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35. Define Temper Embrittlement, (52:)

o A loss of ductility and notch toughness due 10 PWHT or high temperature service above 700 degrees F (370 degrees C)

36. What kind of steel is prone to Temper Embtittlement? (5.2)

• Low alloy steels, especially 2 114-Cr-1 Mo

37. What three methods may be used to determine the probable late of corrosion? (5.3)

• Calculate rute from data collected from sume or similar service.

• Estimate rute from owner-user experience or from published data on comparable service.

• On-stream deterrnlnntlon after 1000 hours of service using a suitable corrosion monitoring device or NDE thickness measurements (UT), subsequent inspections shall be made until the corrosion rate has been established.

38. How should the MAWP for the continued use of n pressure vessel be established? (5 A)

• By using the Code to which the vessel was fabricated or by using the appropriate formulas and requirements of the latest editiou of the ASNIE. Code to establish the design temperature and pressure, ..

39. In corrosive service, the wall thickness used in the MA WP calculations shall he the uctuel

thickness obtained by inspection minus ,


Twice the estimated corrosion loss before the date of the next inspection, except ns modified in section 64

40. What is the most important and the most universally accepted method of inspection? (55)

• Careful visual examination

41. What determines the parts of Ii vessel that should be inspected? (55)

The type of vessel and its operating conditions.

42- For proper visuul examination, what surface preparation is required? (5.5)

• The type of surface preparation depends on individual circumstances, but surface preparation such as wire bnishing, blasting, chipping, grinding, or u combination of these may be required.

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43. If distortion is suspected dming the inspection of a pressure vessel what is the propercOllise of action?


• If any distortion of a vessel is suspected or observed. the overall dimensions of the vessel shall be checked to confirm whether or nor the vessel is distorted and, if it is distorted, (0 determine the extent and seriousness of the distortion. The parts of the vessel that should be inspected most carefully depend on the type of vessel and its operating conditions


44. What type of examiners shall the when the owner/user requires inspection for detection of interior surface breaking planar flaws'?

• Indusuy-qualifled UT Shear Wave examiners.

45. List the inspections, which include the features that ore common to most vessels and that are most importanL


• Examine the surfaces of shells and heads carefully for possible cracks, blisters, bulges, and other signs of deterioration,

• Examine welded Joints and the adjacent heat-effected zones for service-induced cracks or other defects.

• Exurnlne the surfaces of all man ways. nozzles, and other openings for distortion, cracks, and other defects.

46. Name two reasons why it is necessary for the APISI 0 inspector to examine flange faces. (5.6)

• To look for dlstortion

• To determine the condition of gasket-seating surfaces

47. Corrosion may cause what two forms of loss? (5.7)

• Uniform loss - n general, relatively even wastage of II surface area

• Pitted appearance - all obvious. irregular surface wastage

48. Name three ways the minimum thickness of a pressure vessel can be determined. (5.7)

.. Any suitable nondestructive examination

.. Measurements taken through drilled test holes

.. Gauging from un-corrorled surfaces in the vicinity of the corroded area.

49. For a corroded area of considerable size in which the circumferential stresses govern, the least thickness along the most critical element of the urea may be averaged over II length not exceeding what?


e For vessels with inside diameters less than or equal to 60 inches (150 centimeters), one half the vessel diameter or 20 inches (50 centimeters), whichever is less,

• For vessels with inside diameters greater thun 60 inches, one thin! the vessel diameter OT 40 inches (100 centimeters), whichever is less.

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50. When can widely scattered pHs be ignored? (5.7.)

• No pit depth is more than J/l the vessel wall thickness exclusive of corrosion allowance.

• Tntul area of pits does not exceed 7 sq. inches in any 8 inch diameter circle.

• Sum of pit dimensions along any straight line within the circle does not exceed 2 inches.

51. When should the design by analysis methods of Section vm. Division 2. Appendix 4, of the ASME Code he used?

(5 7)

To determine if components with thinning walls, which are below the minimum required wall thicknesses, me adequate for continued service.

• To evaluate blend ground areas where defects hove been removed.

52. What do you use to determine if the thickness at the weld 01 remote from (he weld governs the allowable working pressure when the snrface at the weld has a joinL factor other than 1.0'1


• For this calculatlon, the surface at u weld includes I inch (2.5 centimeters) on either side of the weld, or twice the minimum thickness on either side of the weld, whichever is greater.



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53. Describe the governing thickness when measuring the corroded thickness of ellipsoidal and toils pherical heads.


• The thickness of the knuckle region with the head rating calculated hy the appropriate head formula.

The thickness of the central portion of the dished region, in which case the dished region may be considered a spherical segment whose allowable pressure is calculated by the code formula for

s pherlcnl shells.

54. What is the spherical segment of both ellipsoidal lind torispherlcnl heads? (5.7.1I}

• That orca located entirely within a circle whose center coincides with the center of the head and whose diameter is equal 10.80% of the shell diameter,

55. On torisphericnl heads, what is used us the radius of the spherical segment? (5.7.h)

Radius of the dish.

56. The radius of the spherical segment of ellipsoidal heads shall be considered to be what? • (5,7,h)

The equivalent spherical radius K,D, where D is the shell diameter (equal to the major axis) and Kl is given in Table I,

57. When evaluating metal loss in excess of a vessel's corrosion allowance what API document should be consulted?

• API RP 579 Sections 4.5 and 6

Sectlon 6 -Inspectlon and Testing of Press lire Vessels and Pressure-Relieving Devices

58. When is an internal field lnspecticn of new vessels no! required? (6.1)

When the manufactures' data report (U 1) assuring that the vessels me ~nlisfuclO!y for their intended service is available.

59. Name two factors to be considered when inspection intervals are being determined. (6. I)

TIle risk associated with operutionnl shutdown and start-up and the possibility of increased corrosion due to exposure of vessel surfaces (0 air and moisture.

60. Whul are the essential elements of II risk based assessment inspection? (6.2)

• The comhtnution of likelihood of failure and the consequences of failure.

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~ 1. •

, .

61. Wh:ll other factors should be considered in a RBI program? {62}

Approprlateness of the materials, vessel design conditions relative to operating conditions, appropriateness of the design codes and sraudards utilized, effectiveness of corrosion monltoiing programs; and the quality of inspection I quality aS5111 once and maintenance programs,

62. What action should he taken after an effective RBI assessment has been finished? (6.2)

• Choose the most appropriate inspection tools and methods based on the degradntion expected, Set the appropriate frequency for lnrernnl and external nnd on-stream inspections.

Determine If pressure testing will be required based on damage or after repairs.

Decide on prevention and rnitigntion steps 10 [educe the likelihood of a vessel failure.

63 How often should each above ground vessel be given a visual external inspection? (6.3)

Each vessel aboveground shall be given n visual external inspection, preferably while in operation, 'at least every 5 years or at the same interval as the required internal or on-suearn inspection, whichever is less.

64. When making all external inspection, what shall the inspection include? (6.3)

• Condition of the exterior insulation Condition of the supports

• Allowance for expansion

• General alignment of the vessel on its supports

65. .Buried vessels shall be periodically monitored to determine their external environmental condition. What shall the inspection intervals he bused on?


• Corrosion rate information obtained during maintenance on adjacent connecting piping of similar mater! al.

• Information from the interval examination of similarly buried corrosion test coupons of similar material.

• Information from representative ponlons of the actual vessel.

• Infonnntion from II vessel in similar circumstances.

66 What is the minimum interval for checking the insulating system or outer jacketing of vessels that ore known to have a remnining life of over 10 years or that are protected against external corrosion'!


• Every 5 years and repaired as needed.

67. What Is the maximum period between internal or on-stream inspection'] (6.4)

.. The maximum period shall not exceed one half the estimated remaining corrosion-rate life or 10 years. whichever is less.

