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по деловому английскому языку
(для студентов III курсов неспециальных

Луганск 2004

по деловому английскому языку
(для студентов III курсов неспециальных

на заседании кафедры
иностранных языков
Протокол № 3
от 5.11.02 г.

Луганск 2004
УДК: 811.134.2 (07)

Методические указания и учебные задания к аудиторной работе по

деловому английскому языку (для студентов ІІІ курсов неспециальных
факультетов). Составитель: О.В. Сниховская. – Луганск: изд-во ВНУ им.
Владимира Даля, - с.

Данные методические указания и учебные задания направлены на

развитие у студентов навыков общения с использованием английской
бизнеслексики. Благодаря наличию коммуникативных, условно-речевых и
языковых упражнений у студентов закрепляются навыки говорения, чтения и
письма, что позволяет им понимать при чтении и адекватно переводить
специальные тексты, относящиеся к деловому английскому языку.
Для студентов III курсов неспециальных факультетов и слушателей
курсов иностранных языков.

Составитель: О.В. Сниховская

Отв. за выпуск: В.Э. Краснопольский, к.пед.н., доц.

Рецензент: И.Ю. Гусленко


Настоящие методические указания (МУ) и учебные задания

(УЗ) предназначены для студентов III курсов неспециальных
факультетов, однако они также могут быть использованы на курсах
делового английского языка.
МУ и УЗ нацелены на развитие у студентов навыков общения с
использованием английской бизнеслексики. Благодаря наличию
коммуникативных, условно-речевых и языковых упражнений у
студентов закрепляются навыки говорения, чтения и письма, что
позволяет им понимать при чтении и адекватно переводить
специальные тексты, относящиеся к деловому английскому языку.
МУ состоят из 4 разделов и 3 переложений, содержащих
примеры и порядок оформления бизнескорреспонденции.
Каждый раздел состоит из текста-основы, который позволяет
студентам усвоить основную лексику по теме, и текста для
углубленного чтения, расширяющего кругозор студентов по данной
тематике. Лексика и нормативная грамматика закрепляются рядом
упражнений после каждого текста. Разнонаправленные упражнения
способствуют развитию не только устной, но и письменной речи



It is popularly believed that a smart person can make fortune at anything.

Mostly, people take up careers they are really cut out for. But tastes differ.
One prefer to follow parents footsteps, another would like to assume some
new experiences. Some people are destined to be successful leaders, but
another experienced subordinates. Many young people dream of fame
without ever considering how long and painful the road to success can be.
There are many things involved in being successful and if a person is not
aware of them all, failure is certain. Meanwhile, a lot of things in our life
depend on the right choice of the future profession. So anyone should
approach this question carefully, with individual view of the world, with
some personal skills and ambitions.
In today’s world of economic hardship, finding a job is very much
complicated. Unemployment rate is rather high, and even highly qualified
people consider it difficult to find work.
Despite this depressive news, there are certain things a person can do.
Firstly, it is important to read the job advertisements in as many newspapers
as possible and let as many people as possible know you are “job hunting”.
Secondly, it is advisable to write letters to companies enclosing a copy of
your CV. You will either inquire whether any positions are available or you
will state which vacancy you are applying for. In Letter of Inquiry you should
describe your educational background and professional experience. If your
application is successful, it is imperative to impress the interviewer.
You will be asked a variety of questions, many of which concern
qualification. However, they also usually like to ask questions about previous
occupations as well as achievements not connected to the work place. Often,
the successful candidate is not the one with the most impressive education
but the one who shows that he or she has made the most effective use of their
time. Few employers want employees who are able to think for themselves.
The possibility of advancement in any job very rarely depends on accuracy of
work but more on the enthusiasm and dedication of the employee.
If you apply for the position in person, you will be asked to fill in an
application form. You’d better have excellent references from previous jobs.
Perhaps you’ll be required to come through competitive examination if some
other applicants want the position.
If you manage to get the job, the next step will include signing a labour
contract. Before accepting the treaty, discuss working conditions, hours,
fringe benefits, deadline for experimental period and salary with the
employer. After signing the contract you’ll be taken on the staff and offered
to assume certain responsibilities and treaty obligations.
Running your own business can provide really high job satisfaction. If
you are ambitious, you may want to achieve power on a large scale and
eventually to become rich. You’ll probably have to work harder and longer
hours, especially in the early stages. But if you take it as a challenge rather
than a disadvantage, you’ll manage to get the ability to work on your own, a
refusal to give up, and a willingness to take on responsibility.


1. Read and translate the text.

2. Find in the text synonyms to the words: contract, job, individual,

difficult, position, applicant, to run

3. Find in the text antonyms to the words: failure, leader, employer,

previous, to give up

4. Match the phrases:

to make fortune compensation
salary to treat
deadline vacant
to be aware of professionals
to take up a career content
to approach to know
highly qualified people well-off
available choice of a profession
application to earn money
satisfaction inquiry
rich to gain
to achieve the expire date

5. Translate the following phrases and make sentences with them:

Job satisfaction; to work on one’s own; to be cut out for; to follow
parents footsteps; the road to success; economic hardship; unemployment
rate; to apply for the position; educational background; the possibility of
advancement; competitive examination; working conditions; fringe benefits;
experimental period; to assume responsibilities.

6. Put the verb in necessary tense form into each blank:
To assume, to prefer, to involve, to depend on, to consider, to approach.
1) People … to apply for a job they are really cut out for.
2) Many professionals … it difficult to find a job.
3) Your success in business …your skills and abilities.
4) If you … each problem carefully, you’ll make progress.
5) If you are taken on the staff, you … your responsibilities.
6) Any “job hunting” … great efforts and pains.

7. Fill in articles if necessary:

1) Finding …job is very much complicated even for … highly qualified
people nowadays.
2) … road to success can be long and painful, but … smart person will make
… fortune at anything.
3) … right choice of … future profession is … important decision which
influences all … future life.
4) … interviewers like to ask … questions which concern qualification.
5) If you apply for … position in … person, you will be asked to fill in …
application form.
6) Discussion of … working conditions should not be after signing … labour

8. Fill in prepositions if demanded:

1) People take … careers they are really cut … … and make their fortune …
2) Dreams … fame are sweet, but roads … success are painful.
3) There are many skills involved … being a professional.
4) Young people are not aware … the fact that a lot of things … their life
depend … the right choice of their future career.
5) If you apply … the position … person, you will be asked to fill … an
application form.
6) Deadline … experimental period should be discussed … the employer.

9. Translate into English:

1) Быстрый путь к успеху зависит от правильного выбора будущей
2) Во время экономических трудностей высококвалифицированные
специалисты не могут найти работу.
3) Если вакансия свободна, вас примут на работу только с хорошими

4) Тот, кто руководит своим бизнесом, должен брать на себя
ответственность за решения, которые он принимает.
5) Продвижение по службе получит только тот подчиненный, который
предан своему делу.
6) Если трудности в работе вы воспринимаете как вызов, вы научитесь
работать самостоятельно.

10. Answer the questions using the phrases:

It is popularly believed …; mostly; mean while; despite this … ; it is
advisable …; however; perhaps.
1) Are there any difficulties to find a job nowadays?
2) What should people do to find a job?
3) What demands should the applicants meet?
4) What is important to do before signing a labour contract?
5) What qualities will you manage to get running your own business?


1. Explain the importance of the following documents:

CV, Letter of Inquiry, Application Form.

2. Compose monologues of your own to explain to your friend

a) how to find a job;
b) the aim of the interview;
c) how to sign the contract;
d) how to run one’s own business.

3. Make up an interview between the employee and the employer.

Include in it some words and phrases from Ex. 2 – 5.

4. Imagine, that you are running your own business. How should it be?
What difficulties do you have to overcome? Make a report about it.

5. Compose advertisements to attract young experienced specialists with

ambitions by some perfect working conditions.

6. Make a plan of the text. Complete each point of the plan with
necessary phrases. Retell the text according to your plan.

7. Write your CV, a Letter of Enquiry and an Application Form. You

can find some examples in Appendix A.

One man worked for a large Australian company for 37 years. In his
late 50's, he was suddenly given a notice that his services were no longer
required. We can understand his perplexity, reflecting astonishment and deep
concern for his future welfare. “Whatever happened to my "job for life."
which I thought was secure until I reached the age of retirement?”, he
The magnitude of job loss on a global scale is new to this current
generation of employees. Undoubtedly, there are many reasons for job loss,
but a major one appears to be what is called downsizing. What is downsizing,
and how has it come about?
Economies, today have become increasingly global. This came to be
realized particularly in the United States in the late 1970's when companies
noticed that increasing numbers of consumers, were purchasing cars,
electronics, and many other goods produced overseas. In an effort to become
competitive and to reduce production costs. American companies began
cutting the number of workers and improving methods and equipment. The
technique used to reduce the work force became known as downsizing. The
process has been described as "reducing the size of an organization's
workforce, usually through a combination of layoffs, early retirement
incentives, transfers, and natural attrition".
For some years it was blue-collar workers who were mainly affected
by downsizing. But in the late 1980's and the early 1990's, this process began
to include growing numbers of white-collar staff, particularly middle
management. These trends soon affected all industrialized nations.
For many workers, job security no longer exists. A trade union

