of
communicable diseases.
- Training and awareness programs on occupational health, safety and firefighting
are periodically conducted including re-training.
- Hazardous materials stored as per prescribed safety norms in locations with
restricted entry and with fire-fighting facilities.
- No blasting will be allowed in the CRZ area.
- Educate periodical majors shall be taken for health check-up of the working staff
during construction and operational phases.
- Educate provision for education of the children of labourers and fishermen should
be made.

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5 TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING
PROGRAMME
The following Environmental Monitoring Programme schedule (Table 5.1) during both
Construction and Operational Phases shall be followed.

Table 5.1 Details of fresh water and raw water requirements

Potable/Marine water
Details Air Noise
quality
Parameters PM2.5 Leq. Noise pH
PM10 levels dB(A) Turbidity
SO2 TSS
NOx DO
CO COD
BOD
Sulphates
Phenols
Oil &grease
Total Ammonical
Nitrogen (NH2)

Sampling 24 hourly Day & Night Sample taken from fresh


details continuously for water sump and settling
2 days at 5 tank effluent
locations
including 1 at
harbour area
Sampling Quarterly Quarterly Quarterly
frequency

Appropriate mitigation and control measures shall be taken, if there are any excesses in
the environmental parameters. Three locations can be considered for monitoring study
(Figure5.1)

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Figure 5.1 Proposed terrestrial Monitoring locations

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6 MARINE ENVIRONMENT
The marine environment of the project region at open sea has been studied for the
evaluation of baseline information as per the norms stipulated by the Ministry of
Environment and Forests, Govt. of India. The baseline data were collected during August
2015. The chemical and biological samples were collected at 10 locations covering three
in river (stns. S1 to S3), one in mouth (stn. S4) and six in open sea (stns. S5 to S10). The
details of the sampling locations are presented in Table 6.1 and also shown in Figure 6.1.

Figure 6.1 Water and Sediment sampling locations map

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Table 6.1 Marine sampling locations details

UTM Coordinates Measurement depth from


(WGS 84) Water depth
Stn. surface
(m)
No X (m) Y (m) (m)

River

S1 367340 1297824 1.5 S


2
S2 366894 1296936 . S, B
0
S3 366566 1295705 2.0 S, B

Mouth

S4 366937 1294529 2.5 S, M, B

Open sea

S5 368585 1295917 8.0 S, M, B

S6 370171 1294502 12.0 S, M, B

S7 370706 1298038 12.0 S, M, B

S8 370488 1303936 11.0 S, M, B

S9 374242 1301574 18.0 S, M, B

S10 377171 1294502 20.0 S, M, B

Intertidal Benthos

IB1 367243 1295500 -

IB2 368102 1299415 -

IB3 368988 1304336 -


S = Surface, M = Mid depth, B = Bottom
The water samples were collected at 3 water depths i.e., surface, mid depth and bottom.
The water quality parameters like Temperature, pH, Salinity Dissolved Oxygen, Primary
productivity and BOD were analyzed in-situ onboard by Indomer. The other water quality
parameters like, COD, Total suspended solids, Turbidity, Ammonia-N, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N,
Total nitrogen, Inorganic phosphate, Total phosphorus, Cadmium, Lead, Mercury,
Chromium, Phenolic Compounds and, Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons were analyzed by
Creative Engineers & Consultants, Chennai which is accredited by National Accreditation
Board for Laboratory (NABL).

The methods of data collection and type of analysis are presented in Annexure II. The
details of the studies carried out in the coastal region on physical, chemical and biological
aspects are explained below.

Physical parameters

Wind
Storm
Waves
Tides

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Currents
Tsunami
Littoral Drift
Bathymetry

Water quality parameters

Temperature
pH
Salinity
Dissolved Oxygen,
BOD
COD
Turbidity
Ammonia-N
Nitrite-N
Nitrate-N
Total Nitrogen
Inorganic phosphate
Total phosphorus
Total suspended solids
Phenolic Compounds
Petroleum Hydrocarbons
Cadmium
Lead
Mercury
Chromium
Oil and Grease

Sediment quality parameters

Soil texture,
Total phosphorous,
Total Nitrogen,
Total organic carbon,
Calcium carbonate,
Cadmium,
Chromium,
Lead,
Mercury,
Phenolic compounds, and
Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Biological parameters

Primary Productivity
Phytoplankton, its biomass and diversity,
Zooplankton, its biomass and diversity,
Macro benthos, its biomass and diversity,
Microbial population in water and sediments,
Turtles and Coastal vegetation
Biological status of floral and faunal communities and
Fisheries

Environmental study

Assessment of fishery resources in the area,

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Assessment of coastal and marine ecosystem,
Assessment of impact of the offshore breakwaters,
Assessment on the impact of dredging,
Assessment on Littoral drift,
Assessment on Shoreline erosion,
Recommendation on mitigation measures, and
Preparation of Environmental Management Plan.

6.1 Baseline data


6.1.1 Physical
Waves at open sea: The available wave data with Indomer were compiled for this region.
The occurrence of predominant wave characteristics is presented in Table 6.2. It is
observed that the significant wave heights varied between 0.5 and 1 m during February to
April, 1.0 – 2.5 m during May to July and September, 1.0 – 3.0 m in August, and 1.0 – 2.0
m during rest of the year. The zero crossing wave period varied from 5 to 7 s. The study
region is located on the region which is significantly influenced during the northeast
monsoon. The occurrence of storms and depressions during northeast monsoon,
particularly in October and November, often increases the wave activity in this region.

Table 6.2 Monthly wave characteristics off Cuddalore

Month Hs (m) Tz (s)

January 1.0 – 1.5 5–7


February 0.5 – 1.0 5–6
March 0.5 – 1.0 5–6
April 0.5 – 1.0 5–6
May 1.0 – 2.5 5–7
June 1.0 – 2.5 5–8
July 1.0 – 2.5 5–6
August 1.0 – 3.0 5–6
September 1.0 – 2.5 5–6
October 0.5 – 2.0 5–6
November 1.0 – 2.0 5–6
December 1.0 – 2.0 5–6

The occurrence of storms and depressions during northeast monsoon, particularly in


October and November, often increases the wave activity in this region.

Storm: The tracks of cyclones which have crossed the coast near Cuddalore (within 150
km on either side) during 1877 to 1990 are presented in Table 6.3. 53 storms had occurred
within 300 km off the study region. The occurrence of storms in this region is more frequent
in November (23). Among these occurrences, five storms had crossed the coast within 150
km vicinity of the study region during 1877 to 1990.

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Table 6.3 Tracks of cyclones passed Cuddalore region - 1877 to 1990

Occurred in the Crossed in the


Month
vicinity vicinity
January 3 1
February - -
March 2 -
April 2 -
May 5 1
June - -
July - -
August - -
September - -
October 9 -
November 23 2
December 9 1
TOTAL 53 5

Tides: Tide measurement was carried by using Aanderaa Water level Recorder for a period
of 15 days from 19.08.2015 to 04.09.2015. The tide data was recorded at 10 min interval.
The measured water levels were reduced to chart datum. The measurement location is
shown in Figure 6.1. The variation of tides is shown in Figure 6.2. The details of
measurements are provided in Table 6.4

Table 6.4 Details of measurement location, water depth and duration of stations T1

Geographical Coordinates
UTM (Zone – 44) Duration
Stn. (WGS 84)
Latitude, N Longitude, E X (m) Y (m) From To
Stn. T1
11°42’28.71” 79°46’30.98” 0366526 1294552 19.08.15 04.09.15

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Figure 6.2 Variation in Tide measurements

Various design tide levels with respect to Chart Datum for Cuddalore region as presented
in Naval Hydrographic Chart No. 3036 are given below.

Mean High water Spring 0.9 m :


Mean High Water Neap : 0.8 m
Mean Sea Level : 0.7 m
Mean Low Water Neap : 0.6 m
Mean Low Water Spring : 0.4 m

However, the measured tides at Cuddalore port during 19.08.15 to 04.09.15 shows that the
spring tidal range is around 0.89 m and the neap tidal range is around 0.32 m.

Currents: Variations of current speed and direction were measured at two locations using
Aanderaa RCM 9 current meters for the period of 15 days at 10 minute interval. The
surface currents, i.e. 2.0 m below sea surface at open sea (stn. C1) and 0.5 m below sea
surface at creek (stn. C2) were measured. Details of the measurement locationis provided
in table 6.5 And figure 6.4.

The variation of surface current speed and direction, and the corresponding polar plot
showing the distribution of current speed with directions are shown in Figs. 6.3.

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Figure 6.3 Variation of current speed and direction of stn C2 (river)

Stn. C1 (Open Sea): The maximum current speed at surface reached upto 0.29 m/s. The
current was mostly in uni-directional towards north during the measured period. However
the current speeds were uniformly changing with tidal phases. Current speed was found to
be stronger during ebb tide compared to flood tide.

Stn. C2 (Creek): The maximum current speed at surface reached upto 0.71 m/s. The
current direction was towards north during flood tide and south during ebb tide. The current
direction varied between 0° and 30° during flood tide and 180° and 210° during ebb tide.
The current speed is relatively higher during ebb tide when compared with flood tide.

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The details of measurement location, water depth and duration are given below:

Table 6.5 Details of measurement location, water depth and duration of stations C1 and
C2

UTM Coordinates Water Duration


Stns. (Zone – 44) depth
X (m) Y (m) (m) From To
C1
0366387 1287699 10.0 20.08.15 04.09.15
(Open sea)
C2
0366821 1296355 1.5 19.08.15 04.09.15
(Creek)

Figure 6.4 Current Measurement locations

Tsunami: Amongst the natural disaster in the coastal region, tsunami causes the extensive
damage to the life and property and natural resources along the coast. Tsunami is a series
of waves with long wave length and period. Time lapse between crests of the wave can
vary from a few minutes to over an hour. Tsunami waves are usually generated by any
large impulsive displacement of sea bed in vertical direction. Occurrence of Tsunami along
the Indian coast is an extremely rare event, but for the one that was witnessed on 26th
December 2004 along the east coast of India, which produced devastating effect along the
entire Tamil Nadu coast. The magnitude of impact was very severe along the coastal
stretch between Nagapattinam and Cuddalore. The coastal Cuddalore was one of the worst
affected regions due to 2004 Tsunami disaster. The coastal Cuddalore belt measuring 10
km inland and 60 km along the coast was worst affected. The water level measurements
indicate a tsunami run up of about 1.5 m to 3.5 m with a maximum witnessed between
Karaikal and Nagapattinam. The mangrove forest at Pitchavaram acted as a good buffer
to reduce the impact of tsunami along this coastal front.

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Bathymetry: Seabed Bathymetry survey was carried out covering an area of 1000 m
distance along the coast and 500 m distance into the sea using CEEDUCER PRO
Echosounder. The Hemisphere DGPS Beacon Receiver was used for the horizontal
positioning.

The bathymetry map of the study region is presented in Figure 6.5. The seabed within the
survey area depicts smooth bed without any random features. The depth contours are
uniform and parallel to coastline. The 1 m, 2 m, 3 m, and 4 m contours occur approximately
at a distance of 192 m, 302 m, 420 m and 520 m distance respectively.

Figure 6.5 Bathymetry map

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Littoral Drift: Based on the information provided by DHI India, it can be observed the net
transport by sea is southward, and for swell is northward, and the resultant net transport is
predominantly northward varying with the beach profile orientation. Annual net transport
rates of approximately 0.18 X 106 m3/year were estimated across the mouth with net
northward transport.

6.1.2 Water Quality


Water samples were collected at 10 stations covering three in river (stns. S1 to S3), one in
mouth (stn. S4) and six in open sea (stns. S5 to S10) as indicated in Table 6.1 and Figure
6.1.

The water quality parameters like Temperature, pH Salinity, Dissolved Oxygen, Primary
productivity and BOD were analyzed in-situ on-board by Indomer. The other water quality
parameters like COD, Total suspended solids, Turbidity, Ammonia-N, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N,
Total nitrogen, Inorganic phosphate, Total phosphorus, Cadmium, Lead, Mercury,
Chromium, Phenolic Compounds and, Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons were analyzed by
Creative Engineers & Consultants, Chennai which is accredited by National Accreditation
Board for Laboratory (NABL).

The estimated water quality parameters such as Temperature, pH, Salinity, Dissolved
Oxygen, Turbidity, Ammonia-N, Nitrite-N, Nitrate-N, Inorganic phosphate, Total Nitrogen,
Total Phosphorus and Total Suspended Solids are given in Table 6.6. The comparison of
values with COMAPS data are given in Tables 6.7. The biochemical oxygen demand and
chemical oxygen demand are presented in Tables 6.8. The concentration levels of
Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr) and Mercury (Hg) Phenolic compounds and
Petroleum hydrocarbons measured at 10 stations (river, mouth and Open Sea) across the
depths are presented in Table 6.9.