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68. If the remaining safe operating life of a vessel is less than 4 years, what is inspection interval'] (6.4)

• Interval may be the full remaining safe operating life up to a maximum of 2 years,

69. Under what conditions would a vessel with a corrosion role less than 0.005 inch (0.125 millimeter) per year and an estimated remaining llfe greater then 10 years be exempt from an internal inspection and inspected externally instead?


When size, configuration, Of lack of access makes vessel entry for Internal inspection physically impossible.

When the general corrosion rate of a vessel is known to be less than 0.005 inch (D. 125 millimeter) per year and the estlmntedremalnlng life is greater than 10 years, and all of the following conditions me met: "

• The corrosive charncter of the contents, Including, the effect of trace components, has been established by at leust 5 years of the same or comparable service experience with the type of contents being handled.

• No questionable condition is disclosed by the external inspection specified in 6.2.

• The operating temperature of the steel vessel shell does not exceed the lower temperature limits for the creep-rupture range ofthe vessel material.

The vessel is not considered to be subject to environmental cracking or hydrogen damage from the fluid being handled. Alternatively, a RBI assessment, us permitted in can be performed 10 determine that the risk associated environmental cracking or hydrogen damage is acceptably low and thut the effectiveness of external inspection techniques is adequate for the damage mechanism. This assessment should include a review of past conditions and likely future process conditions.

• The vessel is not Ship-lined or plate-lined.

70. Write the formula to he used when determining the safe remaining life of a vessel. (6A)

t ac tual-t required Remuning. Life Yrs. =: _----_.-.--_Corrosion rate

• Where: tactual =: the thickness, in inches millimeters), measured at the lime of lnspectlon for tile. limiting section used to determine the minlmum allowable thickness. t minimum =: the minimum allowable thickness, itt inches (millimeters). for the limiting section or zone.

71. There are two kinds of corrosion roles to be considered when calculating the remaining llfe of 11 vessel, What nre these types?


• Short Term and Long Term fates.

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72, When conducting a pressure (est as part of a periodic inspection. what shall the shell temperature be during the test?


To minimize the risk of brittle fracture timing the test. tile metal temperature should be maintained at least 30 e F (-1°C) above the minimum design metal temperature for vessels that are more than 2 inches thick, or 10' F (-12°C) above for vessels that have a thickness of 2 inches or less. The test temperature need not exceed 120 OF (50 'C) unless there is infounarion on the brittle characteristics of the vessel material indicating that a lower test temperature is acceptable or n higher test temperature is needed ..

73. When should pneumatic testing be done and what are some of (he considerations 10 be taken into account']


Pneumatic testing may be used when hydrostatic testing is impractlcable because of temperature, foundation or process reasons, however, the potential personnel and property risks should be considered.

74. Should safety relief valves ever be removed from a vessel during pressure testing? (65}

• Yes, if a pressure lest is being conducted in which the test pressure will exceed the set pressure of the safety relief valve with the lowest seuing.

75. When [I pressure relief valve requires repair, who is allowed to make this repair? (6,6)

• Testing and repairs shall be made by a repair organization experienced in valve maintenance. The repair organization shall have a written quality control system with the minimum requirements as listed in 4.5 of the API 510 code and mnintaln a training program to insure the qualifications of the repair personnel.

76. How often shall a safety relief valve be tested? (6_6}

• The intervals between pressure relieving device testing or inspection should be determined by the performance of the devices in the particular service concerned. Test 01' inspection in,tervals on pressure-relieving devices in typical process services should not exceed 5 years, unless service experience indicates that a longer interval is acceptable For clean (non-fouling), non-cotroslve services, maximum intervals may be increased to 10 years.

77. Pressure vessel owners and users are required (0 maintain permanent and progressive records of their pressure vessels. What things me included in these records?


• Construction and design information

• Opel utiug and inspection history.

• Repair, alteration. am! re-rntlng information

• Fitness-for-service assessment documentntlon.


Section 7 - Repairs, Altcratlons, lind Re-rntlng of Pressure Vessels

78. Who must approve any repuhs or alterations'! (J.I.!)

All repair and alteration work must be authorized by the authorized pressure vessel inspectorbefore the work is started by a repair organization (see 3.13). Authorization for alterations 10 pressure vessels that comply with Section VIII, Divisions I and 2, of the ASME Code and for repnirs [0 pressure vessels that comply with Section Vlll. Division 2. of the ASlvlE Code may not he given until a pressure vessel engineer experienced in pressure vessel design has been consulted about the uherutions and repairs and has approved them.The authorized pressure vessel inspector will designate the fubricntlon approvals that are required. The authorized pressure vessel inspector mny give prim general authorization for limited or routine repairs as long us the inspector is sure that the repairs are the kind that will not require pressure tests.

79. Who shall approve nil specified repair and alrerutlon work? n.Ll)

• The API authorized pressure vessel inspector. utter the work has been proven to he satisfactory and nny required pressure test has been witnessed.

80. What must be removed from base material prior to welding? (7, I J)

Surface irregularities and contamination.

81. All repair and alteration welding shall be in accordance with what code? (7.2 )

• ASME Code. except as permitted in 7.2.11

82. What must be done before Preheat or Controlled Deposition Welding is used ill lieu ofPWHT? (7.2.3)

• Prior [0 using any alternatlve method u metallurgical review must be conducted to determine if the proposed alternative is suitable for the application.

83. Nume the materials allowed when using the alternative preheating method when notch toughness

testing is not required. . ..

(7.23.1 )

• The materials shall be limited to P-Nos P-No. I Group 1,2 and 3 and P-No 3, Group I and 2 (excluding Mn-Mo steels in GIOUp 2).

84. Name the matertala allowed for lise with the Controlled-Deposition Welding Method. l7.23.2)

• The materials shall be limited 10 P-No. I, P-No- 3 ami P·Nc. 4.

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85. Can local post weld heat trentmcnt (PWBT) be substituted for 360 degree bending? 0.2,5)

• YES provided the following conditions are met:

• Application is reviewed and procedure developed by engineer experienced in pressure vessel design & PWHT requirements.

• In evaluating the suitability of a procedure, all applicable factors (base metal thickness, material properti es, etc.) are considered.

Preheat of JOO degree or higher per WPS is maintained.

PWHT temperature is maintained for distance not less than 2 limes base metal thickness measured from weld. A minimum of z thermocouptee is used. Heal is applied to any nozzle 01' other attachment in PWHT mea.

86. What considerations must be given to the repair of stainless steel overlay and claddlngs? (7.2.6)

Consideration shall be given to factors which may augment the repair sequence such as stress level, P number of base material, service environment. possible previously dissolved hydrogen. type of lining. deterioration of base metal properties (by temper embrittlement of chromiummolybdenum alloys), minimum pressurization temperatures, and a need for future periodic examination-

87. Per API 510, state the design requirements for.

Butt Joints. Replacement ParIS,

New Connections, Fillet Weld Patches, Overlay Patches, Flusl: patches


• BUTT JOINTS - shall have complete penetrntion and fusion ..

REPLACEMENT PARTS. shall be fabticnted in accordance with the applicable requirements of tile appropriate code.

NEW CONNECTIONS - design, location, and method of attachment shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements of the appropriate code.

• FILLET WELDED PATCHES - require special design considerations, they are temporary repairs. Also it must be true thai;

(a) The fillet-welded patches provide design safety equivalent to reinforced openings designed according to the applicable section of the ASME Code.

(b) The fillet-welded patches are designed to absorb [he membrane straln of the parts so that In accordance with the rules of the applicable section of the ASME Code, the following result:

The allowable membrane stress is not exceeded in the vessel parts or the patches,

6 The strain in the patches does not result in fillet-weld stresses that exceed allowable stresses for such welds.

o OVERLAY PATCHES - shall have rounded corners.

FLUSH (insert) PATCHES shull have rounded corners and he installed with full penetration butt joints.