official states:" People who gave 10, 15, 20 years of loyal service have seen
their implicit contract ripped up and they have been thrown out." In 1956 the
term "organization man" was coined to describe the typical employee.
Whether he worked as a union laborer or as a manager, he turned over his
economic well-being, social life, and loyalty to the organization in exchange
for security—a job for life. Clearly, this pact has been broken in the modern
corporation. Millions of workers around the world have lost their jobs to
downsizing, and no group of employees has escaped unscathed. In the
United States alone, the number of employees involved has been substantial,
with millions losing permanent jobs. Similar downsizing has occurred in
many other countries. But these cold statistics alone do not convey the
human misery behind them.
The man, mentioned at the beginning of this article, said: "You suffer
some real psychological damage." He compared his dismissal to "an illness
or a bruising physical encounter." When loyalty is not rewarded, people feel
betrayed because the sacrifices that they have made for the company are not
valued. Trust is lost, especially when many chief executive officers receive
huge payoffs. for downsizing the company. Additionally, the unemployed
person's ability to manage mortgage payments, other debts, health care for
family members, and school fees and to keep up his or her life-style, hobbies,
and personal possessions is jeopardized by the sudden loss of regular
income. This results in feelings of despair and worthlessness.
Since stable, meaningful work contributes greatly to feelings of
personal worth, imagine the devastating effect of unemployment on those
who are disabled, unskilled, or older in years. A survey in Australia revealed
that people between the ages of 45 and 59 were the most likely to be targeted
for dismissal. Yet, this is the age group that finds it most difficult to adjust to
the, change.
Are there options available? Part-time employment or work at lower
wages is certainly preferable to unemployment. However, that can result in a
lower standard of living. And it has been found that only about a third of
laid-off workers eventually get jobs that pay as well as their previous one did.
But even current employment may not spell peace of mind.
How does unemployment affect youths? After a survey was conducted
by a department of education and science, this observation was made: "One
of the main external confirmations that adulthood had been reached was the
attainment of full-time employment, which signaled the beginning of 'real'
adult life, in an adult world and on adult terms., with concomitant financial
independence." So if it is felt that employment signals the beginning of real
adult life, unemployment could be devastating to youths.
Dealing with the loss of employment has been likened to walking
through a mine- field. The book Parting Company identifies the most
frequent emotions experienced as anger, shame, fear, sadness, and self-pity.
Coping with these is difficult. The author observes: "You've been handed a
difficult assignments-determining your future. You haven't asked for this
assignment, you probably don't know how to proceed, and all of a sudden
you may feel very much alone." And explaining their sudden dismissal to
their family is one of the most difficult problems the unemployed face.
However, there are some practical ways to deal with the impact of
downsizing. The first step is to downsize your way of life immediately by
planning for and living a life-style that is simpler than what you have been
accustomed to in the past.
Here are some suggestions that may help you to handle the situation.
First, recognize that unexpected job loss is a reality in these times. So
regardless of your age and experience, plan ahead for that possibility in the
way you live your life. Second, be careful about taking on any large debt for
items that are not essential for sustenance and covering. Live within your
means, and do not assume that you can cover debts with anticipated income
from promotions or regular wage increases. The message of today's economy
is that there may be no long-term future to rely on. Third, look for ways to
simplify your life and reduce existing financial commitments. This includes
shedding debts for items that are not essential to a reasonably simple,
wholesome life-style. Fourth, review your lifetime goals and update them.
Finally, do not look longingly at the lifestyle of others in your
community who are living less frugally, lest you begin to desire the things
they have and be lured into their way of life.
These are a few suggestions that may help you and your family to avoid the
snare of relying on uncertain riches in a very uncertain world and to keep
free of many of the anxieties incurred by contemporary life-styles. Some
former investment banker admits: "There is something fundamentally wrong
in our society when one man's unemployment generates another man's
wealth." Nevertheless, it is up to us to change all things for the better.


1. Read and translate the text.

2. Consult the dictionary about pronunciation of the following words:

Perplexity, retirement, downsizing, consumer, to purchase, implicit,
unscathed, mortgage, debt, jeopardize, devastating, target, anticipate, lure,
impact, rely on, wholesome, longingly, anxiety.

3. Match the words with the corresponding meaning:

to scathe; advancement;
to search for; influence;
to dismiss; aims;
permanent; to forsee;
to anticipate; to damage;
goals; conditions;
promotion; handle;
impact; constant;
to cope with; to look for;
terms; to fire;

4. Among marked words in the text find

a) synonyms to the following:

welfare – to cut –
to dismiss – current employment –
job for life – to be lured into –
dismissal – abroad –
payoff –

b) antonyms to the following:

to find a job –
blue – collar worker –
part – time employment –
stable –

5. Form nouns out of verbs. Make sentences with them:

to dismiss – to betray –
to retire – to contribute –
to require – to anticipate –
to concern – to proceed –
to increase – to promote –
to involve – to replace –

6. Find underlined words and phrases in the text which are

equivalents to the following:
сократить расходы на производство;
экономическое благосостояние;
народное обнищание;
обратный эффект;
подвергнуться опасности;
постоянный доход;
возрастная группа;
финансовая независимость;
независимо от;
жить по средствам;
уплатить долг;
повышение по службе;
финансовые обязательства;
пенсионный возраст;
Put these expressions into sentences of your own (make 1 sentence with
each expression)

7. Fill each blank with the correct form of a verb:

to contribute to affect
to conduct to value
to result to target
to generate to reward
to adjust to involve
a) Every day substantial group of people … in downsizing.
b) Any layoff … in feelings of perplexity and reflective
c) According to the survey that … by a department of education,
some age groups find it difficult … to the change.
d) The devastating effect of downsizing greatly … to feelings of
despair and worthlessness.
e) Disabled people … for dismissal in most cases.
f) Unemployment always … human misery.
g) Sometimes middle management … by downsizing.
h) When loyalty … (not), people feel betrayed because the sacrifices
that they have made for the company … (not).

8. Put corresponding modal verb into each blank. Mind the form of
the predicate:
to have to should may can
to be to ought to must
a) Laid-off people … (search for) part-time job in exchange for the
lost permanent job.
b) People … (not rely on) the prospect of regular income today.
c) There … (be) something fundamentally wrong in our society.
d) There are some suggestions that … (help) you to handle the
impact of downsizing.
e) The sudden loss of regular income … (result) in feelings of
despair and worthlessness.
f) Relatives … (help) downsized members to cope with the

g) In order to reduce production costs many American companies …
(cut) the work force.
h) Downsizing … (have) the devastating effect on the people
between the ages of 45 and 59.
i) You … (update) your lifetime goals and live within your means.
j) You … (weigh) all decisions against your goals and assess the
impact of downsizing.

9. Insert “a” or “the” if necessary:

a) Dealing with … loss of … employment has been likened to
walking through … minefield.
b) … message of … today’s economy is that there may be no …
long-term future to rely on.
c) Anticipating … loss of … job is like choosing … best way to be
hit by … truck.
d) … trust is lost, especially when many chief executive officers
receive … huge payoffs for downsizing … company.
e) … prospect of … future job loss has … subtle yet … devastating
f) … magnitude of … job loss on … global scale is new to …
current generation of … employees.

10. Fill in prepositions:

a) Nowadays people can not rely … permanent job, or job … life. Laid-off
workers feel betrayed and have to live … their means. They find it difficult to
cope … the devastating effect …their unemployment. This results … feelings
… despair and worthlessness. Such people are not ready to live … new terms
and adjust … the change.
b) Any dismissal contributes … the human misery and aggravates standard
… living. As a result, people can’t keep … their life-styles, because their
regular income is jeopardized … the sudden loss … the full-time job. But
there are some practical ways to deal … the impact … downsizing.
c) So, regardless of your age and experience plan ahead … the possibility
… being thrown … . Search … some part-time job … exchange … the lost
one. Update your life-style; make it reasonably simple comparing … the one
you’ve been accustomed … in the past.

11. Translate into English:

A. 1. Сегодняшнему поколению служащих трудно избежать
увольнения из-за сокращения штатов. 2. В замен на преданную службу
в компании, люди хотят получить гарантию будущего благосостояния.
3. Согласно результатов социальных опросов, большинство людей
глубоко озабочены тем, что они не обеспечены постоянной работой до
пенсионного возраста. 4. Возрастает число потребителей,
приобретающих товары зарубежного производства, которые
составляют значительную конкуренцию отечественным. 5. Чтобы
сократить расходы на производство, некоторые работодатели
прибегают к уменьшению количества работников за счет сокращения
B. 1. Никогда не полагайтесь на перспективу иметь
постоянную работу, на продвижение по службе или повышение
зарплаты, не смотря на регулярный доход. 2. Современный стиль
жизни вовлекает людей в большие растраты, что причиняет много
переживаний и забот. 3. Чтобы справиться с неожиданно наступившей
безработицей, нужно пересмотреть жизненные цели и постараться
жить по средствам. 4. Необходимо пересмотреть свои финансовые
обязательства и уплатить долги, чтобы избежать разрушительного
эффекта безработицы. 5. Утрата работы причиняет психологическую
травму бывшим работникам и выливается в чувство отчаяния и

12. Answer the questions about the text:

1) Why do many people feel deep concern for their future welfare?
2) What causes downsizing?
3) What social and age groups are involved in layoffs?
4) What implicit contract does an employer violate when he throw
people out?
5) How great are adverse effects of losing permanent jobs?
6) What alternatives can be found for laid-off workers?
7) Why can unemployment be devastating to youths?
8) How to deal with the impact of downsizing?
9) What changes should take place in people’s life-styles?
10) What difficulties are awaiting laid-off workers?


1. Write out all words, which are connected with people’s feelings and
emotions. Group them into positive and negative. Think about some
situations in our life when different emotions overcome people at once. Be
ready to give a particular example.

2. Act as a psychologist who reports about people in stressful situations.
Make some conclusive remarks (8 – 10 sentences) about the psychological
state of laid-off workers.

3. Working with the text, pick up as many peaces of advice as you can.
Write them down and comment on them. Add your own recommendations.

4. Comment on the saying of former investment banker Felix Rohatyn.

How do you think, what is wrong?
“There is something fundamentally wrong in our society when one man’s
unemployment generates another man’s wealth.”

5. Make up a dialogue employing underlined words and expressions from

the text:
a) between a boss and a laid-off worker;
b) between a wife and a dismissed husband;
c) between a psychologist and a downsized person.

6. Role – playing. A court trial.

Mr. Black bribed Mr. Conrad to frame up Mr. Bell’s layoff due to
his incompetence and embezzlement. Mr. Black’s purpose was to receive
huge payoffs for downsizing the company. But Mr. Bell had excellent
records, as he was one of those loyal officers who made the company
prosper. Besides Mr. Bell is a good husband and reliable friend, ready to help
his coworkers (Mr. Smith). Mrs. Black is secretly in love with Mr. Bell. Mrs.
Bell tries to protect her family and children.

A criminal lawsuit.

Defendant Mr. Black, a chief executive officer of a

Offence abuse of power, slander, embezzlement.
Claimant Mr. Bell, a sales manager of a company.
Witnesses for prosecution 1. Mrs. Bell, a wife of Mr. Bell.
2. Mr. Smith, a marketing manager, a friend of
Mr. Bell.
Witnesses for defence 1. Mrs. Black, a wife of Mr. Black.
2. Mr. Conrad, a chief book- keeper.
Attorney for plaintiff
Attorney for defence
to bring the case to court – подать дело в суд;
to challenge the complaint – оспорить/опротестовать иск;
to issue a search warrant – подписать ордер на обыск;
to detain a person – задержать кого-либо;
to accuse smb of smth – обвинить к/л в чем-либо;
to plead guilty/not guilty – признать себя (не) виновным;
to release smb on bail – отпустить под залог;
to make an opening (final) statement – выступить со вступительной
(заключительной) речью;
to examine a witness – опросить свидетеля;
to present evidence – представить доказательства;
a) direct – прямые;
b) material – материальные;
c) circumstantial – косвенные;
d) documentary – документальные;
e) corroborative – неопроверженные;
f) irrelevant – не относящиеся к делу;
aggravating (extenuating) circumstances – отягчающие (смягчающие)
to bring in a verdict of guilty/not guilty – вынести приговор виновности\
to convince the jury – убедить присяжных;
to impose a sentence – наложить приговор;
“Your Honor!” – Ваша честь! (обращение к судье);
“Objections!” – Протестую! (адвокаты);
“Sustain the objection” – Поддерживаю протест (судья);
“Disregard the objection” – Протест отклонен (судья).