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Table 6.6 Water quality parameters

PO4-P Total Turbidity


Total Total
Temp Salinity DO NH3-N NO2N NO3N (mg/l) suspended (NTU)
Station pH Nitrogen Phosphorus
(˚C) (ppt) (mg/l) (mg/L) (mg/l) (mg/l) solid
(mg/l) (mg/l)
(mg/l)
River
S1 S 30.0 28.3 5.92 7.9 <0.1 0.04 1.10 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 6.0 <1.0
S 30.0 28.3 5.92 7.9 <0.1 0.03 1.10 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 12.0 3.0
S2
B 30.0 31.8 5.76 8.0 <0.1 0.03 0.77 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 3.0 <1.0
S 30.0 30.0 5.76 8.0 0.51 0.05 0.98 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 8.0 2.0
S3
B 29.5 26.5 5.44 8.0 <0.1 0.03 0.62 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 5.0 <1.0
Mouth
S 30.0 34.5 5.60 8.2 <0.1 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 8.0 2.0
S4 M 29.5 33.6 5.44 8.2 <0.1 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 4.0 <1.0
B 29.0 36.2 5.28 8.2 <0.1 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 4.0 <1.0
Open sea
S 31.0 33.6 5.44 8.2 0.37 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 7.0 2.0
S5 M 30.5 35.4 5.12 8.3 <0.1 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 4.0 <1.0
B 30.0 34.5 4.80 8.3 0.84 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 8.0 2.0
S 31.0 32.7 6.08 8.2 <0.1 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 6.0 <1.0
S6 M 31.0 33.6 5.92 8.2 <0.1 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 3.0 <1.0
B 30.0 34.0 5.60 8.2 0.42 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 6.0 <1.0
S 31.0 31.8 5.76 8.2 <0.1 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 3.0 <1.0
S7 M 30.0 33.6 5.44 8.3 <0.1 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 4.0 <1.0
B 30.0 34.5 5.28 8.3 <0.1 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 5.0 <1.0
S 30.0 33.6 5.92 8.2 <0.1 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 3.0 <1.0
S8 M 29.5 32.7 5.60 8.2 <0.1 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 4.0 <1.0
B 29.0 30.0 5.44 8.3 <0.1 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 6.0 <1.0
S 30.0 35.4 5.76 8.2 <0.1 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 2.0 <1.0
S9 M 29.5 31.8 5.60 8.2 0.56 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 6.0 <1.0
B 29.5 34.5 5.60 8.3 <0.1 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 4.0 <1.0
S 29.5 35.4 5.28 8.3 <0.1 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 4.0 <1.0
S10 M 29.0 34.5 4.96 8.3 <0.1 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 4.0 <1.0
B 29.0 32.7 4.64 8.3 0.61 <0.01 <0.5 <1.0 <0.1 <0.05 4.0 <1.0

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Table 6.7 Comparisons of pH, salinity, DO and nutrient levels with COMAPS data

Near Shore Andaman


Sl. Cuddalore Offshore CPCB Observed Values
Parameters Remarks
No (COMAPS Data) (COMAP Standard (Present Study)
* S Data) *
1 pH 8.0-8.4† (8.13)$ 8.0 6.5-8.5 8.2 - 8.3† (8.24) $ Normal
Salinity 30.0 – 35.4
2 28.0-35.0 (32.3) 35.0 - Normal
(ppt) (33.6)
Dissolved
3 Oxygen 4.06-5.56 (4.82) 5.8 4.0 4.64 - 6.08 (5.45) Normal
(mg/l)
* Data from Jan – Dec 2009. † Range $ Average
Source: Coastal ocean monitoring and prediction system

Table 6.8 Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand in seawater

Biochemical Oxygen Demand Chemical Oxygen Demand


Stations Surface Middle Bottom Surface Middle Bottom
(mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l)
River
S1 3.04 - - 26.5 - -
S2 2.08 - 2.24 31.6 - 33.5
S3 1.60 - 2.24 29.1 27.2 24.6
Mouth
S4 2.40 3.20 3.36 20.2 24.0 22.1
Open sea
S5 2.56 2.24 2.24 22.1 22.8 27.8

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S6 1.60 1.76 2.08 35.4 29.7 32.2
S7 2.88 3.20 2.72 19.6 14.5 17.7
S8 2.72 2.40 2.88 18.3 24.0 19.0
S9 1.44 1.60 2.08 24.6 30.3 31.6
S10 2.08 3.04 2.72 20.2 22.8 34.8

Temperature: Steep gradients of sea water temperature across the depths bear direct impact on the productivity and animal colony of the
region. The temperature varied from 29.0°C to 31.0°C at stns. S1 to S10. No thermal stratification was noticed in the area.

Salinity: The estimated salinity of the collected water samples varied between 26.5 and 31.8 ppt in river (stns. S1 to stn. S3) and 33.6 and 36.2
ppt at mouth (stn. S4). At open sea (stns. S5 to S10), the values varied between 30.0 and 35.4 ppt. In general, the salinity of the water column
varied from different water mass.

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Table 6.9 Concentration of Heavy Metals, Phenol, Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons and
Oil and grease in sea water

Phenols
Heavy metals (mg/l)
(mg/l)
Total
Oil and
Stations

Chromium
Petroleum
Cadmium

C6H5OH
Mercury
Grease

as Pb
as Cd

as Hg

as Cr
Lead
Hydrocarbons
(mg /l)
(mg /l)

River
S1 S 0.07 <0.002 0.47 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
S 0.07 <0.002 0.42 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
S2
B 0.07 <0.002 0.47 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
S 0.05 <0.002 0.38 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
S3
B 0.05 <0.002 0.35 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
Mouth
S 0.10 <0.002 0.43 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
S4 M 0.10 <0.002 0.39 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
B 0.10 <0.002 0.38 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
Open sea
S 0.10 <0.002 0.32 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
S5 M 0.10 <0.002 0.34 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
B 0.10 <0.002 0.31 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
S 0.10 <0.002 0.28 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
S6 M 0.10 <0.002 0.25 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
B 0.10 <0.002 0.48 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
S 0.10 <0.002 0.45 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
S7 M 0.11 <0.002 0.43 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
B 0.10 <0.002 0.39 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
S 0.10 <0.002 0.43 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
S8 M 0.11 <0.002 0.46 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
B 0.10 <0.002 0.38 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
S 0.11 <0.002 0.41 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
S9 M 0.11 <0.002 0.47 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
B 0.11 <0.002 0.42 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
S 0.11 <0.002 0.44 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
S10 M 0.11 <0.002 0.46 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0
B 0.11 <0.002 0.39 <0.05 <0.1 <0.1 <1.0

pH: Variations in pH due to chemical and other industrial discharges render a water column
unsuitable for the rearing of fish and other aquatic life. pH is a very sensitive and most
important parameter of an environmental study. Primary production, respiration and
mineralization are able to alter the redox and pH of aqueous system due to the changes in
oxygen and carbonate concentration. Identifying pH for acidic or alkaline disturbances
enables one to locate zones of pollution and other quality conditions for the use of
seawater. During the present study, pH of the water column show no big variation in open
sea and mouth. It varied between 8.2 and 8.3 at stn. S4 to stn. S10. At river, the values
ranges from 7.9 to 8.0 from stn. S1 to stn.S3.

Dissolved Oxygen (DO): Of all the dissolved gases in water, oxygen is the most important
one for the survival of aquatic biota. The amount of oxygen dissolved in the water column

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at a given time is the balance between consumption and replenishment. In an ideal
ecosystem, these two processes should be at equilibrium to keep the water column
saturated with DO. Generally, the coastal waters are always found to be saturated and this
is true in the present study area as well.

Dissolved oxygen content varied from 5.44 to 5.92 mg/l at river (stns. S1 to stn. S3) and
the minimum (5.44 mg/l) was recorded at stn. S3 (mid and bottom water) while the
maximum (5.92 mg/l) at stns.S1 and S2 surface water. At mouth region (stn. S4), the
values varied from 5.28 to 5.60 mg/l. DO content varied between 4.64 and 6.08 mg/l at
open sea (stns. S5 to S10) and the minimum (4.64 mg/l) was recorded at stn. S10 bottom
water while the maximum (6.08 mg/l) at stn. S6 in surface water.

The principal natural physical factors affecting the concentration of oxygen in the marine
environment are temperature and salinity. DO concentrations decrease with increasing
temperature and salinity. So it is possible to calculate the theoretical saturation of dissolved
oxygen for a given combination of temperature and salinity. Then the observed values can
be compared to see whether the system can sustain the biological demand. The
comparison of values with COMAPS data are also given in Table 6.7. These values indicate
a normal condition which shows normal productivity in the project region. Review of
literature indicates that the levels below 2 mg/l are only known to cause respiratory impacts
on marine fauna.

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD): Rate of aerobic utilization of oxygen is a useful


tool to evaluate the intensity of deterioration in an aquatic medium. The oxygen taken up
for the breakup of organic matter leads to a reducing environment or in the event of release
of excess nutrients, it may cause eutrophication.

In the present study the BOD values from river varied from 1.60 to 3.04 mg/l. The values
varied between 2.40 to 3.36 mg/l at the mouth region (stn.S4) and from 1.44 to 3.20 mg/l
at open sea (stns. S5 & S10). The low BOD values indicate that oxidisable organic matter
brought to the nearshore waters is effectively assimilated in coastal water. The narrow
range of variation in BOD values indicate that the water column is well mixed in the project
area.

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD): Chemical oxygen demand (COD) determines the
oxygen required for chemical oxidation of organic matter with the help of strong chemical
oxidant. The organic matter gets oxidized completely by potassium dichromate (K 2Cr2O7)
in the presence of H2SO4 to produce CO2 plus H2O. The excess K2Cr2O7 remaining after
the reaction was titrated with ferrous ammonium sulphate [Fe(NH 4)2(SO4)2. 6H2O] using
ferroin as indicator. The volume of dichromate consumed gives the oxygen required for
oxidation of the organic matter.

In the present study the COD varied from 24.6 to 33.5 mg/l at river (stns. S1 to S3), the
values varied between 20.2 to 24.0 mg/l at mouth region (stn.S4) and from 14.5 to 35.4
mg/l at open sea (stns. S5 to S10).

Nutrients: Nutrients determine the potential fertility of an ecosystem and hence it is


important to know their distribution and behaviour in different geographical locations and
seasons. The fishery potential of an area is in turn, dependent on the availability of primary
nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus. Enrichment of these nutrients by anthropogenic
inputs in the coastal waters having limited ventilation may result in water becoming
eutrophicated.

The major inorganic species of nitrogen in water are ammonia, nitrite and nitrate of which
nitrite is very unstable and ammonia is bio-chemically oxidized to nitrate. Hence, the
concentrations of nitrite and ammonia are often very low in natural waters. The utilization
of nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates can be taken as a measure of the productivity
of the area.

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Inorganic phosphate and nitrogen compounds in the sea play a decisive role in the
biological production. Normally they occur in low concentrations. Their distribution in the
coastal waters is mostly influenced by land run off. Since nutrients form an important index
to the primary productivity of an ecosystem, the study of its distribution is important from
the point of view of its role in the biological productivity and also as an indicator of pollutant.
Values of various nutrient parameters analyzed at different stations are presented in
Table 6.6.

Ammonia-Nitrogen (NH3-N): Unpolluted waters are generally devoid of ammonia and


nitrite. However, coastal input by sewage and other nitrogenous organic matter and
fertilizers can increase these nutrients to higher levels. In addition, ammonia in seawater
can also come from various organisms as an excretory product due to the metabolic activity
and the decomposition of organic matter by micro-organisms.

The concentration of Ammonia ranged from 0.1 to 0.51 mg/l at river (stns. S1 to stn.S3). At
mouth region (stn.S4), the value was found to be <0.1 mg/l and it varied from <0.1 to 0.84
mg/l at open sea (stns. S5 to S10). The values are within normal range. The concentration
of ammonia observed at creek do not show much variation compared to open sea.

Nitrite-Nitrogen (NO2-N): Nitrite is an important element, which occurs in seawater as an


intermediate compound in the microbial reduction of nitrate or in the oxidation of ammonia.
In addition, nitrite is excreted by phytoplankton especially, during plankton bloom.

Nitrite concentration varied between 0.03 and 0.05 mg/l in river (stns.S1 to S3) and it was
found to be <0.01mg/l at mouth region and open sea (stns. S4 to stn. S10).

Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N): Nitrate values are in general higher as compared to nitrite


values. Nitrate is the final oxidation product of nitrogen compounds in seawater and is
considered to be the only thermodynamically stable oxidation level of nitrogen in seawater.
Nitrate is considered to be the micronutrient, which controls primary production in the
euphotic surface layer. The concentration of nitrate is governed by several factors of which
microbial oxidation of NH3 and uptake by primary producers may be important in the
present study area.

Nitrate concentration varied from 0.62 and 1.10 mg/l at river (stns. S1 to S3) and it was
found to be <0.5mg/l at open sea and mouth region (stns. S4 to stn. S10).

Total nitrogen: The total nitrogen concentration was found to be <1.0 mg/l at all sampling
stations (stns. S1 to S10).

Inorganic Phosphate (PO4-P): Inorganic phosphate is also an important nutrient like


nitrogen compound in the primary production of the sea. The concentrations of phosphate
especially in the coastal waters are influenced by the land run off and domestic sewage.

The phosphate concentration was found to be <0.1 mg/l at all sampling stations (stns. S1
to S10).

Total phosphorous: The concentration of total phosphorus was found to be <0.05mg/l at


all sampling stations (stns. S1 to S10).

Total Suspended Solids (TSS): Total Suspended Solids in seawater originate either from
autochthonous (biological life) or allochthonus (derived from terrestrial matter) sources.
The TSS values varied from 3 to 12 mg/l at river (stns. S1 to S3) and ranged from 4 to 8
mg/l at mouth region (stn.S4). In open sea (stns. S5 to S10), it varied from 2 to 8 mg/l.

Turbidity: Turbidity is another measure to understand the suspended particulate matter


which controls the photosynthesis in the water column. The turbidity values varied between
<1.0 to 3.0 NTU at river (stns. S1 to S10). The values varied from <1.0 to 2.0 NTU at mouth
and open sea (stns.S1 to S4).

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Trace metal concentration: Concentrations of trace metals in water are often close to the
background level due to their efficient removal from the water column through hydrolysis
and adsorption by suspended particulate matter. Hence, sediments serve as an ultimate
sink for several trace metals and their analyses can serve as a useful indicator of metal
pollution.

Knowledge of the trace metal concentration in seawater is very important from the point of
view of their possible adverse effects on marine biota. Oysters by their ability to concentrate
some trace metals from the environment are considered to be useful indicators of metal
pollution. Many of the trace metals are adsorbed to the particulate matter and are ultimately
deposited at the bottom. Bottom sediments are considered to provide a reliable estimate
of metal pollution status. The relationship between gross concentration of heavy metal in
solution and its ability to cause toxic effects in an organism is a complex one, and is mostly
decided by the speciation of metal and the condition of the organism. Whether or not a
trace metal can interact with the biota depends on its "bio-availability" in the medium.
Presence of other toxicants or metals can reduce or increase the additive toxicity of each
element. In addition to these factors, temperature, pH, salinity, turbidity and dissolved
oxygen concentration also significantly affect metal-organism interactions.