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. I


88. Summarize the rules for the use of a full encirclement lap hand on a pressure vessel.


• A full encirclement lup band repair muy he considered a long term repair lf the design is approved. and documented by the pressure vessel engineer anti the authorized APr pressure vessel inspector and the following requirements are met;

The repair is not being made to a crack in the vessel shell. The band alone is designed to contain the full design pressure.

• All longitudinal seams in the repair bond are full penetration butt welds with the design joint efficiency and inspection consistent with the uppropriate code.

• The circumferential fillet welds attaching the band to the vessel shell are designed to uansfer the full lcngltudinal loud in the vessel shell. using ajolnt efficiency of 0 45, without counting on the imegrily of the original shell material covered hy the bond.

• Fatigue of the attachment welds, such as fatigue resulting from differential expansion of the band relative to the vessel shell. should he considered if applicable.

The band mnteriul and weld metnl are suitable for contact with the contained fluid at the design conditions lind an appropriate corrosion allowance is provided in the band.

• The degradation mechanism leading to the need for repair shall be considered in determining the need for any additional monitoring and future inspection of the repair, Non-penetrating nozzles (including pipe cups attached 3S nozzles) may be used as long term repairs for other than cracks when the design ami method of attachment comply with the applicable requirements of the appropriate code. The design and reinforcement of such nozzles shull consider the loss of the original shell material enclosed by (he nozzle" The nozzle material shall he suitable for contact with the contained fluid at the design condltions und an appropriate corrosion allowance shall be provided.

89. Describe the material suitable for making repairs or alterations. (7.28)

. ,

• Shall conform to the applicable section of the ASME Code, be of known weldable quality and be compatlble with the original material. Carbon or allow steel with a carbon content over 0.35 percent shall not be welded .

90. When making 1I repair or alteration, what should the acceptance criteria include? (7.2.9)

• NDE techniques that are in accordance with the applicable sections of the ASME Code or another applicable vessel rating code.

91. Alles 1 epairs or alterations, is a pressure test required? (7.210)

• Repnlrs ~ pressure test only applied if inspector believes one is necessary.

• Alternuous- pressure test nre normally required. Subject to the approval of the Jurisdiction {where the jurisdiction's approval is required}, appropriate nondestructive examinations shall be required where n pressure lest is not performed Substituting nondestructive examination procedures for a pressure lest after an alteration may he done only after a pressure vessel engineer experienced in pressure vessel design and the authorized pressure vessel inspector have been consulted,

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92, Write the API 510 Test pressure formula 7.110

Test Pressure e I 3 MA WP X Stress at Test Temp/Stress al Design Temp

93. List the minimum (ensUe strength requirements for filler metals used on vessels weld repairs and the details of til is method of repair.


• The filler metal used for weld repairs should have minimum specified tensile strength equal to or greaterthan the minimum specified tensile strength oftbe base meinL If a filler metal is used thaI has a minimum specified tensile strength lower than the minimum specified tensile strength of the base metal, the compatibility of the filler metal chemistry with the bose metal chemistry shall be considered regarding weld ability and service degradntiou. In addition. the following shall be met:

• The repair thickness shall not he more than 50 percent ofthe required base metal thickness, excluding corrosion allowance.

• The thickness of the repair weld shall he increased by a ratio of minimum specified tensile strength of the base metal and minimum specified tensile of the filler metal used for the repair.

The increased thickness of the repair shall have rounded comers and shall he blended into the base metal using a .3 to J taper,

• The repair shalt be made with a minimum of two passes.

94~ List the requirements associated with re-ratlng a pressure vessel. (7.3)

• Calculations from either the manufacturer or an owner-user pressure vessel engineer (or his designated representative) experienced in pressure vessel design. fabrication. or inspection shall justify re-ratlng.

A re-rating shall he established in accordance with the requirements of the construction code to which the pressure vessel was built or by computations that ore determined using the appropriate formulas in the latest edition of the ASME Code if ail of the essential details comply with the applicable requirements of the code being used. If the vessel was designed to an edition or addendum of lite AS,ME Code earlier than the 1999 Addenda and WlIS not designed to Code Case 2290 or 2278, it may be re-ratcd to tile latest edition/addendum of the ASME Code if permitted by Figure 7"

• Current inspection records verify that the pressure vessel is satisfactory for the proposed service conditions and thut the corrosion allowance provided is appropriate, An increase in allowable working pressure or temperature 5111111 he based on thickness data obtained from a recent internal or on-stream inspection.

The pressure vessel has at some time been pressure tested in accordance with the new service conditions, or the vessel integrity is maintained hy special nondestructive evaluation inspection techniques in lieu of testing.

• The pressure vessel inspection aml re-ratlng is acceptable to the authorized pressure vessel inspector.

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281. 482" 2253

\'/I'/W. APIEXAr>tS. ORG


95 When is the re-rating of a pressure vessel considered complete? (7 J)

• When (he API authorlzed pressure vessel inspector oversees the attachment of un additional nameplate or additional stumping that carries the following information;

Rcrated by: _

Maximum Allowable Working Pressure __ psi

at degrees F. Date _

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Section 1 - GCJ1cnil

I. Whal is the general scope of APr RP576'?

• To describe inspection and repair practices for automntlc pressure-relieving devices commonly used In the oil and petrochemical industries.

Section 2 - References

1. Whut document should be referenced to determine the appropriate size for U pressure relief device?


• RP 520 Sizing. Selection, nnd Installation of Pressure-Relieving Devices in Refineries

Section 3 - Definitions

Jc Describe n pin-actuated device, (3.13)

.. A non-reclosing pressure relief device actuated by static pressure and designed to function by buckling or breaking 1I pin. which holds 3 piston or plug in place,

4. Whal is a huddling chamber?


o An annular pressure chamber located downstream of the seat of 11 pressure relief valve forthe purpose of assisting Ihe valve in lifting,

5. Describe "rated relieving capacity". (3.36)

o TIle relieving capacity used as the basis for the appllcutlon of 11 pressure vessel relief device determined using the uppllcable code or regulation


Section 4 - Pressure-Rcllcvlng Devices

6, What is the function of pressure-relieving devices?


• To protect refinery equipment and personnel hy automatically opening at predetermined pressures,

7, Name common examples of pressure relieving devices,


• Direct spring loaded Pilot PRY

• Rupture disks

Weight landed devices Pressure/Vacuum vent valves

8, Name the five Ly[JCs ofpressure relief valves (4.1..43,4,4,4.6,4.7)

• Safety valve

• Relief valve

• Safety relief valve

9 Balanced Safety ReliefV·ulve

• Pilot-operated safety relletvutve

9, Describe a safety valve. (4.2){Section VllI UG·126 foot notes)

• Actuated by static pressure upstream of a valve.

• Spring fully exposed outside casing to protect from escaping steam,

• Normally not pressure tight on their downstream side.

10. Safety valves should not be used in what situations? (4.2.2)

• Corrosive refinery services.

• Any hack pressure service.

• Where discharge ispiped to remote locations ..

Where escape of lading fluid around blowing valves is not desirable

• In liquid service

• As pressure control or bypass valves.

I L Describe a relief valve, (43)(Section vm UG-126 foot notes)

• Actuated by static pressure upstream of II valve.

• Lifts ill proportion to the increase in pressure.

.. Usually reaches full lift at either [0% or 25% overpressure,

11, Why do relief valves have dosed bonnets?


• To prevent the release of corrosive, toxic, flammable or expensive fluids,

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281. 482.2253



13 Relief valves should not be used in what situations?


In steam, ail. gas, or vapor service

• In services piped to an enclosed header unless the effects of any constant or variable backpressure have been accounted for.

• As pressure control or bypass va I ves.