7. Make your plan to the text. Supply each point of the plan with useful
phrases from the text. Retell the text according to your plan.



There are a lot of ways of communicating in business. For example,

exchanging letters, faxes, telexes, cables (telegrams), sending e-mail
messages, making phone calls.

In a letter the emphasis is on a high quality appearance. Letters have
to be
typed or word – processed accurately on the company’s headed paper with a
smart, clear layout. International mail tends to be slow and in some countries
the post is unreliable. Important documents or valuable items can be sent by
registered letter or by courier.
If speed is practically important in an international transaction, it is
likely that any firm will use a telex message/or cable instead of a letter.
Cables (telegrams) are both slower and more expensive then telexes, so
wherever possible telexes are used in international trade. In both cables and
telexes reduced forms can be found (e. g. TKS stands for Thanks, or RGDS –
Regards). But one should use only standard shortenings to avoid
misunderstanding and confusion. A telex can be a legally binding document.
A fax is a facsimile copy of a document, which is transmitted by
normal telephone lines to another fax machine. The sender of a fax can’t be
certain if the message have been received perfectly – sometimes lines get
missed or are illegible. A fax is not usually a legally binding document.
The Internet may provide businessmen with a reliable alternative to
expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems. Commercial users can
communicate cheaply over the net sending e-mail messages. They only have
to pay for phone calls to their local provides, not for calls across the countries
or around the world. However, the most important problem here is security. It
is possible to get into any of the computers along the route, intercept and
even change the data being sent over the Internet. So, if it is demanded to
send important information or legal documents over the network, encoding
programs should be used to keep the data in secret.
Making a business call can be a worrying experience if a
prospective client speaks English better then you. Most businessmen, unless
they feel very confident, prepare for an important phone call in advance by
making notes in a foreign language. And during the call they make notes
while they’re talking to help them to remember What was said.
Although it’s quick and convenient to call someone to give them
information or to ask questions, the disadvantage is that there is nothing in
writing to help you to remember what was said. It’s essential to make notes
and often when an agreement is reached on the phone, one of the speakers
will send a fax to confirm the main points that were made.
As it is so easy to be misunderstood when talking on the phone it’s a good
idea to repeat any important information (especially numbers and names)
back to the other person to make sure you’ve got it right. Always make sure
you know the name of the person you’re talking to and that they also know

your name. If necessary, ask them to spell it out to you, so that you can make
sure you’ve got it right. Try to use their name during the call.
It’s important to sound interested, helpful and alert when answering the call.
You may have to make or receive calls to or from regular customers and
prospective customers, so a good telephone manner not only makes an
impression in business, but it also helps to make money. Only remember, that
long-distance calls are very expensive.


1. Look up the following words in the dictionary. Mind their

pronunciation and translation.

Cable, emphasis, reliable, valuable, item, to register, transaction, facsimile, to

transmit, illegible, legal, encoding, convenient, alert.

2. Match the words with the some meaning:

translation network
cable beforehand
emphasis post
mail bargain
expensive word-processed
abbreviation costy
the Internet future
in advance telegram
client attention
prospective shortening
typed customer

3. Translate into English. Make a sentence with each phrase:

- электронное послание (почта);
- заказное письмо;
- курьер;
- международная сделка; торговля;
- стандартные сокращения;
- документ, имеющий юридическую силу;
- безопасность;
- держать информацию в секрете;
- потенциальный клиент;
- заранее;
- достигнуть соглашения;
- подтвердить;
- произнести по буквам.

4. Compose nouns out of verbs with the help of the suffixes:

- ion / - tion / - ation
- ance / - ence

Translate nouns, make senesces with them.

- to communicate; - to transmit;
- to abbreviate; - to transact;
- to confirm; - to remember;
- to appear; - to repeat;
- to inform; - to confide;
- to prepare; - to intercept;

5. Put in articles if necessary:

1) While on … phone, its … good idea to repeat … any important
information back to … other person.
2) One of … speakers should send … fax to confirm … main points of …
agreement reached on … phone.
3) It is possible to get into any of … computers along … route, intercept
and even change … data being sent over … net.
4) … good telephone manner not only makes … impression in …business,
but also helps to make … money.
5) … telex can be … legally binding document.
6) … fax is … facsimile copy of … document which is transmitted by …
normal telephone lines to … another fax machine.

6. Put in preposition where necessary.

1) Important documents are usually sent … registered letters or … courier.
2) Telexes are used instead … letters as the speed is important …
international transactions.
3) E-mail provides businessmen … a reliable alternative … expensive and
unreliable phone calls.
4) It is possible to get … any … the computers … the route, intercept the
data being sent … the net.
5) … the help … encoding programs it is possible to keep the data …
6) Sometimes businessmen prepare … an important call … advance …
making notes.
7. Insert necessary modal verbs into blankets:
can, may, should, have to
1) Letters … be typed on the company’s headed paper.
2) Valuable items … be sent by courier.
3) Only standard shortenings … be used to avoid misunderstanding and
4) E-mail … provide businessmen with a reliable alternative to expensive
and unreliable phone calls.
5) Abbreviations … be found in telexes and cables.
6) Commercial users … pay for phone calls to their local providers and not
for phone calls across the countries.
7) Encoding programs … be employed to keep the data in secret.
8) Making a business call … be a worrying experience.

8. Put in verbs in necessary tense forms.

- to avoid; - to reach;
- to provide; - to confirm;
- to demand; - to sound;
- to reduce;
1) If an agreement … on the phone, one of the speakers should … its main
points sending a fax.
2) The Internet … its users with more security and quickness in
transmitting the data.
3) Costs for sending messages can … if a businessman uses telexes and
cables instead of phone calls.
4) Polite people always … interested and alert while on the phone.
5) … misunderstanding and confusion, you’d better spell numbers and
names to the speaker on the phone.
6) It … that all business letters should have higher quality appearance.

9. Answer the questions:

1) What ways of communicating in business do you know?
2) What are the demands to legal letters?
3) How can letters be sent?
4) What are differences between telexes and cables?
5) What is special about compiling telexes and cables?
6) Is it highly reliable to send messages by fax? Why?
7) What advantages and disadvantages of the Internet do you know?
8) Why can business calls be a worrying experience?
9) How to behave correctly while talking to important clients on the phone?

10. Translate into English:

1) Если посылаешь заказные письма, можно быть уверенным, что
важные документы дойдут до адресата в сохранности.
2) Телеграммы доходят медленнее и обходятся дороже, чем послания
по электронной почте.
3) Факсимильные послания передаются по обычным телефонным
линиям к другому факсу, но иногда при пересылке теряются строчки
документа, поэтому факсы не имеют юридической силы.
4) Компьютерные хакеры перехватывают важную информацию в
Интернете и используют ее в своих целях.
5) Лучше готовиться к телефонным разговорам с потенциальными
клиентами заранее.
6) Главный недостаток телефонных линий в том, что никакие устные
соглашения не фиксируются в письменном виде.
7) Для избежания недоразумений важные цифры повторяются
дважды, а имена и фамилии произносятся по буквам.
8) Телефонные звонки на дальние расстояния очень дорого стоят,
поэтому вам лучше послать эти сведения по факсу.


1) Study samples of, telexes and cables in Appendix C. What is special

in compiling each of the message?

2) Make telexes and cables out of messages given below (employ

shortenings from Appendix B in necessary) :
a)We will send the 200 machines on 3 of July.
b)Could you please send us a copy of the invoice as soon as possible.
c)We regret that we are unable to supply your order until the end of
d)Could you please replace the goods that were damaged?
e)Please quote us your lowest price for 3000 nylon shorts.

3) Find in the text adjectives that characterize a good telephone

manner Add some more information judging from your own experience.
How to speak on the phone with strangers?
… with business partners?
… with clients?
… with relatives or friends?

4) What are the most essential qualities of business calls do you know?
Make your own conversation on the phone about.
a) terms of delivery;
b) causes for delay;
c) prospective transactions.

5) Make a plan of the text. Supply each point of your plan with usefull
phrases from the text. Retell the text according to your plan.


Any business deals with legal papers or documents, which make all
important and necessary information, fixed either traditionally, on paper, or
by means of electronic equipment. Constant stream of information requires
neat handling and sufficient experience to succeed in business. Therefore, it
is very important to know full details about business correspondence.
If a person finds an appropriate position available in a company, s/he
may write Letter of Application for a job. The candidate can enclose
personal CV (Curriculum Vitae), which usually states the educational
background and experience. If the applicant do not send a CV, it is necessary
to include data relevant to the application in the letter. This, of course,
requires a different Letter of Application for each job.
When a lot of people want the position, the employer will take up
Letters of Reference and then decide, which candidate is the most efficient,
reliable and hard- working.
The company can send two possible answers to Letter of Application.
Firstly, if a person is not selected for the position, s/he will receive Letter of
Rejection, which is usually written in an apologizing manner. Secondly, if
the employer is just interested in a certain candidate, he will send her/him
Letter of Invitation for an interview in order to make personal acquaintance
or in search for additional information.
Companies often send Letters of Enquiry (Request) to another
companies if some advertising information draw their attention. Such letters
contain asking for catalogues with samples, price-lists, standard guarantee
and promotional gifts (discount).
If a company is committed to buy something, Letter of Order to make
an official purchase is sent to a supplying company. It usually states the
quantity of goods and the terms of delivery. In return, the company receives
Letter of Acknowledgement, in which the supplier confirms the order and
gives advice on dispatch of goods.
Sometimes a company calculates on the extension of its legal business
and frequently chooses to pay by Letter of Credit. In such cases the supplier
often ask the third company about the financial reliability of the importer
sending Letter of Request. The decision about granting a credit greatly
depends on the advice given by the third party in strict confidence. There can
be two possible answers for the enquiry: Letter of giving Credit Reference,
if the buyer is financially reliable, or Letter of an unfavourable Credit
Reference to warn the supplier about frequent violations of terms by the
company. In both cases the importer receives Letter of Permission or Letter
of Rejection to gain a credit respectively.
It may happen that either importer or exporter is reluctant to fulfil
their commitments. Under the circumstances the company, which suffers
losses (damages) can send Letter of Reminding to its partner. In polite first
reminder the demands for goods, payment or information are put mildly. In
threatening second reminder the suffering company has the right to cancel the
transaction, to approach an alternative supplier (buyer) or introduce some
amendments into the agreement.
If it is something wrong with the delivery a company is intended to
settle the problem by sending Letter of Complaint to the supplier.
Inappropriate quality or quantity of items may be reasons for dissatisfaction
in such cases.
Letter of Apology is usually sent on receiving Letter of Reminding
or Letter of Complaint. On average, this type of letters occurs when certain
company causes minor (or considerable) delays or inappropriative delivery of
goods. Frequently Letters of Apology state reasons for the delay and contain
promises to avoid such violations in future.
Internal mail within a company or between branches of the same
firm is usually in the form of memos: these may be brief handwritten notes or
longer, word- processed letters. Most firms use special memo pads for
internal messages. A memo to a senior English-speaking member of staff
may need as much care as a letter to a client. The style that is used depends
on the practice within the company and on the relationship between the
people involved.