The nominal presences of trace metals, which occur in seawater, are found to be necessary
to promote growth of marine organisms. The concentration levels of Cadmium, Chromium,
Lead and Mercury measured at various locations across the depth are presented in Table
6.8.

Cadmium (Cd): The bioavailability and toxicity of trace metals such as Cd, Cu, and Zn are
related to the activity of the free metal ion rather than the total metal concentration. For Cd
it is the CdC12 complex that predominates in seawater. Therefore, salinity is the overriding
factor which can alter free Cd ion activity {Cd2+}, and hence, bioavailability and toxicity in
marine systems.

The cadmium concentration varied from 0.05 to 0.11 mg/l at all sampling stations (stns.S1to
S10).

Total Chromium (Cr): In dissolved form, chromium is present as either anionic trivalent
Cr(OH)3 or as hexavalent CrO42-. The amount of dissolved Cr3+ ions is relatively low,
because these form stable complexes. Oxidation ranks from Cr(II) to Cr(VI). In natural
waters trivalent chromium is most abundant. Chromium is a dietary requirement for a
number of organisms. This however only applies to trivalent chromium. Hexavalent
chromium is very toxic to flora and fauna. Chromium water pollution is not regarded as one
of the main and most severe environmental problems, although discharging chromium
polluted untreated wastewater in rivers has caused environmental disasters in the past.
Chromium (III) oxides are only slightly water soluble, therefore concentrations in natural
waters are limited. Cr3+ ions are rarely present at pH values over 5, because hydrated
chromium oxide (Cr(OH)3) is hardly water soluble.

Chromium (VI) compounds are stable under aerobic conditions, but are reduced to
chromium (III) compounds under anaerobic conditions. The reverse process is another
possibility in an oxidizing environment. Chromium is largely bound to floating particles in
water. The LC50 value for chromium in sea fish lies between 7 and 400 ppm, and for algae
at 0.032-6.4 ppm.

The total chromium concentration in the study region was found to be <0.05 mg/l at all
sampling stations (stns.S1 to S10).

Lead (Pb): Lead has been used by man for centuries and is amongst the most widely
dispersed environmental contaminant. The considerably greater toxicity of organo-lead
compounds compared to inorganic forms has led to studies whether; such compounds may

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be formed by natural process. Available literature suggests that alkylation of lead is purely
a chemical process which may occur in organic-rich anoxic sediment.

The lead concentration for the sea water samples was estimated as lead strongly gets
accumulated in fishes especially with shell fish. The lead concentration in the study region
varied from 0.25 to 0.48 mg/l at all sampling stations (stns.S1 to S10).

Mercury (Hg): Mercury is considered as a non-essential and toxic element for living
organisms. Mercury, amongst other heavy metals has attracted global concern due to its
extensive use, toxicity, widespread distribution and the biomagnifications. A chemical
whose concentration increases along a food chain is said to be biomagnified. The bio-
concentrate of mercury in aquatic organisms such as oysters and mussels has been
reported to be much greater than those contained in the environment in which they live.
Mercury is considered as a non-essential and toxic element for living organisms. During
this period, the concentration of the study region was found to be <0.002 mg/l at all stations
(stns.S1 to S10).

Phenol: The main source of phenolic compounds in seawater is through plants.


Additionally, they can also be released during humification processes occurring in soil.
Higher concentrations occur in industrial wastewaters. Phenols can be toxic to marine
organisms and can accumulate in certain cellular components. Chlorination of phenol-
containing waters can lead to formation of chlorophenols with unpleasant odour and taste.

The concentration of phenol in the study area was found to be <0.1 mg/l at all stations.

Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons: The coastal waters are susceptible to oil pollution due
to various maritime activities like fishing operation, spillage from oil tankers, port activities
etc. In the study area, the dissolved and dispersed Petroleum hydrocarbons were found
to be <0.1mg/l at all stations (stns.S1 to S10).

Oil and grease: The coastal waters are susceptible to oil pollution due to various maritime
activities like fishing operation, spillage from oil tankers, port activities etc. The
concentration of Oil and grease in the study area was found to be <1.0 mg/l at all stations

6.1.3 Sediment quality


Sediment size distribution: The size distribution of the seabed sediments are shown in
Table 6.10. It was observed that the seabed is primarily composed of fine sand.

The percentage composition of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total organic carbon and
calcium carbonate in sediment samples are given in Table 6.11. The concentration of lead,
cadmium, mercury, total chromium, phenols and total petroleum hydrocarbons in the
bottom sediments are presented in Table 6.12.

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Table 6.10 Sediment size distribution

Classification Coarse Sand Medium Sand Fine Sand Silt &Clay


Station
of Soil % % % %

River
S1 Fine sand 14.05 20.60 60.77 4.57
S2 Fine sand 9.32 9.85 68.25 12.58
S3 Fine sand 11.52 26.49 60.69 1.30
Mouth
S4 Fine sand 1.07 0.99 96.30 1.64
Open sea
S5 Fine sand 5.51 2.74 85.39 6.36
S6 Fine sand 4.11 23.79 71.56 0.54
S7 Fine sand 9.74 26.03 62.76 1.47
S8 Medium sand 18.26 50.41 29.83 1.50
S9 Medium sand 17.62 45.54 35.76 1.07
S10 Fine sand 2.29 4.61 49.81 43.29

Table 6.11 Seabed sediment quality parameters

Total Total
Total Organic Calcium
Station Nitrogen Phosphorus
Carbon (%) Carbonate
(mg/kg) (mg/kg)
(%)
River
S1 0.61 77.6 1.4 13.1
S2 0.99 295 2.5 12.3
S3 0.16 107 1.54 10.3
Mouth
S4 0.19 81.7 0.30 11.3
Open sea
S5 0.45 188 1.75 11.9
S6 0.14 150 2.2 14.8
S7 0.31 105 1.6 13.1
S8 0.48 522 3.0 18.5
S9 0.34 593 3.7 18.5
S10 0.89 100 1.60 11.1

Table 6.12 Concentration of heavy metals, phenol and total petroleum hydrocarbons in
seabed sediments

Phenols Total
Heavy metals (mg/kg) Petroleum
(mg/kg)
Hydrocarbons
Stations (mg /kg)
Cadmiu Mercury Lead as Chromiu
C6H5OH
m as Cd as Hg Pb m as Cr

River
S1 0.34 <0.05 9.7 1.5 <0.5 <0.1

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S2 0.40 <0.05 11.5 1.5 <0.5 <0.1
S3 <0.3 <0.05 12.6 1.31 <0.5 <0.1
Mouth
S4 0.61 <0.05 21.5 19.1 <0.5 <0.1
Open sea
S5 0.68 <0.05 22.6 20.5 <0.5 <0.1
S6 0.88 <0.05 19.6 24.0 <0.5 <0.1
S7 1.06 <0.05 9.8 14.6 <0.5 <0.1
S8 1.17 <0.05 9.5 17.7 <0.5 <0.1
S9 0.58 <0.05 10.1 16.0 <0.5 <0.1
S10 0.92 <0.05 11.1 8.93 <0.5 <0.1
Total Organic Carbon: Total organic carbon content varied from 0.16 to 0.99% at river
(stns.S1 to S3) and it was recorded 0.19% at mouth region (stn. S4). At open sea, the
values varied between 0.14 to 0.89%.

Total Nitrogen: Total nitrogen concentration ranged from 77.6 to 295 mg/kg at river
(stns.S1 to S3) and it was found 81.7 mg/kg at mouth region (stn S4). The values varied
between 100 to 593 mg/kg at open sea (stns.S5 to S10).

Total Phosphorus: Total phosphorus concentration varied from 1.40 to 2.50mg/kg at river
(stns. S1 to S3). At mouth region (stn. S4), the value was found to be 0.30mg/kg and ranged
from 1.60 to 3.70 mg/kg at open sea (stns. S5 to S10).

Calcium Carbonate: The calcium carbonate content in the sediment samples varied from
10.3% to 13.1% at river (stns. S1 to S3) and it was observed 11.3% at mouth (stn. S4). The
values varied between 11.1 to 18.5% at open sea (stns. S5 to S10).

The concentration of cadmium, total chromium, lead, mercury, phenol and total petroleum
hydrocarbons in bottom sediments are presented in Table 6.11.

Cadmium (Cd): The concentration of cadmium in the study region varied from <0.3 to 1.17
mg/kg at all stations (stns.S1 to S10).

Total Chromium (Cr): The concentration of total chromium in the study region varied
between 1.31 to 24.0 mg/kg at all stations (stns.S1 to S10).

Lead (Pb): The lead concentration of the study area varied from 9.7 to 22.6mg/kg at all
sampling stations (stns. S1 to S10).

Mercury (Hg): The concentration of mercury in the study region was found to be <0.05
mg/kg at all stations (stns.S1 to S10).

Phenols: The concentration of Phenol in the study region was found to be < 0.5 mg/kg at
all stations (stns.S1 to S10).

Total Petroleum hydrocarbons: Total petroleum hydrocarbons were found to be < 0.1
mg/kg at all stations.

The concentrations of heavy metals, phenols and total petroleum hydrocarbons in the
sediment samples showed low values at sampling region. It indicates that there is no
accumulation of pollutants and there is no contamination.

6.1.4 Biological parameters


Identifying the biological status of an area is an essential prerequisite for environmental
impact assessment and can be evaluated by selecting a few reliable parameters from a
complex ecosystem. Whenever we consider assessment of the implications of
environmental pollution, we must be aware of the fact that despite many changes it may

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 72
cause in the physio-chemical properties of water body and seabed sediment, the ultimate
consequences are inevitably of biological nature. The biological parameters considered in
the present study are primary production, phytoplankton biomass, diversity and population,
zooplankton biomass, diversity and population, macro benthic diversity and population, and
fishery of the region. Phytoplankton and zooplankton reflect the productivity of a water
column at primary and secondary levels. Benthic organisms being sedentary animals
associated with the seabed, provide information regarding the integrated effects of stress
due to disturbances, if any, and hence are good indicators of early warning of potential
damage.

Phytoplankton and primary productivity: Phytoplankton is the primary source of food


in the marine environment. The concentration and numerical abundance of the
phytoplankton indicate the fertility of a region. The plankton population depends primarily
upon the nutrients present in the sea water and the sunlight for photosynthesis. This
primary production is an importance source of food for the higher organisms in the marine
environment. The measured primary productivity results are shown in Table 6.13.

Table 6.13 Primary productivity in coastal waters

Gross Net Photosynthetic Primary


Photosynthetic Photosynthetic quotient production
Station
activity activity (PQ) (mgC/m3/day)
River
S1 1.92 0.48 1.0 360
S2 2.08 0.48 1.0 360
S3 1.76 0.64 1.0 480
Mouth
S4 1.12 0.48 1.0 360
Open sea
S5 1.28 0.64 1.0 480
S6 1.60 0.64 1.0 480
S7 1.44 0.64 1.0 480
S8 1.76 0.48 1.0 360
S9 1.44 0.64 1.0 480
S10 1.12 0.48 1.0 360
Average 420

The results indicate that the area is moderately productive and the values vary from 360 to
480 mgC/m3/day at river (stns. S1 to S3) and it was 360 mgC/m3/day at mouth region (stn.
S4). The values varied from 360 to 480 mgC/m3/day at open sea (stns. S5 to S10). Totally,
the average value is 420 mgC/m3/day at sampling region. A comparative statement of
primary production along the east coast of India is also given in Table 6.14. Various
phytoplankton groups were observed and their percentage compositions are shown in
Tables 6.15 and 6.16.

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 73
Table 6.14 Comparative Statement of Primary Production along the East Coast of India

Latitude, Average PP
Sl.No Location Date
Longitude (mgC/m3/day)
Kulasekharapatnam (T.N) 08023’34”N,
1 78003’28”E 19.07.2012 513

Thondi (T.N) 0903’51”N,


2 78055’34”E 15.07.2011 468

Tharangambadi (T.N) 11002’01.24”N,


3 79051’56.38”E 03.10.2014 371

Neidavasal (T.N) 11010’14.37”N,


4 79051’21.38”E 23.04.2011 510

Agaramperuthottam (T.N) 11011’37”N,


5 79051’15”E 06.02.2010 518

Cuddalore (T.N) 11034’2.16”N,


6 79045’51.66”E 24.08.2015 420

Kattupalli (T.N) 130 19 ’11”N,


7 800 20’ 44”E 08.04.2010 530
Krishnapatnam (A.P) 14010’47”N,
8 21.08.2011 566
80008’12.86”E
Krishnapatnam (A.P) 14011’27.43”N,
9 16.10.2014 372
80007’38”E
Krishnapatnam (A.P) 14011’27.43”N,
10 19.08.2015 540
80007’38”E
Srikakulam (A.P) 180 06’71”N,
11 28.05.2012 380
83043’10”E

Table 6.15 Station wise composition of Phytoplankton

Sl. Stn. Stn. Stn. Stn. Stn. Stn. Stn. Stn. Stn Stn.
Genus / Species
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 .9 10
PHYLUM: Heterokontophyta
Class: Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms)
Order: Centrales
1 Astreonellapsis sp. + - + + + + + - - -
2 Bacteriastrum hyalinum - + + + + + + + - +
3 Bellerochea melleus - - + + + + - + - -
4 Chaetoceros affinis + + - + + + - + + +
5 C. carvicetus - - - + + - + + - +
6 C. coarctatus - - + - + + - + + -
7 C. diversus - - - + - + + + + +
8 C. lorenzianus + - - + + + + + - -
Climacodium
9 frauenfeldianum - - + - + + + + + -
10 Coscinodiscus sp. + + + + + + - + - +
11 C. centralis - + - - + + + - - -
12 C. granii - - - + + - - + + -
13 C. radiatus + - + - + - + - - -
14 Ditylum brightwelli + + - + + + + + - +
15 Ditylum sol - - - + + - - - + -
16 Guinardia sp. - - - + + + + + + -