14. There are two types of safety relief valves. Whot are these two types? (4.5,46)

Conventicnul & Balnnccd

15. Describe a conventional safety relief valve.


Opening pressure, closing pressure and relieving cnpaclty are affected by back pressure.

• Hns a closet! bonnet

• The bonnet cavity is vented to the downstream side.

16. Where are eonventionnl safety rei ief valves used? (4.5.1)

• Refinery process industries that handle flammable, hot, or toxic materials.

17. Maya conventional safety rei ief val ve be used on bo ller steam dr urns or super heaters'? (4_51)

• No

18. Describe a balanced safety relief valve.


• Balanced safety relief valves arc direct spring loaded and incorporate n bellows or other means to minimize the effects 01 backpressure

19. What nrc the proper applications for these pressure balanced safety relief devices: (4.6.1)

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• Balance safety relief valves are normally used in applications with flammable, hot or toxic materials. where high pressures are present at the discharge of the valve.

:W. What is a pilot-operated safety relief valve? (4.7)(Section V11I UG-126 foot notes)

A pressure-relief valve in which the major relieving device is combined with and is controlled by a self-actuated pressure relief valve (called a pilot valve).


21 What are some applicntions of pilot-operated safety relief valves? (4.7.1)

, I

Where a large relief area and/or a high pressure is required

• Where a low differential exists between normal vessel pressure and set pressure of valves.

• 01\ large low-pressure storage tanks (See API Std 620).

• Where very short blow clown required.

o Where back pressure is very high and a balanced design is required.

• Where the process requires the sensing of pressure alone location and the relief of fluid at another.

• Where inlet and outlet frictional losses are high.

• Where in-situ, in-service, set pressure verification is desired.

22. Name some limitations on the use of pilot-operated safety relief valves. (4,7.2)

• Where fluids nre dirty.

• Thick or viscous fluid service,

• With vapors which polymerize in the valve.

23. What are the three basic categories of pressure and/or vacuum vent valves?


• Welght-loaded pullet vent valve

• Pilot-operated vent valve

• Spring and weight-lauded vent valve

24. What ore the applications and limitations of pressure and/or vacuum vent valves? (4-8.1 and.2

They rue designed to protect atmospheric lind low pressure storage tanks and are not generally used in applications requiring set pressures above 15 Ibf/in'l

25. Describe the parts of a Rupture Disk Device.


The c?mbination of a rupture disk and rupture disk holder is known as n rupture disk device. 26. Name the types of rupture disks.


• Conventional Rupture Disk.

• Scored Tenslon-Loaded Rupture Disk.

• Composite Rupture disk.

• Reverse-Acting Rupture Disk.

• Graphite Rupture Disk.

27. What is aile advantnge of the grnphlte disk over metal disks'? (49 J 5)

High conoslon resistance

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, . ,



28. What is usually Ihe service life of pre-bulged metal rupture disks installed so that pressure acts llgnillsl the concave side?

One year - If no! replaced periodically they can rupture tinder normal pressures without wamlng.

19. Normally the operating pressure of a system protected by a pre-bulged rupture disk is from 65% to 85% of the disk's predetermined bursting pressure. What determines this pressure range'!


• The exact percentage depends on the disk's type.

30. What precaution should be taken when a rupuu e disk is used in combination with another relief device and removed for any reason and will he reused?


• They should he handled with care [0 avoid damage which might cause premature rupture.

Section 5 - Causes ol' improper Performance

31 What is the basic cause of many the difflculties encountered with pressure relief devices?

(5.1 )

• Corrosion

32. What effect can the severe over sizing of a relief valve have'?


Damaged val ve seats.

33. List the major causes of improper performance in pressure-relieving devices.



Do maged senti ng surfaces Failed springs

Improper seating ~ adjustments Plugging and sticking Misapplication of materials

Improper location, history, or identification

• Roughhandling

Improper differential between operating and set pressures Improper piping test procedures

34. To prevent leakage of the lading fluid, what must be maintained in the flatness of sealing surfaces on pressure rei ief valves?


An optical precision on the Older of 3 light beads/hands.

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35. Wlmt are some reasons for damaged valve scats']



Foreign particles getting into valve

Improper or JengU1Y piping to the val ve inlet or obstructions in the line Careless handling during maintenance.

• Leakage past the sealing surfaces of a valve after it hns been installed, Improper blow down ring settings,

• Severe over sizl ng.

36 .. \VIm! almost always causes broken springs in pressure relief valves'?


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281. 482 .2253


• Corrosion (Note: two types - surface & stress)

37, What chemical frequently causes stress-corroslon spring failure in petrochemical plants?

• Hydrogen sulfide (l'llS)

.18. What may he done to prevent spring failure due to corrosion?


• Spring material which can resist the action ofthe CQTTOsive agent

• Spring isolated by a bellows.

• Spring coaled by a coating that can withstand the operating temperature and environment.

39. WllnL medium should he used to set the following pressure relief devices?


• Safety relief valve - air or other gas.

e Vapor servlce valve - air Or inert gas.

• Steam service valves - steurn but nir may be used if suitable corrections are applied.

• Liquid service valves - water.

40, What is recommended for lubricating sliding parts and threads on valves to prevent Fouling?


• Valve parts should he lubricated with a muterial thut is compatible with the service and temperuture.

4 l. In general, what should he considered in delerminlng the material 10 be used for pressurerelieving devices?


• Temperature

• Pressure

• Corrosion resistance requirements

• Atmospheric condltions


42. Why should relief valves be shipped in 011 upright posltlon? (5.8.1)

When relief valves ore Iald on their sides, the springs may not exert the same force all mound tile sealing surface

43. What is one important aspect of the work done to PRDs in the maintenance shop? (5.82)

• Rough hundling should he avoided such as the application of excessive hackpressure to bellows type valves

44. If RV inlets and outlets me not covered during shipment what provisions should be mode? (5.83)

• Provision should be made for such covering during all future shipments

45, What risks are incurred when u hydrustatie test of discharge piping for a PRD is performed? (5.10)

• The disk, spring find body area on the discharge side of valve can be fouled,

• The bellows of a balanced relief valve can be damaged by excessive back pressure.

• The dome area and/or the pilot assembly of a pilot-operated pressure RV are fouled and damaged by the bac k flow of the fluid.

Section 6 - Inspectlon and Testing

46. Name two types of lnspections.

(6. I)

• Shop inspections/ overhauls and visual on-stream inspections ..

47. When 3 relief valve is removed for inspection or overhauls what additional inspection should be made'?


• Inlet ami outlet piping should be inspected for internal deposits 3'1d records made of their conditions.

48. After a PRY has been reinstalled what should be checked? (6.21 )

After reinstalling the related piping should be checked (0 ensure that it is not imposing loads that would cuuse problems with the pressure relief valve's body such as distortion leading to in-service leakage,

490 A complete operating history of each pressure relief valve should be maintained and should include what?


• lnformation 011 upsets and their effects on the valve.

• The extent of any leakage that has OCCUrTed in operation

• Any other evidence of malfunctioning,

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50. When II relief device is removed from a system that is in operation, name II necessary step to prevent an unexpected pressure release.


• The space between the relief valve and the adjacent block valve should be vented to release all pressure.

51. What must he done to valves in hydrofluoric acid service as soon as they nrc removed'? (62.5

.. They must be correctly neutralized immediately after removal.

52. Since inspection of RV piping cannot be done when removing the valve while the system is in service what nlternntlve inspection con he done to check for line any major blockage or fouling'?


• Radiographic Inspection.

53. What can visual inspection of the piping after the removal of a PRD indicate? (62.6)

• The condition of the process piping Whose interior is not visible.

54, Why should caution be used with the rigging to remove a large PRD for maintenance? (6.2.7)

• Prevent nuxiliary piping and pilot assernblles from being dumaged.