1. Read and translate the text. Consult the dictionary about the
pronunciation and translation of the following words:
Application, to require, to enquire, data, to apologize, acquaintance,
advertising, catalogue, guarantee, discount, dispatch, frequently, violation,
2. Find in the text words that are
a) synonymous to the following:
example, applicant, firm, goods, loss, supplier, information, enquiry.
b) antonyms to the following:
to receive, importer, minor, handwritten.

3. Match words with corresponding meaning:

relevant efficient
to require to buy
experienced personnel
to select appropriate
additional to choose
to purchase often
extantion extra
frequent to demand
to violate expansion
staff to break

4. Translate the verbs and form nouns out of them with the help of
suffixes –ment, -er, --ion.
to amend- to commit-
to supply- to pay-
to violate- to agree-
to require- to involve-
to reject- to employ-

5. Answer the questions:

1. What ways of sending messages do you know?
2. What is the reason for writing Letter of Application?
3. What two possible answers can a candidate receive from the employer?
4. What do companies usually ask for in Letter of Request?
5. What kind of letter is used if a company wants to make an official
6. What is necessary for gaining a credit?
7. What types of reminders do you know?
8. What are the reasons for complaining about the delivery?
9. What is the usual content of Letters of Apology?
10.What do you know about memos?

6. Translate the phrases into English and make one sentence with each of
Знать во всех подробностях (деталях); образование; подходящая
вакансия; личное знакомство; дополнительная информация; привлечь
внимание; скидки; условия поставки; отправка товара; третья сторона;
строгая секретность; дать (получить) кредит; выполнять неохотно;
найти другого поставщика; внести поправки в договор; не/значительная
задержка (товара); избежать нарушений.

7. Complete the sentences with the words given below:

by means of to deal with
in order to ask for
in search of to calculate on
instead of to depend
however to pay for
a) Commercial users … safety and quickness sending messages … the
b) … sending telexes and cables which are slower and expensive,
businessmen prefer to … e-mail messages.
c) … quality of e-mail messages … security, which the Internet can
not provide.
d) … gain the information about the financial reliability of a company, the
supplier … the necessary data in Letter of Request.
e) … cheap ways of communication, commercials users choose the Internet,
because they only … phone calls to their local providers.

8. Insert prepositions where necessary:

1. Usually the information is fixed either … paper or … means …
electronic equipment.
2. If a person is not selected … the position, s/he will be … search …
some … other job.
3. … order to make … personal acquaintance the interviewer invites a
candidate … an interview.
4. Sometimes the terms … delivery should be kept … strict confidence.
5. … polite first reminder … the demands … goods or information are
put mildly.
6. A company may introduce … some amendments … the agreement if
the supplier is reluctant … to state reasons … the delay.
9. What would you do if :
a) the delivery was delayed;
b) the goods were damaged;
c) you needed a credit;
d) you wanted the position;
e) you received a Letter of Complaint;
Model: If I had received Letter of Reminding, I would send Letter of


1 Study the examples of business letters (Appendix A). Stand the type of
each letter and reasons for writing it.

2. Study the list of abbreviation used in letters, telexes and cables

(Appendix B).

3. Work in pairs. Imagine that two of you are an applicant and an employer.
The applicant is interested in the position of Sales Manager and sends Letter
of Application and CV to the company. The employer answers the
application (Letter of Rejection or Letter of Invitation for an interview).

4. Write a letter to your supplier if:

a) the delivery is delayed;
b) some items are broken due to inappropriate shipment;
c) you want to gain a credit;
d) you need information about the goods available;
e) you are interested in purchase.

5. All goods are delivered without delay, but the importer is reluctant to
a) write polite first reminder;
b) introduce some amendments into the agreement in second reminder;
c) give unfavorable credit references to the importer.



As defined by the committee on definitions of the American

Marketing Association, marketing is “the performance of business activities
directed toward and incident to, the consumer or user”.
Nowadays, marketing influences and often actually controls, almost
every part of a company’s activities. Today discovering demand constitute
the three major divisions of Marketing effort undertaken by many firms.
Marketing management approached this state in the 1950`s when General
Electric enunciated a policy declaring that “marketing begins with the
customer”. By discovering and filling unmet wants, its marketing program
was designed to produce what General Electric could sell, because customers
had certain unmet wants. Subsequently, having what you could sell instead of
trying to “high pressure” customers into buying what you have required
provided the use of marketing research and environment “scanning” of
conditions affecting business.
The key concept of market selection and product planning is the Product
Life Cycle. It predicts that any product passes through various stages
between its life and death (introduction → growth → maturity → decline).
So, companies can make better marketing decisions if they find out where
each of their products stand in its life cycle.
All products are marketed by way of introducing the right marketing
mix: “The Four Ps” – the right product at the right price in certain place is
presented in the right way (promotion)
A product is not just a collection of components. A “total product”
includes the image of the product, its design, quality and reliability – as well
as its features and benefits. Products have a life-cycle, and companies are
continually developing new products to replace products whose sales are
declining and coming to the end of their lives.
Pricing takes account of the value of a product and its quality, the ability
of the customer to pay, the volume of sales required, and the prices charged
by the competition. Too low a price can reduce the number of sales just as
significantly as too high a price.
Place of selling goods stands for the channels of distribution and delivery
arrangements. Retail products may go through various channels of
distribution to reach the end-user: retailers, wholesalers, multiple store
groups, department stores, mail order houses, etc. Each stage between the
producer and customer must add value to the product to justify the costs.
Mainly, distribution is done through wholesalers and retailers who each add
value to the product by providing a good service and stocking a wide range of
similar products.
Promotion involves the packaging and presentation of the product, its
image, the products brand name, etc. Advertising is an important element of
the marketing function. It is used to increase sales by making the product or
service known to increase sales by making the product or service known to a
wider audience, and by emphasizing its superior quality. A company can
advertise in a number of ways, depending on how much it wishes to spend,
and the size and type of the target audience. The different media for
advertising include television, radio, newspapers, magazines and direct mail,
by which advertisers send letters, brochures and leaflets directly to potential
customers. Every product must possess a “unique selling proposition” (USP)
– the features and benefits that make it unlike any other product in its market.
So, one of the main rules in marketing is: we must be aware of our firm’s
strengths and weaknesses as well as opportunities and threats we face in the
market (“S.W.O.T.”)


1. Consult the dictionary about pronunciation and translation of the

following words:
To define, committee, incident, to constitute, to enunciate, subsequently,
wholesaler, retailer, decline, multiple, brochure.

2. Find in the text

a) synonyms to the words; b) antonyms to the words;
customer; retailer;
to affect; producer;
image; introduction;
price. strength.

3. Match words with the same meaning:

demand to deliver
to enunciate to discover
policy to declare
research requirement
growth to decrease
to find out important
to reduce prospective
to supply increase
significant strategy
potential investigation
4. Add suffix -er to the following words. Translate these nouns and give
their definitions in English:

a custom to provide
to buy to distribute
to use to design
to supply to research

to produce wholesale
to sell retail

5. Translate into English. Make a sentence with each expression:

- поток товаров и услуг;
- предпринять попытку;
- потенциальный покупатель;
- провозгласить стратегию;
- удовлетворить потребность;
- исследования по маркетингу;
- влиять на бизнес;
- ключевая концепция;
- проходить через разные стадии;
- упадок продаж;
- объем продаж;
- назначить цену;
- каналы сбыта;
- договор о поставке;
- товары в розницу;
- конечный потребитель;
- оправдать расходы;
- торговая марка.

6. Insert necessary prepositions:

1. Marketing mix is the right product… the right price … certain place is
presented… the right way.
2. … way …. marketing research companies may find … certain unmet
wants … the customer instead … trying to “high pressure” them … buying
what they produce now.
3. Mediators add value … products to justify the costs.
4. Any product passes … different stages … its life and death.
5. Advertising makes products known… the audience, it is done …
different media.
6. Pricing stands … value … a product and depends … the prices
charged… the competition.
7. The volume … sales greatly depends … the right promotion which
usually begins … advertising.
8. Place takes account … the channels … distribution and delivery

7. Put in articles if demanded:

1. To low … price can reduce… number of … sales just as significantly as
too high … price.
2. Usually… products come to … end-user through … various channels of
… distribution.
3. …. advertising is … important element of …. marketing function.
4. …. total product includes … image of … product, its design, … quality
and… reliability.
5. … committee of ….definitions explained ….meaning of … word
6. …. three major divisions of … marketing effort are … discovering
demand, … managing demand and … physically supplying demand.

8. Put in necessary verb in appropriate tense:

to reduce to provide
to affect to enunciate
to depend on to decline
to predict to market
to increase to design
1. All business … by the declaration that … by General Electric that
“marketing begins with the customer”.
2. You can … the place of any product in its life-cycle if it … by way of
introducing the right marketing mix.
3. New products … to replace those which …
4. The volumes of sales … the right pricing of goods.
5. Correct promotion … great opportunities to get enormous profits.
6. If the price of the products …, it doesn’t mean that the amount of sales

9. Answer the questions:

1. What is marketing ?
2. What is the role of marketing nowadays?
3. What are the three main divisions of marketing effort?
4. What conclusion about marketing strategies did General Electric make in
the 1950`s ?
5. What is the basic task of marketing?
6. What is “high pressure”?
7. What does “marketing research” mean?
8. What is the Product Life Cycle ?
9. What is the right marketing mix ?
10. What place does a product occupy in marketing?
11. Why is it important to introduce appropriate pricing?
12. How many stages can be there between the producer and the customer?
13. How does a price depend on the number of mediators?
14. What is promotion?
15. Why is advertising so important in marketing?
16. What channels of advertising do you know?

10. Translate into English:

1. Маркетинг связан с потоком товаров и услуг от производителя к
2. Основная стратегия маркетинга была провозглашена в 1950-х годах.
3. Объемы продаж вырастут, если исследовать, какие обстоятельства
оказывают влияние на бизнес.
4. Розничная торговля может осуществляться по различным каналам
5. Оптовики и розничные торговцы увеличивают цену товара чтобы
оправдать расходы.
6. Чтобы товары хорошо продавались, торговая марка компании
должна быть широко разрекламирована.
1. Make your own marketing concept about successful selling to gain
enormous profits. Make a report about your strategies.