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 74
Sl. Stn. Stn. Stn. Stn. Stn. Stn. Stn. Stn. Stn Stn.
Genus / Species
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 .9 10
17 Hemialus sp. - - - - + + - - + -
18 Lampriscus sp. - - - - - + + - + -
19 Leptocylindrus minimus + - - + + - + + - +
20 Lauderia sp. - + + + + + - + - -
21 Lithodesmium undulatum - + - - + + - - + -
22 Odontella mobiliensis + - + + + + + + - +
23 Odontella sinensis - + + + - + + - + -
24 Plantoniella sol - + - + - + + + - -
25 Rhizosolenia sp. - - + - + + + + - +
26 R. alata + + - - + + + - + -
27 R. castracani - - - + - + - + - -
28 R. setigera - - - - - + + - + -
29 R. stolterfethii - - - - + + - + - +
30 R. styliformis - + + + - - + - + +
31 Schroderella delicadula - + + - + + + + - -
32 Skeletonema castatum + - - + + + + + + +
33 Stephanophyxix - - - - - - + - - -
34 Thalassiosira subtilis + + - + - - + - + +
35 Triceratium rediculatum - + - + - + - + + -
11 14 13 22 26 27 23 22 17 13
Order: Pennales
36 Bacillaria sp. + - + + + + + - + +
37 Navicula sp. + + - - + + - + + +
38 N. membareana - - - + + - + + - -
39 Nitzschia sp. - + + + + - + + - +
40 N. lorenziana - - - + - + + - + -
41 N. longisima - - + + + - + + - +
42 Pleurosigma sp. - + + - + + + - + +
43 P. directum - - - + + - + + - +
44 P. elongatum - - - - + + - + + -
45 P.normanii - + + + - + + + - +
Thalassionema
46 nitzschioides - + - + + + - + + +
47 Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii + - + + + + + - + +
3 5 6 9 10 8 9 8 7 9
Class: Dinophyceae (Dinoflagellates)
48 Ceratium extensum - - + + - - - + + -
49 C. furca + + + + + + + - + +
50 C.fusus - - + - + + - + + -
51 C. macroceros + - + + + + - + + +
52 C.trichoceros - - - - + + + + - -
53 C.tripos + + + + + + - - + +
54 Dinophysis caudata + - - + + + + + + +
55 Ornithocercus sp. - + - - - + + - - -
56 Prorocentrum sp. + - - + + - - + + +
57 Protoperidinium sp. - + + + + + + + - -
58 P. longipos - + + + + + + + + +
6 5 7 8 9 9 6 8 8 6
Class: Cyanophyceae (Blue-greens)
Trichodesmium
59
erythreaum - + + - + + + + + +
Total 20 25 27 39 46 45 39 39 33 29

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 75
Table 6.16 Station wise numerical abundance of Phytoplankton (nos/l)

Sl.
Genus / Species S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 Total %
No
PHYLUM: Heterokontophyta
Class: Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms)
Order: Centrales
1 Bacteriastrum hyalinum - 4 2 - 2 - 2 1 3 2 16 2.35
2 Bellerochea sp. - - 1 2 1 - 3 3 - 1 11 1.61
3 Chaetoceros affinis 3 5 - - - 3 2 1 2 2 18 2.64
4 Chaetoceros carvicetus - - - 2 1 2 - - 6 - 11 1.61
5 Chaetoceros lorenzianus - - - - 2 - 4 - - - 6 0.88
6 Coscinodiscus sp. 5 7 2 5 2 2 - 3 - 3 29 4.25
7 Coscinodiscus centralis - - - - 4 2 - 1 3 3 13 1.91
8 Coscinodiscus radiatus 2 - 3 - - - - - - - 5 0.73
9 Guinardia sp. - - - 3 1 2 1 1 - - 8 1.17
10 Leptocylindrus danicus - - - 2 - 1 - - 3 1 7 1.03
11 Lauderia sp. - 3 1 - - - - - - - 4 0.59
12 Odontella mobiliensis 6 - 3 - 4 2 2 3 2 4 26 3.81
13 Odontella sinensis - 5 4 3 2 - 1 - 1 2 18 2.64
15 Rhizosolenia alata 2 1 - 4 2 - 4 1 3 5 22 3.23
16 Rhizosolenia stolterfethii - - - 1 1 - 2 2 1 - 7 1.03
17 Schroderella delicadula - 2 3 2 - 1 - - 2 - 10 1.47
18 - - - 18 22 26 31.2
Skeletonema castatum 42 56 36 13
213 3
19 Thalassiosira subtilis 3 2 - 2 1 3 4 6 2 5 28 4.11
Order: Pennales
18 Bacillaria sp. - - - 1 - - 2 2 - 4 9 1.32
19 Gyrosigma sp. - - - 2 3 1 1 1 - 8 1.17
20 Navicula sp. 2 1 - 3 - 1 2 1 - 3 13 1.91
21 Navicula membareana - - - - 3 - 1 - 2 - 6 0.88
22 Nitzschia lorenziana - - - - 2 1 2 2 - 2 9 1.32
23 Nitzschia longisima - - 3 1 3 - - - - 2 9 1.32
24 Pleurosigma sp. - 2 - 2 - - 4 4 - 6 18 2.64
25 Pleurosigma directum - - - 4 2 1 1 - 3 2 13 1.91
26 Pleurosigma elongatum - - - - - 2 - - - - 2 0.29
27 Thalassionema - 3 - 2 5 5
3 2 - 2
nitzschioides 22 3.23
28 Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii 5 - 3 - - - - - - - 8 1.17
Class: Dinophyceae (Dinoflagellates)
29 Ceratium furca 5 6 9 3 - 3 2 1 - 3 32 4.69
30 Ceratium trichoceros - - - 1 2 - - - 3 - 6 0.88
31 Ceratium tripos 3 3 1 - - 2 4 - 3 2 18 2.64
32 Dinophysis caudata 2 - - 4 3 - 2 1 - 3 15 2.20
33 Prorocentrum sp. 1 - - 2 1 - 3 - - 2 9 1.32
34 Protoperidinium divergens - - - - 2 5 2 2 2 - 13 1.91
Class: Cyanophyceae (Blue-greens)
36 Trichodesmium
- 2 3 3 - 2 4 4 2 - 20 2.93
erythreaum

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 76
Sl.
Genus / Species S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 Total %
No

Total 39 46 38 97 102 72 74 67 59 88 682 100

Table 6.17 Phytoplankton population and biomass in different sampling station

No of genera or Population Biomass


Stns. No
species (nos./l) (ml/100 m3)

River
Stn. 1 12 39 19.7
Stn. 2 14 46 32.3
Stn. 3 13 38 19.1
Mouth
Stn. 4 23 97 50.6
Open sea
Stn. 5 23 102 52.1
Stn. 6 19 72 48.2
Stn. 7 24 74 45.5
Stn. 8 21 67 43.3
Stn. 9 20 59 37.9
Stn. 10 22 88 50.1

The floral diversity fluctuated from 20 to 27 species at river (stns.S1 to S3) and it was
observed 39 species at mouth region (stn. S4). It varied between 29 and 46 species at
open sea (stn.S5 to S10). Bacilleriophyceae (Diatoms consisting of Centrales and
Pennales) formed the major group followed by Dinophyceae (Dianoflagellates) and
Cyanophyceae (blue green algae). Phytoplankton population analyzed at various stations
showed that their numerical abundance varied from 38 to 46 nos./l at river (stns. S1 to S3)
and it enumerated 97 nos./l at mouth region (stn. S4). The population varied between 59
and 102 nos./l at open sea (stns.S5 to S10). (Table 6.17).

The phytoplankton biomass at various stations varied from 19.1 to 32.3ml/100m3 at river
(stns. S1 to S3) and from mouth region (stn.S4) was 50.6ml/100m3. The biomass from
open sea varied between 37.9 and 52.1ml/100 m3 (Table 6.16).

Phytoplankton population mostly consists of Centrales (66.29%), Pennales (17.16%),


Dinoflagellates (13.64%) and Cyanophyceans (2.93%). In general, Skeletonema castatum
was most dominant species and recorded only in open sea with high numbers (31.23%).
The other dominant species were Ceratium furca (4.69%), Coscinodiscus sp. (4.25%),
Thalassisora subtilis (4.11%), Thalassionema nitzschioides (3.23%), Rhizosolenia alata
(3.23%), Trichodesmium erythreaum (2.93%), Odontella sinensis (2.64%), , Pleurosigma
sp. (2.64%) and Dinophysis caudate (2.20%) at open sea, mouth and creek region with
good numbers.

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 77
Based on the Primer software, the Shannon-Wiener (H‘) diversity clearly showed the
diverse nature of project area (2.945 - 4.121). The similarity in species composition and
abundance among stations varied from 24.32 to 75.76% with an average similarity
percentage of 48.40%. The dominance plot for all the stations showed sigma shaped
curves indicating normal condition of the environment.

Zooplankton: The zooplankton diversity fluctuates from 26 to 30 species per location in


the river (stns.1 to S3). At the mouth (stn. S4) 27species were identified. At the open sea
(stns. S5 to S10), 27 to 34 species of zooplanktons were identified. Various zooplankton
groups and their percentage composition observed at various stations is given in table 6.18.
The zooplankton data indicated a moderate standing stock in the area of observation.
Zooplankton population analysis at various stations showed that their numerical abundance
varied from 44219 to 60931nos./100 m 3 in the river (stns. S1 to S3). At the mouth region
(stn.S4) it was 74651nos./100 m 3 and the population varied between 87551 to 136452
nos./100m3 at open sea (stns. S5 to S10) (Table 6.17). Highest Zooplankton population
was observed at open sea (stn. S5) and the minimum was observed in river (stn. S1). The
percentage occurrence of various groups fluctuated from place to place.

The zooplankton biomass at various stations varied from 30.1 to 46.7ml/100m 3 at river
(stns. S1 to S3) and at the mouth (stn.S4) it was 47.5ml/100m3 (Table 6.19). The biomass
from open sea varied between 51.0 and 79.3ml/100 m 3.

Zooplankton population in this region (stn 1 to stn 10) mostly consists of Temora discaudata
(4.29 - 27.59%), Paracalanus parvus (8.85 - 17.19%), Acartia erythraea (3.33 - 17.07%), ,
Copepod nauplii (4.07 to 10.94%), Oithona brevicornis (1.56 – 9.73%), Corycaeus catus
(1.3 - 8.94%), Labitocera acuta (2.07 -8.13%), Brachyuran zoea (0.81 – 7.78%), Bivalve
veliger larvae (0.81 - 5.71%) and Gastropods veliger larvae (0.81 - 4.69%). Barnacle
nauplii, Acartia sp., Centropages sp., Calanopia minor, Pseudodiaptomus serricaudatus,
Temora tubinata, Corycaeus danae, Oithona similis, Lucifer sp. were recorded only at open
sea with few numbers.

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 78
Table 6.18 Station wise numerical abundance of Zooplankton (nos./100m3)

Stn.1 Stn.2 Stn.3 Stn.4 Stn.5 Stn.6 Stn.7 Stn.8 Stn.9 Stn.10
Sl.No. Genus/ Species
Nos. % Nos. % Nos. % Nos. % Nos. Nos. Nos. % Nos. % Nos. % Nos. % Nos. %
PHYLUM: PROTOZOA
Order: Tintinnids ( Ciliate groups)
1 Tintinnopsis sp. 632 1.43 772 1.56 1354 2.22 1806 2.42 935 0.69 1268 1.36 - - 2379 1.88 4318 4.42 - -
2 Favella sp. 1263 2.86 1544 3.12 - - 602 0.81 1869 1.38 1902 2.04 2110 2.41 1586 1.25 2591 2.65 2187 2.44
3 Dictyocysta sp. 632 1.43 - - 677 1.11 - - 935 0.69 - - 1055 1.20 - - 1727 1.77 1458 1.63
4 Eutintinnus tenuis 1263 2.86 - - 677 1.11 - - 935 0.69 634 0.68 - - - - - - 729 0.81
PHYLUM: CNIDARIA
5 Diphysis sp. - - 772 1.56 2031 3.33 1204 1.61 - - 1268 1.36 2110 2.41 793 0.63 864 0.88 729 0.81
PHYLUM: CHAETOGNATHA
6 Sagitta sp. - - 1544 3.12 1354 2.22 1204 1.61 2804 2.07 1902 2.04 1582 1.81 1586 1.25 3454 3.54 2915 3.25
PHYLUM: ANNELIDA
Class: Polychaeta
7 Polychaete larvae 1895 4.29 1544 3.12 2708 4.44 602 0.81 1869 1.38 2536 2.72 527 0.60 - - 864 0.88 - -
PHYLUM: MOLLUSCA
8 Bivalve veliger larvae 2527 5.71 772 1.56 3385 5.56 2408 3.23 3738 2.76 3805 4.08 2637 3.01 2379 1.88 1727 1.77 729 0.81
9 Barnacle nauplii - - - - 677 1.11 - - 1869 1.38 - - 527 0.60 - - 1727 1.77 729 0.81
10 Gastropods veliger larvae 1263 2.86 2317 4.69 2031 3.33 1806 2.42 3738 2.76 1902 2.04 1055 1.20 1586 1.25 4318 4.42 729 0.81
11 Molluscan eggs 632 1.43 1544 3.12 677 1.11 - - 935 0.69 - - 1055 1.20 793 0.63 - - - -
PHYLUM: ATHROPODA
Class: Crustacea
Order: Copepoda
Sub- order: Calanoida
12 Acartia erythraea 6949 15.71 6178 12.50 2031 3.33 6623 8.87 17757 13.10 11414 12.24 6329 7.23 17446 13.75 12953 13.27 15306 17.07
13 Acartia sp. - - - - 677 1.11 2408 3.23 3738 2.76 3171 3.40 2110 2.41 4758 3.75 1727 1.77 - -
14 Acrocalanus sp. 1895 4.29 - - 677 1.11 3612 4.84 1869 1.38 1902 2.04 1055 1.20 1586 1.25 - - - -
15 Centropages furcatus 1263 2.86 - - 1354 2.22 1204 1.61 1869 1.38 2536 2.72 3692 4.22 - - - - 12391 13.82
16 Centropages sp. - - - - - - - - 935 0.69 - - - - - - - - 2187 2.44
17 Calanopia minor - - - - - - 1806 2.42 935 0.69 1268 1.36 1582 1.81 2379 1.88 864 0.88 - -
18 Eucalanus attenuatus 632 1.43 772 1.56 677 1.11 3010 4.03 1869 1.38 2536 2.72 2110 2.41 3965 3.13 2591 2.65 - -

