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Connect WITH THE


Eduline Publishers

1. Our Environment��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3

2. Composition of Our Planet����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 7

3. Intra-planetary Movement and Major Landforms��������������������������������������������������������������� 12

4. External Processes and Changing Landforms...................................................................... 17

5. Our Atmosphere�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 23

6. Weather and Climate������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 27

7. The Water World������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 31

8. Natural Vegetation and Wildlife������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 37

9. Human Settlements��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 42

10. Transport and Communication��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 47

11. Life in the Deserts����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 52

12. Tropical and Subtropical Regions���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 57

13. Temperate Grasslands����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 62

1 Our Environment

Get the students to observe the Let’s Get Started section and read the content to understand the origin
of the term environment as well as its various components. Begin the chapter by identifying the
physical/abiotic as well as the biological/biotic components of the natural environment. Explain the
meaning of these terms along with examples and introduce the term ‘biosphere’, ‘producers’,
‘consumers’ and ‘decomposers’, ‘autotrophs’, ‘heterotrophs’ etc. with the use of these terms explain the
cycle of ecosystem as given in Fig. 1.3 of the text book. Read aloud the section on interaction between
the components of the environment and wrap up the chapter with the section on human environment,
focusing on harmful effects of increase in emission of Carbon dioxide and the resultant global warming.
Discuss the question A, B and C which cater to Fill in the blanks, Match the columns and Write True
or False after which discuss the pen on paper type questions given in D and E. After discussing, select a
few questions to be given as class work and to be answered in the next 20 minutes. Get the students to
submit their notebooks for correction after this.
Have a class discussion on HOTS question and together solve the crossword puzzle given in Activity.
Discuss the Project which is to make a scrapbook on human activities that have interfered with natural
balance and ponder on the Values based question. Read out the Heritage Point activity on Chernobyl
and allow the students to understand the different ways in which nature heals.


A. Write one sentence on each of the following.
1. human-made environment

2. lithosphere

3. hydrosphere

4. extent of the biosphere

5. decomposers

6. global and regional ecosystems

B. Fill in the blanks with words from the box.


environment webs urbanization chains biotic

1. Any change in the abiotic environment produces a resultant change in the

2. Due to humans’ rapid advances in science, technology, industrialization, etc.,
and overpopulation have resulted.

4 3. Several such food link up to form food .

4. The term has come from a French word meaning ‘to surround’.
MAIN COURSEBOOK comprising non-living (land, water and
air) and living elements (plants and
A. 1. abiotic, biotic animals).
2. atmosphere, lithosphere   2. Any change in the abiotic environment
3. groundwater   4. atmosphere, earth produces a resultant change in the biotic
5. radiations, regulates   environment, especially in terms of
6. producers, decomposers   numbers and kinds of species. Living
7. Autotrophs  8. carnivores, omnivores things, in turn, modify their physical
environment to suit them.
9. Bacteria   10. biomes
B. 1. b.  2. e.  3. d.  4. c.  5. a. 3. T
 he environment is the source of all
resources which human beings require in
C. 1. False  2. False  3. True  
order to prosper and survive. Early
4. True  5. False
humans lived in harmony with nature
D. 1. The natural environment, made up of but with the advancement of science and
abiotic and biotic elements, and the technology, rapid industrialisation and
man-made environment are the two spread of agriculture, urbanisation and
components of environment. overpopulation resulted. Human beings
2. E
 nergy is transferred from one living have transformed the environment to
being to another in the form of various fulfill their needs. Activities such as
food chains. Several such food chains clearing of forest land, lumbering and
link up to form food webs. All the food mining have become unsustainable with
webs are delicately balanced; if one link the passage of time. These activities
in the web is destroyed, all the other have intensified the process of
organisms will be affected. environmental degradation. An increase
in the amount of carbon dioxide in the
3. Autotrophs and heterotrophs are the
air has led to global warming.
producers and consumers among the
living organisms in the biosphere. The 4. Sustainable development should take
autotrophs such as green plants, can place in a society where the
prepare their own food using water, requirements of the present, do not, in
carbon dioxide and sunlight. any way, compromise the ability of CONNECT WITH THE WORLD
Heterotrophs are of three types— future generations to meet their needs.
herbivores such as deer, carnivores such Growth of such a social system involves
as tigers and omnivores such as crows. checking population growth, sensible use
of resources, using renewable sources of
E. 1. An ecosystem comes into existence
energy, recycling of wastes etc.
following the interaction among all
living organisms that are dependent on HOTS
each other, and their interaction with the 1. The atmosphere is a mixture of gases
physical environment in which they which sustain life by providing different
reside, for instance, forests, grasslands, life-supporting gases such as oxygen,
deserts etc. It is a natural unit nitrogen and water vapour, protects the 5
Earth from the harmful radiations of the WORKSHEET
Sun and regulates the temperature of the
Earth by making it habitable. If there was A. 1. T
 he human-made environment comprises
no atmosphere, there would be no life on the elements that developed as a result
earth. of interaction between human being and
2. d. The pond is an ecosystem because is a nature, such as parks, dams, etc.
natural unit comprising non-living (land, 2. The lithosphere is the solid rock surface
water and air) and living elements of the Earth that makes the existence of
(plants, fish, frogs, insects etc) that are plants, animals and human beings
constantly interacting and are dependent possible.
on each other. 3. The hydrosphere or the realm of water
ACTIVITY (liquid or solid) including groundwater
A. is extremely essential for the survival of
all forms of life on the Earth.
4. The biosphere is spread from the bottom
of the ocean (about 11,000 m below sea
6. BIOMES level) to the peak of the loftiest
DOWN mountains (about 9,000 m above sea
1. OMNIVORE level).
2. CONSUMERS 5. Decomposers are consumers that include
3. HUMANS micro-organisms such as bacteria, which
cause the breakdown of dead animals
and plants.
B. Answers will vary.
6. The biosphere is referred to as the
global ecosystem and biomes as the
regional ecosystems.
B. 1. biotic   2. urbanisation  
3. chains, webs  4. environment

2 Composition of Our Planet

Commence the chapter by doing the Let’s Get Started activity as a whole class, which pertains to
observing the various landforms of the Earth. With that begin the chapter on structure of the Earth and
dwell on crust, mantle and core followed by rock and minerals found in the Earth. Discuss about the
classification of rocks and explain each of the rock type like igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.
Follow this with rock cycle and end it with the use of rocks and minerals.
Discuss the Exercises questions pertaining to Fill in the blanks, Write True or False and Match the
columns and then discuss the answers to the pen on paper questions given in D and E. After discussing,
select a few questions to be given as class work and to be answered in the next 20 minutes. Get the
students to submit their notebooks for correction after this.
Attempt the HOTS questions as well as the Map Skills question which is on finding out which rock
type is found where in our country.
Wrap up the chapter by discussing the Project which is to write a small write up on the different types
of stones shown in the book.


A. Tick () the correct words in the brackets.
1. The average thickness of the crust is between (8-50/50-80) kilometres.

2. The oceanic crust is generally (thicker/thinner) than the continental crust.

3. T he (mesosphere/mantosphere) is another term used for the Mantle or second layer

of earth.

4. The mantle consists of (two/three) layers.

5. The rocks of the lowest mantle are (solid/liquid) due to heat and pressure.

6. Sedimentary rocks are also known as (primary/secondary) rocks.

7. T he branch of geography that deals with the origin and structure of rocks is called

8. Limestone and coal are examples of (igneous/sedimentary) rocks.

B. Name the following.

1. The hardest and oldest type of rocks 

2. Rock salt is an example of this 

3. A rock formed from other types of Rock transformed

by heat and pressure

4. Igneous rocks formed beneath the surface of the


5. A metamorphic rock that comes from limestone 

6. The types of rock that is particularly good For construction

and building

MAIN COURSEBOOK rocks such as granite, diamond and loose
particles like clay, mud sand, etc. Rocks
A. 1.
r ocks, minerals   2. silica, aluminium may have different colours, sizes and
3. silica, magnesium   texture.
4. temperature, pressure   5. core 4. The study of minerals is known as
6. magnetic  7. inorganic  8. latin mineralogy. A mineral is an inorganic
9. Lava   10. Sedimentary substance that contains one or more
elements having specific physical and
B. 1. False  2. False  3. False  
chemical properties. Quartz, feldspar, mica,
4. True   5. True etc., are some of the common rock-forming
C. 1. e.  2. a.  3. b.  4. c.  5. d. minerals.
D. 1.a. The continental crust that forms the E. 1. Rocks formed by the cooling and
uppermost layer of the crust is called solidification of hot lava and magma
sial. beneath the Earth’s interior are called
  b. The lower crust or sima is a igneous rocks. These rocks are still taking
continuous layer forming an extremely new forms due to volcanic activity. Since
thin ocean floor. they were the first to be formed, they are
  c. Rocks containing a particular metallic also referred to as primary rocks.
mineral in large quantities are called 2. On the basis of origin, igneous rocks may
ores. be classified as follows:
  d. These are formed by deposited  Lava is the molten material which reaches
materials or sediments that the Earth’s surface through volcanic vents
continuously accumulate in layers or fissures. It forms extrusive or volcanic
over many years, to get compressed rocks by cooling and solidifying. When the
and hardened with the aid of lava gets exposed to the air, it cools rapidly
cementing materials such as lime. and fine-grained, crystalline rocks come
  e. Due to heating, melting, erosion, into existence. Some examples of these
deposition and chemical action, one rocks are basalt, pumice etc.
group of rocks leads to the formation  Occasionally, the molten material or
of another group. The formation and magma may cool and solidify below the CONNECT WITH THE WORLD
development of these types of rocks is Earth’s surface to form intrusive or plutonic
a cyclic process known as the rock rocks. As the molten material within the
cycle. Earth cools slowly, larger crystals or
2. Though temperatures here are the coarse-grained, crystalline rocks are formed,
highest, the pressure of the overlying e.g. granite, dolerite etc.
layers keeps the rocks in a solid state. 3. Sedimentary rocks are formed when rock
3. Rocks are natural masses of minerals fragments are carried by running water,
found on the crust of the Earth. They wind and moving ice, and are deposited in
consist of one or more minerals and depressions under water. Over a period of
include the hard as well as compact time, these deposited materials or
sediments are continuously accumulated structure as well as hard and compact.
in layers, get compressed and hardened They stop water from percolating
with the aid of cementing materials such through them. Moreover, these are not
as lime to form sedimentary rocks.. formed in layers, and hardly contain the
 Based on their formation, sedimentary remains of plants and animals, i.e.
rocks are generally classified into three fossils, within.
types.  Sedimentary rocks are soft compared to
  a. The largest of the sediment particles igneous rocks and their structure is
such as sand and pebbles get non-crystalline. Sedimentary rocks, at
deposited initially while the finer times, also contain fossils in between the
sediments such as clay and silt get layers of the sediments.
deposited later. Sedimentary rocks 5. When existing igneous and sedimentary
thus present a layered or stratified rocks change their chemical and physical
structure and are also known as form due to intense heat and pressure,
stratified rocks. Sedimentary rocks they are called metamorphic rocks.
formed in this way are the These processes may take millions of
mechanically formed sedimentary years. Due to the effect of heat and
rocks, e.g., sandstone, shale, pressure, they are often banded or
conglomerate and mudstone. layered. This group is also considered
  b. Sedimentary rocks are also formed secondary rocks, as they are formed
from the deposition of chemicals from existing igneous and sedimentary
including salts through evaporation. rocks.
Rock salt is an example of such a 6. Due to heating, melting, erosion,
chemically-deposited sedimentary deposition and chemical action, one
rock. group of rocks leads to the formation of
  c. Often, the skeletal remains of sea another group. The formation and
organisms and decayed plants are development of these types of rocks is a
trapped in the sediments and cyclic process known as the rock cycle.
deposited on the seafloor. Over the  Igneous rocks are formed first after
years, these remains become being broken down by natural processes
organically formed sedimentary rocks. such as weathering and erosion. As a
Limestone and coal are some result, deposited and compacted
examples of these rocks. sediments form sedimentary rocks. After
being subjected to great heat and