55. Prior to performing the us received pop (est on a PRD what should be inspected and checked? (6.2.8)

• Check that the seals are intact on the pressure set screw and the blow down ring screw cover,

56. When may the us received pop pressure test be waived by the owner/user? (6.2 8)

• When the valve is extremely fouled and the lest may damage the valve.

57. When unusual corrosion, deposits. 01 conditions nrc noted upon receipt of a PRD at the shop what should be done?


• The inspector should participate in the shop inspection of the PRD

58· When is it not necessary to disassemble at PRD at the shop'! (6.210)

• Iflhe valve has been tested at the appropilrne APl510 Interval and the us received pop lest shows the valve to he operating properly disassembly is not mandatory.

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59 .. List at least fourof the steps in the inspection of a relief valve upon disassembly (6.2.11 )

• Measure each part's dimensions.

• Check components fOJ well]' or corrosion,

• Seating surfaces should be checked for roughness 0[" damage.

• Springs should be checked for cracking.

60. DUling re-assembly of a pressure relief valve what should never be done? (6.1.12)

• The nozzle and seating surfaces should never be oiled.

61. Aftel re-assembly of a relief device how should any blow down rings be set? (6.2,13}

·In accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.



62. Why do some manufactures recommend at least three pop tests before releasing a relief device for installation?


• H is believed that the first pop test helps to align all of the components and that the successive tests verify the actual set pressure.

__ i

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wvrl'1. APIEXAr4S .ORG


63. Once the valve is set to pop at ils COTP (cold differential test PICSSlil e) it should he checked for _? (6.1.15)

Leakage anti Seal lightness by increasing the pressure on the test block (090% of the CDTP.

64. When applying the hydraulic lest method to AS1vIE Section vm pressure relief valves while 011 equipment, what precnutlons should be (liken?


• The potential for failure of the rupture disk ill disk/relief valve comblnatlons.

Possible introduction of foreign material into the valve sent are from popping. Possible release of process material to the atmosphere.

, . ( ll,\'\' .

65 May a pilot operated pressure relief valve be tested in pluce if no block valve exists bene~th if! (6.2.19)

• No, it may be inspected and repaired only while the vessel is out of service,

66. Where is a weight londed pressure ~nd/or a vacuum vent used? (6.2.10)

• On pressure storage tanks,

67, What type of failure are pressure and/or vacuum vent valves prone to? (6.2.20)

• Sticking,

68. 18 it permissible to reinstall a rupture disk once it has been unbolted and removed from its holder? (6,121)

No, it may not be possible to get 11 tight seal and unreliable performance is probable.

69,. What are the objectives of a visual on-stream inspection of relief devices? (6.3)

• Make sure the correct device is installed, that the correct pressure can he determined, that there me

, not any blinds or gQggjJlstalled, that the seals nre intact and Ihul the valve is not leaking. Also bellows if so equipped are connected and clear and vent piping is routed 10 a safe location. Any upstream or downstream block valves are sealed or-chained in the proper position. That discharge piping is supported, valve body drains and vent stacks ore open, any required lifting lever is present and properly positioned. Any heat tracing or insulation required is in good condition and operational and if a rupture disk is installed il is properly oriented.

70, API 510 establishes the maximum Interval between device inspections or tests of 10 years, what else should he considered when selling. the frequency of inspection and testing?


• The perfoi munce of the device in a particular service.

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71. How is the frequency of shop inspection or overhaul normally determined? (

By the operating experience in the valve's present service. corrosion service would be more frequent for example.

Section 7- Records and Reports

72, What is the principal Objective in keeping records on pressure-relieving devices? (1.1 }

• To make available the infonnatlon needed to ensure the performance of (he devices meets the requirements of their various installations.

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73, What should the record for a pressure-reliving. device include? (7,2)

• lis specification datu and a continuously accumulnting record of its tests and inspections results.

74, Which of the following per API 576 might be expected to initiate a work request on a PRD? The API inspector or the Process Unit Operator?


• Process Unit Operator

.. ,



Section 1 ~ Gen eral

I. What are the muin points covered in API RP 572? (I I)

• Descriptions of the various types of pressure vessels.

• Standards for construction

• Reasons for inspection.

• Causes of deterioration.

• Frequency & methods of inspection.

Methods of repair.

Preporntion of records and reports.

Sections 3,4,5 and 6 contain duplicate information to that found in the APT 510, You should still read these sections however, at least once.

Scctlon 7 • Reasons for Inspection

2, What nrc the basic reasons for inspection? (7. I)

• To determine the physical condition of the vessel.

• Determine the type, I ale und causes of deterioration ..

3_ List at least four additional reasons for inspections. (7.1,7.2)

Safety maintained

Periods of operation without shutdown extended - well planned maintenance program Rate of deterloratlon often reduced


Future repair and replacement requirements estimated

Section 8· Causes or Deterioration

4. List the 4 general forms of deterloretion. (8.1)

• Electrochemical Chemical

• Mechnnical

• Comhlnation of all three

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j. List the 4 general classlflcutions of things that cause deterioration upon coming. into contact with a vessel surface.

(8.1 )

Organic & inorganic compounds

• Contaminated or fresh water

• Steam

• Atmosphere

6. Name 6 factors, which accelerate the rate of deterlorntion (81)

• Temperature
• Stress
• Fatigue
• Impingement
• High velocity
• Irregularity of flow 7, What is the prime cause of deterioration in a pressure vessel? (8,2)

• Corrosion

8. What are the most common internal corrodents in refineries'} (8.2)

• Sulfur

• Sult/Chloride compounds

9- Define erosion.


• The removal of surface material caused hy numerous individual Impacts of solid or liquid particles or cavitation.

10. Erosion is typically found where in a vessel? (8.21)

• Downstream of control valves

• Downstream of orifices

e Downstream of pump discharges

e Al any point of flow direction change, such as impingement battles.

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II, Problems with environmental cracking have been experienced of high hardness. areas of high stress or both. Examples of this include __


• Chloride stress corrosion cracking of austenltlc stainless steels due to moisture under insulation.

Poly thionic acid stress corrosion cracking (PSCC)

Caustic stress conoslon also know as caustic embrittlement Amine stress conoslon clacking in non-stress relieved vessels.

• Cerbonate stress corrosion cracking in alkaline systems.

• Wet hydrogen st~!fide stress cracking, hydrogen induced cracking, and hydrogen blistering.

12. Corroslon beneath refractory linings can cause what? (82.4)

• Bulging of the refractory

13. What does fatigue cracking in a vessel result from? (8 2.5)

• Excessive cyclic stresses the nrc often below the yield strength of the material such us;

• Pressure stresses

• Mechanical stresses

• Thermal stresses

14. Creep damage may be difficult to detect Ull!lI _


• Significant damage has occured

15. What factor increases susceptibility to high temperature hydrogen attack in a vessel's material'?

(8.2.7).< " ~ (>.

• Increasing carbon content of the materials

, \ f .... {f}



16 .. 1111he uhscnce of ~ ..... )::. t .sulfide corrosion rates of are relatively low at metal temperatures

below (1 '. ' !-~

• Water

• 450 !'IF

17. When buried vessels are equipped with adequate cathodic protection when will excavntlon be required for inspection?


• When evidence of contlng or wrapping dumuge is revealed .

18. Whal ale the 1110st lmportant mlcroorganisms that directly influences the nue of metallic ennosicn?


• Sulfate reducing bacterin found in may soils

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19. What cuuses utnnium alloys to lose ductillty?


• Absorption of hydrogen

20. MUllY of the problems thut may develop in pressure vessels are traceable to what? (8.5)

Paulty material or fabrication

21. Poor welding, improper heat treatment, Iabricution with dimensions outside tolerances allowed hy ASME Code, improper installation of internal equipment. and assembly of flanged or threaded joints are examples of what problem?