2. Comment on the last paragraph of the text. Prove, that all the points
are true to life.

3. Give your explanation of "The Three P's" according to the text. State
that any of the P’s are equally important to provide the right marketing

4. Work in pairs. Imagine that you are a producer and a customer. The
producer is interested in unmet wants of the customer.
Points for discussion:
a) design of goods;
b) price and quality;
c) functioning and services.

5. Make up situations with the proverbs:

1. Time is money.
2. Money is a good servant, but a bad master.
3. Money has no smell.

6. Make a plan to the text. Supply each point of the plan with phrases
from the text. Retell the text according to your plan.


The floor of the traditional stock exchange seems to be a chaotic

marketplace. Mysterious (to an outsider) hand signals are employed, coded
messages on electronic tickers appear and change at a frantic pace, and floor
brokers compete to be heard above the flurry of activity.
Today, however, many people once bewildered by the stock market
are investing in stocks. Why? For one thing, the Internet has enabled
investors to access in moments final news, investment advice, and stock-
brokers. Paul Farrell, editor in chief of Wall Street News, writes: "For
individual investors, cyberspace investing is a new frontier, the new gold
rush, the freedom to be yourself, with the opportunity to become financially
independent while working at home." On the other hand, some financial
advisers are alarmed by the eagerness of many to invest in a market that they
may know very little about. One investment dealer with over 38 years of
experience in the securities industry told: "More people are buying into the
stock market as speculators, not investors. Some may call it investing, but
they do not know anything about the company whose stock they are buying
or selling."
What factors should you weigh before investing your money? Since
a measure of risk is involved with the trading of stocks, is it gambling? First,
let us consider how the stock market operates.
Companies need capital, or invested money, to operate successfully.
When a company prospers and requires a large amount of capital, its
management may choose to offer shares of its stocks to the public. One guide
to the stock market illustrates it in this way :"Stocks are pieces of the corporal
pie. When you buy stocks, or shares, you own a slice of the company."
At a street market, buyers and sellers meet to conduct business.
Similarly, the stock exchange is a marketplace for those who buy or sell
stocks. Before the development of the exchange, stocks were traded through
brokers at coffeehouses or on the roadside. Now there are stock exchanges in
many countries. On any given business day, at any hour, there is a stock
market open somewhere in the world.
To trade the stocks, an investor usually opens an account with a
broker and places an order. Today orders to buy or sell stock can be placed
over the telephone, through the Internet, or in person. The broker then needs
to execute the order on behalf of the investor. If the stock is traded on a
traditional trading floor, the brokerage office directs one of its floor brokers
to buy or sell stock for the investor. In recent years some exchanges have
adopted a completely electronic trading system, where trades can be made
seconds after the order is placed with a broker.
The price at which stocks are bought or sold is usually determined
by competitive bidding as at an auction. Business news, company earnings,
and the future prospects of an enterprise can all influence the price of a
stock. Investors hope to buy their stock at a low price and sell their shares for
a profit after they increase in value. A portion of the company's profits may
also be divided among the shareholders as dividends. Some people buy
stocks as a long-term investment; others trade stocks regularly, hoping to
profit from stock pieces that rise dramatically in a short time.
While the trading of stocks has traditionally been done over the
telephone, on-line trading (buying or selling stocks over the Internet) has
become increasingly popular. The apparent ease of trading stocks on-line
and gaining access to information previously reserved for brokers and
professional traders has prompted many individual investors to take up day
trading, the buying and selling of stocks full-time. Some have given up
lucrative careers to become day traders. Why? "The allure is obvious,
"explains Money magazine. "No bosses, complete control over how and
when you trade and the potential –or so it seems– to make a lot of money."
One 35-year-old man who quit his $200,000-a-year job to trade stocks at
home is quoted as saying: "How else can you have no inventory and no
employees, pay no rent, tap-tap-tap on a keyboard and make a living?"
Experts warn that trading stocks is not as easy as it may seem to a
new investor. One psychiatrist who specializes in the stress of trading
observes: "Trading seems to be deceptively easy, but I'd like to say it's the
hardest way to make an easy dollar." The endless stream of financial news
and advice has not come without side effects. Paul Farrell, quoted earlier,
notes: "The relentless thrust of information racing at lightning speed at the
individual players – both the individual investor and the individual trader – is
having a major psychological impact: rattled nerves, frustrations, stress."
Overconfidence can also be a snare. Financial columnist Jane Bryant
Quin warns of dangerous attitudes among traders: "You think that you are at
the helm – or at the mouse – bad things can't happen. You'll always be able
to intervene in time." Despite the widely publicized stories of investors who
have become rich overnight on the stock market, the trading of stocks carries
inherent risks . Some investors have been very successful. Others have
suffered significant losses . Many investors consult with the financial
planners before purchasing stock. Not all advice is sound. Investors should be
aware that a financial planner or a stockbroker may be merely pitching his
own services or manipulating the customer for profit.
In view of the risks associated with the stock market, is buying stock
the same as gambling? A measure of risk is involved merely in all financial
investments. Some people buy real estate, not knowing if the value of a
property will increase or decrease over time. Others deposit their money in a
bank, trusting that their savings will be secure. While the stock market is
more complicated, simply put, one who invests in stocks buys the shares of a
company in the hope that the enterprise will prosper and the stocks will
increase in value. Such an investment differs from gambling because the
stockholder has purchased the part of a company. These shares can be sold to
another person or saved in the hope of future growth. This cannot be said of a
person who bets money at a casino or on a game of chance. Against the odds,
the gambler seeks to predict an uncertain outcome and win the loser or loser's
How much risk should an investor accept? That is up to any
individual to decide. Of course, it is not prudent to risk more money on an
investment than one is willing to lose. Those who are determined to be rich
fall into temptation and a snare and many senseless and hurtful desires,
which plunge man into destruction and ruin. For the love of money is a root
of all sorts of injurious things. How a person chooses to invest his money is a
personal decision. Guided by a sound mind and contentment with the
necessities of life, an investor does well to keep financial concerns in their
place, not neglecting his or her family responsibilities and spiritual needs.


1. Read and translate the text. Pay attention to the words in Italics
and expressions.

2. Find synonyms to the following words among ones in the text:

Stock exchange; to invest in stocks; capital; stock quotations; competitive
bidding; to bet money at a casino; frustration; profit.

3. Find antonymic expressions in the text:

To increase; to be at a helm; to place an order.

4. Match words with corresponding meaning:

destruction to give up
shareholder’s trap
overnight ruin
full-time profitable
to quit damage
lucrative at once
inherent income
snare inborn
loss constant
dividends stockholders

5. Translate into English. Make one sentence with each expression:

Долгосрочный вклад; золотая лихорадка; степень риска;
азартные игры; открыть счет; торги; подняться в цене; вложить
деньги в банк; понести значительные убытки; иметь доступ к
информации; инвентарь; побочный эффект; стать богатым сразу; во
время вмешаться; делать ставки в казино; клавиатура; впасть в
искушение; духовные потребности; торги через интернет; в последнее

6. Make up nouns out of verbs with the help of suffixes: -ment, -ion, -ity,
-er. Translate them and put them into sentences of your own.
-to invest -to destruct
-to tempt -to frustrate
-to manage -to deal
-to advise -to associate
-to secure -to plan
-to place -to trade
-to measure -to prosper
-to intervene -to quotate
-to speculate -to execute

7. Find corresponding explanations to each word:

1. Profit 6. Broker
2. Share 7. Financial adviser
3. Speculator 8. Investor
4. Management 9. Bid
5. Trader 10. Shareholder

a) A price offered in order to buy smth, esp. at an auction.

b) A person who offers financial advice to a company or to an
individual, esp. on investments.
c) A person or an organization that buys or sells, esp. shares or
insurance, for others.

d) A person or an organization that earns money by buying and selling
goods for profit.
e) One of many portions into which a company’s capital is divided.
f) A person who takes risks on the stock exchange in the hope of
making a profit when the market price changes.
g) A person or an organization, that buys property, shares, securities,
etc. in order to sell again to make a profit or to receive money in the form of
h) The money gained in a business deal, esp. the difference between
the amount earned & the amount spent.
i) A person who owns shares in a company & is, therefore a member
of the company.
j) The control or organization of people, a business, a department of a
term, a project or a process.

8. Put in verbs in necessary form:

To prompt; to urge; to prosper; to warn; to neglect; to adopt.
1. When a company…we say, that it is at the helm.
2. In recent years some exchanges…a completely electronic trading
3. Gaining access to information on-line…many investors to take up day
4. Experts…that trading stocks is not as easy as it may seem to a new
5. Investment advisor…potential investors to consider a company’s past
6. Investors shouldn’t… family responsibilities & spiritual needs.

9. Insert articles where necessary:

1) … cyberspace investment is … new gold rush, … freedom
to be yourself with…, … opportunity to become financially independent.
2) In … recent years … people are investing in … stocks to
get … profit.
3) … dividends are divided among … shareholders by …
company. … amount depends on …, future prospects of … enterprise.
4) … trading seems deceptively easy, but … side effects are
rattled nervous, … frustrations, … stress.
5) … traders get … complete control over … information on-
line taping on … keyboard and easily making … living.

6) By considering … background of … company, … investor
can also ensure that his money will not be used to support … unethical

10. Put the prepositions where necessary:

1. You can invest money …stocks … the
telephone, … the net or … person.
2. A lot … speculators buy … the stock market …
a profit.
3. … recent years people usually give … lucrative
careers and participate … on-line trading.
4. Number … people become reach overnight,
because they intervene … time to get their money ….
3. If you want to save your money, deposit it … a bank and do not bet
it … a casino or a game of chance.
4. Brokers execute orders … behalf … the investor … the order.
5. Your shares can increase … value – and you’ll be … the helm; or
decrease … price – and you’ll be … the mouse.
6. Inexperienced traders are sure to fall … temptation to become
reach, but this desire will plunge them … destruction and ruin.
7. Management of some companies chooses to offer shares … the
stock … the public.
8. … the development … to exchange, stocks were traded … brokers.

11. Answer the questions:

1. Why do people invest in the stocks?
2. What are the advantages of cyberspace investing?
3. What is the difference between speculators and investors?
4. What are the reasons for offering shares of a company’s stock to the
5. What is competitive bidding?
6. Why do people give up lucrative careers to become day traders?
7. What are side effects of trading in stocks?
8. Why is it important to know the background of a company?
9. Is it interesting a kind of gambling? Why?
10. Is it dangerous for private life to be an investor?