4. Igneous rocks are primary rocks because

they were the first rocks to be formed. pressure, igneous and sedimentary rocks
They are formed from lava that cooled are transformed into metamorphic rocks.
on the earth’s surface. Sedimentary rocks may be buried again
 Sedimentary rocks are secondary rocks and melted due to heat from the interior
because they were formed from rock of the Earth forming magma.
fragments that got carried by running Metamorphic rocks may be broken
water, ice and wind and got down into sediments due to natural
acculmulated in layers over time. forces later forming sedimentary rocks
and even buried again to form magma.
 Igneous rocks are generally crystalline in
10 Thus, a cyclical relationship exists
between the three rock groups. WORKSHEET
7. Rocks comprise different minerals which
are of immense value to humans. Rocks A. 1. 8-50  2. thinner  3. mesosphere
are used as building material, e.g. 4. three  5. solid  6. secondary
granite, sandstone and marble. Minerals 7. petrology   8. sedimentary
like natural gas, coal and petroleum or B. 1. igneous   2. sedimentary rock
fossil fuels are sources of power. 3. metamorphic   4. intrusive
Besides, rocks have also made
5. marble   6. metamorphic
agriculture possible as soil is formed by
the decomposition or degradation of
rocks. Chemicals found in rocks are
sometimes used as fertilisers also.
Moreover, rocks contain fossils which
tell us about life in the past.
1. Nowadays rocks are used probably to
extract minerals, to a limited extent for
construction purposes, and for geological
2. Answers will vary.


3 Intra-planetary Movement and
Major Landforms

Begin the chapter with the Let’s Get Started activity and read aloud the portion on Movements of the
Earth. Follow this with a board work where write down on the board the major landforms of the Earth
like the mountains and how they are formed. Follow this up with earthquakes and volcanoes giving
details on how earthquakes are measured. Bring out the difference between a Mercalli scale and the
Richter scale. While discussing about volcanoes, dwell on their different types as well as significance
Discuss the Exercises questions A and B which deal with Fill in in the blank and Write True or False.
After this, solve the pen on paper questions given under C and D in brief as well as in detail
respectively. After discussing, select a few questions to be given as class work and to be answered in the
next 20 minutes. Get the students to submit their notebooks for correction after this.
Allow the class to come up with the answers to the HOTS question.
Discuss the Project on finding the earthquake prone zones in India and a poster to spread awareness
about them.
Do the Map question as well as the Life Skills question on class discussion and preparedness during an

A. FILL in the blanks with words from the box. There are more than you need.

old synclines Richter Scale heat pressure young
dormant seismograph earthquakes active extinct

1. Sudden displacement of the lithosphere along the plate boundaries causes

to occur.

2. A is an instrument used to detect and measure the vibrations

produced by earthquakes.

3. The is used to measure the strength of an earthquake.

4. A volcano that no longer erupts nor is expected to, is called .

5. M
 any volcanoes are present in a circular belt around the
Pacific Ocean and the islands within it.

6. The Appalachians in the USA, the Urals in Eurasia and the Aravallis in India are
examples of fold mountains.

7.  fold mountains exhibit pointed peaks and deep and steep


8. E arth’s surface is in a constant state of motion largely due to

generated within the interior of the earth.

B. Match the columns.

1. Professor Alfred Wegener a. Mercalli Scale CONNECT WITH THE WORLD

2. San Andreas b. volcano

3. John Milne c. seismometer

4. Giuseppe Mercalli d. exogenic forces

5. Mt Kilimanjaro e. tear fault

6. erosion and deposition f. The Origin of Continents and Oceans

MAIN COURSEBOOK giving rise to fissures and fractures.
This causes large-scale displacement
A. 1.
plate tectonics   2. pointed of the rock structure which is known
3. Faulting   4. drilling, blasting as faulting. When there are two
5. Seismic   6. seismology almost parallel faults on the Earth’s
7. Richter   8. Himalayan crust and the land between them is
either uplifted or left standing even
9. fissure   10. minerals, interior
after the surrounding areas have
B. 1.
False  2. True  3. False   subsided, a block mountain is formed.
4. True  5. True  6. True   The subsided part is referred to as
7. True   8. True graben or rift valley.
C. 1.
In his book The Origin of Continents   d. These are a classification of volcanoes
and Oceans. Professor Alfred Wegener, based on the frequency of their
a German meteorologist suggested the eruption. Volcanoes which have not
theory of continental drift. According to shown activity in a long time but are
him, all the continents were once joined still structurally capable of erupting
together as one super continent known are called dormant or ‘sleeping’
as Pangaea which began to break apart volcanoes.
about 200 million years ago resulting in 3. A volcanic eruption that takes place
the drifting apart of the continents from through a long crack is known as a
each other. fissure eruption. Some famous
2. a. The theory of plate tectonics states examples of such volcanoes are Mt
that the lithosphere is divided into Fujiyama in Japan, Mt Kilimanjaro in
several large as well as small Africa and the Deccan Plateau in India.
irregularly shaped plates which ‘float’ 4. The point on the Earth’s surface,
on the molten mantle or the plastic vertically above the focus, which suffers
asthenosphere and are in a state of maximum damage during the occurrence
constant motion. of an earthquake is called its epicenter.
  b. Exogenic forces are those that 5. The movement of two lithospheric plates
originate outside the Earth’s crust, for towards each other results in collision
instance, through erosion and and creation of a force of compression

deposition by agents like wind, water leading to the wrinkling of the rock
etc., causing changes to the surface of layers of the Earth’s crust. This is
the Earth. Internal or endogenic forces referred to as folding. The Himalayas,
originate within the Earth’s crust and Rockies, Alps and Andes are examples
comprise sudden movements like of young fold mountains, so called as
volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, they are still being subjected to
landslides etc. horizontal plate movements that are
  c. When plates move, stresses and pushing them higher even now.
strains are set up in the lithosphere D. 1. a. San Andreas is a landform created by
a movement of the earth’s plates state of constant motion and this
leading to a phenomenon known as movement is due to changes taking
‘tear fault’. Tear faults occur when the place inside our dynamic Earth. The
rock structure is displaced laterally, in theory of plate tectonics expounds that
opposite directions. The places where the lithosphere is divided into several
the convection current in the large as well as small irregularly shaped
asthenosphere descends, the plates. These can be continental or
lithospheric plates above it converge oceanic in nature. It is generally felt that
or move horizontally towards each these are ‘floating’ on the molten mantle
other creating wide rifts, of which the or the plastic asthenosphere and are in a
San Andreas Fault in California, USA state of constant motion. These
is a prime example. movements take place mainly due to the
  b. When two oceanic plates converge, heat generated within the interior of the
one is pushed under the other leading Earth.
to the formation of a deep-sea trench,  The surface of the Earth is constantly
such as the Mariana Trench in the undergoing changes due to external or
Pacific Ocean. exogenic forces that originate outside the
  c. This is an example of young fold Earth’s crust, for instance, through
mountains. The movement of two erosion and deposition by agents like
lithospheric plates towards each other wind, water etc. The internal or
results in collision and creation of a endogenic forces originate within the
force of compression leading to the Earth’s crust and comprise sudden
wrinkling of the rock layers of the movements like volcanic eruptions,
Earth’s crust. This is referred to as earthquakes, landslides etc.
folding. The Himalayas are young 4. The strength of an earthquake is usually
fold mountains as they are still being measured on either the Mercalli Scale or
subjected to horizontal plate the Richter Scale. Giuseppe Mercalli
movements that are pushing them invented the Mercalli Scale in 1902
higher even now. which measures the intensity of an
2. In his book The Origin of Continents earthquake. Improved in 1931, the
and Oceans. Professor Alfred Wegener, modified Mercalli Scale makes use of
a German meteorologist suggested the the observations of people, who
theory of continental drift. According to experienced an earthquake, so as to
him, all the continents were once joined estimate its intensity. Hence, it is not

together as one super continent known considered as accurate as the Richter

as Pangaea which began to break apart Scale.
about 200 million years ago resulting in  The Richter Scale, ranging from 0 to 9,
the drifting apart of the continents from was developed by the American
each other. His theory was reaffirmed by seismologist, Charles Richter.
the discovery of new evidences in the 5. Besides serving as popular tourist
form of sea-floor spreading. attractions, volcanoes serve to bring to
3. Scientist now agree that he surface of the surface useful minerals from the
the Earth is constantly undergoing interior of the Earth. The magma and
changes, and the continents are in a other material, which come out as lava, 15
help to increase the fertility of the soil. by understanding the phenomena,
For all these reasons volcanoes are improving our accuracy in predicting
considered important for mankind. these events, and then minimizing the
  a. The discovery of new evidences in loss and damage by being prepared.
the form of sea-floor spreading, and   c. As volcanic activity and earthquakes
other scientific and geographical are both associated with the
evidences would have backed up his dislocation of the lithosphere due to
theory. For instance, it is known that plate tectonics, they mostly occur in
the coastlines of certain continents the same places, i.e. at plate margins.
that would have fitted together are
shaped in a way to suggest that they WORKSHEET
would indeed fit together like pieces
of a puzzle. These and other A. 1. earthquakes  2. seismograph
evidences would have led to the 3. Richter Scale   4. extinct
theory of Pangaea. 5. active  6. old  7. Young
  b. natural disasters are natural events 8. heat
that cannot be stopped from
B. 1. f.  2. e.  3. c.  4. a.
happening, despite all man’s advances.
Hence all we can do is be prepared 5. b.   6. d.


