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•  Consumer needs of food products

•  Advantages & Disadvantages of

Klaas-Jan Zuidam •  Requirements & Design of encapsulates
•  World of food encapsulates
Flavour Generation & Delivery •  Example: how to select fish oil
Unilever Food & Health Research
Institute, encapsulates?
Vlaardingen, The Netherlands

COST865 Spring workshop

Ljubjana, Slovenia - April 25-26, 2008

Global and/or Regional sites

Vlaardingen, NL
Using world-class science and technology to deliver nutrition,
hygiene, and personal care through distinctive products that
help people look good, feel good and get more out of life

Look Better Be healthy Achieve Be free Feel good Give

for longer more from health daily children a
problems good start

• 6000 employees
• 900 million Euros (2.3% turnover; 2006)
• 6 Global Research centres
• 15 Global Product Development centres
• Regional & country centres

•  Tasty   superior handling of the active by conversion of
•  Optimal delivery of flavour liquid actives into a powder
•  High quality & natural flavours
  adjustable properties of active components
•  No malodour
(particle size, structure, oil- or water-soluble,
•  Healthy
•  Healthy ingredients
•  Less fat, less salt, less sugar   improved stability in final product and during
•  Convenient processing
•  Easier handling –  less evaporation of volatile actives
•  All in one –  no degradation or reaction with other components in the
•  Delivering at the right time & place food product such as oxygen or water
  creation of visible and textural effects (visual cues)
  off-taste masking
  controlled release (differentiation, release by the
right stimulus)

  Additional costs A few technologies provide some prolonged release upon

  Increase complexity Normalised Aroma Release At same cost-in-use
–  During production process
–  In supply chain Encapsulate A
Encapsulate B
  Undesirable consumer notice Encapsulate C

–  Visually
–  Feeling
  Stability challenges of encapsulates
–  Processing
0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

–  Storage within the food products Cooking Time (min.) Cooking Time (min.)

  The benefits should overcome the negatives
small red "VitActiv-points" containing lutein and lycopene in Lätta Hoch2
try to work without microencapsulation,
“deliver” via proper design of food product.

• Oil level
• Type and level of biopolymers
• Type and level of emulsifiers
• Viscosity
• Water content
• Packaging
• Etc.
200-300 µm beads

visible beads in margarine

  Physico-chemical characteristics of actives   Coating

–  particle size, water-solubility or not, etc.   Encapsulation process
  Process conditions of food products   Loading
  Storage of encapsulates   Legal issues
–  prior use –  Food grade, use of crosslinkers,
–  In food products   Halal or Kosher status
  Incorporation in food product   Freedom of use & IPR status
–  particle size
  Proper supply chain
–  Density
–  Sufficient quantities
  Trigger(s) and mechanism(s) of release –  Constant quality
  Cost constraints –  Right time


Food Ingredient Formulation

> 100 Hurdle
Suppliers CONSUMER
encapsulation USE
10’s of PRODUCT
technologies ENCAPSULATE

Food Ingredient
Food companies Suppliers
& CROs
Food Ingredient companies

  We do not eat enough omega-3 fatty acids   High quality of fish oil and proper handling
–  Recommended dose is 0.4-1.0 g per day   Reduce oxygen concentration
–  The actual dose is 0.15 g per day   Add antioxidants
  Lower the storage temperature
  Fortification of food with fish oil is an elegant
  Scavenge metal ions (iron or copper) by means of
way to fill this gap sequestrants in the water phase, if present
–  Problem: Oxidation, resulting in fishy off-flavours   Exclude light
  Design of food microstructure and composition.
–  oxidation in a water-in-oil emulsion might differ from an
oil-in-water emulsion,
–  use of positively charged emulsifiers and thickeners of
the interfacial layer of emulsions may repel metal ions
  Alternatively, encapsulation can reduce oxidation
N.J. Zuidam & C.M. Beindorff, CRS Newsletter 24(4), 22-24, 2007

Microencapsulation may prevent off-flavour by: Supplier Trade name Technology Water soluble? Expected price

Arjuna, India Zepufa Spray-dried powder yes low

  preventing contact between oxygen and fish oil, BASF, Germany Dry n-3 Spray-dried gelatine/caseinate/sugar matrix
with a starch coating.
yes low

  preventing contact between metal ions and fish

DSM, The Netherlands Ropufa Spray-dried cornstarch-coated matrix of yes low
gelatine and sucrose
The Wright Group, USA Supercoat Spray-dried starch/protein matrix yes low
oil, National Starch, USA
Novomega Spray-dried powder based on modified starch yes low

  preventing direct exposure to light,

and soy protein
Kievit, The Netherlands Vana-Sana Spray-dried powder produced by spraying on yes low
a moving belt

  trapping off-flavour National Starch, USA

Nu-Mega, Australia
Spray-dried powder
Spray-dried powder with Maillard products
Wacker, Germany OmegaDry Complexation with γ-cyclodextrin in water, yes middle
followed by vacuum drying
Firmenich, Suisse Duralife Melt injection with matrix based on yes middle
maltodextrin and sugar
Ocean Nutrition Canada, Meg-3 Dried complex coacervates of gelatine and No middle
Canada polyphosphate
Kitii Corp,, Japan Calshell Calcium carbonate precipitation only at low pH high
Morishita Jintan, Japan Submerged co-extrusion yes high
Denomega, Norway Denomega Calcium alginate microspheres prepared via no middle
GAT 100 duplex emulsions and phase inversion

Duralife® from Firmenich Meg-3® from ONC

Technology Load (wt.% of Particle size Water- Expected   physico-chemical characteristics of the
dry weight) (µm) soluble? price range encapsulates
Spray-drying 1-60 10-400 Yes Low –  particle size, water-solubility or not, etc.

Melt injection 10-20 200-2000 Yes Middle   costs

Submerged 70-95 1000-5000 Yes High
  stability during supply chain, processing and/or
co-extrusion storage in a food product
–  may depends on the composition of the food matrix and
Complex 40-90 10-800 No Middle packaging
  quality and safety of the fish oil
Microspheres 20-50 10-800 No Middle –  including the absence of off-flavours, pesticides, EPA/
Calcium 25-40 20 Only at low pH High DHA ratio, and high EPA and DHA content
carbonate   bioavailability of the fish oil,
  commercial available quantity
γ-cyclodextrin 15-40 ≤100 yes Middle?   legal status
+ drying
–  food grade and, e.g., the use of crosslinking agents
  optionally, availability
N.J. Zuidamin Halal
& C.M. or Kosher
Beindorff, quality
CRS Newsletter 24(4), 22-24, 2007

  Encapsulates might be used in food products
–  Benefits should overcome negatives
–  In general, encapsulation is not a first choice
  only use them if proper food product design fails
  Three stages in the use of encapsulates
–  Encapsulation of the active Acknowledgements:
–  Incorporation of encapsulates in the consumer Unilever colleagues &
–  Proper release of active upon use
  Selection of the right encapsulates from the
right supplier is a competitive edge for a food
company like Unilever