• Faulty fabrication

22. List several consequences of improper welding techniques. (8S1)

• Incomplete penetration
• Lack of fusion
• Cracking
• Undercutting
• Slag inclusion
0 Porous welds 23. High residual stresses near welds affecting the physical properties and corrosion resistance of the metal is caused by what?


Improper heat treatment

24. Dimensional intolerance cun lend to whut? (85.4)

• Stress concentrations and subsequent failures.

25. What are the consequences of improper installation of internal equipment? rs.s.s:

• Inefflci ent operation

• Blockage of passages

• Displacement of internal equipment with pressure surges

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'111'1\'/ • API EXAMS • ORG


16. Improper fitting or tightening of flanges or threaded joints may lend to wharl (8.56)

Leaks ami possible failure

Section 9 - Frequency and Time of Inspection

27, What are the important factors when determining the frequency with which 11 pressure vessel should be inspected'?

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281. 482,2253


• The rate of deterioration

• The remaining corrosion allowance

28. What event can provide and opportunity for an inspection? (9.2)

• An unscheduled shutdown

29. Whnt occasional check may locate the cause of functional deterloration? (9..2)

• A check of a vessel's operating record

30. Wlml are the most important issues when scheduling a unit for inspections'] (9.:3)

• Safety anti reliability

Section 10 Inspection Methods and Limitations

3 t. Before starting inspection of II pressure vessel, what are some basic things the inspector should do?


• Determine pressure and temperature conditions under which the vessel has operated since last inspection

• Ascertain the character of the vessel contents and the function the vessel serves in the process

32. Name at least 8 types of tools required by an inspector to inspect II pressure vessel. ( 10.2.2)

• Portable lights
• Thin bladed knife
• Broad chisel or semper
• Mirrors
• Calipers
a Steel tape measme(50 feel)
a Hummer
e Notebooks and pencils 33. Whe I e should the ex ternal inspect ion start? ( 103.1)

• External inspection should start with ladders stairways. platforms, 01' walkways connected to or hearing on the vessel. The condition of most ports can be determined by hammering


43, If settling of u vessel has occurred, what should be checked for dlstonlon and cracks? (lOJ,8

• Nozzles,

44. What is the recommended resistance for grounding connections? (1019)

• 5 ohms or Jess, not to exceed 25 ohms

45. Unchecked vibrations 011 auxiliary equipment such as gouge connectors can cause what type of failure'?

(103 10)

• Fatigue failure

46. What type of inspection is usually sufficient for protective coatings and insulation? (103.11 )

• Visual

47, At what operating tempcrauue does em become a concern on externally insulated vessels subject to moisture ingress?


• Between 25 to 2500 F

48. What are the normally required measurements on external metal surfaces of II vessel? (l03.12)

• Under normal conditions, at least one measurement in each shell ring and one on each head. If no history exists for a vessel, then get 11 rending in each quadrant of each shell ring,

49. What types of corrosion are found on external surfaces of vessel? (10.3.13)

• Atmospheric

• Caustic Embrittlemenl

• Hydrogen blistering

• Soil corrosion

50. Vessels containing acidic corrodents are subject to hydrogen blistet ing, Where is this normally found in the vessel'?


• Those mens below the liquid level in vessels containing acidic corrodents are more likely than other arcus to be subject to hydrogen blistering. Blisters are normally all the inside, but cun occur on the outside surface us well,

51. What should a vessel be checked for if a caustic is stored in it'! (103.13)

G If u caustic material is stored or used in u vessel, the vessel should he checked Ior caustic embrittlement,

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52, Evidence of white salts seeping through CHIcks will indicate what type of material? (10.3.13)

• Caustic material

53. Unless readily visible. leaks are best found by what means? (IO,J,13)

• Pressure or Vacuum testing

54, Describe how you would determine the extent of bulging or buckling on a vessel in service, (IO.3.J3)

By measuring the changes in circumferences or by making profiles of the vessel wall. Profiles me made by taking measurements from a line parallel to the vessel wall, A surveyors transit or a 180 degree optical plummet mny also be used.

55. The degree of surface preparation needed for internal inspection will vary with several factors.

Foremost among these are: ( 10,4.1)

• Type of deterioration expected Locution of nny deteriorntlon

56 Cracks in vessels are most likely 10 occur where'? (10.4.3)

• In places where there ale sharp changes in shape or size or near welded scams, especially if a high stress is applied.

57. What may prellmlnary inspections reveal? (10.4 3)

• Unsafe conditions, such as those due to loose intemals UHl.! may fall or due to badly corroded or broken internal ladders or platforms.

58. A detailed inspection should start at one end of the vessel and work toward the other end and include what?


• A systematic procedure (0 avoid overlooking obscure but important items.

59. What should all parts of n vessel be inspected for? (10,4.4)

• Corrosion Erosion

• Hydrogen blistering

• Cracking Lumlnntlons

60. Some limes the depth of a pit can he estimated hy using what simple method?

(10.4.4) .

• Extending the lead of a mechanical pencil

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61. What types of methods life used for determining the extent of cracks? ( 1044)

• Dye penetrant

• Magnetic-particle (wet or dry)

• Ultrasonic shear-wave

62, Explain the difference in appearance between erosion and corrosion. (10.44)

• Erosion is chnracterlzed by n smooth, bright appearance: marked by the absence of the erosion product: and metal loss, is usually confined to u dearly marked local area.

• Corroded areas are not often smooth Of bright.

63. Shells and heads of vessels should be inspected for deformation Which is more likely 10 suffer 1" \I i deformation?


• TIle shell of a vessel

64. How do you check for (a) small distortions, (b) bulging or buckling (c) out-of-roundness or bulging?


• Small distortions" hy placing a straight edge against a vessel.

• Bulging/buckling - measuring the changes in circumference or by profile (measuring from a line strung parallel to the vessel) ..

• Out-of round/bulge • by measuring Ihe minimum and maximum internal deviation at the cross sectional area and comparing the two.

65. What is the best method of locating suspected deformations? ([ 0.4.4)

• Direct a flashlight beam parallel to tile surface to check for shadows in depressions and on the non-light sides of internal bulges.

66. What is the most sensitive method of locating surface cracking? (10.4 4)

• Fluorescent Magnetic Particle Method.

67. What is the difference between cracks and laminations? (l 0 4.4)

• Lamlnatlons run uta slant to the plate surface.

.. Cracks run at right angles to the surface,

68. Name three important factors in the inspection of metallic linings. ( 10.4.5)

• That there is no corrosion.

.. That the linings are properly installed.

o Thot no holes or CHIcks exist.

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'11\,/\'1, API EXAMS .ORG


69, Explain how the Corrosive Tab Method is used to determine the metal loss on vessel linings. (1045)

Smull 1 by 2 inch taus of lining that form a right angle are welded onto the lining wlih one leg extended into the vessel. During inspections the thickness of the protruding leg is measured, anti, since both sides of the leg are exposed to corrosive nctlon, the loss in thickness would be twice that of the lining.

70 What is the principle method used to inspect nonmetallic linings like glass. plastic, rubber, concrete, and carbon block 01 brick.


For the most part all of the above will be visually inspected for discontinuities or physical damage.


• For paint, glass. plastic, & rubber lining the spark tester method is used to locate holidays. For concrete, brick, tile, or refractory lining the hammer testing method is used to locate luck of bond.

71, Name the fuctors (0 consider when selecting loots for thickness measurements (10.5)

• Accessibility from hath sides.

• Desire for NDE methods.

• Accuracy desired.

Time available.

• Economy

72 What is the primary means of obtaining thlckuess measurements? (105)

Ultrasonic instruments,

71 To analyze defects in welded seums that are not visible on the surface ofthe metal, what two methods ore used'!

( 106)

Radiography. Shear-wave Ultrasonic.

74 How does the Hammer Test function in supplementing visual examination of a vessel for the inspector?


" "Thin" - Locate thin sections in vessel walls, heads, and attachments,

• "Tlghtness"- Check for tightness of rivets, bolts, brackets.