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 79
19 Labidocera acuta 1263 2.86 1544 3.12 1354 2.22 3612 4.84 2804 2.07 4439 4.76 2637 3.01 10309 8.13 2591 2.65 3644 4.07
20 Labidocera pectinata - - 772 1.56 677 1.11 - - 935 0.69 1902 2.04 1055 1.20 1586 1.25 864 0.88 - -
21 Paracalanus parvus 5054 11.43 8494 17.19 6770 11.11 8429 11.29 13084 9.66 9512 10.20 14241 16.27 12688 10.00 8636 8.85 13848 15.45
Pseudodiaptomus
22 - - - - - - - - - - - - 1055 1.20 1586 1.25 - - 729 0.81
serricaudatus
23 Temora tubinata - - - - - - 1204 1.61 1869 1.38 - - 1582 1.81 2379 1.88 864 0.88 1458 1.63
24 Temora discaudata 1895 4.29 2317 4.69 10156 16.67 14449 19.35 37383 27.59 15219 16.33 11076 12.65 24584 19.38 16408 16.81 5831 6.50
25 Undinula vulgaris - - - - - - - - 935 0.69 1902 2.04 527 0.60 793 0.63 864 0.88 729 0.81
26 Copepod nauplii 3790 8.57 5405 10.94 2031 3.33 3010 4.03 4673 3.45 3171 3.40 5274 6.02 9516 7.50 5181 5.31 3644 4.07
Sub- order: Cyclopoida
27 Corycaeus danae - - - - 677 1.11 602 0.81 935 0.69 - - 1055 1.20 - - 1727 1.77 2187 2.44
28 Corycaeus catus 1263 2.86 3861 7.81 4062 6.67 3010 4.03 7477 5.52 1268 1.36 4747 5.42 3965 3.13 4318 4.42 8017 8.94
29 Oithona brevicornis 2527 5.71 772 1.56 2031 3.33 4214 5.65 3738 2.76 2536 2.72 7911 9.04 5551 4.38 9499 9.73 2187 2.44

30 Oithona spinirostris 632 1.43 - - 677 1.11 602 0.81 935 0.69 1268 1.36 1055 1.20 793 0.63 2591 2.65 - -

31 Oithona similis - - - - - - - - - - 1902 2.04 - - 793 0.63 - - - -


Sub- order: Harpacticoida
32 Macrosetella sp. 632 1.43 - - - - - - 935 0.69 634 0.68 527 0.60 - - - - - -
33 Euterpina sp. - - - - - - - - 2804 2.07 - - - - 1586 1.25 - - 1458 1.63
Other Crustaceans
34 Brachyuran zoea 1263 2.86 2317 4.69 4739 7.78 2408 3.23 3738 2.76 3171 3.40 1582 1.81 3965 3.13 1727 1.77 729 0.81
35 Crustacean nauplii 632 1.43 1544 3.12 1354 2.22 1204 1.61 - - 1902 2.04 527 0.60 - - - - - -
36 Lucifer sp. - - - - 677 1.11 - - - - 634 0.68 527 0.60 - - - - 1458 1.63
37 Mysid larvae 1895 4.29 772 1.56 1354 2.22 602 0.81 - - 1268 1.36 1055 1.20 793 0.63 1727 1.77 729 0.81
PHYLUM: CHORDATA
38 Oikopleura sp. 632 1.43 772 1.56 1354 2.22 2408 3.23 2804 2.07 2536 2.72 1582 1.81 2379 1.88 - - 729 0.81
39 Fish eggs 1263 2.86 2317 4.69 2031 3.33 602 0.81 1869 1.38 1902 2.04 - - 1586 1.25 864 0.88 1458 1.63
40 Fish larvae 632 1.43 772 1.56 - - - - 935 0.69 - - - - 793 0.63 - - 729 0.81
Total 44219 100 49418 100 60931 100 74651 100 136452 100 93210 100 87551 100 126881 100 97586 100 89653 100

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 80
Table 6.19 Zooplankton biomass and Population at different sampling stations

No of genera or Population Biomass


Sl. No
species (nos./100 m3) (ml/100 m3)
River

S1 26 44219 30.1
S2 23 49418 46.7
S3 30 60931 44.4
Mouth

S4 27 74651 47.5
Open sea

S5 34 136452 79.3
S6 31 93210 69.1
S7 33 87551 51.0
S8 30 126881 75.8
S9 27 97586 69.5
S10 28 89653 54.2

The Shannon-Wiener (H’) diversity clearly showed the rich diversity of the project area
(3.977 - 4.421). The similarity in the species composition and abundance among stations
varied from 58.51 - 81.50% with an average similarity percentage of 70.21%. The
dominance plot for all the stations showed sigma shaped curves indicating normal condition
of the environment.

Benthos: Benthic faunal population in an environment depends on the nature of the


substratum and its organic matter content.

Subtidal benthos: The sediment characteristics analysis showed that the study area
essentially contained fine sand. The numerical abundance of the benthic fauna was low
and varied from 190 to 580 nos./m 2 at river(stns. S1 to S3) and was 310 nos./m 2 in mouth
region (stn. S4). Open sea, the benthic population varied from 130 to 590nos./m2 (Table
6.20). The faunal population in this region mainly consisted of Polychaete worms (2240
nos./m2), followed by Amphipods (510 nos./m 2), Isopods (240 nos./m 2) and Gastropods
(40 nos./m2). Umbonium sp. belonging to gastropod group was present in mouth (stn. S4)
and river (stn. S2) only.

Intertidal benthos: The intertidal faunal population is shown in Table 6.20. In the three
(IB1, IB2 and IB3) samples collected, polychaetes worms, amphipods and gastropods were
present. The numerical abundance of the Inter tidal benthic fauna varied from 340 to 365
nos./m2. The maximum number of organisms recorded at IB1 and the minimum was
recorded at IB2. At the intertidal region, the total number of organisms from all the 3
stations was 1050 nos. /m 2.

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 81
Intertidal benthic faunal population mostly consist of Polychaete worms (855nos./m 2),
followed by Amphipods (135nos./m2) and Cerithidea cingulata of Gastropods (60 nos./m 2).
Amphipods were found only at IB2 and IB3 stations.

Inference: The Shannon-Wiener diversity was moderately in the project area *(2.206 –
3.499). The Margalef richness (d) values were low (0.798 - 2.038). However the evenness
was similar in all stations. Generally in a healthy environment, Shannon diversity and
Margalef richness indices are higher and in the range of 2.5 – 3.5. Values less than these
are normally attributed to some sort of stress or disturbance. The similarity in species
composition and abundance among stations widely varied from 6.59 to 62.34% with an
average similarity percentage of 41.96%. The dominance plot for all the stations showed
steep rise curves possibly because of low number of organisms. The MDS plot and
dendrogram also showed that there is no clear cut differentiation between biodiversity of
subtidal and intertidal populations.

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 82
Table 6.20 Sub tidal and Inter tidal benthic population

Intertidal benthos
Subtidal benthos (nos./m2) (nos./m2)
Sl.
Groups River Mouth Open sea
No.
IB1 IB2 IB3
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10

Phylum: ANNELIDA
Class: Polychaeta
Family: Opheliidae
1 20 - - 10 20 - 70 30 - - 15 - 60
Armandia sp.
Family: Capitellidae
2 - 20 10 - 40 - 30 - - - 75 45 -
Capitella sp.
Family: Cossuridae
3 20 10 - 20 - 40 20 60 20 10 30 60 15
Cossura sp.
Family: Eunicidae
4 20 - 30 - 40 - 20 - 40 - - 15 -
Eunice sp.
Family: Goniadidae
5 - - - 20 60 - - 20 20 - 45 - -
Glycinde sp.
Family: Hesionidae
6 - 20 - 30 10 - 30 - - 40 - - -
Hesione sp.
Family: Oweniidae
7 10 - 20 - 40 - 10 20 10 - - 15 30
Owenia sp.
Family: Onuphidae
8 50 20 - 80 40 - 10 50 20 75 30 45
Onuphis sp.
Family:
9 Lopadorhynchidae - 40 - 40 10 - 30 - - 40 15 - 15
Pelagobia sp.
Family: Pisionidae
10 - 10 50 - 30 - 30 - - 10 - - -
Pisioneidens sp.
11 Pisione sp. - 30 30 - 110 30 30 - - - - 60 30
Family: Pilargidae
12 - 10 10 - 30 - - 20 20 - - - -
Ancistrosyllis sp.
Family: spionidae
13 20 40 - 20 100 - - - 60 - 90 15 45
Prinospio sp.
14 Unidentified Polychaetes 20 - 30 20 20 10 40 - 10 10 - 30 -

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 83
Phylum: ARTHROPODA
Class: Crustacea
15 Amphipods - 350 - 30 50 30 - - 50 - - 30 105
16 Isopods 30 - 110 30 30 - 20 20 - - - - -
Phylum: MOLLUSCA
Class: Gastropod
Family: Trochidae
17 - 30 - 10 - - - - - - - - -
Umbonium sp.
Family: Potamididae
18 - - - - - - - - - - 20 40 -
Cerithidea cingulata
Total 190 580 290 310 590 150 330 180 280 130 365 340 345

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 84
Table 6.21 Phytoplankton diversity indices calculated for stations S1 - S10

Stations S N d J' H'(log2) 1-Lambda'


S1 12 39 3.003 0.955 3.424 0.922
S2 14 46 3.395 0.945 3.596 0.928
S3 13 38 3.299 0.927 3.431 0.912
S4 23 97 4.809 0.760 3.439 0.804
S5 23 102 4.757 0.651 2.945 0.694
S6 19 72 4.209 0.707 3.003 0.743
S7 24 74 5.344 0.899 4.121 0.924
S8 21 67 4.757 0.826 3.626 0.873
S9 20 59 4.660 0.918 3.969 0.929
S10 22 88 4.690 0.867 3.865 0.894

Table 6.22 Zooplankton diversity indices calculated for stations S1 - S10

Stations S N D J' H'(log2) 1-Lambda'


S1 26 44219 2.337 0.913 4.292 0.933
S2 23 49418 2.036 0.897 4.057 0.920
S3 30 60931 2.632 0.895 4.390 0.933
S4 27 74651 2.317 0.881 4.187 0.922
S5 34 136452 2.791 0.797 4.056 0.887
S6 31 93210 2.622 0.892 4.421 0.932
S7 33 87551 2.812 0.864 4.359 0.929
S8 30 126881 2.468 0.834 4.093 0.912
S9 27 97586 2.263 0.872 4.148 0.921
S10 28 89653 2.368 0.827 3.977 0.907

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 85
Table 6.23 Benthic community diversity indices calculated for stations S1 to S10 & IB1 –
IB3
Stations S N d J' H'(log2) 1-Lambda'
S1 8 190 1.334 0.953 2.860 0.852
S2 11 580 1.572 0.642 2.219 0.618
S3 8 290 1.235 0.862 2.585 0.790
S4 11 310 1.743 0.926 3.204 0.873
S5 14 590 2.038 0.919 3.499 0.896
S6 5 150 0.798 0.950 2.206 0.779
S7 11 330 1.724 0.955 3.304 0.890
S8 7 180 1.155 0.926 2.600 0.813
S9 9 280 1.420 0.923 2.924 0.855
S10 6 130 1.027 0.896 2.316 0.775
IB1 8 365 1.186 0.904 2.713 0.829
IB2 10 340 1.544 0.950 3.156 0.880
IB3 8 345 1.198 0.911 2.734 0.827

Phytoplankton Zooplankton Benthos


100 S1 100 S1 100 S1
S2 S2 S2
S3 S3 S3
S4 S4 S4
80 S5 80 S5 80 S5
S6 S6 S6
S7 S7 S7
Cumulative Dominance%

Cumulative Dominance%

Cumulative Dominance%

S8 S8 S8
60 S9 60 S9 60 S9
S10 S10 S10
IB1
IB2
IB3
40 40 40

20 20 20

0 0 0
1 10 100 1 10 100 1 10 100
Species rank Species rank Species rank

Dominance curve for Dominance curve for Dominance curve for


Phytoplankton Zooplankton Benthos
Benthos Benthos
Transf orm: Square root
Resemblance: S17 Bray Curtis similarity
Complete linkage
Transf orm: Square root
2D Stress: 0.19 Resemblance: S17 Bray Curtis similarity
S6
S8 0

IB1 20

S9 S1
IB3
40
Similarity

S4
IB2
60

S10
S5 80
S3
S7

S2 100
S5

S3

S7

S8

IB1

S4

S1

S9

S10

S6

IB2

S2

IB3

Samples

MDS plot for Benthic animals recorded in Dendrogram of Benthic species recorded
various stations in different stations
S- Total number species (richness); N- total number of individuals; d- Margalef’s richness
index; J'- Pielou’s evenness index; H'- Shannon-Wiener diversity index; 1- Lambda'-
Simpons’s diversity index.