1. When, Where and How��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������68

2. Kings and Kingdoms������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������73

3. The Delhi Sultanate���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������78

4. The Mughals��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������84

5. Architecture, Painting and Music�����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������92

6. Trade, Towns and Crafts�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������98

7. Tribal and Nomadic Communities�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������104

8. Religious Beliefs and Popular Movements�����������������������������������������������������������������������110

9. Emergence of Regional Cultures���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������117

10. New Political Formations���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������124

1 When, Where and How

Begin the chapter ‘When, where and how’ by doing the Let’s Get Started activity on setting milestones
for oneself and determining one’s growth chart based on them. After this tell the students about the
medieval period of Indian history broadly discussing the major historical trends in the period. After his,
discuss the key changes that have happened for over a thousand years in the context of Indian history as
well as disclose the different ways of studying about them through various sources like archaeological,
literary and archival records. Follow this up with focus now on the importance of geographical factors
that shape the history of a place and end the chapter by discussing and describing the terms used to
describe the Indian subcontinent. Dwell on the various images that have been used in the chapter to
illustrate as well as to provide more information about the topic under study. Also get the students to
carefully look at the map in the beginning of the medieval period.
Discuss with the students the Fill in the blanks and the Write true or false activities given in A and B
under Exercises. After this, do the questions C and D which are pen on paper questions to be attempted
in brief and in detail. After discussing, select a few questions to be given as class work and to be
answered in the next 20 minutes. Get the students to submit their notebooks for correction after this.
Discuss the two HOTS questions as well as the Activity suggested and the Life Skills question
expected to hone up the thinking skills of the learners, in order to wrap up the chapter completely.

A. Match the columns.
1. Chronicle a. An account of a person’s life.

2. Autobiography b. A symbol or figure used as a mark of identification for


3. Bharatavarsha c. A historical account of events arranged in chronological


4. Biography d. a royal decree issued by rulers.

5. Emblem e. The biography of a person written by himself/herself.

6. farman f. a religious reform movement that arose in the medieval


7. Rajatarangini g. the name for the Indian subcontinent in Rig Veda.

8. Sufi h. 11th century book by Kalhana on rulers of Kashmir.

B. Write short notes on the following.

1. religious literature of medieval India


2. court chronicles

MAIN COURSEBOOK fire called Agni Kula conducted by Sage
Vashishtha on the peak of the present
A. 1. Indian    2. three day Mount Abu. These included the
3. 700, 1700 early, late,  4. solar, lunar   Pratiharas, the Chauhans, the Solankis
5. feudalism  6. coins  7. Akbarnama and the Pawars.
8. Barani   9. Gulbadan Begum 4. Feudalism, or the royal practice of
10. flora, fauna granting land to nobles instead of
salaries, in exchange for tributes and
B. 1. True  2. False  3. False  
military help. It was a significant
4. False   5. False political trend of the medieval period
C. 1. A biography is an account written by because it allowed kings to expand their
another person. In medieval India, many sphere of influence and form powerful
biographies were written by court alliances.
chroniclers, historians and foreign 5. Inscriptions, coins, monuments,
travelers. An autobiography is a sculptures and paintings are some of the
historical account written by a person major archaeological sources used to
about himself. reconstruct the history of the medieval
 Some examples from the medieval period.
period are biographies including D. 1. Throughout its history, the Indian
Prithviraj Raso by Chand Bardai and subcontinent has been known by varied
Humayun Nama by Gulbadan Begum, names. During the ancient period, it was
as well as autobiographies such as referred to by such names as
Babur’s in Turkish and Jahangir’s Bharatavarsha and Jambu-dvipa. The
Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri. Vishnu Purana refers to India as
2. Abul Fazl was a historian appointed by Bharatavarsha. This name is also
Akbar who travelled with him and mentioned in the Rig Veda. South Asia
recorded the events of his reign. The was also called Jambudvipa in the
result was the three-volume Akbarnama, Puranic and Buddhist texts. The term
of which Ain-i-Akbariis the third ‘Aryavarta’ or land of the Aryans was
volume. It is considered as a unique used by Patanjali to denote the northern
source of information because it part of India lying between the

highlights the salient features of Akbar’s Himalayas and the Vindhyas. The Zend
mode of governance and statistical Avesta, the sacred book of the Parsees,
reports of his empire. describes the subcontinent as Sapta
3. The Rajputs claimed their descent from Sindhu. The ancient Greeks referred to
either the solar family (Surya Vansh) or the Indians as ‘Indoi’ or ‘people of the
the lunar family (Chandra Vansh). Indus’. During the medieval period, the
However, there were four clans which name that gained popularity was
claimed that they had not descended Hindustan.
from either of these two families but 2. The initial phase of the medieval period
70 had originated directly from a sacrificial was marked by the emergence of
regional kingdoms. The Rajputs came to writings of many European travellers
power in north and central India. like Duarte Barbosa and Domingo Paes
 Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate of Portugal, Ralph Fitch, William
following the arrival of the Turks from Hawkins and Sir Thomas Roe of
the north-west and setting up of the England, Niccolo Conti and Niccolao
Mughal Empire were the two most Manucci of Italy, Bernier and Tavernier
important political events of the period. of France also serve as valuable sources
Feudalism was a significant political for the history of the medieval period.
trend of the period. Athanasius Nikitin’s visit to India is
 The important social trends of the described in his book, The Journey
medieval age included the proliferation Beyond Three Seas. Sidi Ali Reis, an
of new castes, the rise of tribal groups Ottoman admiral, was another important
with their own distinctive identities and foreigner whose travels to India and
customs and a sharp distinction between other countries are recorded in the book,
rural and urban areas. The flourishing of Mirat ul Memalik or The Mirror of
trade and the introduction of a more Countries.
systematic assessment of land revenue 4. Calligraphy is the art of writing
were significant economic trends of the alphabets in an artistic manner. It was a
time. This period also marked the common feature of the manuscripts
emergence of new forms of Hinduism written during the medieval period of
and Islam which were more assimilative Indian history. Floral and geometric
in nature. Religious reforms in the form motifs were used to decorate books and
of Bhakti and Sufi movements triggered monuments of the period. Although the
some of the major developments of the knowledge of calligraphy had already
period. Distinctive styles and existed in India, it was only with the
technologies of architecture and cultural Persian influence that a distinctive style
diversity was the hallmark of this period. emerged.
3. A number of foreign travellers, scholars, 5. Coins give us invaluable information
pilgrims and royal ambassadors visited about the polity and economy of a
the courts of different rulers during the period. The writings on the coins
medieval period and left behind accounts convey the names, date of issue, titles
of the period. Apart from writing about and portraits of kings, and occasionally
the ruler and his administration, they even their dynastic emblem. Coins
also focused on the life of the common throw light on art, religion, economic CONNECT WITH THE WORLD

people. Ibn Battuta, the Moroccan conditions, trade etc. The composition of
traveller and scholar, visited India during the metal or alloy used in the coins tells
the rule of the Tughlaqs and wrote the us about the scientific advancement
Rihla (travels). This book tells us about attained during the corresponding period.
the geography of India. Al Biruni‘s Moreover, the distant places where the
Tarikh al-Hind, written around 1030CE, coins are excavated give an idea about
when he accompanied Mahmud the extent of the empire. The Sultans of
Ghaznavi on his campaigns into northern Delhi, the Mughal emperors, the Cholas
India, is regarded as one of the finest and other regional rulers issued many
foreign accounts of medieval India. The coins 71
HOTS during which they wrote. During this
1. The two are interlinked because political period, the religious texts, Ramayana
events in the past are often decided by and Mahabharata, were translated into
geographical factors. For instance, if a king regional languages
was able to capture land with fertile soil, 2. Court chronicles were accounts written
this automatically meant more revenue for by scholars belonging to the medieval
the kingdom. Hence there would be a period, who wrote about the history of
struggle to retain control of such territory. dynasties of the period. A well-known
2. a. coconut example is Abd al-Qadir Badauni’s
b. betelnut Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, a work in three
volumes that deals with the reigns of
Babur, Humayun and Akbar. Barani’s
Tarikh-i-Firoz Shahi describes the
A. 1. c.  2. e.  3. g.  4. a.  5. b. history of the Delhi Sultanate.
Rajatarangini, authored by Kalhana in
6. d.   7. h.  8. f.
the 11th century, provides information
B. 1. The Bhakti and Sufi movements spread about the history of the rulers of
across the subcontinent and contributed Kashmir. Many rulers of this period
to some fundamental changes in the appointed historians who travelled with
social and cultural outlook of people at the ruler and recorded the events. Abul
large. The saints and sages associated Fazl’s Akbarnama on Akbar’s empire
with these movements composed poems, and Rihla on the Tughlaks by Ibn
songs, dohas, etc. in the local languages Battuta, the Moroccan traveller and
which are a reflection on the period scholar, are some examples.