"Cracks and Lack of Bond" " Check for cracks in metallic linings and lack of bond in concrete linings.

• "Scale" - Remove scale accumulations for spot inspections,

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1 is use of the Hammer Test not recommended?

1 vessels are under pressure,

iping upstream from u catalyst hed,

. is pressure testing'?

Ig U vessel with liquid or gus und building up an internal pressure 10 a desired level

.h is the preferred method, pressure or vacuum testing, and why?

iure testing. Leaks from an internal pressure source me more easily located .. With vacuum 19 you will know if there me leaks, but the location is not evident,

I should an inspector examine before applying test pressure to the shell side of an exchanger?

hould inspect the tube walls to he sure there is sufficient wall thickness to withstand external iure,

I exchanger where the cooling water is the lower pressure stream and a hydrocarbon is the er pressure stream, what is a possible way 10 detect a leak?

iy be possible to assess the hydrocarbon content upstream and downstream of the suspect anger.

te the two most limits of corrosion or other deterioration that must be known by inspection.

retiring thickness of the part considered. rotc of dctcrloratton.

'n vessels have excess thickness above thet requiredfor pressure, Wilen taklng credit for this ss thickness what must always be considered?'

ome cases the excess thickness of the shell or head plates was used by the designer to ,pensate for nozzle openings.

ore determining the limiting or retiring thicknesses of parts of any pressure vessel, what must 'own?

'ml edition (If that Code it is to he rated under,

" regulations regarding limits ami allowable iepalrs.

281. 482.2253



Section 11 • Methods of Repair

31 When is il requited that [I repair concern making welded repairs [0 a vessel have a National Board R stump?

(I I )

When the jurisdiction dictates that the these repairs me to moue by only R stamp holders

84 .. When is a pressure test of a vessel normally a requirement? (II)

• After an alteration

Section 12 . Records and Reports

85. A complete record file should contain what three types or information'? (12,1)

• Basic data - manufacturer's drawings, data reports and specifications. design information, results of any material tests.

• FJeld notes • notes and measurements recorded on site including record of contllrlon of all paris inspected and repairs required.

• Contlnuous Ille - all information on U1e vessel's opernting history, previous inspections, corrosion rate tables, records of repai rs and repl acements.

86. When making reports recommending repairs, who should receive these reports? ( 12.2)

• All management groups. This would normally include engineering, operntlon, and maintenance depmtmerus. Reports should include the location, extent, and reasons for recommended repair.

Appendix A • Exchangers

87. Why should bundles be checked When they ore flrs: pulled from the shells? (A.91 )

• The color, type, amount, and location of scales and deposits often help to pinpoint corrosion problems.

88. A distinctive Prussian blue on bundle tubes indicntes the presence of what'? (A-92)

• Ferriferrocyanide

89- Coils in open condenser boxes and double-pipe exchanger shells should be inspected according to what API Recommended Practice?

(A. JO)


RP574 \

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201 General

I. What are the modes or failure thai can he found in refinery equipment? (20Ll)

• Fntigue Failures - caused by stress reversals. (In machinery these cracks start at the surface and progress with each stress reversul.)

Distortion Fnllurc • occurs when equipment is subjected to temperatures above design temperature. (AI high temperatures the metal becomes weaker and distortion occurs which may result in failure)

• Brittle Fracture - carbon steels are susceptible to briule fracture at ambient temperatures and below. (A number or tunk failures have been undiluted to the britne condition of steel at low temperatures, combined with high loads that have heen imposed by thermal stress set up rapid temperature clmnges.)

• Excessive Metal Loss - may result in failure if remaining wall thickness gets below safety valve settings. This is u rare occurrence.

• Wrong Material or Wrong Caskets - may lead to failUI e.

202 " Corrosion

2. Corrosion problems in reflning operutlons can be divided into three major groups. What nre these groups?

(202 I)

6 Corrosion from components present in crude oil.

• Corrosion from chemical used in refinery processes.

• Envlronmcntal corrosion,

3. Name the corrosion compounds found in crude oil. (202.01)

• Hydrogen Chloride and organlc/lnorganic chloride,

• Hydrogen sulfide, mercaptaus, & organic sulfur compounds.

• Carbon dioxide.

• Dissolved oxygen and water, •. Organic acids.

" Nitrogen' compounds.

4. Whnt is hydrogen chloride? When does it become a corrosion problem in process streams? (202.022)

• A dry hydrochloric acid (normally not conosive in process streams). If becomes corrosive when water is available to form hydrochloric acid.


5. What do all ct ude oils contain? (202m2)

• Sul!


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6. What is the most active of the sulfur compounds in causing corrosion in refinery equipment? (202.023)

• H yd regen S ulfi de

7. At what temperature runge does accelerated hydrogen sulfide corrosion occur in refinery equipment? (202..023)


Between 450 [lna 900 of

8" What makes carbon dioxide corrosive'! (202.024)

• When it is combined with water. it becomes carbonic ncld,

9. Where is conosion hy carbon dioxide found to he most severe'? . (202.024)

• In hydrogen plants.

10. Dissolved oxygen and water is a corrosion problem in what equipment? (202.025)

• Storage tanks.

11. When are organic acids very corrosive? (202026)

• At their boiling temperatures. The most severe form of corrosion occurs upon condensation.

J 2. What two forms of corrodents nre formed when nitrogen is cracked in II cracking or catalytic cracking unit?


• Ammonia & Cyaulde

13. What is phenol and what is it used for? (202.033)

• Carbolic add" Used in refinery operations in the munufucture oflnbrlcating oils and aromatics,

J 4 What is caustic and what is it used for in refinery operutlous? (202.035)

• Sodium Hydroxide - Used for tile neutrnllzation of acid components lind for grease manufacture .. '

r 5. When ammonln is permitted to contact copperbase alloys in pH ranges of 8.0 find above, severe corrosion in three form of general metal loss and stress corrosion cracking will occur. How maythis attack he identified?

(201.037) ,

e By the appenrunce of It blue salt deposit 011 the metal's surface. /'

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16. What me the primary uses of ammonia in the refining industry! (201,037)

• As a refrigerant,

• For neutralization of acidic components in overhead streams, from pipe stills, lind catalytic cracking units.

17. What materials is ammonin harmful to? (202.037)

Copper ~~ase alloys.

18, What is chlorine used for in refinery operations anti when does it become very corrosive? (202.038)

• Used for treating cooling water and for the manufacture of sodium hypochlorite for treating oils.

IE becomes very corrosive in contact with small amounts of moisture

19. Aluminum Cblorlde- What is it used for'? What does it form in the presence of water? How does it affect carbon steel and stainless steels?


• Used as a catalyst in isomerization units, .It forms hydrochloric acid in the presence of water, Hydrochloric acid causes severe pitting corrosion in em bon steel and lntergrnnular and stress corrosion cracking in stainless

10, What is die term applied to atmospheric corrosion? (202.041 )

• Gnlvanlc.

21. What is needed to prevent atmospheric corrosion? (102,041)

• Eliminate water from the surface of the metal by means of" a protective barrier or coating.

22. At what temperature does hidden corrosion take place under insulation and fireproofing if moisture penetrates through cracks in the insulation?


• In vessels and piping operating below approximately 250 OF.

23, When does oxygen become destructive'] (202.052)

• At high temperatures oxygen reacts with steel to cause scaling (iron oxide).

24, Why may steam at high temperatures cause scaling'? (20205)}

• Because the steam may be decomposed to hydrogen und oxygen, and the free oxygen may cause severe scaling.

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25. Vanudium 0;'; ide corrosion does not take place below what temperature? (102.054)

!.I 00 "F

26. The extent corrosive attack by hot sulfur compounds (sulfur dioxide. hydrogen sulfide) depends on what three things?


Concemmtlon, temperature. and oxidizing power of the environment

27. At what ternperuture does all gray cast iron begin 10 deteriorate, resulting in extreme britrleness, loss of strength, scaling, and growth?