12. Translate into English:

1. Чтобы стать инвестором, нужно открыть счёт у брокера и сделать
заказ. В большинстве случаев заказ посылается по интернету или
телефону, но иногда делается лично инвестором.
2. Торги на бирже можно сравнить с аукционом, на котором акции
увеличиваются или уменьшаются в цене.
3. Чтобы сохранить сбережения, можно вложить деньги в банк.
4. Очень не многие инвесторы становятся богатыми в один миг.
5. Многие люди впадают в искушение поставить деньги на рулетку и
терпят значительные финансовые убытки.
6. Чтобы не попасть в западню и не оказаться на дне, вы никому не
должны оказывать излишнего доверия.

13. Role play. At an auction.

Imagine that you are at an auction. Play the auction in two variants
( Dutch & English auctions ). Divide into two groups & make a
competition in playing skills.
1. The auctioneer – he is in charge of all changes in prices, sells lots to those
who propose the highest (lowest) price.
2. "The Times" reporter – makes a report to the newspaper after the auction.
3. The head of a charitable organization – he is very happy, since the money
from the auction will go for charitable needs.
4. Mr. Smith – all his property is put up to the auction. He complains about
his unsuccessful business, blames everybody for his misfortune.
5. Buyers – people who buy lots & propose prices at auctions.

an auction;
an auctioneer;
to auction off / to auctioneer – продавать с аукциона;
to sell by auction;
to put up to auction – выставить на торги;
Dutch auction – Голландский аукцион (на снижение цены);
English auction – Английский аукцион (на увеличение цены);
a lot – товар, продаваемый на аукционе;
initial / first / opening price – стартовая цена;
to put everything at stake – всё поставить на кон;
to stop the auction;
to propose a price;
to increase / reduce a price.

13. Make a plan of the text. Supply each point of your plan with
useful phrases from the text. Retell the text according to the plan.



Management means the people who control an organization. There are

senior and middle management in any company. Senior management
consists of the highest officers in organization, including the managing
director and other directors or executives who make important decisions
about company’s policy. Middle management is a group of managers each
responsible for staff in a particular department who carry out the policies set
by senior management.
Business management often persue several goals at a time. However, any
business is profit-oriented, but growth, technical progress, and the firm’s
labor-relations record as well as profits are generally used as a test of
successful management. Growth, usually means larger salaries for top
management and better promotion possibilities for the lower levels of
management. Financial security increases the independence of management
and enhances its ability to take advantage of developing opportunities. It is
convenient to supervise a satisfied and well-trained work force and to have
good labor – relations reputation.
Managers are responsible for leading the people directly under them,
who are called subordinates. To do this successfully, they must use their
authority, which is the right to take the decisions and give the orders that will
allow their subordinates to reach certain objectives. Managers often delegate
authority. This means that employees at lower levels of the company
hierarchy can participate in decision-making. In other words, a manager
should be a successful leader possessing the following qualities:
1. He should be a good teacher and communicator to be willing to
share skills, insights and experience, and to work very closely with people to
help them mature and be creative.
2. He should manage time and use it effectively. All schedules, post,
telephones, meetings must be disciplined.
3. He must provide vision by planning, setting goals, working out
strategic perception.
4. He must be visible and approachable. It means that he should be out
with people, talking to lower-level employees and getting their feedback on
problem areas. He should be making short speeches and handing out awards.
5. He must be introspective to look at himself objectively and analyze
where he has made mistakes and where he has disappointed people.
6. He must be reliable and dependable in order to provide stability and
strength to organizations.
7. He should be open-minded to deal with new issues. He mustn’t
change his mind very frequently after a major decision has been made, but if
he never reconsiders, he’s beginning to show a degree of rigidity and
inflexibility that creates problems for the organization.
8. He should have a sense of humor to let people know that life is not
too important you can’t sit back occasionally and be amused. Humor is a
great reliever of tension.
Actually, not all managers follow these rules, therefore, according to
professor C. Handy, there are four types of organization cultures in business:
1. In Power Cultures self-reliant and highly competitive self-
development provides the basis of relations. Managers’ success is related to
their charisma and influence, rather that to their knowledge and experience.
Therefore, managers need to be tough-minded and aggressive.
2. In Role Cultures managers’ role is completely related to their place
within a centralized system. Their success depends on how well they adhere,
to rules, procedures and precedents. Individualism and aggression are not
3. In organization with Task Cultures they praise everything that
makes it possible to get the work done. The main concern is successful
competition of their products. Managers’ success is related to their
knowledge and experience required to achieve tasks, rather than to meet the
requirements of their role.
4. In Individual Cultures freedom of expression is valued the most.
Effectiveness of any activity in these organizations is rated by how much the
activity satisfies the staff, rather than by how will it conforms to business
plan. Independence, creativity, and experiment are also highly valued.


1. Consult the dictionary about the pronunciation and translation

of the following words:
Senior, policy, to persue, goal, to enhance, authority, an objective,
hierarchy, schedule, award, issue, rigidity, self-reliant, charisma, tough-
minded, to adhere.

2. Find in the text synonyms to the words:

Goal, record, senior management, to increase, to reconsider, to supervise, to
value, to

3. Match the words with the same meaning:

to control to be in charge
to carry out advancement
promotion scheme
to participate to praise
mature grown up
schedule to take part in
to award to fulfill
issue time table
plan shaky question

4. Build up nouns out of verbs with the help of suffixes: – ment; –

ance / –ence; – ion / – tion/ –sion.
Translate nouns and make a sentence with each of them.
– to consist; – to possess;
– to increase; – to provide;
– to satisfy; – to amuse;
– to allow; – to compete;
– to participate; – to disappoint.

5. Match words with their definitions:

1. Managing director; 5. Deputy manager;
2. Director; 6. Product manager;
3. Executive; 7. Production manager;
4. Manager; 8. Rights manager.

a) a person in control of staff under the authority of a

b) negotiates contracts and fees for buying, selling,
distributing or reproducing goods, ideas, designs, etc. in another country;
c) is responsible for the day to day running of a company;
d) carries out important decisions, a senior business person;
e) is in control of design and quality of goods made by a
f) controls the manufacturing process;
g) a person who is employed to control, organize, and direct
part or all of a business or organization;
h) is appointed by the shareholders to help run the company
and to see that the company follows the rules and regulations stated in the
articles of association.

6. Translate into English the following phrases, make with each
expression a sentence of your own.
Высокопоставленные чиновники; быть ответственным за персонал;
быть ориентированным на прибыль; репутация компании; возможность
продвижения по службе; рабочая сила, кадры; принимать решения;
ставить (достигнуть) цели; принимать участие в решении проблем;
делится опытом; награждать; обеспечивать стабильность; передумать,
изменить решение; ответственное решение; типы взаимоотношений;
подчинятся определенным нормам поведения; совпадать с планом.

7. Put in prepositions if necessary:

1. Usually management … a company consists … senior management
which is responsible … making important decisions and middle management
which carries … main policies set … senior management.
2. Often there are a lot … employees … the … authority of a manager
… a time.
3. … other words, employees are encouraged to participate …
4. Managers are to be … people talking … them … order to receive
feedback … the problems.
5. Leaders should be open-minded enough to deal … new issues and
to hand … award … achievements.
6. Managers’ role … some cultures is related … conforming … some
rules and precedents.

8. Put in articles where necessary:

1. It is very important for … company to have … good labor-
relations reputation.
2. … manager is responsible for leading … people directly under
him who are called subordinates.
3. … growth usually means ... larger salaries for … top management
and … better promotion possibilities for … lower levels of … management.
4. … middle management is … group of people responsible for …
staff in … particular department.
5. … main concern of all … managers is to provide … vision by
planning, setting … goals, working out … strategic perception.
6. … self-reliant and … highly competitive self-development
provides … basis for relations in … Power Cultures.

9. Insert necessary verbs in appropriate tense forms into each

to achieve to follow to satisfy
to enhance to praise to increase
to value to carry out
to set to adhere
1. Senior management usually … goals and middle management …
this policy.
2. Individualism … highly in Individual Cultures, but … (not) in
Power Cultures.
3. Management always wants … profit of the company and …
salaries as a result of financial stability.
4. Managers have to … some rules and behavior patterns in Role
5. A company … high result if all members of the staff … successful
management policies
6. Usually employees … with high salaries and appropriate working

10. Translate into English. Employ underlined expressions from

the text:
1. Любой бизнес всегда нацелен на получение прибыли.
2. Младшие менеджеры всегда выполняют задачи,
поставленные главными управляющими компаний.
3. Менеджеры обязаны принимать необходимые решения,
чтобы подчиненные могли достигнуть поставленных перед ними задач.
4. Лидер должен быть самокритичным, чтобы объективно
анализировать свои ошибки.
5. Агрессивность и самоуверенность характерны для силового
типа взаимоотношений.
6. Свобода выражения и изобретательность очень высоко
ценятся, если отношения в компании нацелены на индивидуальность.

11. Answer the questions:

1. What is management?
2. What kind of management do you know?
3. What are the tasks of senior management?
4. What goals do management provide a company with?
5. What are the consequences of company’s growth?
6. Is any business profit-oriented? Why?
7. What are managers responsible for?
8. Why do they delegate authority?
9. What qualities of a great manager can you enumerate?
10. Is it important for a manager to be open-minded?
11. Why should a manager be introspective?
12. What types of organization cultures do you know?
13. What are the basic points in Power Cultures?
14. What is the difference between Role Cultures and Task Cultures?
15. Do you consider Individual Cultures the best example of
organizing a company? Why?


1. Make a list of ajectives picking them out of the text. Make a report
about professional qualities of a manager.

2. Discuss types of organization cultures in pairs. State your opinion

about each of the cultures employing the following phrases:
a) My belief (conviction, view, idea, opinion) is
b) I am inclined (disposed) to think that…
c) I am the last man to judge, but…
d) To my mind (way of thinking) …

3. Choose any of the cultures and make a brief speech as if you were a
chiefmanager. Let your fellow-students guess what type of cultures you
employed. Suggested topics for the speech:
1. Future prospects of the company.
2. How to change unsuccessful policies in the company.
3. Awarding the best employees.

4. Imagine that you are an executive in your company. Give instructions

to a new manager about the requirements. Use modal verbs must,
should, have to, be to.

5. Make a plan of the text. Supply each point of the plan with useful
phrases from the text. Retell the text according to your plan.