2 Kings and Kingdoms

Commence the chapter by allowing the students to read and understand the Let’s Get Started activity
and discuss the answers to the questions raised here pertaining to the presence of too many rulers as
well as too many invaders in India during the medieval period. Now, acquaint the students with the
political situation in north India during the early medieval period by reading aloud the section on
emergence of new kingdoms and the warring kingdoms involved in Tripartite struggle. While giving
details about the three warring dynasties involved in the tripartite struggle, show the students the map of
India given in Fig. 2.1 and ask them to identify all the regional kingdoms specified on the map. While
reading about the other prominent kingdoms tell the students about the bravery of the Chauhans, the
Kalachuris, the Chandelas, the Gahadavalas and the Hindu Shahi rulers who were regionally very
important dynasties besides those involved in the tripartite struggle. Now, focus on the administrative
aspect of the period by discussing the administrative units into which the kingdoms were divided. After
this, speak about the administration in the villages and towns, the military administration as well as the
social and economic life of the people during the period under our study. After this, discuss the
kingdoms found in the southern part of India and highlight the important political entities found there
namely the Cholas. Read aloud the portion on their famous kings, their administration, their economy,
temples, and inscriptions as well as their language and literature. Conclude the chapter by visiting the
section on spearheads of Turkish invasion: Ghaznavi and Ghori and pave the way for the next classes
which will be about the new policies and rulers who came to rule over India as result of these invasions.
Discuss with the students the Exercises A and B catering to Fill in the blanks and Match the columns.
After this, discuss the pen on paper questions given in C and D to be written in brief and detail. After CONNECT WITH THE WORLD
discussing, select a few questions to be given as class work and to be answered in the next 20 minutes.
Get the students to submit their notebooks for correction after this.
Have a thorough discussion on the two HOTS questions as well as the crossword puzzle Activity.
Wrap up the chapter by discussing the Project on the legendary story of Prithviraj Chauhan.

A. Write True and False.
1. T he Chandelas were a powerful dynasty of South India during the late
medieval period.

2. A
 new religious sect called the Lingayat was founded under the Kalachuri
rulers of Karnataka.

3. Prithviraj Chauhan fought five major wars against Muhammad Ghori.

4. The First and Second Battles of Tarain in 1191 ce and 1192 ce.

5. Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan in the Battle of Chandawar.

6. The Pala Empire was established by Gopala in 1150 ce.

7. B
 efore becoming a ruling dynasty, the Rashtrakutas were the vassals
of the Chalukyas in central India.

8. Al Masudi wrote extensively about the Gurjara- Pratihara rulers.

B. Write short notes on the following.

1. Tripartite Struggle

2. Strategic importance of Kanauj in medieval era

3. Medieval Indian economy

MAIN COURSEBOOK Chandelas was to build the famous
temples and town of Khajuraho
A. 1. Khajuraho, Mahoba between the mid-10th and mid-11th
2. Palas, Rashtrakutas, Gurjara-Pratiharas centuries. The temples provide a rare
3. Qutubuddin Aibak, slave   4. Ghazni and striking example of north Indian
5. Dantidurga  6. Dharmapala, Nalanda temple architecture in this era. The
Chandelas have left a number of other
7. Mihir Bhoja   8. Al Masudi
inscriptions and are known to have
9. Prithviraj Raso, Chand Bardai endowed a large number of Jain and
10. Jayachanda, Muhammad Ghori Hindu temples.
11. Gangaikondachola, Kaveri called 3. The Chauhans, the Gahadhavalas,
Gangaikondacholapuram Pratiharas, Tomars.
12. Uttaramerur, Chola 4. Kamban was an alvar of the medieval
B. 1. e.  2. c.  3. d.  4. a.  5. b. period. Nayanars and alvars, who were
C. 1. The beginning of medieval Indian devotees of Shiva and Vishnu,
history was marked by a long struggle respectively, were popular saints who
involving the Gurjara- Pratiharas of flourished in the Tamil region between
Malwa, the Rashtrakutas of Deccan and the 6th and 9th centuries. The age of
the Palas of Bengal to establish their Kamban is considered the golden age of
supremacy over Kanauj. As this event Tamil literature and his Ramayana is
involved three major regional powers, it considered a classic in Tamil literature.
is described by historians as the 5. Answers will vary.
Tripartite Struggle. The constant struggle D. 1. The beginning of medieval Indian
eventually weakened the three dynasties history was marked by a long struggle
and resulted in their ultimate decline. involving the Gurjara- Pratiharas of
2. The rock-cut cave temples at Ellora and Malwa, the Rashtrakutas of Deccan and
Elephanta in modern day Maharashtra, the Palas of Bengal to establish their
now two of the UNESCO World supremacy over Kanauj. As this event
Heritage Sites in India, were built by the involved three major regional powers, it
Rashtrakuta rulers. is described by historians as the
Tripartite Struggle. The constant struggle
 The Chandela king Yashoverman is
credited with having constructed the eventually weakened the three dynasties
magnificent Lakshmana Temple. Dhanga, and resulted in their ultimate decline.
another Chandela king, was also a great 2. Rajaraja Chola I (985-1014 ce) initiated
patron of art and learning in addition to the policy of war and conquest by
being a great ruler and a great defeating the Cheras and the Pandyas.
conqueror. He built two of the more He invaded Sri Lanka and annexed its
important temples—the Vishwanath and northern part to his empire. His
the Parshwanatha temples. The kingdom was organised on the lines of
outstanding contribution of the efficiency, both economic and military.
One of his naval exploits was the  The events of Prithviraj’s reign have
conquest of the Maldive islands. He also been described in Prithviraj Raso,
annexed the north-western parts of the composed by his court poet and friend,
Ganga region in Karnataka and overran Chand Bardai.
Vengi.  A unique and purely native form of
 His son, Rajendra I (1014-1044 ce) Kannada literature-poetry called the
continued his father’s expansionist Vachanas also came into existence
policies. He defeated the western during this time. The writers of Vachanas
Chalukyas and the Pala rulers of Bengal were called Vachanakaras. Many other
and completed the conquest of Sri important works like Virupaksha
Lanka. He marched across Kalinga to Pandita’s Chennabasavapurana, Dharani
Bengal and defeated the local rulers. He Pandita’s Bijjalarayacharite and
assumed the title of Gangaikondachola Chandrasagara Varni’s Bijjalarayapurana
or the Chola conqueror of Ganga and were also written during the reign of the
built a new capital near the River Kaveri Southern Kalachuris.
called Gangaikondacholapuram or the  The age of Kamban is considered the
city of the Chola conqueror of the golden age of Tamil literature and his
Ganga. Ramayana is considered a classic in
3. The Cholas had a highly organised Tamil literature.
administrative structure headed by the 5. The Cholas had a highly organised
king and a council of ministers to aid administrative structure headed by the
and advise him. In order to protect the king and a council of ministers to aid
country, the Cholas maintained a large and advise him. They maintained a large
army comprising cavalry, infantry, army comprising cavalry, infantry,
elephants and a strong navy. The empire elephants and a strong navy. The empire
was divided into mandalams or was divided into mandalams or
provinces. Each province was further provinces. Each province was further
divided into valanadu or districts and divided into valanadu or districts and
nadu or groups of villages. A large town nadu or groups of villages. A large town
was administered separately and called a was administered separately and called a
Taniyur. At times, princes were Taniyur. At times, princes were
appointed as the governors of provinces. appointed as the governors of provinces.
Officials were usually paid by granting Officials were usually paid by granting
them assignments of revenue bearing them assignments of revenue bearing

lands. lands. At the village level, the ur and

4. There are several literary sources written the sabha or mahasabha were the two
by foreign travelers and court authors assemblies. Inscriptions tell us that the
that shed light on this period. ur was a general assembly of all classes
 Al Masudi, a foreign traveller, wrote of people, who owned land within the
extensively about the power and prestige village. In contrast, the sabha was an
of the Gurjara- Pratihara rulers. assembly found in villages where
Rajasekhara, the famous Sanskrit poet, Brahmins owned all the land as
was patronised by the Pratihara rulers. brahmadeya grants. As the Chola rulers
76 granted land to a large number of
Brahmins, a number of Brahmin WORKSHEET
settlements emerged in the Chola
Empire. Parantaka’s inscription found A. 1. False  2. True  3. False
inside the temple at Uttaramerur 4. True  5. False  6. False
describes the functioning of the sabha. It 7. True   8. True
operated through committees. It had B. 1.
The beginning of medieval Indian
different committees to look after history was marked by a long struggle
various aspects of local administration involving the Gurjara- Pratiharas of
including temples, gardens, irrigations, Malwa, the Rashtrakutas of Deccan and
assessment of land revenue, maintenance the Palas of Bengal to establish their
of law and order etc. The nagaram, as supremacy over Kanauj. As this event
the name suggests, was an assembly involved three major regional powers, it
found in towns and cities. Its members is described by historians as the
were mainly traders, merchants and Tripartite Struggle. The struggle
sometimes eventually weakened the three dynasties
HOTS and resulted in their ultimate decline.
1. A lot of activities happened around the 2. During the reign of Harshavardhana,
temples and temples in South India were Kanauj became the centre of all political
all about magnificence and wealth. It also developments in North India. On
immortalized the ruler for its person. account of its strategic position, Kanauj
2. Had Prithviraj Chauhan not defeated fostered trade and commerce, and high
Muhammad Ghori , the Islamic rulers fertility of the soil encouraged
would not have been able to gain a agricultural growth. Due to this, all new
foothold in India. India probably would kingdoms that sprang up after the
have seen more of small ruling dynasties disintegration of Harshavardhana’s
for long. Empire vied to control Kanauj.
ACTIVITY 3. Agriculture was the major occupation of
ACROSS people. Trade relations with China,
3. GHAZNI south-east Asia and the western world
flourished. The main items of export
were spices, textiles and precious stones
7. KANAUJ and the main imports were horses,
8. CHANDELA precious metals and stones. Merchants
operated through guilds known as
10. MANDALAMS shrenis. The chiefs of the guilds, called
shresthins, held important positions in
city administration.