2.8. Growth of'cast iron results from what two things? (202056)

• Grnphitization & infiltration of corrosive gases into the structure.

2.9. What is graphitic corrosion? (202063)

• Low temperature corrosion or gray cast irons in which metallic iron is converted into corrosion products, leaving the graphite intact.

30. In what material do you find graphitic corrosion and at what temperature does if OCClII? (202.063)

• In cas! iron at temperatures below the dew point of water.

3 L How can you recognize graphitic corrosion? (202063)

• By the soft porous structure lhal remains in the areas where it OC~llIs.

32 What materials is mercury harmful to? (202.064)

• Monel and copper based alloys (stress corrosion crucking)

9 Aluminum alloys.

33. Define Stress Corrosion Cracklng. (202064)

• The spontnueous failure of metals by CI acklng under the combined action of corrosion nrul tensile stress,

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34, What is deztnciflcnrion'I (102,066)

• A type of corrosion that can occur in copper - zinc alloys (brasses) containing less than 85% copper and used in water service.

35, What ale three types of dezluclficatlon? (202.066)

• Plug - occurs in localized arcos,

• Layer - covers large areas,

• Iutercrystalllne - occurs along grain houndurles.

36, What are Inhibited brasses? (202066)

• Brasses which have been alloyed with arsenic, antimony, or phosphorus 10 inhibit dezinclflcation.

37, Whal is galvanic corrosion? (102,067)

• An electrochemical type corrosion Ilwl occurs when two different metals are electrically connected, either by direct contact or by an electrical conductor, and ore in contact with an electrical solution called an "electrolyte",

38, What is contact corrosion (crevice corrosion)'?


• A type of corrosion thal occurs at the point of contact or in a crevice between a metal nod nonmetal OJ between two pieces of metal in the presence of a corrodent,

39, What is biological corrosion? (202,069)

• Corrosion influenced by primitive organisms,

40. What me the most important microorganisms that directly influence the rate of metallic corrosion'] (202,069)

• Sulfate reducing bacteria found in muny soils,

203 " Erosion

4 r . Erosion is frequently II problem in equipment utili7.ing the fluidized" solids principle, What is Ihis principle?


• If II gus stream of sufficient velocity is passed through a muss of finely divided solids, such as u powder.the mass of partlcles will behave very much like a uue liquid.

42. Whut method otdeterioration does cavitation induce? (203,022)

• Erosion. Cavltatlons erosion is ussoclnted with the formation and collapse of cavities in a liquid m the meta! to liquid interface.



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, , ,





204 - Effects or High Temperatures

43. Define creep (204012)

• The flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods of lime ut stress lower than the normal yield strength

44_ A stress - rupture is what type of failure'? (204.013)

• A brittle type failure - stress rupture relates the tlille to fallure with temperature and stress.

- .. ,'.'

45, When eustenitlc stainless steels are hented or cooled in the temper ature runge of 750 to 1,650 OF, what does this muke the material susceptible t01


• Intergranular corrosion

46. When Ierritic steels are heated above a certain temperature (above 1.100 rt F for mild steel), how does this affect ihe material?


• Leads 10 gencrnl lowering of the tensile strength.

47 _ What is incipient melting (burning)? (204.D22)

• When ferritic steels are heated above approximately 2,600 OF, melting and oxidation will begin at the grain boundaries. The steel is called "burned" and will be very weak and brittle upon cooling,

48. What is Grophitl:w.tion'Z (204.022)

• A structural change in certain feiritic steels that have operated for u long period of time between 825 lind 1,400 °F_ Carbide is unstable in that temperature runge and may decompose into iron (ferrite) and grophite (carbon).

!l9. What are the two general types of Graphitization? (204,022)

• Random Graphitization - graphite distributed uniformly throughout the steel.

• Localized Graphltization - graphite highly concentrated in local regions.

50. Whut is Sensltlzntlon? What happens to sensitized steel when exposed [0 conodents? (204,022)

• When Austenitic stainless steels are exposed to temperatures of750 to 1650 OF, precipitation of complex chromium carbides at the grain boundaries takes place. Whcn tlic scnsltlzcd steel is exposed (0 corrodents, intergrunular corrosion takes place.

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51. Whnt is decllrburizption:! (204m4)

• The loss of CUI bon from the surface of a ferrous alloy as a result of heating in a medium that reacts with carbon. This results in lower tensile strength. hardness .nnd fatigue strength. It can only be found by metallurgical examination.

52 .. At what temperature does hydrogen have a very destructive effect on steels? (20<1035)

53. What curve shows (he different steel/temperature limits for hydrogen service? (204.035)

• Nelson Chart

20S • Subnormal and Ambient Temperature Effecls

54. Define notch toughness ([I property of metals). (205.01 )

• The amount energy necessary 10 cause frncture in the presence of 3 sharp notch or stress concentrator .

55. Brittle fracture can he recognized by several churacterisrics, What are Ihese characieristlcs'i

(105.01) ,

o Cracks propagate at high speed.

• There may he a loud report or sharp rending sound.

• There is almost u complete tuck of ductility.

• The frnctured surface has a brittle or faceted surface,

206· Excessive Pressure

56. Whal is excessive pressure? (206.01)

• TJlO~e in excess of (he MA WP of Ihe equipment under consideration.

57. Name four causes of excessive pressure, (206.021; 206,02.2; 206.023: 206.024; 206.025)

.. a Added heat in excess of normal operations

• b. Blocking off against a pressure source

• c. Therrna] expansion of a trapped liquid.

• d Hydraulic hammer or resonunt vlbratlon.

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207 - Overloading

53. Wlml ore some lndlcutlons of overloading of equipment? (20702)

• Visible distortion.

Change of shape.

• Change of position,

Appendix 1

59. Steel (ferrous alloy) is an alloy of iron and carbon, What is the carbon content range? (Apr I.A)

• 0.01 % fo 1.7% (Max. (milan content of weld uble steels for Code pUlpo5e~ is 0.35%)

60. Usually Ior refinery construction steels have less than whut percent COl bon? (App I A)

• Less than I %.

61. Steels for welding have a maximum of what percent carbon content? (App J.A)

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• 0..35%

62. There are two general types of steels. Whot are these'? (App LA)

• Ferrltlc Steel- ordinary carbon steel.Jow and lntermedinte alloy steels, and high alloy steels (strnigh; chromium).

• Austenitic - chromium- nickel stainless steels ..

63. Nonferrous metals and alloys contain what percent iron? (App I B)

• Less than 50%

64. What is the only cerumen copper - nickel alloy and what is ii used for? , (App I B)

• Monel II is used for relatively low temperature corrosion resistance.

65. Wbal are the major uses of commercially pure copper in refineries? (Apr I B)

• Eleen ical conductors, gaskets, ami corrosion resistance.

66. What me the majm uses of aluminum and its alloys in refineries? {Apr I B)

• Corrosion resistance nnd tOI su uciurcs which lightweighl is a necessity.



Sulfuric Add and Hydrogen Fhroride - used in alkylation's units as [J catalyst Concentrations of 85% to 95% for sulfuric acid and above 65% for hydrogen fluoride.

• Phenol (Carbolic Acid) - used for the manufucture of lubricating oils and aromatic hydrocarbons.

• Phosphoric Acid· used for n catalyst in polymerization units.

• Caustic (Sodium Hydroxide) - used for neutralizarlon of acidic components

• Mercury - used in instruments.

• Ammonia - liSCO us a refrigerant and for tlle neutralization of acidic components.

• Chlorine· used to treat cooling tower water and for the manufacture of sodium hypochlorite used to treating oils.

• Aluminum Chlorhlc - UW] !IS a catalyst for isomerization units.

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