Though women make up over 40% of the western workforce, the

firms they work for promote very few of them far. Where women do get to
run big companies, it is not by climbing the ordinary corporate ladder. For
example, Katharine Graham, chief executive of The Washington Post
Company until taking the chairmanship last year, inherited the firm from her
Talented women are not the only losers when companies fail to hire
them or later refuse them promotion. Assuming that most women are
potentially as good at filling executive jobs as most men, those companies are
limiting their pool of available management talent, by around half. The
leading reason for women’s quitting large companies is not marriage or
motherhood, but dissatisfaction with their career prospects. At one Johnson &
Johnson unit, departing female managers complained that they had left
isolated from their male colleagues.
Could it be that this lack of esteem is justified? Given the chance,
would women really be as good at running large firms as men? Most research
on the way gender differences affect women’s careers lies within the murky
disciplines of comparative psychology and organizational behavior.
First, people who work in large organizations promote those who
resemble themselves. “Our managers are all white, middle – aged men, and
they promote in their own image”, says one woman.
If looking odd in positions of power is woman’s first big barrier to
top jobs, feeling odd in them is the second. Men are expected to be assertive.
Women are not, and often do not feel happy being so.
Made to choose between being thought pushy and being actually
self – effacing, women tend to choose the latter. Within mixed groups, even
highly qualified women put their views less forcefully than men, and listen
much more than they talk.
Female directors are disproportionally likely to be found running
bits of the firm without profit – and – loss responsibility – personnel or public
relations, for instance – that offer little prospect of promotion to the top posts.
Alternatively, they may be part – time advisors. Of the 30 female directors on
the boards of Britain’s biggest companies, 26 are non – executives.
If a firm does genuinely want to use the talents of women more
effectively, how should it go about it? The watershed dividing different
employers’ approaches is positive discrimination. Some use quota schemes.
At Pitney Bowes, an American office – equipment manufacturer, 35% of all
promotions must go to women, 15% to non – whites. Yet, positive
discrimination can hurt the women it is designed to help. Bosses compelled
to hire women to fulfill some quota are unlikely to take them seriously. “If
you feel that people are just there because you had to have them, then you
work around them, not with them. Then they feel underutilized, because they
probably are”, says Nancy Gheen, a personnel manager at Monsanto.
The real change in the way companies think about women managers
will come when they change the way they think about jobs.
Most women want to have children. Raising a family requires time
off, and shorter working hours for somebody, either husband or wife. To
keep good women, firm need to find ways of giving them those things, yet
using them efficiently. That normally involves letting women with small
children work flexible hours, not requiring them to relocate or travel at a
moment’s notice, or even letting them share their jobs with someone else.
In exchange, women may have to accept lower pay, or slower
promotion, until they return to full – time work. Such programs have been
dubbed “mommy – tracks”.
Though mommy – tracks are to firms’ ultimate advantage, since they
help keep good staff, in the short term they will sometimes prove to be
inconvenient and expansive. Yet, companies exist to make their shareholders
money, not to engineer social change.


1. Explain the meaning of the following words & expressions:

Corporate ladder, chairmanship, positive discrimination, personnel manager,
public relations, flexible hours, mommy-tracks, gender differences, profit-
loss responsibilities.

2. Find in the text

a) synonyms to the words: b) antonyms to the words:
a female; to hire;
gender; male;
pushy; self – effacing;
for example. part – time.

3. Match words with corresponding meaning:

esteem to call names
to run plan
odd to divide
barrier persistent
assertive post
position obsticle
scheme respect
to share weird
to dub to manage

4. Translate into English and make a sentence with each of the
- получить в наследство;
- прекрасный пол;
- сокращенный (полный) рабочий день;
- управлять частью фирмы;
- удерживать хорошие рабочие кадры;
- связи с общественностью;
- заставлять принять на работу;
- трудовая дисциплина;
- отказывать в повышении по службе;
- недостаток уважения;
- причины для увольнения.

5. Put in the necessary prepositions:

1. The reason … quitting a job is usually dissatisfaction … lack …
2. Researches … gender differences showed that females are usually
isolated … males and rarely can be found … positions … power.
3. … instance, male managers always promote … their own image.
4. How to go … the problem of women’s promotions … the top posts?
5. Raising a family requires time … or flexible working hours …
6. Mommy – tracks … the short time proved to be inconvenient and

6. Supply each blank with a verb in necessary form:

to go about to justify (2)
to involve to refuse
to relocate to compel
to quit to tend
1. Women … often to get promotions and they … the company.
2. Females … to depart or … at a moment’s notice.
3. Mommy – tracks … to be rather inconvenient and expensive.
4. Positive discrimination can’t … by female managers.
5. Usually women do non know how … the compromise between job
and family.
6. The bias against women in position of power … (not) as it … various
contradictory issues.

7. Answer the questions:

1. What problem do female managers face in big companies?
2. What are the main reasons for women’s quitting large companies?
3. In what ways do managers promote people nowadays?
4. Why do men turn out to be more competitive than women?
5. Who is more talkative and why?
6. What are quota schemes?
7. Can positive discrimination really help women to get promotion?
8. Is there any compromise between job and family?
9. Is it necessary for top management to help their female collegues
who have small children?
10. What should be changed to combine work with family life?


1. Pick out all adjectives from the text. Divide them into two columns:
male & female qualities. What qualities should be essential in each
column? State your opinion.

2. Do you agree that most women are potentially as good at filling

executive jobs as most men? Prove your point of view. Employ some
examples from real life.

3. Make a monologue of a quitted woman manager. Tell about reasons for

departing, take some facts from the text. 4. Work in pairs. Play a dialogue
between a male chief executive and a female manager about possibilities of
promotion. Try to win the argument uncovering all types of discrimination
and under – utilizing.

5. Make a plan to the text. Supply each point of the plan with expressions
from the text. Retell the text according to your plan.



Borg Corporation Your ref:
10 Oslo Avenue Our ref: LW/MG
Malmo 18 May 1986

Dear Sirs

Could you please send me a copy of your 1986 catalogue and details of any
special trade discounts you are offering. I would also like to know whether all
your models are now covered by your standard two-year guarantee.

Yours faithfully


Millways Toys Ltd
10 Horndean Way, Bristol BS2 6CS
15 November 1984
Dear Sir or Madam

I enclose a copy of our latest catalogue and price-list.

May I draw your attention in particular to our new range of Plastica Cars
which is illustrated on page 63.

We are offering a special discount of 5 per cent on all orders received before
1 March. Please use the special order form at the back of the catalogue and
deduct 5 per cent from the prices on our list.

We hope that you will be pleased with the catalogue and look forward to
receiving your order.

Yours faithfully


Sales Manager

Enc: 1

Redways Company Ltd
Unit 61, New Kowloon Industrial Estate,
Kowloon, Hong Kong

Manhattan-Windsor Your ref:

Steward Street Our ref: HJ/MD
Birmingham 10 June 1984
England B18 7AF

Dear Sirs

Purchase Order No. 4462M

Thank you for your letter of 1 June.

We have examined your samples and would like to place the following order:

200 large ‘Cat’ paperweights (Red) Cat.Ref.B 1613

100 large ‘Bird’ paperweights (Blue) Cat.Ref.B 1617
300 small ‘Rabbit’ paperweights (Blue) Cat.Ref.B 1621

We shall pay for the goods by banker’s draft on receipt of your pro forma

Yours faithfully


Marketing Manager


Redways Ltd Your ref: HJ/MD

Unit 161 Our ref: MH/JW
New Kowloon Industrial Estate 28 June 1984
Hong Kong

Dear Sirs

Purchase Order No. 4462M

We are pleased to advise you of the despatch of your order No. 4462M,
which was collected today for transport by British Caledonian Airways to
Hong Kong.

The air way-bill, insurance certificate and invoice for freight charges and
insurance are enclosed.

We look forward to receiving further orders from you in the future.

Yours faithfully


Sales Manager

Enc: 3

Michel Artois Limited

13 rue Jean, Dieppe, France

The Sales Manager Your ref:

Loot Mills Our ref: MW/CC
Leeds 21 August 1984
England LE2 6MD

Dear Sir or Madam

On 19 July I wrote to you and requested details of your trade discounts. On 3

August I wrote again but have still not received a reply.

If I do not receive your reply by return, I will be forced to approach an
alternative supplier.

Yours faithfully



LOOT MILLS Leeds LS2 6MD, England

The Manager Your ref: MW/CL
Michel Artois Limited Our ref: JA/DY
13 rue Jean 23 August 1984

Dear Sir

Thank you very much for your letter of 3 August.

We sincerely apologize for the delay in replying to this and your previous
letter. We have recently moved our main office to a new location in the north
of the city and this resulted in some considerable delay in replying to
enquiries. The move has now been completed and I can assure you that there
will be no more delays in the future.

The details you require are enclosed and I hope that you will now continue to
use as your main supplier.

Yours faithfully


Assistant Manager

Enc : 1

17 Argyle Way, Chelmsford, Essex ES1 6DP

S Niclos Our ref: CM/dh

The Manager Your ref: SN/s1
Delos Company 20 July 1984
17 Paxos Avenue

Dear Mr Niclos
Order MDX/13/16B

Thank you for letter of 16 July. We are extremely sorry to learn that an error
was made in packing crate 17 of the above order.

The missing 8,000 pencils were sent this morning by Olympic Airways and
the documents have already been forwarded to you.

We greatly regret the inconvenience caused by this and the previous two
errors and offer our sincere apologies. We can assure you that every effort
will be made to ensure that similar errors do not occur again.

Your sincerely


Export Manager


Waterson & Roberts Your ref:

Ltd Our ref: HR/CH
7 Bridge Street 17 December 1986

Dear Sirs

Your name has been given to us as a reference by Basil Bush Ltd of

Swindon, who have requested us to grant them monthly trading terms.

We are proposing to grant them a credit limit of ₤5000 and we should be

extremely grateful if you could give us your opinion of their financial

Any information that you provide will, of course, be treated as strictly


Yours faithfully


Financial Director

WATERSON & 7 Bridge Street,


H Roberts Your ref: HR/CH

Financial Director Our ref: JF/DM
Eric Olsen Ltd 20 December 1986
17 Olaf Street

Dear Mr Roberts

Thank you for your letter of 17 December inquiring about the financial
reliability of Basil Bush Ltd.

We have traded with the company on monthly terms for three years and they
have always settled their accounts promptly. We consider that the credit limit
you propose is appropriate.

We hope that this information will be of assistance to you.

Your sincerely


Head of Account Department

WATERSON & 7 Bridge Street,

H Roberts Your ref: HR/ch
Financial Director Our ref: JF/dm
Eric Olsen Ltd 20 December 1986
17 Olaf Street

Dear Mr Roberts

Thank you for your inquiry of 17 December asking for our opinion of the
financial reliability of Basil Bush Ltd.

We have done a small amount of business with the company on monthly

terms for just over a year. However, they frequently delay payment of their
accounts until a second reminder is sent to them. We would advise you to act
with great caution and consider that ₤500 would be an appropriate credit

This information is, of course, given in strict confidence.

Your sincerely


Head of Accounts Department

6 Carlswood Street
Tel: Redhill 62196
Mrs Cynthia Dryden
44 Randolph Square
London EC1 4BE 17 September 1986

Dear Mrs Dryden

I would like to apply for the post of personal assistant/secretary advertised in

today’s Guardian.

As you can see from my curriculum vitae, I have had six years’ experience as
a personal secretary. Five of these have been in films and television and I am
particularly keen to continue working in this industry.