3 The Delhi Sultanate

Begin the chapter by doing the Let’s Get Started activity on life of the foreigners who came to settle
down in the foreign land as nobles, artisans or musicians and how they maintained their contact with
their native lands. After this, begin the chapter by speaking about the beginning of the Turkish rule in
India with the commencement of the Mamluk dynasty. Following this, speak to the learners about the
first female ruler Razia Sultan, who was a prominent ruler though she faced a lot of discrimination
owing to her gender. The next section will be spoken aloud, regarding the Khalji dynasty as well as the
Tughluq dynasty, discussing their prominent rulers like Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad- bin- Tughluq
and their reforms. After this, focus on the Saiyyid dynasty and the Lodi dynasty discussing their
achievements and prominent rulers. After this, focus on the administrative practices that were practiced
under the Sultans of Delhi, particularly revolving round the Sultan, his nobles, the army, the political
divisions as well as the economic and social life during the period. Allow the students to carefully read
the section on the political system and governance and sources to study the history of this period. After
this, discuss the questions given in the exercise portion.
Discuss the questions pertaining to Fill in the blanks and Write True or False given under A and B of
the Exercises. After this, do the pennon paper questions given under C and D. After discussing, select a
few questions to be given as class work and to be answered in the next 20 minutes. Get the students to
submit their notebooks for correction after this.
Attempt the two HOTS questions along with the students, following which do the two Life Skills
questions aimed at developing social and thinking skills.
Explain the activity given in diary entry of Raziya Sultan as well as the word search Activity.

Conclude by discussing the Map Skills question which is on marking the extent of the territory captured
by Alauddin Khalji.

A. Fill in the blanks with words from the box.

slaves military vakil Bahlol personality nobles
karkhanas fourth police Maliks iqtas Ibn Battuta

The diwan-i-risalat was considered the pillar of the imperial
administration of the Sultanate.

2. T he Sultanate of Delhi was a state, whose strength or weakness

depended exclusively on the powers and of its
despotic sultan.

3. T he wazir or was the prime minister and his department was called
the diwan-i-wizarat.

4. When the Turks conquered the country, they divided it into a number of tracts called
, which were assigned among the leading Turkish .

5. Accounts by foreigners such as are a rich source of information

about the Delhi Sultanate.

6. Under the , a number of workshops called were

set up which produced articles ranging from military goods to paintings and cloth.

7. The Lodi dynasty was founded by Lodi.

8. In the Delhi Sultanate, served as personal assistants as well as

administrative officials.

B. Match the columns. CONNECT WITH THE WORLD

1. Mamluks a. Lakhbaksh

2. Qutbuddin Aibak b. founder of city of Agra

3. Iltutmish c. brother and successor of Raziya Sultan

4. Nasiruddin Mahmud d. chalisa

5. Ghiyasuddin Tughlak e. Slave dynasty

6. Sikander Lodi f. Founder of Tughlak dynasty 79

MAIN COURSEBOOK custom in which a person had to kneel
and touch the ground with his forehead
A. 1. slave  2. Arabic  3. Lakhbaksh before the sultan. Paibos was the custom
4. Iltutmish   5. Raziya Sultan   of bending before the sultan and kissing
6. chalisa   7. blood and iron his feet.
8. sijda, paibos   3. Ulemas were the Muslim clerics who
9. Alauddin Khalji, Vindhya thought that they had the sole authority
to interpret the Quran as well as the
10. Alai Darwaza
Sharia laws. After Muhammad bin
11. Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian   12. projects Tughlak’s disastrous policies, it was
13. Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi, Mubarak important to gain back the trust and
Shah’s faith of the people, so his successor
14. Agra  15. soldiers decided to begin by appeasing these
B. 1. False  2. False  3. True   ulemas.
4. True   5. True 4. Shortly after his accession to the throne,
Muhammad Bin Tughluq decided to
C. 1. Raziya Sultan, the daughter of Iltutmish,
transfer the capital from Delhi to
was the only Muslim woman ruler of
Devagiri (renamed Daulatabad) in the
Delhi. She wore male attire and
Deccan. Due to the central location of
appeared in public without any veil. She
Devagiri, the sultan thought it would
established law and order throughout the
enable him to exercise control
empire. Her rule triggered a power
throughout the country and protect the
struggle between the sultan and the
Sultanate against continuous Mongol
chahalgani. The nobility opposed her
attacks. Historians think that he ordered
rule due to the gender bias and cultural
not only the transfer of his court and
orthodoxy of her age and also
officials but the entire population.
disapproved of the high position she
Extensive arrangements were made for
granted to her Ethiopian slave, Yakut.
the long journey that covered a distance
Eventually, they revolted against her.
of around 1,500 km. Temporary shelters
She was killed as part of a conspiracy
were set up along the way and free food
by the nobles while she was on her way
and drinks were supplied. Nevertheless,

to reclaim her empire. Referring to her,

many people did not survive the long
Minhaj-us-Siraj, chronicler of the period,
and arduous journey and the operation
says, “She was a great monarch, wise, a
turned out to be a total failure. As his
dispenser of justice and protector of her
ministers, courtiers and soldiers were not
subjects but born of the wrong gender.
keen to stay at the new location,
So, in the estimation of men, all her
Muhammad bin Tughlaq ordered their
virtues were worthless.”
return to Delhi.
2. Balban started the Persian customs of
5. The sultan was at the centre of the
sijda and paibos intended to show
Sultanate administration. He protected
loyalty towards the sultan. Sijda was a
80 the empire against external attacks and
was responsible for maintaining law and the support of the nobles, he granted
order. He acted as the commander-in- them land and focused his attention on
chief of the army and the chief justice strengthening his empire. He conquered
of the Sultanate. The sultan’s court Ranthambore, Bayana, Mandor and Jalor
consisted of officials who were while crushing the revolts in Bengal and
responsible for effective functioning of Bihar, and annexing them in his empire.
the administrative machinery. The wazir He also strengthened the north-western
and his deputies looked after the issues frontier to safeguard it against Mongol
relating to income, expenditure, invasions. To make his administration
collection of revenue and control of the efficient, Iltutmish organised the Turkish
revenue. The ariz-i-mumalik and his nobility into a select group of forty
deputies looked after the recruitment of nobles called chalisa or chahalgani.
soldiers, their training and equipment. D. 1. Shortly after his accession to the throne,
The wakil-i-dar was responsible for Muhammad Bin Tughlak decided to
looking after the affairs relating to the transfer the capital from Delhi to
household of the sultan, the palace Devagiri in the Deccan. Due to the
guards and the personal assistants. The central location of Devagiri, the sultan
amir-i-hajib was the master of thought it would enable him to exercise
ceremonies at the court while the chief control throughout the country and
qazi headed the justice department. protect the Sultanate against continuous
 The nobles occupied civilian and Mongol attacks. Historians think that he
military positions in the Sultanate. They ordered not only the transfer of his court
assisted the sultan in the discharge of his and officials but the entire population.
responsibilities as the ruler of the Extensive arrangements were made for
empire. the long journey that covered a distance
6. Alauddin Khalji maintained a detailed of around 1,500 km. Temporary shelters
description of each soldier known as were set up along the way and free food
chehra. Each horse was branded in his and drinks were supplied. Nevertheless,
army known as dagh. During his reign, many people did not survive the journey
land revenue was collected in cash. and the operation turned out to be a
Soldiers were also paid in cash. total failure. As his ministers, courtiers
7. The Qarachil expedition was a miserable and soldiers were not keen to stay at the
failure. It was expected to expand his new location, Muhammad bin Tughlaq
political boundaries but political changes ordered their return to Delhi. CONNECT WITH THE WORLD

in the region made it impossible for him  Another daring experiment undertaken
to invade. He had paid soldiers a years by Muhammad bin Tughlaq was the
salary in advance and this was lost. issuing of bronze and copper token
8. Iltutmish, a trusted slave and son-in-law currency. This measure aimed to
of Qutbuddin Aibak, is regarded by overcome the financial crisis owing to
historians as the real architect of Turkish the drain on the royal treasury as a result
rule in North India. He ascended the of his schemes. Such coins had same
throne in 1210 ce despite great value as the gold and silver coins
opposition from the Turkish nobility and (known as tanka). People were
external revolts. With a view to winning encouraged to use them in their 81
transactions. Soon, new coins began to great administrative skills and military
be forged at an alarming rate and all the genius. His first military campaign
token currency had to be withdrawn against Gujarat enabled him to have an
from the market. access to its ports and overseas trade.
 Muhammad bin Tughlaq also increased He also undertook military campaigns to
the land tax in the Ganga-Yamuna Doab conquer Ranthambore, Chittor, Malwa
region in order to meet the expenses of and Jalore in Rajasthan. He sent his
the army. Unfortunately, this measure trusted commander Malik Kafur to
was taken at a time when the region acquire control of the Deccan, and thus
was passing through a famine. So, the became the first Delhi sultan to cross
peasants of the region strongly opposed the Vindhya region. The fabulous wealth
it. that his Deccan campaign earned him
 Muhammad bin Tughlaq introduced new drew the sultan to the south. Malik
cesses or local taxes. He continued the Kafur was entrusted the charge of all
demand one half of the produce as tax southern campaigns. By 1313 ce, the
from the peasants. However, lack of Yadavas of Devagiri, the Kakatiyas of
rainfall and famine led to the farmer’s Warangal, the Hoysalas of
inability to pay taxes, which resulted in Dwarasamudra and the Pandyas of
rebellions against the Sultan. Madurai accepted the overlordship of
Alauddin. In Delhi, he built the famous
 Finally, the khurasaan expedition was a
Alai Darwaza, in the Qutb Minar
miserable failure. It was expected to
complex to commemorate his Deccan
expand his political boundaries but
conquests. Moroccan traveller Ibn
political changes in the region made it
Battuta, who visited the Indian
impossible for him to invade. He had
subcontinent around this time, says that
paid soldiers a years salary in advance
Alauddin ruled almost the entire country
and this was lost.
for a brief period of time
2. The nobles occupied civilian and
4. The sultan’s court consisted of officials
military positions in the Sultanate. They
who were responsible for effective
assisted the sultan in the discharge of
functioning of the administrative
his responsibilities as the ruler of the
machinery. The wazir and his deputies
empire. In terms of rank, the Khans
looked after the issues relating to
occupied the top position followed by
income, expenditure, collection of
the Maliks and the Amirs. The nobles
revenue and control of the revenue. The
got their salaries from the revenue