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 86
Table 6.24 Bray – Curtis similarity for Phytoplankton collection from different stations

Stns. S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10
S1
S2 49.97
S3 45.13 53.05
S4 34.59 46.54 32.52
S5 27.68 24.32 29.13 62.55
S6 40.34 40.32 30.69 55.65 50.96
S7 42.97 45.95 29.68 60.96 60.54 52.74
S8 37.60 44.08 28.94 60.09 58.73 59.65 75.76
S9 27.62 44.05 28.51 53.64 60.95 59.83 58.45 50.75
S10 49.86 48.51 36.19 66.53 63.15 55.33 72.46 69.30 52.17

Table 6.25 Bray – Curtis similarity for Zooplankton collection from different stations

Stns
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10
.
S1
S2 74.67
S3 73.32 73.30
S4 69.37 69.75 76.25
S5 65.57 61.98 69.85 72.61
S6 70.50 68.02 76.98 81.50 76.64
S7 65.76 65.45 74.91 79.38 76.44 76.95
S8 58.70 65.62 63.58 76.44 79.38 76.78 75.16
S9 59.31 66.57 68.70 76.39 75.85 73.23 77.99 74.17
S10 58.51 60.71 61.21 60.50 70.29 61.15 70.06 64.06 66.12

Table 6.26 Bray – Curtis similarity for Benthos collection from different stations

Stns. S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 IB1 IB2 IB3


S1
S2 23.44
S3 42.44 27.21
S4 61.98 52.08 19.76
S5 42.77 47.61 56.86 47.72
S6 43.06 40.42 24.15 47.02 25.04
S7 52.77 42.34 61.29 48.06 60.58 30.70
S8 54.57 19.07 30.63 43.78 37.19 31.08 37.84
S9 62.34 42.75 32.27 56.09 54.37 52.02 28.64 48.02
S10 33.39 47.03 17.72 54.77 22.47 40.46 47.95 20.78 28.96
IB1 44.55 38.31 6.59 54.35 43.09 30.27 32.21 39.74 47.92 29.57
IB2 53.52 44.23 43.14 42.26 50.00 62.20 48.49 32.54 56.44 25.96 48.26
IB3 51.46 58.19 20.97 52.00 47.57 55.03 44.37 40.26 56.13 30.00 49.42 52.59

Microbiology: Microorganism distribution in the marine and brackish environment plays


an important role in the decomposition of organic matter and mineralization. Since the last
two decades, water quality analysis was given more importance in marine pollution
monitoring programmes. These pathogenic bacteria invade into marine environment
through human and animal excreta, river runoff, and land runoff, sewage with organic and

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 87
inorganic contents, agricultural waste and industrial waste. Hence, the spatial and temporal
distribution of the total fecal coli forms as well as pathogenic bacteria in water and sediment
is essential to assess the sanitary. The regular monitoring in the coastal environment is an
integral and essential part in predicting the microbial population of coastal waters.

Bacterial counts in the surface water and in sediment samples at all stations were analyzed,
and are presented in Tables 6.27 and 6.28 respectively. In the water samples, population
density varied from 0.01 to 5.53 ×103 CFU/ml at river (stns.S1 to S3) and from 0.03 to 5.73
×103 CFU/ml at mouth (stn.S4). Open sea (stns.S5 to S10) the population varied between
0.01 and 5.68 ×103 CFU/ml. In the sediment samples, population density varied from 0.01
to 5.43 ×104 CFU/g in river and from 0.09 to 5.52 ×104 CFU/g at mouth. Open sea the
population varied between 0.01 and 5.60 ×104 CFU/g

Table 6.27 Bacterial population in coastal waters (nosx103/ml)

Stations
Type of
Media River Mouth Open sea
Bacteria
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10

Nut Agar TVC 5.52 5.27 5.53 5.73 5.68 5.40 4.98 5.12 5.26 5.60

Mac Agar TC 0.60 0.85 0.91 0.72 0.69 0.41 0.78 0.67 0.72 0.45

Mac Agar ECLO 0.32 0.44 0.42 0.37 0.52 0.20 0.54 0.17 0.25 0.32

XLD Agar SHLO 0.08 0.12 0.11 0.08 0.06 0.05 0.14 0.04 0.10 0.11

XLD Agar PKLO - - - - - - - - - -

TCBS Agar VLO 0.65 0.53 0.72 0.49 0.58 0.64 0.60 0.75 0.57 0.52

TCBS Agar VPLO 0.24 0.19 0.36 0.20 0.20 0.35 0.29 0.38 0.19 0.21

TCBS Agar VCLO 0.10 0.09 0.07 0.04 0.12 0.13 0.06 0.06 0.07 0.08

CET Agar PALO 0.01 0.01 - 0.03 - - 0.01 - - -

TVC -Total Viable Counts; TC- Total Coliforms; ECLO-Escherichia coli like organisms; SHLO-
Shigella like organisms; SLO-Salmonella like organisms PKLO-Proteus klebsiella; VLO -Vibrio like
organisms; VPLO - Vibrio parahaemolyticus like organisms; VCLO -Vibrio cholera like organisms;
PALO- Pseudomonas aerugenosa like organism.

Table 6.28 Bacterial population in seabed sediments (nosx104 /g)

Stations
Type
Mo
of River Open sea
Media uth
Bacter
S S S1
ia S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S8 S9
6 7 0
Nut Agar TVC 5.43 5.27 5.18 5.52 5.60 5.35 5.11 5.40 5.36 5.20

Mac Agar TC 0.71 0.83 0.85 0.94 0.82 0.56 0.70 0.85 0.66 0.75

Mac Agar ECLO 0.33 0.36 0.41 0.50 0.42 0.29 0.35 0.37 0.35 0.41

XLD Agar SHLO 0.13 0.12 0.15 0.17 0.19 0.09 0.18 0.09 0.14 0.11

XLD Agar PKLO - - - - - - - - - -

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 88
TCBS Agar VLO 0.80 0.74 0.73 0.57 0.73 0.69 0.82 0.75 0.66 0.68

TCBS Agar VPLO 0.33 0.39 0.40 0.29 0.32 0.35 0.43 0.30 0.25 0.26

TCBS Agar VCLO 0.19 0.15 0.07 0.09 0.10 0.08 0.07 0.03 0.05 0.05

CET Agar PALO 0.03 0.02 0.01 - 0.04 0.01 - - 0.02 -

The bacterial colonies were identified up to generic level. Organisms isolated were
normally expected in coastal waters, under moderate human influence. The total count in
the water sample at the surface closer to the coastal areas was found to be higher due to
terrestrial run off and towards the open sea the count was found to be lesser. Salmonella
and Shigella like organisms were found to be present in very low numbers. Other counts
indicated lesser populations. This result implies that in this region there is no indication of
any major microbiological pollution.

Bacterial densities were higher in the sediment samples than in the water samples. This is
normally expected and can be ascribed to the fact that the coastal and shelf sediments play
a significant role in the demineralization of organic matter which supports the growth of
microbes. Higher bacterial population in sediments than water is generally due to the rich
organic content of the former and the lesser residence time of microorganism in the water
than the sediments. The pathogenic organism such as (TVC) Escherichia coli, Vibrio like
organisms, Shigella, Vibrio cholera, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Total coli forms have been
recorded in the study area. The counts indicated lesser population which shows that the
environment is fairly healthy and free from any major pollution.

In general the coastal waters are influenced by Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Klebsiela
sp., Enterobacter sp., Bacillus sp., and Staphyloccous sp., and Vibrio like organisms.
Estuaries and creeks are influenced by E.coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Vibrio cholera,
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Pseudomonas sp., and other pathogens like Total Coli forms and
Total Viable Counts.

Mangroves: Mangroves are salt-tolerant forest ecosystems found mainly in tropical and
sub-tropical inter-tidal regions of the world. They are trees or shrubs that have the common
trait of growing in shallow and muddy salt water or brackish waters, especially along quiet
shorelines and in estuaries. Mangroves are not common on sandy beaches and rocky
shores. A muddy substratum of varying depth and consistency is necessary for their normal
growth. They are rarely found near the open sea or mouth of an estuary, but abundantly
found in sheltered places like creeks and estuaries.

The survey conducted in the project area indicates the presence of mangroves along the
Gadilam River and the photographs of the same are shown in Error! Reference source n
ot found..

Mangroves in Gadilam river Mangroves in Gadilam river


Figure 6.6 Mangroves in Gadilam river

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 89
Coatal sand dune Vegetation: The survey conducted in the project region also indicate
thepresence of some coastal vegetation plants comprising of Ipomoea sp., Spinifex
littoreus, Borassus flabellifer, Pedalium murex and Prosopis juliflora. Some of the floral
species found in the coastal sand dune are shown below.

Ipomoea sp. Spinifex littoreus

Prosopis juliflora
Pedalium murex

Calotropis gigantean
Borassus flabellifer
Figure 6.7 Floral species found in the coastal sand dune

Fishery: Tamil Nadu has got a coastline of about 1076 km and the continental shelf area
covers approximately 41,400 Sq.km extending up to 40-60 km. Tamil Nadu have the
second longest coastline in India after Gujarat. The coast line of Tamil Nadu covers 13
districts from Chennai in the north to Kanyakumari in the south. According to the survey
conducted by the Tamil Nadu Fisheries Department, there are 7,90,408 fishermen and
fisherwomen along the coast and only 1,04,509 are active in the fishing industry. Cuddalore
also have active fishermen and fisherwomen (14274). The Cuddalore district has got a
coastline of 57.5 km and the fisher folk live in about 49 hamlets. The marine fish production
for the Cuddalore district for the year 2010-2011 is presented in Error! Reference source n
ot found. and Error! Reference source not found.

Table 6.29 Estimation of marine fish production for Cuddalore District (2010 – 2011)

OUANTITY
SPECIES
S.NO ( IN TONNES)
1 Sharks 543.8

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 90
2 Skates & Rays 515.7
3 Eels 1.49
4 Cat fishes 265.5
5 Chirocentrus 971.8
6 Lesser Sardines 938.0
7 Silver bellies 2037.4
8 Hilsa llisha 0.8
9 O.illisha 0.0
10 Anchoveilla 1047.9
11 Thrissocles 291.1
12 Clupeids 1192.3
13 Saurida & saurus 71.5
14 Hemirhamphus & Belone 155.7
15 Flying fish 250.2
16 Perches 1654.7
17 Red Mullets 907.8
18 Polynemids 120.0
19 Sciaenids 811.9
20 Ribbon fish 215.8
21 Caranx 870.8
22 Chironemus 112.3
23 Trachynotus 61.3
24 Ceryph aena 0.0
25 Elacate 93.3
26 Oil Sardubes 2042.5
27 Gaza 20.4
28 Lactarius 12.0
29 Pomfrets 132.8
30 Mackerel 743.0
31 Seerfish 694.7
32 Tunnies 431.7
33 Sphyreana 203.1
34 Mullets 163.4
35 Bregmaceres 132.8
36 Soles 457.0
37 Penaied Prawns 1920.0
38 N.P.Prawns 513.2
39 Lobsters 40.9
40 Crabs 1728.5
41 Cephalo pods 393.2
42 Miscellaneous 1658.7
43 Drepane 48.1
44 Lethrinus 416.2
45 Sillago 298.7

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 91
46 Balisters 334.5
47 Ora 15.3
Total 25531.7

Figure 6.8 Marine fish production in Cuddalore district during 2010-11

Cuddalore district contribute about 8% to the total marine catch of Tamilnadu. The available
data indicate that the yearly fish landings of the Cuddalore area are not constant and they
fluctuate widely. However during the last ten years (2001 – 2011), the marine catch has
been good including post Tsunami period and is shown in Error! Reference source not f
ound..

Figure 6.9 Annual Marine fish production in Cuddalore district from 2001-02 to 2010-11

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 92
Table 6.30 Year wise marine fish Production of Cuddalore District

Quantity
Sl. No. Year*
( in tonnes)
1 2001 - 2002 20525
2 2002 -2003 45023
3 2003 - 2004 47136
4 2004 -2005 35385
5 2005 - 2006 21381
6 2006 -2007 29625
7 2007 - 2008 30503
8 2008-2009 23667
9 2009-2010 24198
10 2010-2011 25531
Source: Department of Fisheries, Government of Tamil Nadu.

A variety of fishing crafts like mechanized boats, wooden vallams, wooden catamarans,
FRP catamarans, are used in this region (Table 6.31). The total number of such crafts are
7725, with a break up of mechanized boats (720), FRP catamarans and wooden
catamarans (7005) which are the most commonly used and Figure 6.10.

Figure 6.10 Comparison of fishing craft types used in Cuddalore district 2006-07 to 2010-
11

Table 6.31 Fishing crafts operated in Cuddalore District (2006 – 2011)

Fishing crafts
Sl. No. Year Total
Mechanised Non Mechanised
Numbers

1 2006 -2007 1304 7586 8890

2 2007 - 2008 602 6453 7055

3 2008 -2009 642 6649 7291

4 2009 - 2010 664 6742 7406

5 2010 -2011 720 7005 7725

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 93
Source: Department of Fisheries, Government of Tamil Nadu.
Among the fishing gears, gill nets, trawl nets, seine nets and hook nets etc. are primarily
used for fishing by these communities. However, trawl nets and gill nets are the most
popular among the fishing communities (Table. 6.32). Nad Figure 6.12

Table 6.32 Fishing Gears operated in Cuddalore district

Type of Gears Numbers


Gill net 3592
Shoreseine 164
Trawl net 316
Longliners 103
Trap 70
Cast net 313
Others 696
Total 5254

Figure 6.11 Fishing gear types used in Cuddalore district

In general, the dominant species of the Cuddalore region are fishes such as, Sharks,
Skates, Chirocentrus, lesser Sardines, Anchovies, Silverbellies, Mackerel, Catfish, Eels,
Crabs, Penaeid and non-Penaeid Prawn, Clupeids, Sciaenids, Trichyurus and Perches.
The dominant species of prawns are Penaeus monodon, P.indicus, Metapenaeus
monoceros, M. dobsoni and M. brevicorins.

Experimental trawl surveys: In order to assess the fishery potential of the region,
exploratory and experimental fishing has to be done. Accordingly, experimental trawl
fishing was conducted using a commercial mechanized stern trawler of 46 ft. in length. The
area covered is adjacent to the project site and trawl was done at 10 and 15 m depth. Fish
trawl with 40 m head-rope with a cod end mesh size of 20 mm was used.