I enclose my curriculum vitae and will be available for interview any day
after 21 September and able to take up a new appointment from 1 October.

I look forward to your reply.

Yours sincerely



Enc: 1


Age: 28
Date of Birth: 17 August 1958
Nationality: British
Home Address: 6 Carlswood Street

Tel.No.: Redhill 62196

Business E.M.F.
address: 17 Stringer Road

Tel.No.: Croydon 52319

*Marital Status: Single

Education: Secondary: Redhill

School 1969-76
Higher: South Surrey

‘O’ Level 1974 English Language
English Literature

‘A’ Level 1976 English Literature


HND Business Studies 1979

Pitmans Typing and Shorthand 1976
RSA Shorthand 100 wpm 1978

1979-80 Personal Secretary to Marketing Manager of Universal
Toys in Reading.
1980- Personal Assistant to Finance director of EMF in

Interests: Squash, tennis, reading, playing the piano and travelling.


6 Carlswood Street
Tel: Redhill 62196
Mrs Cynthia Dryden
44 Randolph Square
London EC1 4BE 17 September 1986

Dear Mrs Dryden

I have seen your advertisement for a personal assistant/secretary in the

Guardian and would like to apply for the post.

I am 28 years old and was educated at Redhill Comprehensive School and the
South Surrey College. I have an HND in Business Studies and have also
passed the Pitman Examination (Stage 111) in shorthand and typing. I studied
French to ‘A’ level and can speak it fluently.

For the last six years I have been working as the personal assistant to Mr
Mares, the Finance Director of E.M.F. of Croydon. Unfortunately the
company is moving its main offices to Bristol and I have therefore decided to
look for a new position in the London area.

Before joining E.M.F. I worked for one year as the Personal Secretary to Mr
Handley, Marketing Manager of Universal Toys in Reading.

Both Mr Mares and Mr Handley are willing to give me references.

I am on holiday until 21 September but will be available for an interview on

any day after that. I would be able to take up a new post on any date from 1

I look forward to your reply.

Yours sincerely



6 South Road, Croydon, Surrey CR2 6LB

John Biggins Your ref: JB/CL

Director of Personnel Our ref: EM/DL
Video Enterprises 22 September 1986
44 Randolph Square
London EC1 4BE

Dear Mr Biggins

Reference for Edith Roberts

Thank you for your letter of 19 September asking for a reference for Ms

Ms Roberts has been working as my personal assistant since 1980 and has
gained considerable experience of work in the film and TV industry.

In both her administrative and secretarial work she is extremely efficient,

hard-working and reliable. Much of our work is for French clients and Ms
Roberts’ ability to speak and write French has been a great help to us.

We are extremely sorry that she feels unable to move to Bristol with us and
will miss her very much.

We are confident that she would be a highly suitable person for the position
of personal assistant/secretary to the Chief Executive of your company and
warmly recommend her to you.

Yours sincerely


Finance Director
44 Randolph Square, London EC1 4BE

Ms Edith Roberts Your ref:

6 Carlswood Street Our ref: CD/YM
Redhill 20 September 1986

Dear Ms Roberts

Thank you for your recent application for the post of personal

I have read your letter and curriculum vitae with much interest but am sorry
to tell you that on this occasion you have not been selected for interview. We
have had a very large number of applications and have been able to identify
several candidates whose background and experience are more closely
matched to our specific requirements than your own.

With many thanks for your interest and for the time you have taken in
forwarding your application.

Yours sincerely



44 Randolph Square, London EC1 4BE

Ms Edith Roberts Your ref:

6 Carlswood Street Our ref: CD/YM
Redhill 23 September 1986

Dear Ms Roberts

Thank you for your recent application for the post of personal

I should like to take your application a stage further and would be pleased if
you could come for an interview at 32 Eccleston Square at 2.30 p.m. on 29
September. I would be grateful if you could let me know as soon as possible,
preferably by telephone, whether this would be convenient.

I look forward to hearing from you and to meeting you on Monday.

Yours sincerely




Список основных сокращений, используемых в деловой


А/С, а/с, асе. (account current) — текущий счет

adsd (addressed) — адресовано
adse (addressee) — адресат, получатель
ad (advertisement) — рекламное объявление (множ. число — ads)
a.m. (ante meridiem) — до полудня (см. Урок 1)
арр. (appendix) — приложение
Attn. (attention) — вниманию (кого-либо)
В/Е, В.Е., b.e. (bill of exchange) — переводной вексель, тратта
В/L, b/1, B.L., b.l. (bill of lading) — коносамент
ее., ее (copies) — указание на адресатов копий письма
CEO (chief executive officer) — исполнительный директор
cf. (confer) — сравните
Со. (company) — компания
contr. (contract) — контракт
Corp. (corporation) — корпорация
cur. 1. (currency)— валюта; 2. (current) — текущий
CV (curriculum vitae) — краткая биография
dd 1. (dated) — датированный; 2. (delivered) — доставленный
Dep., Dept. (department) — 1. — отдел; 2. — министерство
doc. (document) — документы (множ;. число — docs.)
doz., dz. (dozen) — дюжина
eaon (except as otherwise noted) — если не указано иначе
e.g. (exempli gratia, лат.) — например
enc.,encl.(enclosed,enclosure)—вложенный,прилагаемый, вложение,
приложение (к письму и т. п.)
exc., excl. (except, excluding, exception, exclusion) —
expn (expiration) — истечение (срока)
fig- (figure) — \. — цифра; 2. — рисунок, схема
FY (fiscal year) — финансовый год
h.a. (hoc anno, лат.) — в текущем году
hf. (half) — половина
H.Q.,HQ,h.q.(headquaters)—главное управление (компании
id. (idem, лат.) j— тот же
i.e., ie (id est, лат.) — то есть
inc., inch (including) — включая
Inc.,inc.(incorporated)—зарегистрированный как юридическое лицо
info (information) — информация
inv. (invoice) — счет-фактура
IOU (I owe you) — долговая расписка
L/C, l.c., 1/с (letter of credit) — аккредитив
LLC (limited liability company) — компания с ограниченной
Ltd., ltd. (limited) — с ограниченной ответственностью
LOС (letter of commitment) — гарантийное письмо
mdse (merchandise)—товары
memo (memorandum) — записка
M.O., m.о. 1. (mail order) — почтовый перевод; 2. (money order) —
денежный перевод, платежное поручение
М.Т. (metric ton) — метрическая тонна
MV (merchant (motor) vessel) — торговое (моторное) судно
N/A (not applicable) — не применимо (напр., пункт в анкете)
N.B., NB (nota bene, лат.) — важное замечание
NC, N.C., n/c (no charge) — бесплатно
o/1 (our letter) — (ссылаясь на) наше письмо

PA. (power of attorney) — доверенность
p.a. (per annum, лат.) — в год
par. (paragraph) — абзац, параграф, пункт
Plc, PLC (public limited company) — открытая акционерная компания с
ограниченной ответственностью
РО (post office) — почтовое отделение
.pp. (pages) — страницы
рр, p.p. (per pro, лат.) — от имени и по поручению
qv (quod vide, лат.) — смотри (там-то)
R&D (research and development) — научно-исследовательские опытно-
конструкторские работы (НИОКР)
ret (receipt) — расписка, квитанция
rept. (report) — отчет
re (regarding) — относительно
ref. (reference) — ссылка
RMS (root-mean-squape) — средне-квадратический
shipt (shipment) — отгрузка, отправка
sig. (signature) — подпись
tn. (ton) — тонна
urgt (urgent) — срочный
v., vs. (versus, лат.) — против
VAT (value-added tax) — -НДС
'V.I.P, VIP (very important person) — особо важное лицо
v.s. (vide supra, лат.) — см.выше
v.v(vice versa)-наоборот
@-коммерческое at



1.Answerback Code (Receiver’s) 337861 MJLBC

2. Information ( message ) PLEASE QUOTE TWO THOUSAND
3. Sender’s name YASSAR CAIRO
4. Collation ( repetition of important 2000 MV/60 +?
words , numbers at the end of a telex )
+? – reply , confirm or a new message will be sent .
++ - end of message ( no immediate reply or conformation needed ).
xxxxx ( e.g. HUTXXXXXHATS ) – shows an error .


1. Receiver’s telegraphic address WONSET BOMBAY

2. Information / message FIONA WILSON ARRIVING BOMBAY
3. Sender’s telegraphic address FLUHEN LONDON
Note : “stop” is used in place of a full-stop .


- soonest – as soon as possible;

- lowest – your lowest price ;
- ETA – expected / estimated time of arrival;
- OK – we agree ;
- OK? = do you agree ?
- RPT – repeat ;
- CIF – cost , insurance , price ;
- COD – cash on delivery ;
- RAP – I shall call you back .


Unit 1. Jobs and

Unit 2. Ways of Communicating in Business
Unit 3.
Unit 4.


1. Богацкий И.С. Дюканова Н.М. Бизнес-курс английского языка.

Словарь-справочник.-К.: "Логос",1999.-352с
2. Карпусь И.А. Английский деловой язык : Учебное пособие.-К.
МАУП, 1995.-176с
3. Управление и бизнес. Методические указания и учебные задания к
аудиторной работе (англ. яз.) для магистров управления / Сост.
Сычевская И. О.- Луганск: Изд-во Восточноукр. ун-та ,1998.-52с
4. Cotton D. Robbins S. Business Class .- Longman, 1998.- 184p.
5. Evans V. Round-up 6. English Grammar Practice.-Longman, 2000.-256p.
6. Jonas L. Alexander R. New International Business English . Workbook.-
Cambridge University Press, 1996 .- 144 p.
7. Lannon M. Tullis G. Insights into Business.- Longman, 1998 .- 160 p.
8. Oxford Dictionary of Business English / Edited by Allene Tuck.- Oxford
University Press, 1996.- 493 p.
9. Tullis G. Lannon M. Insights into Business .- Longman, 1997.- 63 p.
10. Wilson M. Writing for Business .=Nelson, 1987.- 160 p.

Учебное издание


к аудиторной работе по деловому английскому языку
(для студентов ІІІ курсов неспециальных факультетов).


Оксана Владимировна Сниховская

Лит. редактор З.И. Андронова

Техн. редактор Т.Н. Дроговоз

Подписано в печать
Формат 60х84 1/16. Бумага офсетная. Гарнитура Times.
Печать офсетная. Усл. печ. . Уч.-изд. л.
Тираж 50 экз. Издат. № . Заказ № . Цена договорная.
Издательство Восточноукраинского национального университета
имени Владимира Даля
Адрес издательства: 91034, г. Луганск, кв. Молодежный, 20а
Телефон: 8(0642)41-34-12. Факс: 8(0642)41-31-60
E-mail: uni@snu.edu.ua
http:// www.snu.edu.ua


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