ariz-i-mumalik and his deputies looked

assigned to them. As per the Iqta
after the recruitment of soldiers, their
system, the land resources of the
training and equipment. The wakil-i-dar
Sultanate were divided among the
was responsible for looking after the
nobles in lieu of cash for their services.
affairs relating to the household of the
Iqtadars collected taxes from the farmers
sultan, the palace guards and the
and used them to maintain the army.
personal assistants. The amir-i-hajib was
3. Alauddin Khalji established a vast the master of ceremonies at the court
empire in India by conquering Gujarat, while the chief qazi headed the justice
Malwa and parts of Rajasthan. He had department. Slaves had a huge presence
in the royal household. They served as copy and people began to mint them in
personal assistants as well as their backyards without depositing the
administrative officials. silver coins to the government. A
5. Alauddin Khalji established a vast combination of poor judgemtnt, timing and
empire in India by conquering Gujarat, bad luck led to his repeated failures.
Malwa and parts of Rajasthan. His first 2. Alauddin Khalji did not allow the prices of
military campaign against Gujarat commodities to be increased, thus he
enabled him to have an access to its ensured that even though he was paying
ports and overseas trade. He also low salaries, his subjects could afford the
undertook military campaigns to conquer basic necessities.
Ranthambore, Chittor, Malwa and Jalore ACTIVITY
in Rajasthan. He acquired control of the B.
Deccan, and thus became the first Delhi
sultan to cross the Vindhya region. The B X V M A M L U K D
fabulous wealth that his Deccan A E R A S D F L N M
campaign earned him drew the sultan to
the south and by 1313 ce, the Yadavas
of Devagiri, the Kakatiyas of Warangal, B W R I S L A M X Z
the Hoysalas of Dwarasamudra and the A X C K H A R A J S
Pandyas of Madurai accepted the
overlordship of Alauddin. Thus Ibn N Q W E R T Y S U I
Battuta said that his empire extended O P A K S D T F G H
over almost the whole of India.
1. Alauddin Khalji never tried to rule the
Deccan and the southern kingdoms directly. W Q R U E Y U T I U
He annexed them and then set them free in
lieu of an annual tribute. Also at the same
time, when he increased taxes in the doab Z X C V B N M U I O
region, there was no famine-like situation
and farmers could meet his demand. He
was a very strict ruler and had formulated
various laws to control market prices so A. 1. fourth  2. police, military, personality
that goods were not very expensive. Things
3. vakil  4. Iqtas, nobles  
were easily available and at affordable
prices, so he did not need to bother 5. Ibn Battuta   6. Maliks, karkhanas
increasing salaries of his soldiers or 7. Bahlol Lodi  8. slaves
officers. B. 1. e.  2. a.  3. d.  4. c.  5. f.
In the case of Muhammad Bin Tughlak, all 6. b.
his five experiments, though ahead of their
times, failed miserably. For example, he
raised taxes when the region was facing
famine. His token currency experiment
failed because the tokens were easy to 83
Social and Political Life

1. Democracy and Equality.....................................................................................................131

2. Institutional Representations of Democracy......................................................................138

3. The State Government........................................................................................................144

4. Role of the State Government: Healthcare........................................................................150

5 Media and Democracy........................................................................................................156

6 Advertising...........................................................................................................................161

7. Understanding Gender: Socio- economic aspects.............................................................167

8. Markets................................................................................................................................172
1 Democracy and Equality

Begin the chapter by doing the Let’s Get Started activity, reminding the students about Mansi, the
character regarding whom they had studied in the previous class and through whose eyes they had
learned about the functions of a civic society. While beginning the new chapter, read aloud the section
on how Mansi is introduced to the word ‘election’ through her interactions with her father Mr. Mathur.
Now explain to the students the meaning of democracy, its history as well as its different types that are
found in the modern times. Also tell the students about the different forms of governments that are
found in the different countries of the world. Conclude the chapter by telling the students about the
marginalized sections as well as by reading aloud the case study of Aung San Suu Kyi and Martin
Luther King Jr. who faced severe discrimination before paving way for democracy in their respective
Discuss the Exercises Fill in the blanks, Write True or False and Match the columns as given under A,
B and C as well as explain the questions given under pen on paper listed under D and E. After
discussing, select a few questions to be given as class work and to be answered in the next 20 minutes.
Get the students to submit their notebooks for correction after this.
After this, discuss with the students the two HOTS questions as well as the word search Activity given,
followed by the Project on finding details about Rosa Parks as well as the Values based question at the


A. Write True or False.
1. A dictator is a hereditary position and is sometimes helped in government
by a council of ministers.

2. Education in society is the most important factor for democracy to


3. The earliest form of democracy flourished in ancient Athens.

4. Every resident of ancient Athens directly participated in governing

them selves. 

5. Spending money on the education of a boy child and keeping a girl child
at home to do housework is an example of gender inequality. 

6. T he Magna Carta was signed after the French Revolution and proclaimed
that all men were equal.

7. M
 artin Luther King Jr received a Nobel Prize for his role in the
Civil Rights Movement.

8. T he revolt of the Third Estate in France is what led to the collapse

of the monarchy. 

B. Answer in a few words or a sentence.

1. Name a modern country where direct democracy is still practiced.

2. Why is direct democracy no longer feasible in most countries?

3. What is universal adult franchise?

4. N
 ot allowing the help in our homes sit on the furniture is an example of
what kind of inequality?

5. Which discriminatory practice in India that arose from the caste system and affected
millions of people has been abolished and is punishable by law?

6. What was the ‘senate’ in the ancient Roman empire?


MAIN COURSEBOOK were the next major world events that
shaped democracy. Today it is the most
A. 1. king, laws popular form of government in the
2. three, priests, religious leaders, nobility, world.
peasants 2. Direct democracy is a form of
3. monarchy, ministers democracy where the citizens directly
4. democracy, people participate in the affairs of the
5. universal adult franchise government. Today, direct democracy
exists only in small countries such as
6. Aung San Suu Kyi
Switzerland. In ancient times, a form of
7. National League for Democracy direct democracy was practiced in
8. Martin Luther King Jr Athens. All the male citizens formed a
B. 1. True  2. False  3. True   body called the Assembly that took the
4. False  5. True important decisions of the state. Slaves,
women and people of other states living
C. 1. c.  2. e.  3. b.  4. a  5. d.
in Athens were not a part of the
D. 1. Democracy means rule of the people. It Assembly and could not participate in
is a combination of two Greek words— the decision-making.
‘demos’ which means ‘people’ and
3. Following the American War of
‘kratos’ which means ‘rule’. American
Independence , thirteen British colonies
President Abraham Lincoln described
in North America declared war against
democracy as ‘government of the
the British monarchy. In 1776, the
people, by the people and for the
colonies adopted a document called the
people’. The city-state of Athens was
United States Declaration of
perhaps the first form of direct
Independence, which stated that the
democracy where people directly
colonies were no longer a part of the
participated in governance.
British Empire, and they were forming a
 Democracy developed further in the new sovereign state — the United States
Roman Empire (509–27 bce) An of America.
assembly of important citizens called the
4. After the French Revolution (1789-99
Senate was formed and people elected
ce), a National Constituent Assembly

consuls to run the government for a

was formed with representatives of all
one-year term. An important milestone
the three estates. It adopted the
in the history of democracy was the
Declaration of Rights of Man and of the
signing of the Magna Carta in 1215 ce.
Citizen in 1789, which stated that ‘all
In England, a document which restricted
men are equal by nature and before the
the privileges of the king, and
established that the king could only
punish people on the basis of the laws 5. Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra
of the land. The American War of Vidyasagar, Dayanand Saraswati, Jotiba
Independence and the French Revolution Phule, Dr B R Ambedkar and many
134 others raised their voice against the
discriminatory practices prevalent in 4. In modern times, there are two kinds of
Indian society. democracy—direct and indirect.
E. 1. The Athenian Assembly was perhaps the  Direct democracy is a form of
earliest form of direct democracy. democracy where the citizens directly
 All the male citizens formed a body participate in the affairs of the
called the Assembly that took the government. Today, direct democracy
important decisions of the state. In this exists only in small countries such as
way people directly participated in Switzerland.
governance. But slaves, women and  A more popular form of democracy is
people of other states living in Athens indirect democracy or representative
were not a part of the Assembly and did democracy, where people choose their
not participate in the decision-making. It representatives through elections to form
was different from the Roman Senate the government. Elections are held after
because in the Roman empire, an regular intervals, so that people can
assembly of important citizens called the choose their own representatives.
Senate was formed and people elected 5. In India, every person has an equal
consuls to run the government for a opportunity to lead his/her own life and
one-year term. This was an early form follow his/her own ambitions. There is
of indirect democracy, which is the most no discrimination on the basis of caste,
common form practiced today. creed, religion, sex or gender. Any boy
2. The other name for the Great Charter of or girl from any part of the country can
the Liberties of England is the Magna choose any profession. He/She will face
Carta. The Magna Carta was a no discrimination due to his/her caste,
document that the king was made to sex or economic background. Similarly,
sign by a group of nobles. It restricted any person, if he/she has enough talent,
the privileges of the king, and can represent India in a particular sport
established that the king could only or music or dance. There will be no
punish people on the basis of the laws discrimination on the basis of his/her
of the land. Even the king himself was social background. During elections, all
not above the law; the nobles could the citizens of India are allowed to vote,
punish him if he broke the law. without any restrictions on the basis of
3. The French society was divided into caste, creed, religion or gender. Thus,
three classes or estates. The first estate, we can see that equality is an important
comprising the priests and religious aspect of democracy in India.