The haul (Fish trawl net) was carried out on 26 August, 2015 during day time. The duration
of haul was approximately 90 minutes and the towing speed varied between 2.5 and 3.5
knots. The catch of haul was sorted out into various groups/species and weighed. Fish

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 94
samples including prawns and crabs collected from the trawl survey were also examined
for the maturity stages. Using the experimental trawl survey data, both biomass and
density of fish stocks, were calculated following swept area method (Sparre et.al. 1989).
This method assumes that the mean catch in weight per unit area is an index of stock
abundance. The area swept by the trawl is: Area = DW (km 2) where D is the distance
covered by the trawl during one haul and W is the width of the path swept by the trawl. The
Biomass (B) for the given area was estimated using the formula: B=S (mean CPUE/Q)
where S is the stratum area, CPUE is the catch per unit effort, and Q is the catch ability
coefficient, which is normally taken as 0.5. Then the density of fish stock is calculated
(Biomass/Area).

The location of hauls and other details are given in Table 6.33. The catch obtained over a
period of 90 min during the first and second haul is 36.0 kg and 41.0 kg respectively with
the mean value of 25.7 kg/hr. The estimated total biomass for the study area of 157 km2
(marine area of 10 km radius circle) based on the experimental trawl survey is about 8.07
tonnes with an estimated population density of 51.4 kg/km 2. The haul wise composition of
catch is given in Table 6.34. A set of photographs on trawling operations and groups of fish
collected are given in the Figure 6.13

Table 6.33 Hauls location - Bottom trawl survey detailed

No Location of Hauls Haul-1 Haul-1

1 Date 26.08.2015 26.08.2015


2 Gear Fish net Fish net
3 Starting time 08:00 10:00
4 Closing time 09:30 11:00
5 Duration haul 1.30 hr. 1.30 hr.
Latitude 14˚ 10‘ 6.31”N 14˚ 10‘ 6.31”N
6 Started
Longitude 80˚ 9’ 19.89”E 80˚ 9’ 19.89”E
Latitude 14˚ 12’ 49.04”N 14˚ 12’ 49.04”N
7 Finished
Longitude 80˚ 9’19.29”E 80˚ 9’19.29”E
8 Distance (m) 5000 5000
9 Depth(m) 10.0 15.0
10 Water Temp. (°C) 30.0 31.0
11 Salinity(ppt) 32.0 32.0
12 Total catch (kg) 36.0 41.0

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 95
Figure 6.12 Species composition based on the experimental trawl survey

In the experimental fish trawl catch during the survey, the following species were identified.
The most dominant species was Charybris sp. (50.0%) followed by Portunus
sanguinolentus (4%), Leiognathus sp. (3.5%), Metapenaeopsis sp.of Penaeidae (2.5%),
Alectis indicus and Upeneus sp. (1.5% each). Stolephorus commersonii, Parastromateus
niger, Gerres sp., Sphyraena sp., Cynoglossus sp., Loligo sp., contributed 1.0% of the total
catch. Rest of the catch was dominated by trash groups constituting (7.0%). A set of
photographs on trawling operations and groups of fishes collected are given in figure 6.13.

Trawl net operation Fish catch Assorted the fish catch

Gerres sp. Upeneus sp. Leiognathus sp.

Stolephorus commersonii Saurida sp. Psettodes sp.

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 96
Arius sp. Siganus sp. Dendrophysa russelli

Alectis indica Sillago sihama Plotous sp.

Drepane punctata Parastromateus niger Sphyraena sp.

Lutjanus sp. 1 Dasyatis sp. Lutjanus sp. 2

Platycephalus sp. Cynoglossus sp. Metapenaeus sp.

Penaeus semisulcatus Penaeus monodon Loligo sp.

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 97
Octopus sp. Sepiella sp. Charybdis sp.

Charybdis feriatus Portunus sanguinolentus Calappa sp.

Babylonia sp. Conus sp. Murex sp.

Leiuranus sp. Gymnothorax sp. Arothron sp.

Figure 6.13 Trawling operations and groups of fishes

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 98
Table 6.34 Classification of experimental bottom trawl fishes
Haul-1 Haul-2
Phylum Class Order Family Species
(90minutes) (90minutes)

Chordata Chondrichthyes Rajiformes Dasyatidae Dasyatis sp. 0.5 -

Engraulidae Stolephorus commersonii 0.5 0.5


Clupeiformes
Synodidae Saurida sp. - 0.5

Alectis indicus 0.5 1.0


Carangidae
Parastromateus niger - 1.0

Osteichthyes Leiognathidae Leiognathus sp. 2.0 1.5


Perciformes
Mullidae Upeneus sp. 1.0 0.5

Gerreidae Gerres sp. - 1.0

Mugiliformes Sphyraenidae Sphyraena sp. 1.0 -

Pleuronectiformes Cynoglossidae Cynoglossus sp. - 1.0

Penaeidae Metapenaeopsis sp. 1.5 1.0

Arthropoda Crustacea Decapoda Portunus sanguinolentus 3.0 1.0


Portunidae
Charybris sp. 22.0 28.0

Mollusca Cephalopoda Loliginidae Loligo sp. 1.0 -

Trash 3.0 4.0

Total 36.0 kg 41.0 kg

© DHI-fishing harbour / ruk / 2015-08-24 TEFR for Mudhu Nagar Fishing harbour, Cuddalore. 99
7 DESCRIPTION OF MARINE ENVIRONMENT
This coastal region comprises of fairly wide beaches with well-defined foreshore and
backshore. The morphology of this region is influenced by three climatic conditions, viz.,
southwest monsoon (June – September), northeast monsoon (mid October to mid
February) and fair weather period (March to May). Unlike the northern part of the east coast
of India, this part of the coast is influenced more by the northeast monsoon conditions. The
environmental condition of this region gets reversed with the seasonal changes. The
seabed in nearshore region primarily comprises of silt and sand without more complex
bathymetric features.

High wave action prevails during southwest and northeast monsoon. The coastal current
within 2 km distance from the shore is greatly influenced by wind. The nearshore remains
more dynamic and turbulent due to persistent action of seasonal wind, high waves and
coastal currents. The distribution of temperature and salinity indicates that the nearshore
water is well mixed without stratification. The beaches undergo seasonal changes during a
year. The coastline remains almost stable along this stretch.

Examination of water quality of this region indicated that they do not differ substantially
both in vertical and spatial directions. Absence of marked vertical gradients of the physical
parameters indicates that the coastal waters are well mixed. Various results on the
chemical and biological parameters indicate that the water is well oxygenated, nutrient rich
and biologically productive at primary and secondary levels. The sub-tidal benthic fauna is
moderately rich in diversity and numbers compare to the Inter tidal benthic fauna.

The marine flora and fauna also indicate the existence of diverse population. The area is
rich in fishery both pelagic and demersal. The study on various oceanographic parameters
and the information on adjacent region indicates that the coastal water is clean and highly
productive.

100
8 IMPACT ASSESSMENT & MITIGATION FOR MARINE
ENVIRONMENT

8.1 Identification of impacts


The construction of breakwaters, diaphragm wall, dredging and disposal will have marginal
magnitude of impact on: Shoreline, Wet land, Seawater, Marine ecology, Land use and
Community. The magnitude of adverse impact appears to be very minimum. Nevertheless,
the proposed project would bring positive impact on land use and fishermen. Construction
of breakwaters will cause change in littoral drift pattern and in-turn cause impact on
adjacent coastline. The dredging of the creek/river bed will influence the benthic
community. The shore facilities to be developed in the fishing harbour may cause limited
air and noise pollution. There is no historic/ cultural heritage places in 10 km radius. While
the identification of the impacts provides the status of anticipated impact on the
environment, the prediction of impact will give the extent to which these conditions can alter
or improve the environment. Based on the prediction, mitigation measures can be
evaluated to minimize the impact on the environment. The activities which need the
prediction of impacts are:

I. Construction of Breakwaters,

II. Construction of Diaphragm wall,

III. Dredging,

IV. Shoreline erosion and beach nourishment,

V. Impact due to storm surge and tsunami,

VI. Impact on mangroves and

VII. Impact on turtles.

8.2 Construction of Breakwaters


Impacts: Extension of breakwaters across the surf zone into the sea would interfere with
the existing littoral drift system. Annual net transport rate of approximately 0.18 X m3/year
was estimated in northerly direction. Although the volume of annual net drift is relatively
low, there can be some erosion on the northern side of the mouth. During the construction
of breakwaters, the bottom living communities like, intertidal and sub-tidal benthos along
the groyne alignment will get temporarily disturbed. The turbidity induced during the
construction would alter the water quality and in turn affect the fishes. There will be a
change in nearshore current pattern due to obstruction caused by the breakwaters and
inturn there will be readjustment of seabed. Construction of breakwaters would temporarily
hamper the boat movements. Also there may be remote chances of accident of boats due
to collision with construction spread.

8.2.1 Mitigation
The behavioral aspects of the shoreline have to be monitored and accordingly suitable
steps are to be taken.
101
Although during the construction of breakwaters, the benthic organisms will get temporarily
disturbed, they are expected to colonize again once the construction is completed. In order
to limit the damage at initial stage, the bed should not be disturbed much. Explosives should
not be used. The construction materials should be placed one above another by using
proper hoisting machineries and should not be dropped on the seafloor. Once the
breakwaters are built, the voids in it would serve as a suitable substratum for the living of
marine flora and fauna.

There should not be any sudden increase in flow velocity close to the shore, which may
otherwise pose hazard for the human beings and fishing boats.

Marker buoys are to erected near breakwaters for the safer navigation near the
breakwaters.

8.3 Construction of Diaphragm wall

8.3.1 Impacts
Pile driving or solid wall waterfront construction activities increase the turbidity and cause
considerable noise and vibration. This disturbance may temporarily cause displacement of
fisheries, benthic organisms and other marine life. These animals would usually colonize
back to the same area once the disturbance ceases.

8.3.2 Mitigation
Suitable construction methods shall be used to minimise the loss of sediments and cause
minimum disturbance to the marine ecology of the area.

Suitable fence shall be erected at water course in construction areas to control the
sediment plume.Total Suspended Solids (TSS) in sea water shall be monitored at various
locations in and around the dredging/construction work areas in order to assess the
sediment transport and the resultant impacts;

After completion of the construction activities adequate clean-up of the area including the
inter-tidal area should be undertaken and all discharged materials should be removed from
the site.

8.4 Dredging

8.4.1 Impacts
The development of marine facilities consists of dredging of Gadilam river and the proposed
berthing areas and port approach channel. The capital dredging is estimated as 4.4 x 105
m3 and the dredge material has been proposed to be used for reclamation.

Identified dredging effects include (i) entrainment and removal of organisms, (ii) increased
turbidity at the dredging site, (iii) organic matter enrichment, (iv) fish injury associated with
exposure to suspended sediments, (v) decreased dissolved oxygen and (vi) fish behavioral
effects due to the effects of noise. Increased turbidity can affect the filter feeding organisms.
With exception of some deep burrowing animals or mobile surface animals that may survive
a dredging event through avoidance, dredging may initially result in the complete removal
of bottom animals from the excavation site.

102
8.4.2 Mitigation:
The turbidity induced during the dredging can be minimized using controlled dredging
techniques using appropriate bucket/cuter suction dredgers. The net enclosures with
booms may be placed around the dredging area in order to control the spread of the turbid
plume. Regular monitoring of the turbidity and sediment concentration may be carried by
water sampling and OCM satellite imageries. Regular monitoring on the heavy metals in
the water column may be carried out during dredging in order to watch any rise in
concentration due to dredging. The dredged sand can be used as beach fill on the northern
side of the breakwaters. Further to minimize the impacts of dredging, proper timings have
to be selected i.e. (i) selection of most favourable points in the tidal cycle to limit the extent
of effects and (ii) avoiding sensitive periods (breeding) for marine animals.

8.5 Shoreline changes

8.5.1 Impacts
The shoreline in this region is subjected to nodal drift, i.e. with negligible annual net drift.
Presently, due to the extension of breakwaters, there will be a localized adjustment of
shoreline geometry. There can be certain marginal erosion on the northern side and
accretion on the southern side of the mouth, once the breakwaters are extended.

8.5.2 Mitigation:
A shoreline monitoring programs based on quarterly shoreline survey and satellite
imageries are essential to monitor the beach nourishment scheme. In case of any changes
needed based on the monitoring programme, then it has to be implemented. The shoreline
stabilization scheme in the forms of beach fill will be helpful. The formation of sand trap
with dredged sediments and placing a sand bank close to high tide line on the northern
side of the breakwater will help in shoreline stabilization.

8.6 Storms surge & tsunami

8.6.1 Impacts
Storm: The occurrence of depression and cyclones are common over the harbour location.
The occurrence of storms in this region was more frequent in November followed by
October and December. The storm surge of 2.4 m height has been predicted for a cyclonic
wind speed of 252 kmph. During the surge, the seawater enters into low lying land
stagnation and inundation by continuing with freshwater flow. Such events will cause loss
to human being and coastal properties. Tsunami: Amongst the natural disaster in the
coastal region, tsunami causes the extensive damage to the life and property and natural
resources along the coast. Occurrence of Tsunami along the Indian Cost is an extremely
rare event, but for the one that was witnessed on 26th Decomber 2004 along the east coast
of India, which produced devastating effect along the entire Tamilnadu coast. The
magnitude of impact was very severe along the coastal stretch between Nagapattinam and
Cuddalore. The water level may rise due to tsunami upto 4.0 m. If beach form is low like
near the project location, then the increase in water level during the tsunami may invade
long distance into the land. The rise in sea level may over-topple on the Diaphragm wall
and wash away the shore installations.

103
8.6.2 Mitigation
As the beach and the adjoining land are in low level in this part of the coast, it is suggested
that level of wharf/Diaphragm wall shall be kept above the safe level. It is advisable to
create additional protection in the form of sand bunds along the coastal front to protect the
harbour and surrounding human settlement from tsunami and storm surge. In addition to
protective bunds, providing bio-shield (e.g. planting casuarinas, mangroves and other dune
vegetations suitable to the region) can give additional protection to the harbour from the
destructive impacts of Tsunami and storm surge. Human settlement should be avoided
within close vicinity of the harbour as the relief of beach profile is very low in this part of the
coast.