leaders, and the second estate 6. The different types of equality that we
comprising the nobility ruled over the can enjoy in a democracy are:
third estate, which almost entirely  Political democracy: In a democracy, all
comprised of poor peasants. The third the adult citizens of a country have the
estate was made to pay all the taxes right to vote. This is called universal
while the king and the first and second adult franchise. It is an example of
estates led a lavish life. It was this political equality.
inequality that led to the revolution and  Religious equality: This means that
the fall of the monarchy. people belonging to all religions are
treated equally. The government cannot  2002 – again put under house arrest
discriminate against anyone on the basis  2009 – United Nations body declared
of religion her detention illegal
 Economic equality: Economic equality  2010 – freed from house arrest
means equal opportunity for everybody  May 2012- contested elections and
to earn a livelihood. became a member of parliament.
 Social equality: Social equality means all HOTS
the citizens living in the society have
1. Answers will vary. Sample answer.
equal rights to visit all the public places
of the country, such as playgrounds, Political equality is fundamental to all
hotels, shops, or markets and wells, other freedoms – if people have the right
roads, and toilets. All the people are to vote for their own representatives, they
treated equally and have equal rights and can ensure that all other equality is given
duties. to them through the government, laws of
the land, reforms and so on.
7. Despite democracy and social reforms,
In India economic and social inequality 2. The basis for this is gender inequality.
are still very common. Social practices Some people still believe that men are
such as the caste system and less pay superior. The way to change this is three-
for women are important reasons for pronged. Firstly, laws must be in place to
such inequalities. In India, for many protect women from inequality. Secondly,
years, people belonging to the upper the fundamental mindset of people that
class or the dominant class, have treated allows gender bias to occur has to be
the subordinate classes unfairly, resulting changed through education, sensitizing
in huge inequalities in the society. They people, spreading information and so on.
have been subjected to social, economic Finally, special efforts are needed to
and religious inequalities and improve the position and education of
tremendous oppression by the dominant women and empower them to demand and
classes. These people are sometimes expect equality in all spheres.
referred to as the marginalised sections ACTIVITY
of society. A T H E N S Z X C M
8. Timeline of major events in Aung San
Suu Kyi’s career
 1988 – entered politics A Q D W B E R T Y G

 26 August 1988 – addressed half a R I E L E C T I O N

million people at a mass rally T O M D L J U N T A
 September 1988 – formed the National
League for Democracy
 July 1989 – the government placed Suu E R C Y T R E E W A
Kyi under house arrest in Yangon I P R P O P I U Q R
 1990 elections – not allowed to contest
 1991 – awarded the Nobel Peace Prize
 1995 – freed from house arrest due to
136 international pressure Y O Y Q W E R T Y L
WORKSHEET 3. T his means that every adult citizen of a
democracy has the right to vote.
A. 1. False  2. False  3. True 4. social inequality   5. untouchability
4. False  5. True  6. False 6. The senate was an assembly of
7. True   8. True important citizens who ran the
B. 1. Switzerland government in ancient Rome.
2. Populations are too large


2 Institutional Representation of

Begin the chapter by discussing the Let’s Get Started activity focusing on Mansi’s dilemma on why
some elderly people in the locality cannot skip the upcoming elections in the society. With that, describe
the meaning of the word Universal Adult Franchise as well as the concept of one person one vote. After
this, explain to the students the importance of the process of election as well as the various types of
elections held in our country. Follow this with the role of the Election Commission in organizing free
and fair elections in the country. After this discuss in detail the role played by the political parties in the
process of election. Allow a little role play in the class which is given on the election process in the
chapter. After this describe the role of the opposition in democratic elections. Follow this up with the
concept of different part systems in India as well as the manner in which the multi party system works
in India. End the chapter on the topic regarding coalition government which is formed in the absence of
clear majority of any political party.
Discuss the details the questions given in the Exercises under A and B pertaining to Fill in the blanks
and Match the columns. After this, discuss the pen on paper questions as given under C and D which
are to be answered in brief and in detail. After discussing, select a few questions to be given as class
work and to be answered in the next 20 minutes. Get the students to submit their notebooks for
correction after this.
After this, explain the two HOTS questions as well as the Activity on collecting pictures of different
political parties.
End it by discussing the Project, the Life Skills question as well as the Heritage Point question at the

A. Write True or False.

1. In India, political parties are formed by an independent body called the
Election Commission.

2. After elections, a party that wins the required majority forms the government.
But when one single party does not win majority, two or more parties come
together to form a bi-party. 

3. Universal adult franchise, that is, the right to vote, is enjoyed by all adult
citizens of India, irrespective of education, race, caste, religion, colour, wealth
or gender.

4. National parties are formed on the basis of religion, language or region to

represent the voice of specific groups of people. 

5. Japan and the United States have a two party or bi-party system where
after elections, one party forms the government and the other forms the

6. The voter’s index finger is marked with indelible ink to ensure that they
press the correct button to register their vote. 

B. Write the names of the countries under the correct headings. See if you can find out
and add names to each list.

USA India China Pakistan Canada Japan Australia

Single party system Bi-party system Multi-party system

C. Give the reason for the following.

1. Why voter’s fingers are marked with indelible ink after voting

2. why regional parties are important in India

3. the main disadvantage of single party system


MAIN COURSEBOOK 4. In India elections are conducted by an
independent agency called the Election
A. 1.
education, caste, colour   Commission. India is a huge country, so
2. one, person   3. eighteen elections take place at different levels.
4. coalition   5. constituency Elections are held to form the
6. election commission   government at the village level, the state
level as well as at the centre. General
7. photo, election   8. voting
elections are held after every five years
B. 1.c.  2. a.  3. e.  4. b. to elect representatives to the parliament.
5. d. 5. The Election Commission is there to
C. 1.
a. Universal Adult Franchise: This conduct free and fair elections in the
means that all adults in a country, country. It is a three-member body
above the age of 18 years, have the headed by the chief election
right to vote. commissioner and assisted by two
  b. General Elections: In India, general election commissioners, who are
elections are held after every five appointed by the president of India.
years to elect representatives to the 6. After elections, parties that are not a part
parliament. of the government, form the opposition.
  c. By-election: If the death or resignation The opposition plays an important role
of an elected representative before the in a democracy.
completion of the 5-year term causes  It monitors the functioning of the ruling
fresh elections to be held for that party and ensures that it does not misuse
particular seat, such elections are power. It prevents the government from
called by-elections. becoming dictatorial.
  d. Mid-term elections: Governments in  It highlights the various challenges
India are elected for five years. If due before the government so that public
to certain special circumstances are opinion can be generated.
unable to complete the five-year term D. 1. A political party is an organised group
and fresh elections have to be held, of people who have common ideals and
these elections are called mid-term goals. In a democracy, political parties
play a very important role. They create
2. Only some people such as those with a awareness among the people regarding
criminal conviction are not allowed to various issues and problems the country
vote. is facing and helps in generating public
3. Election is the process through which a opinion. They take part in the election
democratic government is elected. The process through their candidates from
various constituencies. After the
word ‘election’ is derived from the Latin
elections, political parties form the
word ‘legare’ meaning ‘to choose’.
Through elections, people choose their
representatives who form the  One important task of a political party is
government. to generate public opinion. Parties use 141
different means of communication such government; two or more parties come
as television, newspapers, magazines, together to form a coalition government.
pamphlets to educate the people about 4. Coalition governments have advantages
the various important issues. Before the as well as disadvantages. Before a
elections, each political party brings out coalition government is formed, all the
an election manifesto which clearly parties forming the coalition hold a
mentions the policies and ideals that the discussion to chalk out a common
party believes in. It also lists the minimum programme. For the success
objectives of the political party, its goals, of a coalition government, it is
and a summary of the various measures important that in spite of differences, all
it will take for the welfare of the people the members of a coalition should
once it comes to power. respect the common minimum
2. Countries around the world have programme. However, in reality, a
different party systems. These are coalition government is often caught up
broadly categorised into one-party or in the internal squabbles of its members.
single party; two-party or bi-party; or Coalition governments sometimes
multi-party systems. In some countries, become weak and indecisive as often
only one political party exists. This is conflict of interests among the various
called one-party system. In such a member parties occurs. Instead of
system, the voters really do not have concentrating on the governance, the
much choice as all the candidates belong ruling party spends more time in
to one single party. One-party system is appeasing the unhappy members. In
not very desirable, as the single party such cases, governance takes a back
might become dictatorial. One party seat.
system exists in China. Some countries  The one advantage of coalition
such as Japan and the United States of government is that it represents the
America have a two-party (also called welfare of diverse group of people as
biparty) system. After elections, one the various political parties comprising it
party forms the government and the represent different sections of the society.
other party forms the opposition. In a So, in a coalition government, public
two-party system, the voters have less opinion of a larger group of people can
but clear choices. Moreover, as both the be voiced strongly.
parties are aware that they can be 5. The Election Commission is there to
replaced easily by each other, they work conduct free and fair elections in the

hard to look after the welfare of the country. It is a three-member body

people and win their support. headed by the chief election
 In countries such as India, Pakistan, commissioner and assisted by two
Canada and Australia, there are many election commissioners, who are
political parties. Voters have a wide appointed by the president of India. The
choice and they can choose from several Election Commission announces the
candidates belonging to different parties. dates of the elections, and prepares the
This is called multi-party system. voters’ list.
3. Sometimes, after elections, no single  The Election Commission appoints a
142 party gets the majority to form a returning officer and other officers to
ensure that polling takes place in a free Maharashtra are some examples of
and fair manner. regional parties.
 Any candidate wanting to contest  National parties have to bear in mind
elections has to file his/her nomination and represent overall interests of all the
papers, declaring his/her wealth and people of India, whereas regional parties
assets. The Returning Officer thoroughly are formed on the basis of language,
checks the nomination papers. The caste, and even religion, and often
Election Commission also issues a reflect the aspirations of only specific
symbol to each candidate so people can groups of people.
identify a candidate and his/her political HOTS
party through the election symbols. 1. Answers will vary.
 After the Commission approves the 2. A period of five years is given so the party
nomination papers, a candidate starts the has the chance to bring in changes, amend
process of campaigning. The Election laws, implement the policies and promises
Commission has to monitor the they made during elections, and also for
campaigns and ensure that no unfair people to see some results and effects of
practices- such as bribery or coercion these changes. Five years is considered a
– are used in campaigns. good time period to see whether a
 Finally, the Election Commission is government is performing effectively.
responsible for ensuring that voting on
election day is conducted in a free and WORKSHEET
fair manner, there is ample security so
no one can be coerced to cast votes, and A. 1. False  2. False  3. True  
each citizen casts only one vote in an 4. False  5. True  6. False
orderly and safe manner. The voting is
B. Answers may vary. Sample answer.
done on EVM (electronic voting
Single party Bi-party system Multi-party
machines) and the counting of the
system system
ballots is also under the Election
China USA India
Burma Japan Pakistan
6. Political parties that have their presence North Korea Brazil Australia
all over India are called national parties. Vietnam Malta Canada
Political parties that work only at the
state levels are called regional parties. C. 1. so that they can only cast one vote
The Indian National Congress, Bharatiya 2. A  s they are formed on the basis of

Janata Party and Communist Party of language, region, even caste, they often
India are examples of national parties. represent the unique needs of groups
The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) in which otherwise be ignored.
Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand Mukti Morcha 3. Unchallenged, the single party can
(JMM) in Jharkhand, the AIADMK and become dictatorial.
DMK in Tamil Nadu, the Shiv Sena in

3 The State Government

Begin the chapter with Mansi’s story given in the Let’s Get Started activity about the issue of price
rise and how the government is often blamed for it. With that begin the chapter by identifying the
number of states and Union Territories that are there in India, with focus on the National Capital Region
of Delhi. After this cover the topic on State Legislature and its legislative wings. Follow this up with
discussion on the composition of the State Legislature as well as the manner in which the Legislative
Council differs from the Legislative Assembly. Discuss the tenure of the state legislatures, their functions
the role of the speaker and how laws are made. After this, focus on the State Executive and the powers
and functions of the Chief Minister, the Council of Ministers and the Governor. End the chapter by
discussing the section on the role of the Advocate general, the administration of the Union Territories
and the role played by the Civil Services.
Discuss the Exercises Fill in the blanks, Write True or False, finding the ‘who’ in the statement and
matching the following columns. After this discuss the pen on paper questions given in the E and F to
be attempted in brief and in detail. After discussing, select a few questions to be given as class work
and to be answered in the next 20 minutes. Get the students to submit their notebooks for correction
after this.
Discuss the two HOTS questions with the students followed with the Values based questions with group
discussion on ‘collective responsibility’.
Do the Activity on word search and the Life Skills question on developing the social skills and the
activity on trying to pass the bill in the moot parliament in class.

A. Answer in a few words.
1. Name five states that are bicameral.

2. Which is the main body that makes laws in a state?

3. What are the minimum and maximum number of members there can be in a state

4. What is the minimum age limit for a member of the vidhan parishad?

5. What are the two main functions of a speaker?

6. What do ordinary bills deal with?

7. In which two lists of the constitution can we find the subjects on which a state
assembly can pass laws?

8. What three things can happen during the second reading of a bill?


B. Match the columns.

1. governor a. collectively responsible to the assembly
2. speaker b. heads the civil service in a state
3. chief minister c. discipline during proceedings of the house
4. council of ministers d. advises executive on legal matters
5. advocate general e. discretionary powers 145

6. chief secretary f. selects ministers and allocates their portfolios

MAIN COURSEBOOK session and the governor considers it
necessary to pass a law, he/she can then
A. 1. 28, 9, Delhi issue an ordinance. An ordinance acts
Vidhan Sabha, Vidhan Parishad as a law as long as it remains in force.
3.bicameral These ordinances have to be submitted
4.Member of Legislative Assembly, to the state legislature for approval in its
Member of Legislative Council next session.
5. permanent   6. One-third, sabha 3. In certain special circumstances, the
governor has the authority to exercise
7. money, Vidhan Sabha, passed, governor
his/her special powers, called the
8. law, governor   discretionary powers, independently,
9. chief minister, council   without consulting the chief minister.
10. collectively   11. ruling party For example, the governor uses
12. Anglo-Indian   13. advocate general discretionary powers to appoint a chief
minister when no party gets a clear
14. Lieutenant Governor, President
majority after the assembly elections.
15. civil services Similarly, the governor can also ask for
B. 1. False  2. True  3. False   president’s rule in the state, when the
4. False  5. True state government loses the confidence of
C. 1. governor   2. chief minister the legislative assembly and is dissolved.
3. civil services   4. Lieutenant Governor 4. A union territory is administered by a
lieutenant governor or a chief
5. district magistrate
commissioner, who acts on the advice of
D. 1. e.  2. d.  3. b.  4. c.  5. a. the president of India. He passes the
E. 1. To contest a seat in the state legislature, laws of the union territory and oversees
a candidate must have the following its administration.
qualifications: 5. Each state has an advocate general,
  • He/She must be a citizen of India. appointed by the governor, to perform
  • He/She must be at least 25 years of various legal functions but does not
age for getting elected to the Vidhan have the right to vote on any issue
Sabha and 30 years for the Vidhan regarding the bills.. He/She advices the

Parishad. state executive on various legal matters.

  • He/She must be a registered voter in A person qualified to be a high court
that state. judge can be appointed as an advocate
  • He/She must not hold any office of general.
profit under the Government. F. 1. The chief minister is the most important
  • He/She must not be mentally unsound member of the state executive. He/ She
or have been proclaimed a criminal by has many functions.
the laws of the state.   • He/She is responsible for the working
2. When the state legislature is not in of the government in the state.
  • H  e/She is also the leader of the governor signs the bill. However, the
council of ministers. governor can also send it back to the
  • H  e/She selects other ministers of the legislature with some suggestions or
state and allocates their portfolios. reserve the bill for the consideration of
  • H  e/She presides over cabinet meetings. the president.
  • H  e/She coordinates the working of  In the case of a money bill, it can be
various ministries. introduced in the Vidhan Sabha only.
After the bill is passed, it is sent to the
  • H  e/She supervises the overall
Vidhan Parishad for recommendations.
administration of the state.
After the bill has been passed by both
2. A law is presented before a state houses, it is sent to the governor for his/
legislature in the form of a bill. There her approval.
are two kinds of bills. Ordinary bills
3. The council of ministers is collectively
deal with general administrative issues.
responsible to the state legislature. This
Money bills deal with some form of
means that if the state legislature is not
expenditure, imposition of new taxes or
confident about working of one
abolition of existing taxes.
particular minister belonging to the
 Ordinary bills can be introduced in the council of ministers, a no-confidence
legislative assembly or the legislative motion against him/her can be passed in
council in the form of a draft in the the Vidhan Sabha. If the government
legislature. The minister asks for loses the motion, the entire council of
permission from the speaker or chairman ministers has to resign. Similarly, if the
of the house, to introduce the bill. This chief minister resigns, the entire council
is called the first reading of the bill. At of ministers has to resign too. If the
this stage, generally only the title of the ruling party loses its majority, the
bill is read out. governor can use his/her discretionary
 In the second reading, a general powers to ask for President’s rule in the
discussion takes place on the bill. The state.
house can send the bill to a select 4. Though the Governor is not the real
committee of the house or a joint head of the state, the Constitution
committee of both the houses for further bestows certain powers on the Governor.
discussion. In some cases, the bill is What are these?
even circulated among the people to
 In reality, a governor is the nominal
understand public opinion. After the bill CONNECT WITH THE WORLD
head of a state whereas the real power
comes back to the house, it is discussed
lies with the chief minister and the
in greater detail—clause by clause. The
council of ministers. However, the
third reading happens only if the bill has
Constitution bestows certain powers to
passed through the first two stages.
the governor which are as follows:
 After the third reading, the bill is sent to
  • The governor appoints the chief
the other house, if the state is bicameral.
minister and the council of ministers.
In the other house again, the same
process is followed, and if passed, the   • The governor distributes portfolios to
bill is sent to the governor for approval. the council of ministers on the advice
The bill becomes a law after the of the chief minister.
  • H e/She also appoints the advocate representatives.
general, the judges of the district 5. The members of the legislative assembly
courts, and the chairman and members are elected directly by the people
of the state public service commission. through elections. The number of
The president consults the governor in members in the legislative assemblies of
the appointment of judges of the high each state varies, depending on the
courts. population of the state. Each state is
  • The governor summons and ends the divided into areas called constituencies
sessions of both houses of the state and from each constituency, one
legislature. representative is elected. The minimum
  • The governor inaugurates the state number of members of a legislative
legislature after the assembly elections assembly should not be less than 60 and
and also addresses the first session the maximum number of members
every year. The governor’s speech on should not be more than 500.
these occasions generally outlines the 6. The members of the state legislative
new policies of the state government. council or the Vidhan Parishad (called
  • The governor can return a bill to the MLC) are not directly elected by the
state legislature for reconsideration. A people, but are elected in the following
bill passed by the state legislature can manner.
become a law only after the governor  One-third members are elected by the
gives assent. legislative assembly
  • When the state legislature is not in  One-third members are elected by the
session and the governor considers it members of the local bodies
necessary to pass a law, he/she can  One-twelfth members are elected by
then issue an ordinance. An ordinance teachers who have taught in secondary
acts as a law as long as it remains in schools in the state and another one-
force. These ordinances have to be twelfth by graduates from universities in
submitted to the state legislature for India who have graduated with at least
approval in its next session. three years standing
  • Money bills can be introduced in the  One-sixth members, distinguished in the
state legislative assembly only on the field of art, literature and science are
prior recommendations of the governor. nominated by the governor of the state
  • The governor has the power to  The total number of members in a

nominate certain members to the state Vidhan Parishad should be one-third of

legislative council, if the state is the total number of members in the
bicameral. These nominees are famous Vidhan Sabha. A Vidhan Parishad cannot
people from the fields of art, science, have less than 40 members.
literature, cooperative movements and
social services.
1. While the Governor’s role is in many ways
  • He/She can also nominate one member
nominal, the powers bestowed on him/her
in the state legislative assembly from
by the constitution make this role
the Anglo-Indian community if he/she
necessary to curb and check the powers of
feels that they do not have enough
148 the chief minister and misuse of power by
the chief minister and council of ministers. WORKSHEET
It also provides for special powers –
discretionary powers and the power to A. 1. Maharashtra, Karnataka, Bihar, Uttar
issue ordinances - in case of special Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh
circumstances such as the ruling party 2. Vidhan sabha   3. 60 and 500
losing its majority or the ability to pass 4. 30
laws when the state legislature is not in
5. to look after the proceedings of the
session. Thus it is a vital role in preserving
assembly and ensure that the discipline
the checks and balances required for a
in the house is maintained
successful democracy.
6. General administrative issues
2. Money bills deal with some form of
expenditure, imposition of new taxes or 7. State list and concurrent list
abolition of existing taxes. As these are 8. General discussion on the bill; a select
considered very important and impactful on committee or joint committee can be set
the people, they can only be introduced by up for further discussion; the bill can be
the assembly which has the elected circulated among the people to
representatives of the people. understand public opinion
ACTIVITY B. 1. e.  2. c.  3. f.  4. a.
5. d.   6. b.











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