8.7 Mangroves

8.7.1 Impacts
The mangroves were observed upstream of Gadilam River during the survey conducted in
the project area. There are patches of mangroves observed on the upstream of Gadilam
River creek.

8.7.2 Mitigation
The construction of diaphragm wall from the river has to be done in such a way that it is
away from the mangrove patches. Whatever impact on mangrove ecosystem it can be
compensated by a full‐fledged afforestation activity under the guidance of the State Forest
Department during the construction phase itself. Thus the ecosystem of the development
area will be rehabilitated to a better extent. On the other hand, widening and deepening of
the river mouth will bring large quantities of tidal water, which will help in the growth of the
mangroves. The list of various impacts and the possible mitigations are summarized below.

Table 8.1 Impacts and the possible mitigations are summarized below

Duration of
Activity Impact Mitigation
Impact
Construction of Marginal erosion Continuous Beach nourishment and
breakwaters on the northern shoreline stabilization on the
side northern side.
Construction of Increase the Temporary Suitable construction
Diaphragm wall turbidity and methods shall be used.
cause Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
onsiderable noise in sea water shall be
and vibration monitored at varies location.

All debris are to be removed


and disposed properly.

104
. Controlled dredging using
bucket / cutter suction
dredger. Use of net
enclosures with booms to
Destruction of Temporary prevent movement of turbid
Dredgingl sub tidal benthic plume; Regular monitoring
community of the turbidity and heavy
metal concentration in the
water column.
Disposal of the dredge spoil
as beach fill along the shore.
Mangroves Light removal of Temporary Afforestation of Mangroves
Mangroves with State Forest
Department.

105
9 MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR MARINE ENVIRONMENT

9.1 Introduction
Tamil Nadu government is keen to expand the fishing harbours and fish landing centres to
give a new dimension to the livelihood of the fishing community. The new fishing harbours
are mooted with ancillary facilities like fish processing unit, auction hall, net mending
centres, cold storage etc. Various marine activities include construction of breakwaters,
Diaphragm wall, dredging and disposal. The proposed activities will have impacts on the
marine environment and it is necessary to draw an Environmental Management Plan.

Context and Scope: This Environmental Management Plan addresses the environmental
issues associated with the project including potential effects to the shoreline, coastal
morphology, seabed, marine water quality, sediment quality, pelagic and benthic producer
habitats and the ecosystem integrity. The Environmental Management Plan has been
prepared with the guidelines on proper locations of the marine facilities, appropriate design,
regulation of boats movements, and preservation of nearshore ecology and protection of
social life.

Objectives: The MoEFCC objectives relevant to Marine Environmental Management Plan


include:

➢ To maintain the stability of the coastline and not to have the impact on fishermen
livelihood,

➢ To maintain or improve marine water and sediment quality in compliance with


sediment and water quality guidelines documented.

➢ To maintain the integrity, ecological functions and environmental values associated


with marine environment both coastal and offshore.

➢ To maintain the abundance, species diversity, spatial distribution and productivity


of marine flora and fauna.

106
10 MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMME
The post project monitoring is an equally important aspect in Environmental Management
Plan. In order to verify the outcome on the implemented mitigation measures and also to
alter the proposed mitigation, the post project monitoring becomes inevitable. Indomer can
follow up its Environmental Assessment study and extend suitably on required parameters
as detailed in this chapter.

10.1 Marine water and sediment quality monitoring


Water and sediment samples collected from inside fishing harbour, at entrance and 1 km
offshore have to be analyzed for various physical, chemical and biological parameters
(phytoplankton and zooplankton) once in every 6 months (during June and December).

10.2 Habitat and ecosystem integrity


Habitat and ecosystem integrity should be ensured on a continual basis. This can be
monitored by periodical surveys by assessing the changes in the distribution of coastal
vegetation, seaweed/sea grass beds and rocky ecosystem, if any, in the nearby areas.

Herbaria of plant species will have to be made indicating locations (Latitude and Longitude
using GPS) and maintained at the project office periodically.

10.3 Coastal processes


Prepare and implement a monitoring programme to determine the effects of breakwaters,
jetty/wharf at the project site. Coastline monitoring has to be conducted on monthly basis.
These records (data, photos, sketches) have to be maintained at the project office.

10.4 Monitoring of Marine Benthic fauna


The benthic population and community structure around the breakwaters have to be
monitored periodically to assess any change. Special attention has to be paid to monitor
invasion of any non-indigenous marine species (NIMS) in the area. The collected data have
to be statistically analyzed so that the diversity indices can be recorded. This will enable us
to develop meaningful management plans in altering the discharge methods, if required.
Summary of Monitoring, Review and Reporting is provided in Table 10.1

Table 10.1 Summary of Monitoring, Review and Reporting

Purpose Parameter Frequency


Seawater & Sediment quality
To monitor impacts on Measurements of levels of nutrients Half yearly
seawater and sediment and heavy metals in water and
quality sediment samples collected from sites
at risk of pollution

Habitat and Ecosystem integrity

107
To determine whether the Measurements of various parameters: Half yearly
community structure, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic
habitat has been altered population, primary production,
bacteria of health significance,
nutrients and heavy metals. Subjecting
them to statistical analyses to assess
the change (if any) in species diversity,
richness, evenness etc.
Marine Benthic Fauna
To determine the Benthic faunal composition in the water Half yearly
composition and outfall region.
distribution of major
groups of fauna
Non-Indigenous Marine Species (NIMS)
To determine if they, Temporal and spatial changes in Annually
especially fouling species composition in the wharf and
organisms, have been anchoring areas
introduced.
The results of monitoring can be reported to the relevant authority annually or as required

Monitoring program has to be continued during the construction and operational phases of
the project. It should be repeated at periodic intervals after the commencement of the
project, when the project is fully operational. The monitoring has to be organized with
qualified and experienced environmental team. The automation in measuring the quality
of discharged water, has to be implemented as per details given below. Standard
procedure shall be followed in sample collection and analysis.

Region to be monitored

Three stations, one at proposed harbour, second at mouth and third at 1000 m offshore
have to be monitored. The proposed monitoring locations are shown in Fig 10.1

108
Figure 10.1 Project monitoring location

109
110
Annexure I

Demarcation of High Tide Line (HTL), Low Tide Line (LTL) and Coastal Regulation
Zone (CRZ)

Annexure I
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Annexure II

Methods of data collection and type of analysis

Physical parameters:

Wind: To understand the wind pattern prevailing in the study region, the data on daily
variation of wind speed and direction at 0830 hours and 1730 hours available close to
Cuddalore region were compiled from the Indian Meteorological department (IMD)
Chennai.

Storm: The information on cyclonic storm is essential for the environmental assessment.
Occasional occurrence of severe cyclonic storm is found to occur in this region. Based on
the IMD data on the Tracks of Storms and Depressions in the Bay of Bengal and the
Arabian Sea, (1979), and the Addendum (1996) published by IMD, the details on the
storms occurred between 1877 and 1990 were compiled.

Waves: The available wave data with indomer were compiled for this region.

Tides: Tide measurement was carried by using Aanderaa Water level Recorder.

Aanderaa Water Level Recorder: The Aanderaa Water Level Recorder is


manufactured by Aanderaa Data Instruments, Norway. It is a high precision
recording instrument for measuring the variation of water level in the sea.
The Pressure Sensor 4647 is a compact yet intelligent sensor designed to
beusedin this measuring systems. The sensor is based on a silicon piezo-
resistive bridge sampled and temperature compensated by an advanced
Digital Signal Processor. The tide measurement is an average of the
hydrostatic pressure measured over a time period of 10 seconds to 8
minutes (Optional). The recoding interval is selected between 2 seconds
and 2 hours. The output parameters are Tide pressure, Tide level, Pressure
and Temperature. Tide levels are preliminary, internally calculated
estimates, based on fixed, selectable values of atmospheric pressure. Tide
pressure is an average of hydrostatic pressure over the integration time. The data are
stored on SD card/DSU. The instrument is housed in a pressure case that is closed by two
C-clamps. All external and internal parts are fastened to the top end plate so that the whole
instrument can be removed from the pressure case as one unit. In addition to carrying the
combined handle and protection ring, the acoustic transducer and sensor inlet, the top end
plate is furnished with a watertight receptacle. This terminal permits remote triggering and
real-time reading of data by connecting cable.

Currents: Variations of surface current speed and direction were measured using
Aanderaa Seagaurd RCM current meter.

Aanderaa Seagaurd RCM Current meter: The SEAGUARD RCM manufactured by


Aanderaa Data Instruments (AADI), Norway, comes standard with the ZPulse™ multi
frequency Doppler current

sensor. The new current sensor comprises acoustic pulses of several frequency
components to lower the statistical variance in the Doppler shift estimate. The advantage
of this is reduced statistical error with fewer pings, providing increased sampling speed and
lower power consumption. The new Doppler Current Sensor also incorporates a robust
fully electronic compass and a tilt sensor.

Annexure II
The Seaguard architecture is based on a general data logger unit and a set of autonomous
smart sensors. The data logger and the smart sensors are interfaced by means of a reliable
CAN bus interface (AiCaP), using XML for plug and play capabilities. The autonomous
sensor topology also gives the sensor designer flexibility and opportunities where each
sensor type may be optimized with regard to its operation; each sensor may now provide
several parameters without increasing the total system load. Data storage takes place on
a Secure Digital (SD) card. The current capacity for this card type is up to 4GB, which is
more than adequate for most applications.

Bathymetry: Seabed Bathymetry survey was carried out covering an area of 1000 m
distance along the coast and 500 m distance into the sea using CEEDUCER PRO
Echosounder. The Hemisphere DGPS Beacon Receiver was used for the horizontal
positioning.

Water quality

Method of collection

The seawater samples were collected at 10 locations covering covering three in river ( stns.
S1 to S3), one in mouth (stn. S4) and six in open sea(stns. S5 to S10). Samples were
collected at surface, mid depth and bottom. The heavy metals were analyzed for mid depth.
Van Dorn water sampler was used for collection.

Samples for Dissolved Oxygen were collected in DO bottles (125 ml capacity) soon after
the sampler was retrieved. One end of the nozzle tube was inserted into the sample bottle
bottom and filled till 100 ml and the water was allowed to overflow from the bottle to ensure
that no bubble is trapped or carried out in the bottle. To the brimful DO bottles 1 ml of
Winkler A (manganese chloride) and 1 ml Winkler B (alkaline KI) were added. The stopper
is then inserted and the bottle shaken vigorously for about 1 minute to bring each molecule
of dissolved oxygen in contact with manganese (II) hydroxide. After fixation of oxygen, the
precipitate was allowed to settle. The DO bottles were kept in dark and transported to the
laboratory for analysis. Samples for Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) was also
collected in the similar fashion as described for DO in 300 ml glass BOD bottles. All the
samples were transported to the laboratory in portable ice box. The samples were
incubated at 27oC for 3 days. After incubation, the samples were fixed with Winkler A and
Winkler B and later the BOD was analyzed in the laboratory.

Water samples for salinity, total suspended solids, turbidity, nutrients, trace metals phenolic
compounds, oil and grease were collected from the sampling locations using clean
polyethylene bottles and were transported to the laboratory by keeping them in a portable
ice box. Water samples for total petroleum hydrocarbons were collected separately in 5
litre glass bottles. The sample for Phenol estimation was collected in a pre cleaned 1 litre
plastic container.

Method of analysis protocol

Sl. No Parameters Protocol


Water quality
1 Temperature 2550 B APHA 22nd Edition 2012
2 pH 4500 - H+ B APHA 22nd Edition 2012
3 Salinity 2520 B APHA 22nd Edition 2012
4 Dissolved Oxygen 4500 - O - C APHA 22nd Edition 2012
5 Biological Oxygen Demand 5210 C APHA 22nd Edition 2012
6 Turbidity 2130 B APHA 22nd Edition 2012
7 Ammonia 4500 - NH3 - F APHA 22nd Edition 2012
8 Nitrite 4500 - NO2 - B APHA 22nd Edition 2012
9 Nitrate 4500 - NO3 - E APHA 22nd Edition 2012

Annexure II
10 Inorganic phosphate 4500 - P APHA 22nd Edition 2012
11 Total Nitrogen 4500 - N - C APHA 22nd Edition 2012
12 Total Phosphorous 4500 - P - E APHA 22nd Edition 2012
13 Total Suspended Solids 2540 - D APHA 22nd Edition 2012
14 Cadmium 3120 B APHA 22nd Edition 2012
15 Lead 3120 B APHA 22nd Edition 2012
16 Chromium 3120 B APHA 22nd Edition 2012
17 Mercury 3120 B APHA 22nd Edition 2012

Sediment quality

Method of collection

As in the case of water samples, the seabed sediment samples were collected at 10
locations covering three in river ( stns. S1 to S3), one in mouth (stn. S4) and six in open
sea (stns. S5 to S10). The seabed sediments were collected using van veen grab, where
as shore sediments were collected using handheld shovel. After collection, the scooped
sample was transferred to polythene bags, labeled and stored under refrigerated
conditions. On reaching the laboratory, the sediment samples were dried and sieved.

Method of analysis protocol

Sl. No Parameters Protocol


Sediment quality
1 Total Organic Carbon IS : 2720 (Part - 22) 1972 - (R - 2001)
2 Total Nitrogen IS : 14684 - 1999
3 Total Phosphorous IS : 10158 - 1982
4 Calcium carbonate IS : 2720 (Part - 23) - 1976 - (R - 2006)
5 Cadmium 3030 E APHA 22nd Edition 2012
6 Lead 3030 E APHA 22nd Edition 2012
7 Chromium 3030 E APHA 22nd Edition 2012
8 Mercury 3030 E APHA 22nd Edition 2012

Annexure II